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2.

0 ANALYSIS AND
DESIGN
2.2 STRUCTURAL
ELEMENT
BEAM
Develop by :-
NOR AZAH BINTI AIZIZ
KOLEJ MATRIKULASI TEKNIKAL KEDAH
BEAM
A beam is a structural member subject to bending.
(Flexural member)
Its function carrying gravity load in the direction
normal to its axis, which results in bending moment
and shear force.
Bending occurs in member when a component
of load is applied perpendicular to member axis, and
some distance from a support.
Most beams span between two or more fixed
points (support).
Three types of beams:-

i) A Simply Supported Beams


- both ends are supported by one
pin and one roller

ii) Cantilever Beams


- one end is unsupported, but the
other must rigidly built-in top
prevent rotation.

iii) A continuous Beams


- beams with extra supports
Examples of beams:-
i)Beam Slab Bridge

Bridge Over Sg. Muda, Kuala Muda

Guthrie Corridor Expressway Eleanor


Types of beam
Primary Beam
- Beam that
supporting by
column at the end

Secondary Beam
- Beam that
supporting by
another beam at
the end
Types of beam
A B C

2m

1a

2m

4m 4m

1.Identify primary beam and secondary


beam.
BEAM
DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS FROM SLAB TO
BEAMS
Loads from a slab are transferred to its
surrounding beams in either one-way
@ two-way depend on the ratio Ly/Lx
L y= longer side , Lx= shorter side
Ly /Lx > 2 = one-way slab
Ly / x 2 = two-way slab

Loads supported by precast concrete slab


systems
are distributed to beams in one direction only.
L L
y
y

L L
x
x

One-way Two-way
slab slab

Two types of load distribution to


beams
Lets do it now!!!!
Concrete density : 24
B
kN/m3 A C

Dead load characteristic: 1.0


1
kN/m (excluding the slab self-
weight)
Live load characteristic: 2.5 2.5 m

kN/m
1
Floor thickness : 150 a

mm
2.5
m

1)sketch the floor tributary areas


all for beams. 2

2)calculate the ultimate design 2.0 5.5


m
load supported by beam A/1-2 in m

kN/m considering all floor


loadings.
ANSWER
A B C

1 Identify one way slab @


two way slab

2.5 m
Panel A-B/1-2
LY/LX = 5 / 2 = 2.5 >2
1
a :- one way slab

2.5
m
Panel B-C/1-1a
2
LY/LX = 5.5 / 2.5 = 2.2 >2
:- one way slab

2.0 5.5
m m
ANSWER
Concrete density : 24 kN/m3
Dead load characteristic: 1.0 kN/m (excluding the slab
self-weight)
Live load characteristic: 2.5 kN/m
Floor thickness : 150 mm

Self weight slab = 24 x 0.15 = 3.6 kN/m


Total characteristic dead load = 3.6 + 1 = 4.6 kN/m
Design load on slab, w = 1.4 gk + 1.6 qk
= 1.4 ( 4.6 ) + 1.6 ( 2.5 )
= 10.44 kN/m
ANSWER
Design load on beam A/1-2 ( kN/m)
= 0.5 x w x lx
= 0.5 x 10.44 x 2
= 10.44 kN/m

Design load on beam A/1-2 ( kN)


= 10.44 kN/m x 5m
= 52.2 kN
ANSWER
Maximum shear force
V = wL/2
= 10.44 x 5 /2
= 26.1 kN

Maximum bending moment


M = wL2/ 8
= 10.44 (5) 2 / 8
= 32.63 kN/m
Cross Section
Detail F

b - width
h d d depth
h high
b 0.45fcu

Fcc = 0.405fcuAcc
0.9 x
x

d z= (d-
As Fst = 0.87 fy As 0.9x/2)
a
0.87fy M
section stress force
Equation Where:
Ma = 0 f cu - Characteristic of concrete strength
Fcc (d-0.9x/2) M = 0 (30N/mm2)
Fcc = Fst f y - Characteristic of reinforcement
strength

Fcc = 0.405fcu Acc @ Fcc = (460N/mm2)


0.45fcu Acc A area of beam cross section

= 0.405 x f x bx = AS area of reinforcement cross section


Concrete compression
0.45fcu

0.9x F cc 125mm
0.9x
d
Fst Acc
Fcc
Fst
0.87fy
Steel tension

Acc = (0.9x) (125)


F cc = 0.45fcu x ACC
= 0.45fcu x
(0.9x)(125)
F st = 0.87 As
Example:
The beam 6m long shown in Figure with ultimate
load
of 2kN/m has characteristic material strengths of
fcu = 30N/mm2 for the concrete and fy = 460 N/mm2
for the steel.
Calculate steel area (As) and size of rebar to be
provided for the beam.2kN/m

6m
BEAM DESIGN

Factored load,G k = 2kN/m

6 mm

h = 300mm

b = 125mm
STEP 1 : Calculation of
Moment
Moment at centre (max)
gk = 2kN/m
=WL2/ 8
= 2 x 62 /8
= 9kNm 6 mm

9kNm
STEP 2 : Calculation of d
d = h - cover link rebar
= 300 25 10 12/2
= 259 mm

d= mm h = 300mm

b = 125mm
STEP 3 : Force Diagram

Fcc F cc

d = 259mm

z=(d-0.9x/2)
As
Fst
Fst
a
b = 125mm

Ma = 0
Fcc x ( d - 0.9x / 2) M = 0
0.45fcu x Acc x (d - 0.9x / 2) M = 0
STEP 3 : Force Diagram
0.405 x 30 x 125 x x ( 259 0.9x / 2 ) 9x106 = 0
1518.8x x (259 - 0.45x) 9 x 106 = 0
393369.2x - 683.46x2 - 9 x106 = 0
683.46x2 393369.2x + 9x106 = 0

x = -b + b2-4ac
2a

x = 551.7mm @ 23.9mm
Fcc = 0.405 x 30 x 23.9 x 125
= 36298N
= 36.3kN
Fcc= Fst
36298N = 0.87fy x As
As= 36298 / 0.87(460)
h = 300mm
= 90.70 mm 2
As = 90.70 mm2

So size rebar
A = j2= D2 / 4 = 90.70mm2 b = 125mm

A = 90.70 /2 = 45.35mm
D = 45.35 x 4 / D = 8mm
D = 7.6 mm for 2 bar
So size rebar for the beam is 8mm.
:. size rebar to be provided is 2 T 8
COLUMN
COLUMN
Vertical elements which are normally
loaded in compression.(compression member)
2 types :-
i) Strut small member in a framed structure
ii) Column larger member as a main support for a
beam in a building
Axial loaded compression members can fail in two principal
ways:
i) short fat member fail by crushing or splitting of the
material. ( strength criterion)
ii) long thin members fail by sideways buckling. (stiffness
criterion)
DESIGN COLUMN
Ultimate compressive load capacity,
N = sum of the strengths of both the concrete and steel
components.

N= 0.4 fcu Ac + 0.75 fy Asc

fcu = characteristic concrete cube crushing strength


fcu = area of concrete
fy = characteristic yield stress of steel
Asc = area of steel

Table 1
Diameters and areas of reinforcing bars
Bar dia.(mm) 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40
C/s area (mm2) 28 50 79 113 201 314 491 804 1256
Design Column
A short reinforced concrete Design load = 1.4 Gk + 1.6 Qk
column is to support the = 1.4 (758) + 1.6 (630)
following axial loads : = 2069 KN

characteristic dead load : 758 N = 0.4 fcu Ac + 0.75fy Asc


2069 x 103 = 0.4 ( 30 ) 3252 + 0.75 ( 460) Asc
kN
801500 = 0.75 x 460 x Asc
characteristic live load : 630
Asc = 2323 mm2
kN
Consider 4 bars are used:

If the column is to measure Asc = 2323 mm2


325 mm x 325 mm and the 4
concrete characteristic strength is = 581 mm2
30 N/mm2, determine the From Table 1 ; area 32 mm dia. Bar = 804 mm2
required size of high yield Size of rebar required = 4T32

reinforcing bars.
FOUNDATION DESIGN

The foundation of a building is that part of walls, piers and


columns in direct contact with, and transmitting loads to,
the ground.
The building foundation is sometimes referred to as the
artificial foundation, and the ground on which it bears as
the natural foundation.
FOUNDATION DESIGN

The primary functional requirement of a foundation is strength


and stability.

Strength and stability

The combined, dead, imposed and wind loads on a building


must be transmitted to the ground safely,
without causing deflection or deformation of the building
or movement of the ground that would
impair the stability of the building and/or neighboring structures.
Foundations should also be designed and constructed
to resist any movements of the subsoil.