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Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol.

13, 2016 90

University of New Mexico

Neutrosophic Topology
Serkan Karatas1 and Cemil Kuru2
1 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Ordu University, 52200 Ordu, Turkey, posbiyikliadam@gmail.com
2 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Ordu University, 52200 Ordu, Turkey, cemilkuru@outlook.com

Abstract: In this paper, we redefine the neutrosophic set


operations and, by using them, we introduce neutrosophic neutrosophic closure, neutrosophic interior, neutrosophic
topology and investigate some related properties such as exterior, neutrosophic boundary and neutrosophic subspace.
neutrosophic closure, neu-
Keywords: Neutrosophic set, neutrosophic topological space, neutrosophic open set, neutrosophic closed set, neutrosophic interior, neutrosophic exterior,
neutrosophic boundary and neutrosophic subspace.

1 Introduction real standard or non-standard subset of ] 0, 1+ [. Hence we con-


sider the neutrosophic set which takes the value from the subset
The concept of neutrosophic sets was first introduced by Smaran- of [0, 1]. Set of all neutrosophic set over X is denoted by N (X).
dache [13, 14] as a generalization of intuitionistic fuzzy sets [1]
where we have the degree of membership, the degree of Definition 2 Let A, B N (X). Then,
indeterminacy and the degree of non-membership of each
element in X. After the introduction of the neutrosophic sets, i. (Inclusion) If A (x) B (x), A (x) B (x) and
neutrosophic set operations have been investigated. Many A (x) B (x) for all x X, then A is neutrosophic sub-
researchers have studied topology on neutrosophic sets, such as set of B and denoted by A v B. (Or we can say that B is a
Smarandache [14] Lupianez [710] and Salama [12]. Various neutrosophic super set of A.)
topologies have been defined on the neutrosophic sets. For some
of them the De Morgans Laws were not valid. ii. (Equality) If A v B and B v A, then A = B.
Thus, in this study, we redefine the neutrosophic set oper- iii. (Intersection) Neutrosophic intersection of A and B, denoted
ations and investigate some properties related to these by A u B, and defined by
definitions. Also, we introduce for the first time the
neutrosophic interior, neutrosophic closure, neutrosophic
n
AuB = hx, A (x) B (x), A (x) B (x),
exterior, neutrosophic boundary and neutrosophic subspace. In
this paper, we propose to define basic topological structures on A (x) B (x)i : x X .
neutrosophic sets, such that interior, closure, exterior, boundary
and subspace. iv. (Union) Neutrosophic union of A and B, denoted by A t B,
and defined by
2 Preliminaries 
AtB = hx, A (x) B (x), A (x) B (x),
In this section, we will recall the notions of neutrosophic sets
A (x) B (x)i : x X .
[13]. Moreover, we will give a new approach to neutrosophic set
operations.
v. (Complement) Neutrosophic complement of A is denoted by
Ac and defined by
Definition 1 [13] A neutrosophic set A on the universe of dis-
course X is defined as Ac = hx, A (x), 1 A (x), A (x)i : x X .


A = hx, A (x), A (x), A (x)i : x X
vi. (Universal Set) If A (x) = 1, A (x) = 0 and A (x) = 0
where A , A , A : X ] 0, 1 + [ and 0 A (x) + A (x) + for all x X, A is said to be neutrosophic universal set,
A (x) 3+ From philosophical point of view, the neutrosophic
denoted by X.
set takes the value from real standard or non-standard subsets of
] 0, 1+ [. But in real life application in scientific and engineer- vii. (Empty Set) If A (x) = 0, A (x) = 1 and A (x) = 1 for all
ing problems it is difficult to use neutrosophic set with value from x X, A is said to be neutrosophic empty set, denoted by .

Serkan KaratasCemil Kuru, Neutrosophic topology


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 13, 2016
91

c d
should contain com-
F
Remark 3 According to Definition 2, X = iI Aci
i. iI Ai
plete knowledge. Hence, its indeterminacy degree and non-
c F
membership degree are 0 and its membership degree is 1. Sim-
d
ii. iI Ai = iI Aci
ilarly, should contain complete uncertainty. So, its indetermi-
nacy degree and non-membership degree are 1 and its member-
Proof.
ship degree is 0.
i. From Definition 2 v.
Example 4 Let X = {x, y} and A, B, C N (X) such that  G c D _ ^
 Ai = x, Ai (x), Ai (x),
A = hx, 0.1, 0.4, 0.3i, hy, 0.5, 0.7, 0.6i
 iI iI iI
B = hx, 0.9, 0.2, 0.3i, hy, 0.6, 0.4, 0.5i ^ E c
 Ai (x) : x X
C = hx, 0.5, 0.1, 0.4i, hy, 0.4, 0.3, 0.8i .
iI
D ^
Then, = x, Ai (x), 1
^
Ai (x),
iI iI
i. We have that A v B. E 
_
ii. Neurosophic union of B and C is Ai (x) : x X
iI
n
l
Aci

BtC = x, (0.9 0.5), (0.2 0.1), (0.3 0.4) , =

o iI
y, (0.6 0.4), (0.4 0.3), (0.5 0.8)
n o ii. It can proved by similar way to i.
= hx, 0.9, 0.1, 0.3i, hy, 0.6, 0.3, 0.5i .
Theorem 7 Let B N (X) and {Ai : i I} N (X). Then,
iii. Neurosophic intersection of A and C is
F  F
i. B u iI Ai = iI (B u Ai )
n

AuC = x, (0.1 0.5), (0.4 0.1), (0.3 0.4) , d  d
ii. B t ii i =
A iI (B t Ai ).

o
y, (0.5 0.4), (0.7 0.3), (0.6 0.8)
n o Proof. It can be proved easily from Definition 2.
= hx, 0.1, 0.4, 0.3, i, hy, 0.5, 0.7, 0.6i .

3 Neutrosophic topological spaces


iv. Neutrosophic complement of C is
c In this section, we will introduce neutrosophic topological space
Cc =

hx, 0.5, 0.1, 0.4i, hy, 0.4, 0.3, 0.8i and give their properties.

= hx, 0.4, 1 0.1, 0.5i, hy, 0.8, 1 0.3, 0.4i
 Definition 8 Let N (X), then is called a neutrosophic
= hx, 0.4, 0.9, 0.5i, hy, 0.8, 0.7, 0.4i .
topology on X if

Theorem 5 Let A, B N (X). Then, followings hold. and belong to ,


i. X

i. A u A = A and A t A = A ii. The union of any number of neutrosophic sets in belongs


to ,
ii. A u B = B u A and A t B = B t A
iii. The intersection of any two neutrosophic sets in belongs to
iii. A u = and A u X
=A .

iv. A t = A and A t X
=X
The pair (X, ) is called a neutrosophic topological space over
X. Moreover, the members of are said to be neutrosophic open
v. A u (B u C) = (A u B) u C and A t (B t C) = (A t B) t C sets in X. If Ac , then A N (X) is said to be neutrosophic
closed set in X
vi. (Ac )c = A
Theorem 9 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space over
Proof. It is clear. X. Then
Theorem 6 Let A, B N (X). Then, De Morgans law is valid. i. and X
are neutrosophic closed sets over X.

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Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 13, 2016 92

ii. The intersection of any number of neutrosophic closed sets i. int() = and int(X)
= X.

is a neutrosophic closed set over X.
ii. int(A) v A.
iii. The union of any two neutrosophic closed sets is a neutro-
sophic closed set over X. iii. A is a neutrosophic open set if and only if A = int(A).

Proof. Proof is clear. iv. int(int(A)) = int(A).

Example 10 Let = and = N (X). Then, (X, ) and



, X v. A v B implies int(A) v int(B).
(X, ) are two neutrosophic topological spaces over X. More-
over, they are called neutrosophic discrete topological space and vi. int(A) t int(B) v int(A t B).
neutrosophic indiscrete topological space over X, respectively.
vii. int(A u B) = int(A) u int(B).
Example 11 Let X = {a, b} and A N (X) such that
Proof. i. and ii. are obvious.

A = ha, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6i, hb, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5i .
iii. If A is a neutrosophic open set over X, then A is itself a
neutrosophic open set over X which contains A. So, A is the
Then, = {, X,
A} is a neutrosophic topology on X.
largest neutrosophic open set contained in A and int(A) =
Theorem 12 Let (X, 1 ) and (X, 2 ) be two neutrosophic topo- A. Conversely, suppose that int(A) = A. Then, A .
logical spaces over X, then (X, 1 2 ) is a neutrosophic topo-
iv. Let int(A) = B. Then, int(B) = B from iii. and then,
logical space over X.
int(int(A)) = int(A).
Proof. Let (X, 1 ) and (X, 2 ) be two neutrosophic topological
v. Suppose that A v B. As int(A) v A v B. int(A) is a
spaces over X. It can be seen clearly that 1 2 . If
, X
neutrosophic open subset of B, so from Definition 16, we
A, B 1 2 then, A, B 1 and A, B 2 . It is given that
have that int(A) v int(B).
A u B 1 and A u B 2 . Thus, A u B 1 2 . Let
{Ai : i I} 1 2 . Then, Ai 1 2 forF all i I. Thus, vi. It is clear that A v A t B and B v A t B. Thus, int(A) v
Ai 1 and Ai 2 for all i I. So, we have iI Ai 1 2 . int(A t B) and int(B) v int(A t B). So, we have that
 int(A) t int(B) v int(A t B) by v.
Corollary 13 Let (X, i ) : i I beTa family of neutrosophic
topological spaces over X. Then, (X, iI i ) is a neutrosophic vii. It is known that int(A u B) v int(A) and int(A u B) v
topological space over X. int(B) by v. so that int(A u B) v int(A) u int(B).
Also, from int(A) v A and int(B) v B, we have
Proof. It can proved similar way Theorem 12.
int(A) u int(B) v A u B. These imply that int(A u B) =
Remark 14 If we get the union operation instead of the intersec- int(A) u int(B).
tion operation in Theorem 12, the claim may not be correct. This
situation can be seen following example. Example 18 Let X = {a, b} and A, B, C N (X) such that

Example 15 Let X = {a, b} and A, B N (X) such that A = ha, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5i, hb, 0.3, 0.3, 0.3i

 B = ha, 0.4, 0.4, 0.4i, hb, 0.6, 0.6, 0.6i
A = ha, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6i, hb, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5i 
 C = ha, 0.7, 0.7, 0.7i, hb, 0.2, 0.2, 0.2i .
B = ha, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8i, hb, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7i .
Then, = , X, A is a neutrosophic soft topological space


Then, 1 = {, X, A} and 2 = {, X, B} are two neutrosophic
topology on X. But, 1 2 = { A, B} is not neutrosophic over X. Therefore, int(B) = , int(C) = and int(BtC) = A.
, X, So, int(B) t int(C) 6= int(B t C).
topology on X. Because, A u B / 1 2 . So, 1 2 is not
neutrosophic topological space over X. Definition 19 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space
Definition 16 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space over X and A N (X). Then, the neutrosophic closure of A,
over X and A N (X). Then, the neutrosophic interior of A, denoted by cl(A) is the intersection of all neutrosophic closed su-
denoted by int(A) is the union of all neutrosophic open subsets per sets of A. Clearly cl(A) is the smallest neutrosophic closed
of A. Clearly int(A) is the biggest neutrosophic open set over X set over X which contains A.
which containing A.
Example 20 In the Example 10, according to the neutrosophic
Theorem 17 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space topological space (X, ), neutrosophic interior and neutrosophic
over X and A, B N (X). Then closure of each element of N (X) is equal to itself.

Serkan KaratasCemil Kuru, Neutrosophic topology


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 13, 2016 93

Theorem 21 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space Thus, we have that


over X and A, B N (X). Then 
AuB = ha, 0.5, 0.5, 0.6i, hb, 0.3, 0.7, 0.4i
i. cl() = and cl(X)
= X.

cl(A) = X
ii. A v cl(A). cl(B) = X
cl(A u B) = (A t B)c
iii. A is a neutrosophic closed set if and only if A = cl(A).
cl(A u B) v cl(A) u cl(B).
iv. cl(cl(A)) = cl(A).
Remark 23 Example 18 and Example 22 show that there is not
v. A v B implies cl(A) v cl(B). equality in Theorem 17 vi. and Theorem 21 vii.

vi. cl(A t B) = cl(A) t cl(B). Theorem 24 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space
over X and A, B N (X). Then
vii. cl(A u B) v cl(A) u cl(B).
i. int(Ac ) = (cl(A))c ,
Proof. i. and ii. are clear. Moreover, proofs of vi. and vii. are ii. cl(Ac ) = (int(A))c .
similar to Theorem 17 vi. and vii..
Proof. Let A, B N (X). Then,
iii. If A is a neutrosophic closed set over X then A is itself a
neutrosophic closed set over X which contains A. There- i. It is known that l
fore, A is the smallest neutrosophic closed set containing A cl(A) = B.
and A = cl(A). Conversely, suppose that A = cl(A). As A B c
AvB
is a neutrosophic closed set, so A is a neutrosophic closed
set over X. Therefore, we have that
G
iv. A is a neutrosophic closed set so by iii., then we have A = (cl(A))c = Bc.
cl(A). B c
c c
B vA

v. Suppose that A v B. Then every neutrosophic closed su- Right hand of above equality is int(Ac ), thus int(Ac ) =
per set of B will also contain A. This means that every (cl(A))c .
neutrosophic closed super set of B is also a neutrosophic
closed super set of A. Hence the neutrosophic intersection ii. If it is taken Ac instead of A in i., then it can be seen clearly
of neutrosophic closed super sets of A is contained in the that (cl(Ac ))c = int((Ac )c ) = int(A). So, cl(Ac ) =
neutrosophic intersection of neutrosophic closed super sets (int(A))c .
of B. Thus cl(A) v cl(B).
Definition 25 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space
Example 22 Let X = {a, b} and A, B N (X) such that over X then the neutrosophic exterior of a neutrosophic set A
 over X is denoted by ext(A) and is defined as ext(A) = int(Ac ).
A = ha, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5i, hb, 0.4, 0.4, 0.4i
 Theorem 26 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space
B = ha, 0.6, 0.6, 0.6i, hb, 0.3, 0.3, 0.3i . over X and A, B N (X). Then
Then,  i. ext(A t B) = ext(A) u ext(B)
A, B, A u B, A t B

= , X,
ii. ext(A) t ext(B) v ext(A u B)
is a neutrosophic topology on X. Moreover, set of neutrosophic
closed sets over X is Proof. Let A, B N (X). Then,
 c c
, A , B , (A u B)c , (A t B)c .

X, i. By Definition 25, Theorem 6 and Theorem 17 vii.

Therefore ext(A t B) = int((A t B)c )


= int(Ac u B c )
Ac

= ha, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5i, hb, 0.4, 0.6, 0.4i
= int(Ac ) u int(B c )
Bc

= ha, 0.6, 0.4, 0.6i, hb, 0.3, 0.7, 0.3i
= ext(A) u ext(B)
(A u B)c

= ha, 0.6, 0.4, 0.5i, hb, 0.4, 0.6, 0.4i
(A t B)c

= ha, 0.5, 0.5, 0.6i, hb, 0.3, 0.7, 0.4i . ii. It is similar to i.

Serkan KaratasCemil Kuru, Neutrosophic topology


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 13, 2016 94

Definition 27 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space ii. Let A be a neutrosophic closed set. Then, cl(A) = A.
over X and A N (X). Then, the neutrosophic boundary of By Definition 27, fr(A) = cl(A) u fr(Ac ) v cl(A) = A.
a neutrosophic set A over X is denoted by fr(A) and is defined Therefore, fr(A) v A. Conversely, fr(A) v A. Then
as fr(A) = cl(A) u cl(Ac ). It must be noted that fr(A) = fr(Ac ). fr(A) u Ac = . From fr(A) = fr(Ac ), fr(Ac ) u Ac = . By
i., Ac is a neutrosophic open set and so A is a neutrosophic
Example 28 Let consider the neutrosophic sets A and B in the closed set.
Example 22. According to the neutrosophic topology in Example
11 we have fr(A) =
and fr(C) = (A u B)c . Theorem 31 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space
over X and A N (X). Then
Theorem 29 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space
over X and A, B N (X). Then i. fr(A) u int(A) =

i. (fr(A))c = ext(A) t int(A). ii. fr(int(A)) v fr(A)

ii. cl(A) = int(A) t fr(A). Proof. Let A N (X). Then,


i. From Theorem 30 i., it is clear.
Proof. Let A, B N (X). Then,
ii. By Theorem 24 ii.,
i. By Theorem 24 i., we have
fr(int(A)) = cl(int(A)) u cl(int(A))
(fr(A))c = (cl(A) u fr(Ac ))c
= cl(int(A)) u fr(Ac )
= (cl(A))c t (fr(Ac ))c
v cl(A) u fr(Ac )
= (cl(A))c t ((int(A))c )c
= fr(A).
= ext(A) t int(A).
Definition 32 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space
ii. By Theorem 24 i., we have and Y be a non-empty subset of X. Then, a neutrosophic rel-
ative topology on Y is defined by
int(A) t fr(A) = int(A) t (cl(A) u fr(Ac ))
(int(A) t cl(A)) u (int(A) t fr(Ac )) Y = A u Y : A

=
= cl(A) u (int(A) t (int(A))c )
where
= cl(A) u X (
h1, 0, 0i, x Y
= cl(A). Y (x) =
h0, 1, 1i, otherwise.

Theorem 30 Let (X, ) be a neutrosophic topological space Thus, (Y, Y ) is called a neutrosophic subspace of (X, ).
over X and A N (X). Then
Example 33 Let X = {a, b, c}, Y = {a, b} X and A, B
i. A is a neutrosophic open set over X if and only if A u N (X) such that
fr(A) = . 
A = ha, 0.4, 0.2, 0.2i, hb, 0.5, 0.4, 0.6i, hc, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7i
ii. A is a neutrosophic closed set over X if and only if fr(A) v B = ha, 0.4, 0.5, 0.3i, hb, 0.5, 0.6, 0.5i, hc, 0.3, 0.7, 0.8i .
A.
Then,
Proof. Let A N (X). Then = {, X,
A, B, A u B, A t B}
i. Assume that A is a neutrosophic open set over X. Thus is a neutrosophic topology on X. Therefore
int(A) = A. By Theorem 24, fr(A) = cl(A) u fr(Ac ) =
cl(A) u (int(A))c . So, Y = {, Y , C, M, L, K}

fr(A) u int(A) = cl(A) u (int(A))c u int(A) is a neutrosophic relative topology on Y such that C = Y u A,
= cl(A) u Ac u A M = Y u B, L = Y u (A u B) and K = Y u (A t B).

= .

Conversely, let A u fr(A) =


. Then, A u cl(A) u fr(Ac ) =

or A u fr(A ) = or cl(A) v Ac which implies Ac is a
c

neutrosophic set and so A is a neutrosophic open set.

Serkan KaratasCemil Kuru, Neutrosophic topology


Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 13, 2016 95

4 Conclusion
In this work, we have redefined the neutrosophic set operations
in accordance with neutrosophic topological structures. Then,
we have presented some properties of these operations. We have
also investigated neutrosophic topological structures of
neutrosophic sets. Hence, we hope that the findings in this paper
will help researchers enhance and promote the further study on
neutrosophic topology.

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Received: November 10, 2016. Accepted: December 20, 2016

Serkan KaratasCemil Kuru, Neutrosophic topology