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Geotechnical Sustainable

Robust design and construction that involves minimal financial burden

and inconveniences to the society.

Minimal use of resource and energy in planning, design, construction

and maintenance of geotechnical facilities.

Use of materials and methods that cause minimal negative impact on

ecology and environment.

Maximum reuse of existing geotechnical facilities/components to

minimize waste.
Objectives of Geosustainability

Maintaining Climate Change

Water Cycle & Adaptation &
Enhancing Resilience

Materials Economic
Objectives of
& Viability &
Waste Reduction Whole Life Cost

Energy efficient Positive

& Contribution to
Carbon Reduction Society
SDGs & Indicators

logos adopted from from:


6 Losses from natural disasters, by climate and non-climate-related events (in USD and lives lost)
& Percentage of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants that are implementing risk reduction
and resilience strategies informed by accepted international frameworks
25 Road traffic deaths per 100,000 populations

11.2 Existence and implementation of national urban and human settlements policy framework.
Policy 11.4 Presence of urban building codes stipulating either the use of local materials and/or new
& energy efficient technologies or with incentives for the same.
Access 58 Access to all-weather road (% access within [x] km distance to road)

Total Official Support for Development


17.1 Percent of official development assistance (ODA), net private grants, and official climate

Support 0 finance channeled through priority pooled multilateral financing mechanisms,

80 Official climate financing from developed countries that is incremental to ODA (in USD).
95 Domestic revenues allocated to sustainable development as percent of GNI, by sector.

17.4 Gross domestic expenditure of R&D as share of GDP

63 Personnel in R&D (per million inhabitants)

62 Total energy and industry-related GHG emissions by gas and sector, expressed as production
and demand based emissions (tCO2e).
69 Mean urban air pollution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5).
Pollution 77 Availability and implementation of a transparent and detailed deep decarbonization
strategy, consistent with the 2C or below global carbon budget, and with GHG emission
targets for 2020, 2030 and 2050.
Disaster & Mitigation: 6 11.3 25

Measurement: lives and property losses (economic cost), presence of

Relevance: some hazards are geotechnical in nature

* earthquakes * landslides * problematic soils *

liquefaction * stability problems *

photo from:

Policy & Access: 11.2 11.4 58

Motivation: In the 1990s, the lessons learned from the earthquake around
the world having a peak ground accelerations ranging from 0.5 to 0.8g
motivated the emergence of performance-based design (PBD)

Measurement: presence of framework for human settlement, new

building codes, access roads

Relevance: geostructures is an important part of design and construction

photo from:

Support: 17.1 17.10 80 95

Measurement: expenditures from ODA & other assistance fund including

domestic revenues in USD

Relevance: determines the expenditure of the government on

geostructures and its related practices such as but not limited to

photo from:

Research: 17.4 63

Measurement: number of personnel in R&D, expenditures of the national

government of R&D (in USD)

Relevance: discovery on new materials, reuse, new geotechnical

techniques, complement inadequacy of knowledge of geotechnical
processes on ecological balance of surrounding areas.

photo from:

Climate & Pollution: 62 69 77

Measurement: tCO2e (production and demand based), amount of PM10

and PM2.5, presence of decarbonization strategy.

Relevance: Geotechnical engineering consumes vast amount of natural

resources and energy in its practice and processes (a demand based
CO2 and GHG emissions).

photo from: Heerten, G, 2012, Reduction of Climate-Damaging Gases in Geotechnical Engineering by use of Geosynthetics.
Concluding Remarks

Geotechnical engineering participates in

human undertakings, which affects the
environment, economy, and society. It has a global
reach being part of the engineered systems, and
making its processes and practices sustainable has
a worldwide impact. Therefore, geosustainability
plays an important role in reaching the Sustainable
Development Goals.
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Bolton, M. 2012, Performance Based Design in Geotechnical Engineering, A Reprise of the 52nd Rankine Lecture. Available from:
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Cho, G.C. 2016, Geotechnical Engineering for Sustainable Development, The 2016 World Congress on Advances on Advances in Civil, Environmental, and Materials Research.
Available from: [20 November 2016]

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Heerten, G, 2012, Reduction of Climate-Damaging Gases in Geotechnical Engineering by use of Geosynthetics. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, vol 30, pp. 43-49. Available from: [25 November 2016]

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Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2011, Two Japans ODA Projects Will be Signed between the Ministry of Economy and Finance and JICA Cambodia on August 23, 2011.
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