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# 92 IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 8, No.

1, March 1993
ANALYSIS A N D A V E R A G E V A L U E MODELING OF L I N E C O M M U T A T E D
C O N V E R T E R - SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE SYSTEMS

## School of Electrical Engineering

Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907

Abstract Analytical relationships are established which can converter system if the commutating reactance is set equal to
be used to predict the steady-state characteristics of line- the subtransient reactance of the machine [Z]. However, the
commutated converter - synchronous machine systems. In subtransient reactances of synchronous machines are, in gen-
particular, basic relationships are established in which the eral, different for the q- and d-axes and it is not clear as to
average dc voltage and the average electromagnetic torque are which of the two reactances, or whether some weighted aver-
related to the converter firing delay angle. It is shown that age of the two reactances, should be used in the classical
these average-value relationships predict the steady-state per- average-value equations. In [Z], empirical justification is given
formance with significantly higher accuracy than the classical for modeling the alternator by its d-axis subtransient reac-
converter average-value equations in which the d-axis sub- tance during commutation.
transient reactance is used as the commutating reactance. In this paper, average-value relationships are derived for
the general case where the subtransient reactances are
Key Words: line-commutated converter, synchronous different along the q- and d-axes. The resulting expression for
machine, electric drives, inverter - motor, the average de voltage is similar to the classical expression
alternator - rectifier. with the exception that the equivalent commutating reactance
is a function of both the q- and d-axis subtransient reactances
INTRODUCTION and of the converter firing angle. In addition, basic relation-
ships are established in which the average dc voltage and the
Line-commutated ac-dc converters connected to synchro-
average electromagnetic torque are related to the converter
nous machines are used in a wide variety of applications. For
firing delay angle. The results are applicable either for
example, alternator - rectifier systems are used in aircraft
alternator-rectifier or inverter-motor operation. It is shown
power systems [l],in high-power dc supplies , and in excita-
that these average-value relationships are significantly more
tion systems of large electric generators  and . In these
accurate than the classical converter average-value equations
applications, the converter may consist of diodes connected as
in which the d-axis subtransient reactance is used as the com-
a 6-pulse bridge rectifier (uncontrolled) or, if rapid control of
mutating reactance.
the output (dc) voltage is desired, the diodes may be replaced
by thyristor valves whereupon phase control can be used to MATHEMATICAL D E V E L O P M E N T
regulate the average output voltage. If a thyristor bridge is
used, the converter can also be controlled so that the direction In order to set forth basic definitions and to define
of power transfer is from the dc system to the synchronous nomenclature, it is useful to first examine the idealized source
machine whereupon the converter - machine operates as an - line-commutated converter system shown in Fig. 1.
inverter - motor. Thus, line-commutated converter - syn- Therein, the source impedance is purely inductive. The
chronous machine systems can be used in variable-speed elec- three-phase source voltages are given by
tric drive systems . eag = E cos 8, (1)
The fundamental-frequency or average-value characteris-
tics of line-commutated converters are generally established ebg = E cos(8, - 2)
by assuming that the converter is connected to an idealized ac
system in which the open-circuit ac voltages form a balanced ecg = E cos(8, + 2)
three-phase set and the source impedance is primarily induc-
tive. Under these conditions, relationships between the aver- where E is the peak amplitude and 0, denotes electrical posi- .
age dc voltage and current and the fundamental components tion. The inductance between the source and converter is
of the ac voltages and currents are readily derived (61 and (71. referred to as the commutating inductance L,. The indivi-
The series reactance of the ac source is commonly referred to dual bridge valves are numbered 1-6.
as the commutating reactance and is generally assumed to be Idc
constant when deriving the average-value relationships.
If the ac side of the converter is connected to a synchro-
nous machine rather than to an idealized ac source, the con-
ventional average-value relationships may be used to approxi-
mate the salient characteristics of the synchronous machine -

## 92 WM 294-9 EC A paper recommended and approved by

the IEEE Electric Machinery Committee of t h e I E E E
Power Engineering Society f o r presentation a t the I E E E /
PES 1 9 9 2 Winter Meeting, New York, New York, January 26-
30, 1 9 9 2 . Manuscript submitted August 3 0 , 1 9 9 1 ; made
available f o r printing January 1 3 , 1 9 9 2 .
Fig. 1 Idealized source - line-commutated converter system.
Typical voltage and current waveforms are plotted
versus @e in Fig. 2. The firing delay angle is denoted as cy, the
commutation angle as U, and the extinction angle as 7.
Assuming that U is less than 6 0 " , a condition classified as

## 0885-8969/93\$03.00 0 1992 IEEE

93
Mode I operation ,the average dc output voltage, vdc, is
given by the classical expression 
-
vdc =
3 f i E
- 3 We
cos - --&Idc
7T Twb (4)
where is the dc current, we is the electrical frequency
(dOe/dt ), CL+, is the base frequency, and X, is the commutat- In (10) and (ll), p denotes differentiation with respect to
ing reactance (%LC). In this paper, the overbar is used to time. The zero-sequence equation is not considered since
indicate the average value of a variable. zero-sequence currents cannot flow in the circuit of Fig. 2.

## Synchronous Machine Dynamics

The stator and rotor voltage equations of a three-phase
synchronous machine may be expressed in the rotor reference
frame as 

## Rotor quantities are assumed to be referred to the stator by

the appropriate turns ratio. It is also assumed that the
Fig. 2 Waveforms for idealized source - line-commutated damper windings are short circuited so that vkq = Vkd = 0.
converter system (Fig. 1). The selected reference direction for stator currents is such
In subsequent developments, an analogy will be made that positive currents flow into the machine (as shown in Fig.
between the idealized case reviewed here, to the case in which 1). The flux linkage equations may be expressed 
a synchronous machine is connected to the converter. Since
the synchronous machine is most conveniently analyzed in the d& =Xi&', + +mq (17)
rotor reference frame, it is instructive to transform the vol-
tage equations associated with the idealized source shown in
Fig. 2 into the rotor reference frame using Park's transforma-
tion. Symbolically ,

## fabcs = Ifas fbs fa]* (7)

In (5)-(7), f may be a voltage, current, or flux linkage, and ' h n d = xmd(irds + ikd + ifdl (23)
+ F)
cos er cos(er - 2") cos(er

+
0, sin(\$, - 2") sin(@, \$)
I
In (8), er represents the rotor position of the synchronous
(8)
In per unit, the electromagnetic torque can be expressed as 
T e = &si& - %siis (24)
With the selected reference direction for stator currents, posi-
tive electromagnetic torque corresponds to motor action.

## Voltage-Behind-Reactance Machine Representation

machine. However, a rotor is not associated with the idealized It is useful to express the stator voltage equations in
circuit shown in Fig. 1. Nonetheless, 0, may be viewed as a voltage-behind-reactance form when studying the commuta-
variable which, in the steady state, differs from 0, by a con- tion process. To achieve this goal, it is useful to define the q-
stant so that W, = dO,/dt is equal to we. Under this condi- and d-axis subtransient reactances as
tion,
cp = 0, - 8, (9) xh' =XIs + xmqxlkq
(25)
Xlkq +xmq
will be constant for steady-state conditions. If 0, represents
the rotor position of a synchronous machine, 4 is the rotor
angle relative to the angle of the source voltage, Be.
Applying Park's transformation to the idealized source
shown in Fig. 1 yields Throughout this work, the double prime (" ) will be used to
indicate subtransient quantities. Also, the q- and d-axis sub-
transient flux linkages may be defined as
94
instant the valve can be fired, (i.e. when its anode-to-cathode
(27) voltage becomes positive) even though it serves as an excellent
approximation of this angle. The firing delay relative to the
earliest instant a valve can be fired will be denoted as & and
*ir - Xmd(hd/Xlkd +
'lrdhlfd) will be related to ,b' in a following section.
(28)
d -
+
1 XmdFlfd Xmdhlkd +
Using these definitions, it can be shown by algebraic manipu- Average Output Voltape ,,
lation of (17)-(23) that Since, in general, X, fxd , (4) cannot be used to predict
vdc. In this section, an expression for the average dc vo1,age
GS= X i i & + \$; (29) which is applicable for the general case where X i # & is
as = x:irds + *:
In the case of a machine with a different number of damper
(30)
derived. To accomplish this goal, the average value of Vdc
during one of the six converter switching intervals will be
evaluated. Due to symmetry of converter operation, the par-
windings than considered here, (29) and (30) and the follow- ticular switching interval selected is not important. In this
ing results are still valid; however, the definitions of the sub- derivation, the selected interval begins when valve 3 is fired
transient reactances and flux linkages, (25)-(28), must be and ends when valve 4 is fired. During this interval,
modified accordingly. 2n
T + B
If the rotor flux linkages are assumed to be constant in
the time during which commutation occurs, then the stator
equations of the synchronous machine may be expressed

## If stator resistance is neglected, then

1
Vbs = - P'hs (39)
w,
1
where E; and E: represent the q- and d-axis subtransient vcs = - P*CS (40)
voltages which are defined as
w,
Substituting (39) and (40) into (38) yields
(33)

Equations (31) and (32) are similar in form to (10) and (11) if To evaluate (41), it is necessary to find As - '\$cs at each
integration limit. In order to determine this, it is first neces-
E = v(E;)' + (E:)' (35) sary to specify the stator currents at each limit of integration.
In particular,
and
q5 = atan(E: ,E;) (36)
where atan(y,x) is the arc tangent function which includEs
quadrant information. If r, can be neglected and X i = X ,
then (31) and (32) are identical in form to (10) and ( 1 4 . L J

## Thus, the average-value equation, (4), is valid even when the 0

source is a synchronous machine. Although r, may be
neglected, the subtransient reactances are not generally equal (43)
whereupon (4) does not apply when the converter is connected
labcs
* Is.=ljl+B =
h c
to a synchronous machine.
Before develoejng ?, more general version of (4) which is
valid even when X, #xd , it is necessary to consider thyristor
firing briefly. There are numerous methods of generating the
logic signals for gating the thyristor valves. For example,
these signals may be established by filtering the terminal vol-
tages of the synchronous machine and using the cosine-
comparator firing control strategy [lo]. Alternatively, the
firing signals may be based upon sensed rotor position using
Hall-effect devices, optical encoders, or sensor windings.
Whatever the method, the signals from which the firing logic
is derived can be related mathematically to rotor position. In
this regard, it i s convenient to define the converter firing
angle ,8 in terms of rotor position such that valve 3 (Fig. 1) is
fired when 0, = 7r/3 +p. The remaining valves are fired This expression is similar to the classical expression (4); how-
sequentially at 60' intervals. As shown in Fig. 2, valve 3 is
+
fired when 0, = 1r/3 a. Therefore, ever, the commutating reactance is a function of the firing
delay angle. In particular,
CY=p-4 (37) 1
where q5 is given by (36). The angle p should not be confused
= Z(X; + x:) + (xi xi)
- sin(2p + (45)
with the ignition angle which is sometimes symbolized as p If the q- and d-axis subtransient reactances are equal,
. Also note that for a synchronous machine - converter (44) is identical to (4) with X, = X i EX:, The effects of sta-
system, the angle a, as defined by (37), does not represent the tor resistance may be approximated by subtracting 2rsIdc
delay in firing of a given valve measured from the earliest
95
from (42)
-
(51)

Given the rotor flux linkages (thus E:, E:), the dc current
and the firing control parameters ( cy or p ), the average dc
voltage may be computed using (46).
It is interesting to examine the variation of commutating
reactance as a function p, as depicted in Fig. 3, for
X i = 0.328 pu and X i = 0.172 pu. At p = 0 or T , the com-
mutating reactance is equal to the d-axis subtransient reac-
tance. When p = 7r/2, the commutating ;eacta?,ce is equal to
the q-axis subtransient reactance. For Xq > X d the commu-
tating reactance takes ?? a minimum at p = 7r/6 where it is (53)
equal to 3Xi/2 -X,/2, and a maximum value of
3X:/2 - X i / 2 at p = 2 ~ / 3 . In the case that X i < X i , the
roles of maximum and minimum are interchanged. It is
important to note that the commutating reactance can be %+a
much greater than either the d-axis subtransient reactance or ;r 3 3
the average of the q- and d-axis subtransient reactances, Ids,cond =- iis(er) der (54)
T ,A+ @ + U
which are used to approximate the commutating reactance of
the synchronous machine.
In (49)-(54), U is the commutation angle, the subscript "com"
designates the commutation interval in which valves 1, 2 and
3 are conducting, and "cond" designates the conduction inter-
val which occurs after commutation from valves 1 to 3 has
taken place and only valves 2 and 3 are conducting. During
the conduction period, the stator currents are given by (43).
Transforming these currents into the rotor reference frame
and substituting into (53) and (54) yields, after simplification

0 1 I 1
0 7l)6 7112 243 7r During the commutation interval, the stator currents may be
expressed as
Fig. 3 Variation in commutating reactance as a function of p.
(57)
Calculation of Stator Currents
It is useful to relate the average q- and d-axis stator
currents to the dc current. This can be accomplished using Transforming these currents into the rotor reference frame
(4) and equating the instantaneous real power on the ac and yields
dc sides of the converter as described in . However, an
alternative approach is given here.
The q- and d-axis currents are periodic with a period of
6 4 . The average over the 60' switching interval beginning
when valve 3 is fired may be written
,+2rr
a
7 3 During the commutation interval, the a- and b- phases are
lqs =- J i'ps(er1der (47) connected together. Neglecting stator resistance,
?r 4 + a

2rr
-+a
-I 3 3
ids = J iis(4) der (48)
where K is a constant. Now, '\$= and As
can be expressed in
" A
-+a terms of i,, Idc, \$;, and '\$i
by transforming (29) and (30)
The previous expressions can be broken down into two com- into abc variables and using (57) to eliminate ibs and i,.
ponents corresponding to the commutation and conduction Substituting the resulting expressions into (61) and solving for
intervals ias yields
7 7
1qs = lqs,com + c s , c o n d
7 9 7
(49)
1,s =
K-fi[\$i cos(^,
( X i - X i ) C0S(2Or
+ \$1 + 4; sin(er + +)
+ +) + (Xh' + X i )
I
Ids = lds,com + lds,cond
where
96

[(xb'-Xf)cos(261 + \$) + +(Xh' + X'd)]IdC angle. Since Bmin represents the earliest instant a valve can
be turned on, the firing delay angle & may be defined as
- (62)
(Xi - xf ) C O S ( 2 4+ I)+ (Xi + X'd) & = P - Pmin (68)
where Here, & represents the delay in firing of a given valve meas-
ured relative to the instant its anode-to-cathode voltage
K = fi(-+isin /3 + +;cos p) becomes positive.
For motor operation, it is important that the delay angle
not exceed a maximum value, p, to allow sufficient time
for commutation to take place. If p>pm,, a converter misfire
Equation (62) represents an explicit expression for the stator will occur requiring a momentary shut-down of the dc source.
current during the commutation interval. Commutation is Thus, if the given system is used in a variable-speed electric
complete when iaS(OI) = 0. Setting the left-hand side of (62)
to zero and substituting + +
P U for 6, on the right-hand drive, it is important to predict whether the commanded
delay angle p exceeds the maximum allowable value, P.,
side yields an implicit expression for the commutation angle. This is accomplished using (64). In particular, if for a given
After simplification, value of p, (64) yields a positive value for U less than 60',
then commutation will occur normally. On the other hand, if
(64) fails to provide a positive solution for U, then p exceeds
PmaXand a smaller value of P must be used.
MODEL V E R I F I C A T I O N
Equation (64) may be solved numerically for the commutation
angle U. Once the commutation angle is known, (62) can be The validity of the average-value relationships set forth
substituted into (58) asd (59) whi\$ are then substituted into in the preceding section is established by comparing the
(51) and (52) to find iqs,eomand id,,". Unfortunately, the steady-state performance of a synchronous machine - con-
resulting integral is difficult to evaluate in closed form. Alter- verter system, as predicted using these average-value relation-
natively, using Simpson's method, with four integration inter- ships, with that of a detailed valve-by-valve simulation. It is
vals, yields shown that, by using these average-value relationships, it is
possible to predict the steady-state performance with
significantly higher accuracy than by using the classical rela-
tionships in which the d-axis subtransient reactance is used as
the commutating reactance.
The machine parameters are summarized in Table 1. In
the following studies, it is assumed that the dc current Idc is
equal to 0.9 pu and that the field excitation
(exfd=vfdXmd/rfd) iS equal to 2.15 pu. The firing delay angle
p is varied from zero to a maximum value which is deter-
mined by the commutation limit. The resulting steady-state
characteristics are Gown in Figs. 4-6. The average magnetiz-
ing or air-gap flux Gm is shown in Fig. 4 (the magnetizing flux
@ defined as q!Jm = v-), the average dc voltage
v d c is shown in Fig. 5, and the average electromagnetic
torque T, is shown in Fig. 6. The solid lines depict the
The values of i& and izs on the right-hand sides of (65) and steady-state characteristics calculated using the average-value
(66) are obtained by evaluating i,, using (62) and substituting relations set forth in this paper, the points marked "+"
the result into (58) and (59). represent values established using a detailed representation of
Equations (65) and (66) represent closed-form expressions the synchronous machine - converter system, and the dotted
for the average stator currents corresponding to the commu- lines portray the steady-state characteristics calculated using
tation interval while (55) and (56) are closed-form expressions the classical average-value equations in which the d-axis sub-
corresponding to the the conduction interval. Summing these transient reactance is used as the commutating reactance.
components as indicated in (49) and (50) yields the q- and d-
axis components of the stator currents averaged over a com- T a b l e 1. Machine P a r a m e t e r s
plete 60' switching interval.

## Minimum a n d Maximum Firing Delay Angle

If the firing angle /3 is set too small, it is possible that the
anode-to-cathode voltages are negative when the valves are
gated. In this case, the valves will not conduct until they
become forward biased. The value of P, which corresponds to
the operating condition where each valve is fired at the
instant its anode-to-cathode voltage becomes positive, is
designated as pmin. If P < Pmin,the converter operates as if
Pminwere applied so that Pminreplaces p in (38) through (66). As shown in Figs. 4-6, qm, qd,., and T, do not immedi-
It can be shown by differentiating (62) that the following ately change when P is increased from zero. As described in
function has the same sign as the derivative of i,, the previous section, when ,# is less than Pmin=3O0,the system
b_ehav_esas if the firing angle is equal to Pmin. Consequently,
fmin cos^ + q!~: sin@)
(p) = fi(+: q!Jm, T,, and v d c will not change until P >/?,in. As P is
+ 21de(Xi - x:)sin(2~ - T ) (67)
increased from ,!?"in, the average dc voltagcdecreases and the
average torque increases (here, negative T, corresponds to
If fmin(P)> 0, then the-valves turn on when gated. Other- generatofaction). As P is increased further, the average d c
wise, solving fmin(Pmin)= 0 yields the effective or actual firing voltage vdc becomes negative and the average torque T,

r
97
becomes positive corresponding to motor operation. The
I........................
n..
maximum delay angle /3 as predicted using the method
described in this paper is 105" which is within a degree of the 2-
value established using the detailed representation. The max- -
imum delay angle predicted using the classical approach is
112.5'. Va,
As shown in Figs. 4-6, the average-value relations set p.u.
forth in this paper portray the steady-state characteristics of Yy.,
the synchronous machine - converter system with a much P
higher degree of accuracy than the classical average-value 0-
relations. In fact, it is difficult to distinguish the steady-state
performance calculated using the relations set forth in this
paper with that of the detailed valve-by-valve representation.
This improvement in accuracy compared with the classical
relationships is further illustrated in Figs. 7 and 8 in which + Detailed Simulation
the instantaneous values of the stator and dc voltages, the - ProposedModel
stator current, and electromagnetic torque are plotted. Fig- I -.-e Classical Model
ure 7 corresponds to generator-rectifier operation while Fig. 8
depicts motor-inverter operation. Superimposed upon these -2 -
waveforms are the average values of these waveforms as
predicted using the previously described method (dashed line)
and the classical average-value equations in which the d-axis
subtransient reactance is used as the commutating reactance Fig. 5 Average dc voltage versus firing angle p.
(dotted line). Using the classical method, the error in average
torque is approximately 4.2% in Fig. 7, and the error in aver- 1.5
age dc voltage is approximately 3.8%. In Fig. 8, @ is set to
105' which represents the maximum permissible value
without causing a commutation failure. Using the classical -
-1 + Detailed Simulation
method, the error in average torque is approximately 24.4%
and the error in average voltage is approximately 16%. This
Te
p.u.
- ProposedModel
e-.. Classical Model
inaccuracy of the classical model can lead to an overly conser-
vative or an inadequate system design. It has been observed
that some improvement in accuracy for motor operation can
be achieved by using the arithmetic mean of the q- and d-axis 0
subtransient reactances as the commutating reactance; how-
ever, the resulting model less accurate when used to predict
steady-state response for generator operation. On the other
hand, the average values calculated using the method set
forth in this paper are nearly identical, in all cases, to the
values established using the detailed valve-by-valve represen-
tation. Clearly, the average-value relations presented in this
paper are significantly more accurate with only a minor
increase in complexity. -1.5 -

I
Fig. 6 Average electromagnetic torque versus firing angle p.
-
1ym are related to the converter firing delay angle and dc current.
p.u. It is shown that these relationships accurately predict the
steady-state characteristics of synchronous machine - con-
verter systems for either alternator - rectifier or inverter -
motor operation with a significantly higher degree of accuracy
than the classical average-value equations in which the d-axis
subtransient reactance is used as the commutating reactance.
This improvement in accuracy is achieved with only a minor
increase in complexity.
+ Detailed Simulation

i
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
- ProposedModel
Classical Model This work was performed as part of contract N61533-89-
D-0037 DO5 "Electric Driver Modeling and Performance Stu-
0 - O0 60' 1200 dies" with David Taylor Research Center, Annapolis, Mary-
land.

## Fig. 4 Air gap flux versus firing angle p. REFERENCES

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CONCLUSIONS "Simulation of a Dedicated,,Aircraft Generator Supply-
ing a Heavy Rectified Load, IEE Proceedings, Vol. 130,
Analytical relationships have been developed in which Pt. B, No. 6, November 1983, pp, 431-435.
the average dc voltage and the average electromagnetic torque
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teristics of Large Turboalternator Driven McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1986.
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Vol. PAS-104, NO. 7, July 1985, pp. 1804-1811. Performance, Wiley Interscience, New York, 1971.
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IEEE Standard 421.1, 1986. University in 1988 and 1989, respectively. He is currently a
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Proceedings, Vol. 132, Pt. B. No. 4, July 1985, pp. tric machines, power electronics, and automatic control.
209-214.
E. W. Kimbark, Direct Current Transmission, Oleg Wasynczuk (M'76-SM188) was born in Chicago, Illinois
Wiley Interscience, New York, 1971.
H. A. Peterson and P. C. Krause, "A Direct and Qua- on June 26, 1954. He received the B.S.E.E. degree from
drature Axis Representation of a Parallel AC and DC Bradley University in 1976 and the M.S.E.E. and Ph.D.
Power System," IEEE Transactions on P o w e r Apparatus degrees from Purdue University in 1977 and 1979, respec-
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of A-C Reactance on Voltage Regulation of 6-Phase Dr. Wasynczuk is a member of Eta Kappa Nu, Tau Beta Pi,
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244-253.

PJ.
-1.2
I
-
"as,
p.u.
1.2p\
0 .\ &fl
-1.2 J
- ..........ss
U
.#'
- .
...
.. .:
.1
:

-1.L 2

0
Te
p.u.
9 T,, 2
........................................................
p.u.
-1.2 -

2- 0 ,

p.u.
01 I I I I I I
0 60 120 180 240 300 360

e,, deg

Fig. 7 Steady-state operation as a generator-rectifier; solid Fig. 8 Steady-state operation as a motor-inverter at max-
line - instantaneous variable; dashed-line - average imum permissible delay angle; solid line - instantane-
value established using method presented in paper; ous variable; dashed-line - average value established
dotted line - average value established using classical using method presented in paper; dotted line - aver-
approach. age value established using classical approach.
99
APPENDIX A List of Symbols

vdc dc voltage
hc dc current
x, commutating reactance
a firing delay relative to subtransient voltage
P firing delay relative to rotor position
4 angle of subtransient voltage relative to rotor
U commutation angle
vag,vbs, vcs stator voltages
vis ,vss q- and d-axis components of stator voltages
in the rotor reference frame
i,,, ibs, i, stator currents
,iis q- and d-axis components of stator currents
in the rotor reference frame
Gag, As, \$-stator flux linkages
PqS,@ds q- and d-axis components of stator flux linkages
in the rotor reference frame
E; ,E: q- and d-axis subtransient voltages
E magnitude of subtransient voltage
X i ,Xi q- and d-axis subtransient reactances
h q q-axis damper flux linkage
h d d-axis damper flux linkage
hd field winding flux linkage
*ms q-axis magnetizing flux linkage
*md d-axis magnetizing flux linkage
4m net magnetizing flux linkage
tkq q-axis damper current
lkd d-axis damper current
ifd field winding current
Te electromagnetic torque