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Industrial Training Report

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction to Training Establishment

Marine industry is one of the widely spread field all over the world as far as
concerning about transporting goods and passengers. It takes low cost to transport on
the sea than transport through air. Also it is very useful to carry a huge bulks or lots by
using ships. Due to development of the world the transportation needs are increased
too. So that made huge development in marine industry. Various kinds of ships are
required according to the cargo types and the number of ships on the sea increases.
There are numbers of places to build ships and to repair ships. Colombo dockyard is
one of these places. It is the only dockyard Sri Lanka got up to now. The field is so
competitive but the Colombo dockyard is one of famous dockyard in south Asian
region. In this chapter Im going draw your attention about the background of the
Colombo Dockyard PLC.

1.1 Company Profile

Colombo dockyard PLC is established in 1974. It is Sri Lankas leading ship repair,
shipbuilding, heavy engineering and offshore engineering facility. It is located within
the port of Colombo, the hub of all major shipping lanes connecting the West, the
Middle East, the Far East, as well as Africa and Australia.
In 1974 it is started with three dry docks with maximum of 30,000 Deadweight
tonnages. Several tugs, petrol boats, supply vessels were constructed with those
facilities. In 1988 4th dry dock joined to the functioning of the company. With this the
capacity of the dockyard increased lot. Following table shows the details about the dry
docks. This decides the largest ship that can repair at dry docks too.

Dock No Length (m) Breadth (m) Depth (m) Capacity (Dwt) Cranage (t)
1 213 26 9.7 30,000 50
2 107 18.5 6.7 9,000 50
3 122 16 5.5 8,000 10
4 263 14 8.9 125,000 50
Table 1-1 Details about Dry Docks of Colombo Dockyard PLC

In 1993 Colombo dockyard took a huge decision to collaborate with Onimichi


dockyard in japan. Onomichi Dockyard Co. Ltd. is a company with a long history of

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Industrial Training Report

over 65 years. The Head Office is located in Kobe, Hyogo and the dockyard is based
in Onomichi, Hiroshima. This made lot of changes in the vision of the company as
well as the structure of the company. Up to now the two dockyards working together
and achieve lot of success.
The success behind the company is the vision of the company and how they are going
to achieve the goals.

Vision of the company


We pursue excellence and superior performance in all what we do to enhance
the long-term interests of all our stakeholders in a socially responsible manner.

Mission of the company


We strive:
To be the most competitive and viable business entity in South Asia in ship
building, ship repair, heavy engineering and allied activities.
To efficiently and effectively manage all resources
To achieve sustainable growth
To enhance the interest of our stakeholders, and there by contribute to the
pursuit of our vision

1.2 Organization Structure

Organization structure is very important in functioning of a company. It is the key to


achieve their vision or goal. Decisions are taken by the top management and they are
going through the structure to the workers while each of the members in the structure
is given responsibilities to different extends as the post.
When we consider about the Colombo dockyard PLC, it has somewhat complex
structure as the company management represent Sri Lankan government and japan
Onimichi dockyard representatives are there. Its current shareholders as follows,
Onomichi Dockyard Co. Ltd. - 51 %
Sri Lanka government - 39 %
Others - 10 %

So the top level management is consists with Japanese managers. However the middle
and low level management is completely consist with Sri Lankans.

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Figure 1.2-1 Organizational Structure

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1.3 Functions of Colombo Dockyard

Colombo dockyard provides four major services. They are,


Ship Repairs
Ship Building
Heavy Engineering
Offshore Engineering
Lets consider about those four fields.

1.3.1 Ship Repairs

Normally over 200 vessels are repaired annually. Three of four dry docks are used for
this. 125,000 Dwt dock is used for repairing tankers, bulk carriers, and off shore drill
rigs. The 30,000 DWT dry dock accommodates medium size ships while 9000 DWT
dry dock provide ideal docking facilities for offshore support vessels, naval vessels,
trawlers and work boats. Colombo dockyard has well organized workshops with latest
machinery and equipment and the yard is geared to cater to all types of ship repairs.
Some of repairs are listed below.
Machinery repairs
Hull repairs
Propeller repairs
Electrical repairs
Electronic and automation repairs
Cargo gear repairs
Internal tank, cargo hold blasting and coating

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Figure 1.3-2 A Repairing ship on a Dry-dock

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1.3.2 Ship Building

This is the major area that the Colombo dockyard focuses in nowadays. in this case all
the ship is design and constructed by them. Designing is done by designing office. All
the things even a nut is analyzed and drawn by using CAD software such as
AutoCAD. A prototype is constructed and check for stability too. Then the hull is
constructed by using steel plates and welded. Welding is done in separate parts,
Checked and assembled. Engine and other parts such as generators are imported and
fixed. Recently dockyard is very famous for building Greathips, a multipurpose
vessel.
The Aluminum Hull High Speed vessels are another famous new construction of
dockyard. In the war period lot of them were build. Likewise there are lot of types of
new constructions are available in dockyard. It has contracted over 230 new ships for
both local and international clientele. Some types of constructions are shown below,

Multipurpose Platform Supply Vessels


80 T BP Anchor Handling Tug Supply Vessels
Aluminum Hull High Speed Boats
250 Passengers cum 100T Cargo Vessels
Deck/ Water/ Cargo Barges
Coastal Surveillance Vessels

Figure 1.3-3 Constructing New Ship

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1.3.3 Offshore Engineering

Offshore engineering is vast field. It deals with lot of fields such as Marine
engineering, Pipelines, Platform design, Down-hole instrumentation, Marine
structures, Soil mechanics, Oil and gas engineering, Health and safety, Engineering
analysis, offshore design and many other things. So in this case those equipment
needs to be repair and they couldnt move them to the shore. Colombo dockyard is
dealing with those kinds of things. For example it is hard to take offshore drilling unit
into the shore. Some offshore engineering things Colombo dockyard involves are
shown below.
Major Layup Repairs on Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) Sagar Vijay
Retrofit Repairs on Floating Dock Navy 1
Major retrofit repairs on Ocean Research Vessel Sagar Kanya
Dry Dock repairs on MV Geo Explorer

Figure 1.3-4 Some Offshore Engineering Repairs

1.3.4 Heavy Engineering

Heavy engineering is vast land. Colombo dockyard is organized to build ships. So


Colombo dockyard is capable of lots of metallic manufacturing processes types and
they have specialized workers in those fields. That is why dockyard also deals with
heavy engineering field. However the company doesnt focus on this field very much.
But they have done several huge heavy engineering stuffs not only in Sri Lanka but
also in other countries like Maldives. Sapugaskanda oil reservoir tanks are one of
huge project conducted in Sri Lanka. Some other heavy engineering abilities of
Colombo dockyard is shown below.

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Fuel storage systems
LPG storage systems
Piping systems (Oil, LPG, Fire Fighting and Offshore facilities)
Installation of power stations (Thermal power stations, Mini Hydro power
stations, Alternative Energy Generation, Fuel Storage Systems and related
piping systems)
Main engine (modification and repair work)
Fabrication and installation of heavy steel structures (installation of
portainers, transtainers, gantry cranes and fabrication of their structural
parts)
Installation of heavy structures related to irrigation and other industries
Mass fabrication of pipes (including cement mortar and rubber coated
pipes)
Fabrication and installation of steel bridges and other specialized services
such as (underground piping systems for water, sewerage etc)
Blasting and painting of structures

Except constructing process as shown above dockyard also conduct consultancy


services for Project management. Also quality checking test like nondestructive
testing are done.

Figure 1.3-5 Heavy Engineering Stuff (Building Reservoir Tanks)

1.4 Strengths and Weaknesses of Colombo Dockyard PLC

Every Organization has its strengths well as weaknesses. Knowing those things is
important to manage the organization. Lets consider Colombo dockyard.

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1.4.1 Strengths

Colombo dockyard is situated in an important place in marine field. This


may increase the opportunity in ship repairing. Also this is useful in
importing the materials and parts quickly.
Has a good partner, Onimichi dockyard. So this increases customer
satisfaction. Also this helps to keep the company up to newer technology
compared to other dockyards in Asian region.
Has well trained workers. Their commitment is very high as they have good
attitude about the company.
Have good portfolio so that the development of the dockyard can be done.

1.4.2 Weaknesses

Lack of resources compared to other dockyards in developed countries. For


example the maximum cranage is about 50Tons. If this is more than this it
is very useful in constructing new ships as big parts of hull can assemble
after constructing separately as developed countries done.
No more space available. Even though the space available is used
effectively for now when the dockyard develops it need lot more space than
this. Even now I feel the area is not enough as some ships are waiting to
docking.

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Chapter Two

2.0 Technical Details

Understanding a technical explanation behind something, some process will make our
knowledge complete about particular thing. This chapter includes technical discussion
about the things I observed and experienced in my training period at Colombo
Dockyard. So this includes details about following things.
Designing of a ship
Manufacturing processes used
Pipe fabrication
Valves
Bearings
Quality control
Motor repairing
Repairing

2.1 Designing

Designing is most crucial part of manufacturing anything. This is the starting of


anything. So in designing lot of things are concerns such as,
Kinetic
Kinematic
stress analysis
thermal analysis
stability
fluid pattern studies
ergonomics
safety

And many more things should be considered.


In Colombo dockyard there is a section for designing call design office. They hold
lots of responsibilities. Team consists with numbers of engineers. When a new job
comes all the designing should done considering each and every designing facts and
they should check whether the process going well as design too. Finally till the hand
over to customer the design engineer is responsible for the job. Here the job can be
anything in fields of,
new ship building
consulting in ship repairs
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heavy engineering
offshore engineering

If any designing is done then after agreeing with the customer the design thing is
manufactured. In this case designer should know about what are the materials
required and how to manufacture it. According to this the designer ordered materials
and assign works to workshops.

2.1.1 Designing of a new ship

In this case two types of designing approaches are used here at Colombo dockyard.
Using a previously designed structure modifications and design the layout to
suit the customer needs.
Newly design everything.

For designing purposes various kind of CAD softwares are used such as AutoCAD.
After designing the ship there will be a full drawing of the ship including every single
bolt inside it. Even a bolt it should be there according to the proper calculation about
it. Otherwise we are taking a meaning less weight on a ship where the weight and
space is crucial. In designing following things should be considered.
Hydrostatics
This concerns the conditions to which the vessel is subjected to while at rest in
water and its ability to remain afloat. This involves computing buoyancy,
(displacement) and other hydrostatic properties. So the water displaced should
be able to create enough uplift force to bear the weight of the ship. But this is
not enough too. Even a ship afloat it doesnt satisfy our needs. It should be
stable. That means the ability of a vessel to restore itself to an upright position
after being inclined by wind, sea, or loading conditions.

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Figure 2.1-6 Stability of a Ship

Hydrodynamics
A ship can be stable in water. But it also moves on the water. Hydrodynamics
concerns the flow of water around the ship's hull, bow, and stern and over
bodies such as propeller blades or rudder, or through thruster tunnels. It is very
difficult to investigate about fluid flow pattern over an object mathematically.
So the ship prototype is created and influence of fluid friction and pressure is
approximated by doing various tests on the prototype.
Structures
This involves selection of material of construction, structural analysis of
global and local strength of the vessel, vibration of the structural components
and structural responses of the vessel during motions in seaway.
Arrangements
Layout is prepared by considering customer needs and safety factors.

2.1.2 Insulations Used Inside a Ship

In my training period of 2 days in the design office I was able to involve an insulation
installing design of a ship. I was wonder why there should be insulations inside a ship.
Why we need insulations for a ship?
Inside a ship there is lot of heat and noises ate generated. If the metal walls used to
construct a ship are kept as it is then the heat and noses going through them and make
the ship uncomfortable to the passengers and the crew of the ship. Other than this if in
a case of fire or draught metal plates cant bear it. If there is an insulation to resist
them then we can avoid those cases to some extent.
Where to install insulations?
Bulkheads

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Doors
Ceiling
Deck
Pipes, air ducts

Types of insulations use


For bulkheads majorly two type of insulations used there. They are

Rockwool between stiffeners with aluminum glass cloths or with steel pins
and clips.
(Rockwool is normally using for fire insulations)
Glass wool between stiffeners.
(Glass wool is used to reduce heat and noise)

For the deck


Ceramic grooved tiles
Vinyl sheets
Nonskid paint

Likewise other components of the ship have various kinds of insulations. There are
class grades for ship insulations. Higher grades have thicker insulations and they are
very costly. Insulation type is chose by the customer. There are detailed drawings for
each insulation type.

2.2 Manufacturing Processes

In Colombo dockyard mainly they have to manufacture the hull of the ship. For this
lot of processes are used. Mainly the process is startup with steel plates. Sometime
they start with other forms such as bars too. Anyhow to get the desired shape several
operations are carried out they are listed below as I saw in my training period.

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The manufacturing processes take place at Colombo dockyard
i. Forming
Using bending machines
Using rolling machines
Hammering
Open die fogging
Line heating
ii. Increasing metal amount
Welding
iii. Decreasing metal amount
Cutting by using shearing machine
Gas cutting
Plasma cutting
Cutting by using hacksaw bleeds
Cutting wheels
Grinding
iv. Casting (not mention in the report as I was unable to train at foundry
workshop)
v. machining

Details about those manufacturing processes are discussed in following sub topics.

2.3 Forming

The deformation of a work piece material to force it into a desired shape with a
desired surface finish without reducing the weight or volume is known as forming. In
forming the material is plastically deform to change its shape permanently. One
application is in ship constructing in order to build a edge of a box then the metal
plates should be bend in to 90 degrees. Those kind of things are known as forming
techniques.

2.3.1 Machine for forming operation

The simplest method of forming is using a hammer and put the workpiece in the form
of the desired shape or the die and hammering. Then the plastic deformation makes
the work piece into the shape of the die.
The same principle is use in bending machine too. There the plate is place on the top
of two edges and hydraulically press it downwards. The bending force creates plastic
deformation. The amount of press will decide the angle. This machine is used to
create sharp corners like boxes and a mild steel plate having 8mm thickness can be
bent.

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Figure 2.3-7 Bending press machine

Other famous type of bending machine is rolling machine. The principle is shown
below in the figure.

Figure 2.3-8 concept of rolling machine

There are bending machine to get cylindrical shapes as well as conical shapes. But in
the machine at workshop of Colombo dockyard havent got that ability. For doing that
they use bending press. A constant load is applied to a steel plate in a pattern to make
the conical shape.

2.3.2 Open die fogging

Forging is one of the oldest known metalworking processes. Traditionally, forging


was performed by a smith using hammer and anvil, and though the use of water power
in the production and working of iron dates to the 12th century. This method is valid
for today too.
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Open-die forging is also known as smith forging. In open-die forging, a hammer
strikes and deforms the workpiece, which is placed on a stationary anvil. Open-die
forging gets its name from the fact that the dies (the surfaces that are in contact with
the workpiece) do not enclose the workpiece, allowing it to flow except where
contacted by the dies. Therefore the operator, or a robot, needs to orient and position
the workpiece to get the desired shape. The dies are usually flat in shape, but some
have a specially shaped surface for specialized operations. For example, a die may
have a round, concave, or convex surface or be a tool to form holes or be a cut-off
tool.
We made a boring tool for a lathe machine by using this method. It should be bend in
end. Tools are made with high carbon steel and cant bend easily. So when it heated it
is easy to bend. In furnace the workpiece let to heat till it turns to red and use electric
hammer which gives 75kg force at a shot to bend it. The temperature that the
workpiece must be taken out is desired by the color. There are color codlings to
identify the temperature.
If over het happens then the metal deform quickly so that the desired shape
cant be obtain.
If the heat is low then lot of effort must take to change the shape.

Also after hammering is done the workpiece is put into the water. So that makes the
workpiece even harder by arranging the microstructure.

2.3.3 Line Heating

In this process of heating the steel with a torch and quenching it with a water hose, to
form plates. When the plate is subjected to local heating, two things happen. The
material becomes softer (lower yield limit) and at the same time ti expands. The
adjacent material still has its original strength , why the hot and soft steel will yield
and make the plate slightly thicker. Upon cooling the material wii regain its strength
and the thermal contraction bends/shrinks the plate. This phenominan is shown in
below figure.

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Figure 2.3-9 how the line heating occurs

This is used to form the metal plates in to the shape of the ship. Wood templates are
used to obtain the desired shape.
Advantages
This method makes plates even thicker. So the problem about strengths of
metal is minimizing.
Production equipments are very cheap.

However the using oxyacetylene torch is not easy to control the heat.

2.4 Welding

Welding is the joining together of materials (typically metals or thermoplastics),


usually by a fusion process. There are other tyeps of welding except fusion welding
such as pressure welding. But here at colombo dockyard fusion welding takes place.
Welding is most probably a very important section of dockyard.

2.4.1 Types of welding

Two types of welding are used there according to the power source.
Gas welding (by using a flame such as oxyasitaline flame)
By Electrical means (such as arc welding spot welding)

2.4.2 Gas welding

This is not used often in production there. A welding torch is used to weld metals.
Two pieces are heated to a temperature that produces a shared pool of molten metal.
The molten pool is generally supplied with additional metal called filler. Filler
material depends upon the metals to be welded.
The equipment is relatively inexpensive and simple, generally employing the
combustion of acetylene in oxygen to produce a welding flame temperature of about
3100 C. The flame, since it is less concentrated than an electric arc, causes slower

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weld cooling, which can lead to greater residual stresses and weld distortion, though it
eases the welding of high alloy steels.

Figure 2.4-10 Gas welding and equipments

Various kinds of filler materials are used according to the parental material. Other
than welding oxyacetylene flame is use to cut the metal. The torch used there is
different from above one. In welding we only need to form a hot metal pool. But in
gas cutting the melted metals should be removed. So there is additional oxygen
pressure line inside the gas cutter as shown below.
Other important things we should know to use gas cutters or welding torches
To light the torch first open the acetylene to some extent, after lighted then
open the oxygen and tune the flame. If not explosions can be occur.
Sometime acetylene line and oxygen can be interchange. This is very rare due
to the different tread orientations are used for two hose. But in the case of ship
repairing sometimes the manifolder have same orientation. In those cases
mixing occurs. Then the gas cutter is not working correctly. If you change it
then it works. But sudden explosions can occur inside horses.

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Figure 2.4-11 Difference between gas cutting torch and welding torch

2.4.3 Manual metal arc welding

In this process an arc is drawn between a coated consumable electrode and the work
piece. The metallic core-wire is melted by the arc and is transferred to the weld pool
as molten drops. The electrode coating also melts to form a gas shield around the arc
and the weld pool as well as slag on the surface of the weld pool, thus protecting the
cooling weld pool from the atmosphere. The slag must be removed after each layer.
Welding electrodes
There are several factors we should know about welding electrodes.
Types of electrodes
Welding electrode is act as the filler metal in welding. So it should be same
metal. There are electrodes types such as
Mild steel electrode
Stainless steel electrode
Cast iron
Bronze and etc
Electrode codes
There are electrode codes to identify them. According to the American
Welding Standers (AWS) numbering and coding method is like

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E6013
E - Indicates "electrode" for electric arc welding
60- The first two (or three in some cases) digits indicate tensile strength in
thousands of pounds per square inch
1- The third (or fourth in some cases) digit indicates the position of the weld.
An "O" indicates that this classification is not used; "1" is for all positions;
"2" is for flat and horizontal positions only; 3 is for flat position only
2- The last digits indicate the type of coaching and the type of power supply
required, organic coating and DC current with reverse polity, s is foe
Rutile coatings.
Diameter and operating current
In order to fill lot of are we had to use a rod with higher diameter and for
higher diameters we have to use. Below current values are changes in
changing the position of the rod. For vertical cases the values are lesser.

Figure 2.4-12 Current rating and diameter of electrodes

2.4.4 Shielded metal arc welding

The major problem of manual metal arc welding is slag formation. However to
overcome this welding processes should shielded. For that shielded gases are use.
According to the gas type there are 3 types of Shielded metal arc welding.

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Figure 2.4-13 Shield Metal Arc Welding

They are
MAG (Metal Active Gas Welding)
MIG Welding (Metal Inert Gas Welding)
TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas Welding)

2.4.5 MAG (Metal Active Gas Welding)

Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal inert
gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a welding process in which
an electric arc forms between a consumable wire electrode and the workpiece metal,
which heats the workpiece metal, causing them to melt, and join. Along with the wire
electrode, a shielding gas feeds through the welding gun, which shields the process
from contaminants in the air. Carbon dioxide is one of the shield active gases used.
Originally developed for welding aluminum and other non-ferrous materials in the
1940s, GMAW was soon applied to steels because it provided faster welding time
compared to other welding processes. The cost of inert gas limited its use in steels
until several years later, when the use of semi-inert gases such as carbon dioxide
became common.

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Figure 2.4-14 MAG welding plant

2.4.6 MIG Welding (Metal Inert Gas Welding)

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is frequently referred to as MIG welding. MIG
welding is a commonly used high deposition rate welding process. Wire is
continuously fed from a spool. MIG welding is therefore referred to as a
semiautomatic welding process. In here as the shielding gas Argon is use. Since Argon
is an inert gas we call it as Metal Inert Gas Welding. The plant looks like same as the
MAG welding plant. In this case the shielding gas is an inert gas, normally argon.

2.4.7 TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas Welding)

Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is
an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the
weld. The weld area is protected from atmospheric contamination by an inert
shielding gas (argon or helium), and a filler metal is normally used,

GTAW is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non-ferrous
metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and copper alloys. The process grants the
operator greater control over the weld than competing processes such as shielded
metal arc welding and gas metal arc welding, allowing for stronger, higher quality
welds. However, GTAW is comparatively more complex and difficult to master, and
furthermore, it is significantly slower than most other welding techniques. A related
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process, plasma arc welding, uses a slightly different welding torch to create a more
focused welding arc and as a result is often automated.

Figure 2.4-15 TIG Welding

2.4.8 Spot Welding

Spot welding (RSW) is a process in which contacting metal surfaces are joined by the
heat obtained from resistance to electric current. Work-pieces are held together under
pressure exerted by electrodes. Typically the sheets are in the 0.5 to 3 mm (0.020 to
0.12 in) thickness range. The process uses two shaped copper alloy electrodes to
concentrate welding current into a small "spot" and to simultaneously clamp the
sheets together. Forcing a large current through the spot will melt the metal and form
the weld. The attractive feature of spot welding is a lot of energy can be delivered to
the spot in a very short time (approximately ten milliseconds). That permits the
welding to occur without excessive heating to the remainder of the sheet.

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Figure 2.4-16 Spot welding

2.5 Calibration and Quality Control

This is very important department in Colombo dockyard. When we done something


we need to identify whether the work has done correctly. For a good finish all the
dimensions must be as designed and the quality of that work should be identified. So
dockyard have whole department to maintain quality by cheking dimensions and
quality. Not only newly construct something but also those are required in repairing
process. When something works for period may be the parts can be wear off. This can
be identify by checking dimensions. Other than wear off the materials can be damage.
Those thngs can be identify by NDT tests constructed by the quality controlling
department.

2.5.1 Calibration Department

For a proper functioning of a machine accurate dimensions are very important. So


when building a new machine we have to check for the dimensions to make sure the
machine is work. Other thing is when repairing some parts we can check the
dimensions of wearing thing and compare to the design value and can determine
whether to replace that part. In new ship building and repairing ships the calibration
section is responsible for taking readings to achieve above. For achieving those things
accurate equipments are needed.

Tools use to take measurements.

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Figure 2.5-17 Venire caliper

Figure 2.5-18 Digital venire caliper

Figure 2.5-19 Spring caliper

Figure 2.5-20 Dial gauge

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Figure 2.5-21 Outside micrometer
Figure 2.5-22 Outside
micrometer

Figure 2.5-23 Feeler Gauge

And many other tools are used.

When we take a reading of something lets say a diameter of a shaft there we took lot
of readings and then the average is taken. Other than taking the dimensions when
fixing thing like engine or propeller shaft the alaignments are done by the calibration
section.
Propeller Shaft Alignment
This is one step of engine alignment. When there is a change or repair in the propeller
side then the shafts are align from propeller end to the engine. Finally the engine is
mounting. So this is crucial. If a slight misalignment occurs then the system
components can be damage. Correct alignments make system components durable.

A shaft must be align in two ways to couple with engine and another shafts.
Radially

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Axially

In my case I participate to align an intermediate propeller shaft with gearbox and


bulkhead seals. There was a journal bearing which supported to the shaft. So we had
to align shaft as well as to correctly seat shaft to the bearing. We used two dial gauges.
Dial gauge one shows the shaft is radially align and dial gauge two shows whether the
shaft is axially align. For radial alignments we have to move the shaft from a position
near to the dial gauges and then to align axially we have to move the shaft near the
gear box. To achieve those motions there was a arrangement with bolts. Meanwhile
we should check about the seating of shaft on bearing. To do so we used feeler gauge
and checked whether the clearance between shaft and bearing from both side are
same. To align the gear boxes and bearing we have to move them too. We use chain
block for that. Also put chocks to the pad of gear box and bearing to get correct
elevation

Figure 2.5-24 Aligning an intermediate propeller shaft

2.5.2 Quality Control Department

Quality control department is responsible for maintaining the quality of almost all the
things done in Colombo dockyard. The inspect materials used and if there is a

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problem with the quality then ordered to correct it. They use various kinds of tests for
that.
Types of Tests Used
Visual inspection
Liquid penetrant test
Metal particle inspection test
Ultrasonic thickness gauging
Ultrasonic test
Radiography test
X ray test
Gamma ray test

Visual inspection
Lot of welding is carried out to construct the hull of the ships and other parts. First of
all visual inspection is done for inspect welds. very often the blow holes are observed.
Other than these following defects also can identify visually.

Figure 2.5-25 Welding defects

Sometime there are places that forget to weld and we can identify them by visual
inspections. The weld legs are subjected to corrosion and other failures quickly. So
they are well inspected. Creating limber holes made welding easy. So sometimes
welding inspectors marks places to do so.
Ultrasonic thickness gauging
As the name implies this device use sound waves over 20,000 Hz that cant hear by
our ears. The theory is reflection occur in an interface which connect two mediums.
We enter sound waves to a metal plate and detect the reflected wave coming from the
interface the thickness is gain by using
Distance = Speed * Time

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Figure 2.5-26 Ultrasonic thickness gauging

A coupling jell is used with the probe. The purpose is doing this is when we enter the
sound wave to the plate then there is a possibility to reflect sound waves directly from
first interface. So we use jell to properly enter the sound wave. We use this device to
get thicknesses of a ship hull. If there is paint then we should remove it. If not paint
also creates interface. There are another type of ultrasonic gauges use to get readings
without removing paint. They are known as through coating gauges.

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Liquid Penetrant test (Dye penetrant test)
Three liquids are used in an order to penetrant into cracks inside material and show us
them.
1- Penetrant
This is red liquid which sink to the crack which we cant see.
2- Remover
This removes penetrant from the surface without removing the
penetrant inside cracks.
3- Developer
Developer is a white medium which clearly show the red of the
penetrant which is inside the crack. So we can see as the crack as well
as the shape.

We use this method to inspect propeller blades. Some cracks were identified and they
are ground to avoid stress concentrations.

2.6 Repairing equipments

There is a section to repair equipment used in the site. There they repair all machines,
air conditions, chain blocks, pneumatic and hydraulic items, and etc.

2.6.1 Replacing bearing of a lathe machine

Lathe machine contains lot of gear wheels to control the spindle speed and control the
feed rate. We found a machine that vibrates so much, so the troubleshooting procedure
was going on. First switch on the machine and approximate where the error is. Then
the top cover is removed and machine was run carefully. So we can see the problem is
of the clutch shaft of the lathe machine. Then we inspect the element carefully and
found that the bearing of the shaft from onside is not working properly. That is why
the vibration occurs. The bearing no was 6307. We got that number by looking at the
manual of the lath machine. I also include that drawing in appendix 01. Anyhow I
have learned lot about the bearings.

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Bearing no

6307 implies
The type of the bearing, the series of the bearing type and the inner diameter
6 implies that is ball bearing
3 implies the series
07 can multiply by five is the inner diameter.

Figure 2.6-27 Inside view of a lathe machine

Important factors in selecting a bearing


Bearing type
There are number of bearing types
Deep groove ball bearing
Roller bearing
Taper roller bearing
Needle bearing
Angular contact baller bearing
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Trust baller bearing
Spherical plain bearing
Spherical ball bearing
Spherical roller bearing
Each of these bearing has their own qualities. For example ball bearing is able
to rotate at higher speeds than roller bearing. However a roller bearing can
withstand more loads.
Type of load
According to the type of load on bearing
Redial forces are bear by some bearing types such as baller bearing and roller
bearing
Axial loads are bear by trust bearing
Both loads can bear by taper bearings and angular contact bearing
Available space.

2.6.2 Airless painting machine

is a special type of painting machine. It is an airless spray painting machine. When I


go to the workshop there were five painting machines which were taken for the
repairs. The basic working concept is very simple. The paint is sucked in to the
machine from the paint basket and then the liquid paint is pressurized by compressing
and from the final output after filtering the paint is sprayed. The most important thing
is, the power is been used to do these operations are generated by using a pneumatic
pump. Inside the motor housing (pump) there is a drum which is connected to the
displacement rod. When the drum is moved up word and down words with the help of
air we can create a vertical moment of the displacement rod. Paint is suck and
pressured as positive displacement pump. Two metal balls are acting ass the valves.
Problems encountered in the spray painting machine.

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Gland packing may be workout
We can inter change gland packing for one time as the opposite sides are
subjected to wear in to glands use.
If there is damage in the displacement rod the system is not sealed well.
The ball at the valve may not seat properly due do some damages, then the
leakages can be happened.
Then the seat must be clean.
Balls at the ball valves may have been damaged and that may cause for the
leakages. Should replace the ball

Figure 2.6-28 Ball of the valve in painting machine

Filter may be blocked due to the paint solidifies inside.


Should be cleaned
Sleeve and the sleeve housing may be damaged.
The system is not sealed well due to worn-out O-rings, leather rings and the
Teflon seals.

It is advised the user to clean the machine by using thinner for like five minutes as it
runs the thinner inside the machine. Otherwise the above mentioned problems can be
occurred and the machine will not work properly.

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Figure 2.6-29 Painting machine

2.6.3 Cleaning a scavenging air cooler

Scavenging air cooler is a cooler that cools air by using water. This cooler is used to
cool the air which was compressed by the turbo charger. Due to compression the air
coming out from the turbo charger is very hot. This will decrease the volumetric
efficiency of the engine. So that air must cool before enter to the engine. Scavenging
air coolers are used for that purpose.

Figure 2.6-30 scavenging air cooler

Like every heat exchanger a scavenging air cooler also consist with copper tube
inside. Cool water is going through those tubes while the hot air passes between the
tubes. When time passes scales are form inside those tubes and block the tubes. We
cant reach to the scaling as the tubes are very small. In this case we use chemicals to
remove them. We use SAF acid to clean them. SAF acid is also known as Sulphamic
Acid. This is very popular in industry as very easy to store. This is a white powder.

34
First we remove the cover of the cooler. Then we clean it normally by sweeping by a
cloth. After removing covers we apply general purpose Silicon to the nuts and studs
use to mount the covers. If not the treads of those things will be disappear after apply
SAF acid. Then the cooler is placed inside thank and SAF acid mixed water is
circulated inside the tank at about 900C temperature throughout for an around ten
hours. The amount of SAF acid is calculated as,
Required SAF weight = 0.1 * the weight of the heat exchanger
After this treatment all the tube of the heat exchanger looks very clean. Then using
hot water pressure washer we wash each tube by using high temperature pressurized
water.
The water in the tank is acidic because of SAG acid. So we cant let that water to mix
with the environment. So we use another chemical known as GC neutralizers to
neutralize the acidic behavior of the water. GC neutralizers are added to the mixture at
a proportion of 100:1 of water to chemical.

2.6.4 Repairing a centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pumps are very common type of pumps. The water pumps uses for
domestics usage are this type too. A centrifugal pump contains with two simple
things, Impeller and housing. The water comes to the eye of the impeller is thrown
away due to the centrifugal force created by rotation of the impeller. It is rotated by
using electrical motor by using a shaft. When the pump operates, the places where the
shaft in contact with the housing tends to wear off. Since the housing and the shaft is
expensive there are special bronze bushes are placed on contacting points. We call
them ware rings. So in repairing of a centrifugal pump,
Wear rings are placed
If there is deflection in the drive shaft of the impeller the shaft is also
manufacture.

There I joined to a repairing process of double stage centrifugal pump which has two
impellers. Our procedure was as follows.
Disassemble the pump. First the pump housing is separate to two parts. Then
the shafts and impellers are removed.

35
Bore the housing where the wear rings are placed. (due to vibration and
operation the housing can be deform, and the housing also can be deform at
wear rings too. In this case the horizontal borings machine was used. The
housing is align to the spindle by taking two wear ring holding positions
which are placed very right end and very left end. So after boring is done the
shaft install is surely not deforming due to misalignment of housing at wear
rings holding positions.
After boring is done then the measurements are taken and the shaft diameter is
also considered. Then the wear rings are machined and attached.

Figure 2.6-31 Bored housing of double stage centrifugal pump

2.7 Pipe fabrication

Pipe fabrication is the process of manufacturing and fabricating predesigned piping


systems for various uses. In ship industry fabricated pipe systems are used in various
systems such as hydraulic lines, firefighting systems. Various applications need
various kinds of pipes. So following factors can be concern.
determines the size and diameter of the pipes being used
the material that the piping system is to be constructed of
the different attachments and components that the system will need to contain
throughout its layout such as flanges

Pipes

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There are several types of pipes are available according to the manufacturing process.
I found two of them inside the Colombo dockyard. They are
seamless pipe
welded pipe

Normally seamless pipes can withstand higher pressures. I was joined to a repairing of
a hydraulic piping system in a ship. Those hydraulic lines have higher pressures inside
the pipes. So they have used seamless pipes to fabricate them. Other important factor
of selecting a pipe is the thickness of the pipe. For selecting that there is special
parameter call schedule no of a pipe. If schedule no is high then the thickness is high.
There are tables call nominal pipe size (NPS tables) include schedule no.

Table 2-2 Nominal pipe sizes for pipes up to 3.5 inches

Material type is important in designing a fabricated system. Those things are include
with the class ranges. There are pipe classes in one to three. Class one have ability to
withstand higher pressures.

37
Class I Class II Class III
Service Pressure Temperature Pressure Temperature Pressure Temperature
(bar) (C) (bar) (C) (bar) (C)
Steam P>16 T>300 P16 T300 P7 P170
Flammable
P>16 T>150 P16 T150 P7 P60
Liquids
Other media P>40 T>300 P40 T300 P16 P200
Cargo oil P>40 T>300 P40 T300 P16 P200

Flanges
Flanges are used to mount pipe to the system and welded to the pipe. But there are
other types of fittings also such as treads. When a high pressure is generated the pipe
flanges must able to withstand the pressure. In higher pressures the flange dimensions
must be grater. For the same diameter there are flanges having more thickness and
strength. These properties are selecting by the K value of a flange. There are k values
such as 30k flanges 80k flanges. 80k flanges have higher strength. Dimensions of
them are shown
Table 2-3Pipe Classification according to Classes
in tables and a
code is used to identify the flangers.

Figure 2.7-32 Flange coding

There we use four types of flanges.


Slip on flanges
Collar flanges
Weld neck flanges
Square flanges
Threaded flanges
Blank flanges

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Pipe fittings
Normally bending is done by using pipe bending machine. However to create short
angles we cant use the bending machine. In this case pipe bends are used. Other
frequently used thing is tee joints and reducers. Figure below shows some pipe
fittings.

Figure 2.7-33 Types of pipe fittings

Pipe fabrication methods


Constructing new pipe system
Fabrication is done according to the drawings. When welding the flanges to
the pipe they should correctly mount with pipe. If not internal stresses are
generated. Other thing is the bolts of the one end of pipe should be align to the
other end in some cases. Then the levels are used to gain the correct position
by considering the gravity field.
Repair previously constructed system.
In this case there are no drawings available. So the pipe is mounted on to a
steel plate and all important points are tag by welded steel pieces and the ends
are mounted to another flange as in the ends of the pipe. Then the pipe is
removed and new pipes are welded. Before that the old flanges are machine or
if the flange is not at good condition then the flange is replaced. This
procedure is called fabrication using templates.

39
Figure 2.7-34 Using template to fabricate old pipes

Pipe fabrication utilizes chemical treatments. Various types of welding and different
sealed joining methods are also used. The purpose is to create a system that will
properly suit the clients intended use for the piping system being fabricated.
Many pipe fabrication facilities also use the process of pipe bending. In this process, a
straight section of piping is formed to create curvatures or bends at virtually any
angle, depending on the specifications set by the clients approved design. These
tactics have long been an efficient method of creating versatile and exact piping
systems, able to fit into almost any existing structure without extensive remodeling or
demolition. This process is perhaps one of the most valuable assets to the pipe
fabrication process, as it truly allows for full customization.

Figure 2.7-35 pipe bending machine

Above shown is a bending machine work with hand pump. There are electrically
powered ones too. We use a piece of metal rod which bend to exactly the shape of we
want with above machine to get desired shape too. As a standard for steel pipes and

40
non-ferrous pipes, pipe bending shall be carried out by the cold bending machine
having a bending radius of approximately three times of the outside diameter of the
pipe.

2.8 Repairing of Electrical Motors

Motor is a device which converts electrical energy to mechanical power. There are
different kinds of motors are available. Those motors have different kind of qualities
so that we can use for different purposes. There are DC motors as well as AC motors.
Induction motors are kind of AC motors. As all other motors induction motors also
works according to the electromagnetic induction rules. Induction motors are the basic
and economical motors. So they are used in many applications. It consists of two
coils. One is stationary and calls as stator. Other one is known as rotor which rotates
with the shaft. In normal three phase rotor type motor we give the three phase current
to the stator. The following figure shows the arrangement of the three phase induction
motor.

rotor stator
Figure 2.8-36 Major parts of three phase induction motor

Why We Need To Repair a Motor?


Stator coils can be burn or damage due to high load or longer time period.
Bearings can be damage.
Insulations between the stator and housing can be low.
Service the motor according to the time used (rote service)

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Procedure
Taking before reading

When a motor come to the shop for repairing first we wrote all the information of the
tag. Before doing anything some readings are taken. In this we use multimeter to take
to take reading among the terminals of the motor. By looking at that we can decide
whether the windings are damaged. We got 2.5ohm per all three coils. Then we use
megger or insulation tester to check the resistance between coils and the ground (or
housing). This value should be over 1 M. If the coils are damaged then the motor
should be re wound. If not the motor is connected to the motor testing panel.
There the megger reading between coils terminals should be very low and
approximately equal so we can decide they are continuous.
Other megger ridings must be high so that we can decide insulations are good.

Connecting to the motor testing panel

If the motor coils are not damaged or other mechanical problem then the motor can be
driven. If so we can run the motor. So we connect the motor to the motor testing panel
and give the number of poles as shown in the motor, the voltage and the frequency of
the current of the motor. For my case it was 2 poles 440Volts and 50 Hz. Then the
motor is driven by the testing panel and it shows frequency, rpm, current and voltage.
I obtained 50 Hz, 440 Volts, 2.72A, 3000 rpm for the above motor. Those details are
recorded.

Servicing the motor

If the motor is good then we only have to clean the body and the inside of the motor,
specially the stator windings. For that we had to dissemble the motor. We removed the
nuts and bolts of the body of the motor. Removed end caps and remove the motor.
Then the bearings are removed by using bearing puller. Then we use chemicals and
hot water to clean the motor. The chemicals were selected by the customer. However
the chemicals has the ability to clear the coils without damaging to the coil and drying
easily.
After washing we should heat the coils. Unless the water and chemical can be go
inside the motor. If we take the megger readings without heating then the value shown

42
is 0 ohm. This means the coils are not insulated. We heat it to a temperature of about
95 0 C in first two hours .Then increase the temperature to 125 0 C in next six or eight
hours. However the time is very depending on the type and size of the motor.

Motor Winding(If the coil is damaged)

If the motor winding is damaged we can identify it by using multimeter we can also
observe that the coil turns to black if it burns. Then we should rewind it. We used
chisel and hammer to cut the one side of the coils and pull from the other side. So that
coils comes out from the slots. Before removing the coils we should note down the
pattern of the coils and how to connect them. Then we take one coil out of it and burn
it by using gas cutter and use micrometer screw gauge to measure the diameter.
According to the diameter we can get the gauge value by using the chart. Then one
wire is used to identify the size of the coils by installing it inside the slots. We wound
coils by using winding machine. To wind the coils we should calculate how many
Coils were wounded before. We simply count wires of previous coil. Then we wound
coils and insert them into the slots as previous pattern.

Figure 2.8-37 Newly wound rotor of a induction motor

Finalizing

After service or rewinding we ended up with separate stator which has clean coils and
rotor. Then we can reassemble those parts. We use salack and anticorrosive varnish to
the coils and inside the housing. Then apply general purpose silicon to the end caps
and mount it by using nut and bolts. Then we check the motor as we did before by

43
using megger and motor testing panels to check whether the repaired motor worked
correctly.

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Chapter Three

3.0Management Details

Management is effectively and efficiently using the existing resources. As far as


concerning the management aspect of the Colombo dockyard PLC, it is very much
beyond most of the other existing companies in Sri Lanka nowadays. That is because
of the competitive environment of the company, as the company has to compete with
the international market. So lets have a brief look about the managerial details about
Colombo dockyard.
Managing something means we are looking to get maximum output from that thing.
Other benefit of this is the quality of the particular thing also improves. So Colombo
dockyard always tries to get maximum output for something by maintaining the
quality of the particular thing at a very high standard. The term thing I used here
refers to a resource. Colombo dockyard has lot of resources such as dry docks,
vehicles, human resource, materials, portfolio, and customer base and so on. Each of
them has to manage well. So in this chapter Im going to consider about how the
CDPLC is managing those resources in an effective and efficient manner.

3.1 Safety Management

As far as concerning management financial aspects are important as the ultimate goal
of any organization is to obtain profits. But I think safety is prior than all of this. An
organization should concern about the safety of the workers first.
Colombo dockyard deals with lot of heavy constructing. So probability of an accident
is high and also they can be dreadful too. This was observed and lots of safety
precautions are taken now.
Safety equipment are given to the workers
Give training and lectures about safety
When a construction going on the site then previously fire line and ventilation
is provided. If the situation is not satisfied then the work doesnt continue.
When hot works are carried out there will be a specially trained person about
fire.
There are number of safety officers are occupied in the work site.

45
Dangerous equipment like cranes are checked annually and certify. Hooks are
tested and use color to identify newer ones. Normally use for three months.
Frameworks are tasted and notice whether it is ok for use.
There are notices in the site showing instruction regarding safety.

For anyone it is important to know about safety equipment. They are shown
below.

safty belts
safety helmets

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Overall

Safety shoe

Figure 3.1-38 Essential Safety Equipment

Head shield Safety gloves

Safety goggles
Ear Mops

Figure 3.1-39 Safety Equipment

Colombo Dockyard is a member of the British Safety Council, signifying a very high
level of adherence to international safety and quality expectations. It is also compliant
47
with the stringent requirements of the International Ship and Port Facility Security
(ISPS) code developed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The newer
concept used here is Behavior-based safety which

3.2 Managing the Jobs

Mainly CDPLC construct new ships or repair ships. So if that kind of job is assign
then it is not just like repairing a bicycle, because a ship includes lot of sub systems.
So building a ship is lot more complicated. There are thousands of works inside it. In
order to complete it quickly and to a standard the work is divided to a number of sub
works call as jobs. Each job has a number call as job number. Those jobs are
distributed among the workers so that the experienced staff fined the particular jobs.
For that workshops are formed. Each workshop has experience workers for a
particular work. Sometimes the job can be passing through several workshops. No
matter what happens the job is assign to one or group of workers till the job is
completed. Every detail about the work and the person responsible for the case is
recorded so the workers cant get away from their responsibility.
Other thing is when we consider about jobs then all the jobs havent finished in same
time. There are more priority tasks which should be done before so that lot of other
jobs depends on. For a example installing a insulation on a wall is important to carry
out other mounting parts of that wall or bulk head. So that kind of priority works can
be identify and can be finished quickly due to the separation of jobs.
Advantages of the system
Maximum number of workers can involve to the job and can finish it quickly.
Experience workers can involve to the jobs so the quality is increased.
There is a responsible person for every work so that the works inside the site is
easy.
Jobs can be done according to the priority so that the high priority jobs can
quickly complete using skillful workers and using numbers of workers.

3.3 Human Resource Management

The human resource is one of valuable resource CDPLC has. It has permanent staff
over thousand and lot of other contract basic workers. That is why there is a HRM
division on the company as lot of companies has nowadays. The CDPLC has
considering several facts in managing its workforce.
48
Organizational structure

Workers at the lower level in the management hierarchy as shown in the first
chapter is the people who are directly involve with the tasks carried out. Those
people may not be educated enough too. Any how the work should be done. In
CDPLC there are workshops. Each workshop has several numbers of workers
depending on the tasks carried out. Each worker belongs to a supervisor or a
Foreman and the Foreman is also working under engineer. Engineer is working
under cheap engineer. So when a work is assign to a one worker so there are lot
of responsible persons. Also if there is a problem in a work then the worker first
inform to the foreman and then to the engineers. So the problem solving is also
very quick. When the top management takes a decision then it quickly comes to
the bottom as this has a fat management structure at the bottom to the bottom
managerial level.

Figure 3.3-40 lower management structure of the company

Function of the training center


Training all the workers
It is so important to have well educated workforce. This will speed up the
works as well as increase the quality of the work. That is why the company
has its own training center. They spend lot of money for the training process
too. Almost all the workers they are taking to the company should work as a
trainee. Even an engineer has one year of training period and should perform
well to be a worker.

Evaluating all the workers

49
Not only train the workers but also evaluating them is done here. That is very
important so that the worker cannot escape from training procedure. Also
NVQ level testing is done. So in order to have promotions they need to learn.
So this system is very effective to build an intelligent workforce inside the
company.

Conducting visiting lectures


When we consider about the workforce they have certain knowledge about
existing things. But the world is changing and the technology is upgrading. So
in that kind of an environment even though the training is done the workers
cannot be able to handle new things. As a dockyard CDPLC has to deal with
upgrading technology as the ships continuously upgrade. So to avoid this they
conduct lectures. For that they invite lecturers from universities or technical
collages. For example they conducted a hydraulic course for fitters in my
training period.

Getting feedbacks
As compared to other companies there we can find lot more educated
workers. Not only educated but also there are lot of well experienced persons
too as the company has long history. The training center collects valuable
ideas about the current training process and what kind of modifications
should do to increase the quality of the training process. Getting feedbacks is
very good management technique used to maintain the effectiveness of
particular thing.

Creating a healthy workforce


Health is very important. When a person get week then we cant expect him
to work quickly and cant expect a high quality output from him. Several
actions are taken to make healthy workforce.
Giving nutritious meals to workers for free
Maintaining medical center to take care of workers
Giving them allowances for health related things
Conducting sport events
Giving safety equipment to protect worker

Attitude of the workers


This is another important term in HRM. If the worker has good attitude about
him then he effortlessly accept the work he assign and do it very confidently.
The difference is that the worker with good attitude end more quality work.
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That is what the company needs. So the CDPLC take several actions to create
good attitude inside worker.
Evaluating the workers (welders and other workers are evaluate for
their performances, so everyone try to work hard)
Through announcement
Everyday morning there is a news program and songs are distributed
over the loudspeakers and sound system install on the dockyard. In
this they include lot of encouraging things like new creations of
CDPLC and performance of its workers.

Communication
For managing a organization we need to communicate with each other. When
the top management took a decision or when a problem encountered or even
in normal operations then the communication between workers and other
parts are very essential. When we consider about dockyard there are
employees in abroad too. For an example the person for by material in day
today works is occupied in Singapore. Then huge deals are done immediately.
For that kind of functioning a good communication is required. When we
concern about CDPLC then it use almost all the new kind of communication
mediums to have a proper functioning. Here is some communication methods
used.
Announcement through loudspeakers is used to distribute new
decisions quickly. Also in case of emergency too.
Notice board on workshops and other places like canteen. When an
important thing is supposed to inform. Other than that there are notice
boards on each and every workshop that include details about ongoing
processes and other important details.

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Figure 3.3-41 Display boards at workshops

use intercom telephones to deal inside the dockyard


use emails, fax, telephones and other new method to deal with
overseas
Use Workie Talkie in field operations.

3.4 Site Layout

This is one of the critical point in production management. Slight change of a layout
can increase the profit by huge amount. Almost all the companies nowadays try this.
There are lots of advantages of having correct layout such as Minimize material
handling costs, Utilize space efficiently, Utilize labor efficiently, save time and etc.
when we consider about CDPLC it has combination of following two layouts.
Fix position layout
All the equipment, machine and the parts are brought to the work. For an
example constructing a house is that kind. We cant move the house from
place to place. So we have to bring all other things to the house. Constructing
a ship doesnt differ from that.
Process layout
In this layout the part required to manufacture is move place to place where
various kind of manufacturing is done in order to do various processes.

Why above layouts?


The dockyard has dry docks. We cant move a ship from place to place. So we have to
bring all the equipment to the ships such as welding plants, painting machine and so
on. That is why there is a fix position layout. This process needs high skilled workers

52
and the equipment moving cost is high. But it is very flexible process as we can
change our decisions at the work site.
Other than that we have process layout. This layout is used for the parts that are
removed from the ship for repairs or the parts newly build. After being repairing or
constructing those parts they are brought to the dry docks for assembly. The number is
productions are low at here. That is why they chose process layout. All the processes
have their own location. They term is as a workshop. For example all the machining is
done inside machine workshop. Likewise they have number of workshops as shown
below.
1) Machine workshop
2) Fitting workshop
3) Metal workshop
4) Ship repair division
5) Machine outfitting
6) Quality control department
7) Pump house
8) Designing office
9) Hull construction
10) Electrical workshop
11) Automation workshop
12) Foundry workshop

So above workshop has its own process. But for constructing a part we need to do
several processes on it. So to make a part we have to move it from one place to
another in several times. So the layout creates to minimize the cost of transportation
inside and minimize the time taken to finish work. That is why ship repair division is
near dry docks so the transportation cost is less as well as the time taken to do the
repair is less.

53
3.5 Managing the Stocks

Colombo dockyard needs lot of resources for its functioning such as materials such as
metal, gasses for manufacturing process, paints, and may be some equipment. So they
should maintain a stock to avoid delays in shortage of those things.
But the company cant store lot of things due to two reasons. They cant let their
money to wait as a stock and they cant let the space fill up with a huge stock. So they
have some employees who are special for that purpose only. They are at relevant
markets in abroad. Each job is analyzed and estimated the required things for
particular job and they inform it to the person at market. Then he quickly purchases it
and sends it within one or two days.
Other day to day required resources such as gases like oxygen, acetylene, and carbon
dioxide they have some reservoir and can store for few days. Continuous supply is
maintained according to the requirement to avoid the shortages.

3.6 Time Management

This is one of essential part in management. In management time means money. The
processes carried out inside the dockyard should manage in order to reduce time
losses. In that case several factors should be considered. Needs of ship owners,
workers and the company must be considered in managing time. So the effort taken to
manage the time with the jobs is described below.
Job schedule
Ship owners interest about what time that they can buy their new ship or get
the ship to the sea after repairing it. So the Colombo dockyard has to handover
ships at time. For that all the jobs have to finish within time so that each work
has to be done according to a schedule.
When a ship comes to dockyard then they straight away tell the ship owners
the date of handover after analyzing the work that should be done. This date is
also display on a board in every workshop so the workers have a rough idea
about when the work should be finished. Within the time period all the jobs
should finish. So the jobs are numbered and each of them have time period
which suit to the overall time schedule of overall processes. However the jobs
should finish within time. If not may be lot of problems comes up.
Work hours

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It is important to occupied workers in an effective manner to finish job within
time as well as the worker should work in his standard time period. If not the
health of the worker can be affect. But the dockyard cant stop the job at a
normal working hour of worker of 8 hours. The job should be continuing
according to the schedule. So working to the shift is used here. There are two
working shifts.
07.30h to 16.00h
16.00h to 07.00h (next day morning)

In the morning transportation is quick as no much traffic. So the workers can


come to work fresh. Also they are encouraged by giving them a free meal. So
the time shifts are also selected by considering about the appropriate time range
suit to the country.
However an assign job should finish in time. Workshops are responsible for
finishing the job according to the time period. May be the workers are asked to
do over time too. Supervisors and engineers are managing the workers to finish
job.

3.7 Waste Management

Waste generated in functioning of any company. Lot of companies thinks waste or


garbage is a problem. But if a company can manage the waste then the workplace can
keep clean. Not only that if a company manage wastages more accurately then a profit
can gain by wastages too. In Colombo dockyard wastages are manage in a high
standard. Another important thing considers there are the environmental factors. Lets
discuss about the actions taken by the company to manage wastages in harmless
manner to the environment.
Minimizing wastages
Before everything a company should try to do this. Wastage is nothing but a
loss to the company. So lots of programs are conducted for make aware
workers about minimizing wastages. Sometime the engineers took a little
awareness program regarding this on the morning by gathering all the workers.
All the engineers and supervisors there are always trying to minimize
wastages.
Classifying the wastages
All the workers are asked to put their wastages in to buckets. Those buckets
have colors. Brown one for metals, black one for oil, blue one for polyethene,
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green ones for foods and yellow one for others. It is easy to manage waste by
classifying them as different wastages have different action. For example food
wastages are sending to a farm. Metal wastages are reclassified and reusable
metal parts are sending to another stock. When an application found then the
reusable metal parts are used. It also saves money to the company too. Shown
below is the buckets used to classify wastages. Those buckets are very helpful
as it doesnt take additional time to classify waste.

Environmental facts
All the companies have limitations on environmental factors as internationally
agreed. It is also a responsibility of every person to protect environment.
Dockyard also consider about the environmental factors as they manage
wastages. For example the chemical used to clean engine parts or heat
exchangers like SAF acid (Sulphamic Acid) is not directly put into the sea.
They use a neutralizer to neutralize the acid and put into the sea. Likewise
nothing is put into the environment in harmful manner.
Not only wastages but also every process they try to minimize the effect on
environment. This is also known as green concept which will be essential in
the near future. Green concepts implies that using resources and minimize the
effect on environment. In this minimum resources are used. If a worker can
switch off one light that doesnt need will make environment safe for another
second in the future. This is internationally accepted concept. The concept
should plant inside the head of workers. Surely it will take several years to
teach it to every person. But hopefully dockyard is doing it. They try to make
aware their workers and staff about it. Also this will help to the company
economy too as the workers managing the resources. I feel this is should be a
prior management point like safety management.

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Chapter Four

4.0Summary and Conclusions

4.1 Summary

During 12 weeks of my training experience in Colombo dockyard PLC, I was able to


involve with lot of site works as Colombo dockyard is constructing two new ships and
repairing several ships on my training period.
Designing a something deals with lot of theoretical aspects. There I had a brief
understanding about how the designing procedure is done. How the computer aided
designing use to build a ship.
Then inside workshops I have lot of manufacturing processes going on. Constructing
a ship is not an easy task. Lot of manufacturing started from basic level such as plates
or rods. Shearing, gas cutting, plasma cutting, welding, machining, line heating,
forming and many more things. It is easy to say the names of them. But when we try
to do them or try to understanding the procedure lot of new things coming up. Those
things are very valuable as concerning mechanical engineering aspects.
A ship is a collection of thousands of theories, concepts and creations. They are
compact as the space is valuable and it also adds a value to those concepts. In the
work site we had chance to go into the ships and see those things. We can consider it a
ship as a little power station, or AC plant or steam plant. Anyhow it is still about
automobile. So lot of knowledge was gain from those things.
The construction inside are very heavy and the equipments are proportionally have
high capacities. During functioning of those things we can learn many things.
Sometimes those have to repair. Repairing something make us well aware about every
secrets behind it.
In this training I have learn lot of new thing about manufacturing, about equipments
and about ships.

4.2 Conclusions

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At the University, we were taught many theories and given chances to do several
practical, experiments and tests to understand the concepts. Yet we are unsure about
them. When we go to the field and practically experienced them then suddenly we
realize we should know that how to use those theories we learned.
May be even we knew all about a thing, we couldnt implement those things. Because
the environment around us in a field is lot more different from what we have here at
university. We have to deal with the persons in different level. They have different
opinions.
On the other hand if we know the practical situation of something then it is very easy
to understand the theoretical aspect of it. That means if we have seen the welding
process before then we can understand the theoretical things quickly.
Other thing is we cant learn everything from the books. A experienced man
can have a good knowledge. In our training process we found so many persons like
that. We have learned lot of things from them.
In the industrial fields there are so many resources are available and we can
learn lot of things. Also the field is updating at very high speed. That means we can
keep in touch with the new technologies used there.
Most importantly we had lot of chances to visit other industries and learn a lot
and find so many source persons. So these sources are essential to identify the
situation of the current field and the role we have got to do in the future.
Finally my opinion is we need much more experience. That is not only for learning
things. We should confident enough to say something, decide something. Even though
we had knowledge about it if we are not confident about it we cant perform. So those
industrial trainings really make us suit to be a good engineers.

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References
http://cde.annauniv.edu/CourseMat/mba/sem2/dba1651/tylay.html
http://www.cdl.lk
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_architecture
http://www.daviscoltd.com/Engineering/documents/PDFs%20Chris
%20Barry/Boat%20building/Line_heating.pdf
http://www.fvm.mek.dtu.dk/upload/institutter/mek/fvm/pdf/phd_afhandlinger/
2000/hbc.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_metal_arc_welding
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_tungsten_arc_welding

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Appendix 1

Drawing of the clutch shaft of


lathe machine

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