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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

31/10

LESSON 7

WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Basic Conceps and Treatment
Steps.Preliminary and primary
treatment

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Typical pollutants to remove at WWTP: BOD5, COD, TSS, N, P and


TC /FC (Total and Fecal coliforms), depending on the receiving
waters and legislation.

BOD5 Biochemical Oxygen Demand over 5 days and 20C (CBO5


in portuguese)

Corresponds to the consumption of oxygen by biological activity in 5


days at 20 C. Indicates the amount of oxygen needed to stabilize
biodegradable organic matter

BOD5 (particulate + dissolved) usual range between 200 e 500 mg O2/l.

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COD- Chemical Oxigen Demand) (CQO, in portuguese)

Corresponds to consumption of oxygen via chemical oxidation using a


powerful oxidants (i.e potassium dichromate), during 2h.

The BOD5/CQO of raw urban wastewater varies usually between 0,3


and 0,8. In final treated effluent, the relation varies usually between 0,1
and 0,3.

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Dissolved Oxygem (blue) and BOD5 evolution (orange)

Aerobic oxidation (or anaerobic oxidation)


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TSS interferes with turbitity, light penetration, reaeration, oxygen bentic


demand,

TS (Total Solids) (100%) (example: distribution for domestic wastewater (100C)

SS (Suspended Solids) (35%)

Settleable Solids (60%) (20% in total)


Non Settleable solids (40%) (15-20 %)
NFS (Non filterable Solids) (65%)

Colloidal matter (10%)


Dissolved matter (90%) (60% in total )

Volatile (organic (at 600 C)) and fixed Solids

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Removal of TSS and particulate BOD5


in sedimentation tanks

Removal also of dissolved BOD5


in aeration tanks

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Nutrients (N and P)
Eutrophication
WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Nutrient removal at WWTP


(oxidation ditch)
WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Control of Bacteriological Contamination


(Total Coliforms ; Fecal Coliforms; E ccoli; Enterococci )
By desinfection (Ex.by ultra-violet radiation,.) or location of
final disposal (long sea outfall)

Costa do Estoril System Costa do Estoril WWTP

UV desinfection
WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Control of Bacteriological Contamination


WASTEWATER TREATMENT

TERTIARY
PRELIMINARY PRIMARY SECONDARY TREATMENT
TREATMENT TREATMENT TREATMENT

Liquid phase and solid phase (sludge)

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Biogas
Sludge thickening

Preliminary treatment
Sludge digestion

Primary sedimentation

Secondary treatment
(biological treatment + secondary sedimentation)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Removal of coarse solids by interception - racks


and coarse screens (hand-cleaned or
mechanically cleaned);
Removal of grit, sand and gravel - grit chambers;
PRELIMINARY
TREATMENT Equalization (equalization of flow and mass
loading of BOD and TSS) -equalization tanks;
Removal of oil and grease oil and grease
tanks.
Pre-aeration (control of odors, improve treatability,
removal of grease and grit)
Flocculation

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OVERFLOW (BY-PASS)

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FLOW MEASUREMENT PARSHALL FLUME (with a sensor)

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SCREENS (HAND-CLEANED AND MECHANICALLY CLEANED) (1+1)

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OIL AND GREASE REMOVAL TANK

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Removal of settleable solids and floating material


(removal of organic and inorganic suspended solids)
PRIMARY
TREATMENT
primary sedimentation tanks (rectangular or circular);
Primary sludge (typically 3 to 5% solids concentration).

Efficiencies: TSS (50%) ; BOD5 (20%) (Decre-law n 152/97)

Enhanced Primay Treatment (with added chemicals: alum, iron


salts; floculation)-Physico-chemical treatment

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

CONVENTIONAL PRIMARY SEDIMENTATION TANK (Circular)

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Main Design Information for Conventional Sedimention Tanks

Detention time 1,5 to 2,5 h (average flow)

Surface loading Rate (SLR) 30 to 120 m/day (average to peak


hourly flow).

Depth - >3m

Typical efficiences: TSS ( 60%); BOD5 ( 30%)

Enhanced primay treatment (including settlers and chemicals:


alum, iron salts) Much more higher SLR ( 10 m/h ) and lower
detention times.
Efficiencies of TSS and BOD5 removal of respectively over 80%, and
over 50%.

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7/11

LESSON 8

WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Secondary Biological Trickling
filters, activated sludge and ponds.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Attached-growth treatment processes (also known


as fixed-film processes): biological treatment
processes in which the microorganisms
responsible for the conversion of the organic
matter or other constituents in the wastewater to
gases and cell tissues are attached to some inert
medium, such rocks or specially designed ceramic
MAIN SECONDARY or plastic materials;
TREATMENT Suspended-growth treatment processes: biological
(BIOLOGICAL) treatment processes in which the microorganisms
responsible for the conversion of the organic
matter or other constituents in the wastewater are
maintained in suspension within the liquid.
Pond processes: Biological treatment by natural
processes, involving the use of bacteria and/or
algae) (anaerobic, facultative, aerobic, maturation
ponds) .

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Trickling filters (low-rate- without recirculation,


SECONDARY high rate and super high rate flow-with
TREATMENT
(BIOLOGICAL)
recirculation);
MAJOR ATTACHED
GROWTH Rotating biological contactors;

Packed-bed reactors.

The Trickling filters was developed firstly in Salford, England, in


1893, by Joseph Corbett, passing the wastewater through a
rocky media.

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Sprinkler (Euler theory)

Biofilm
Trinkling filters
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Trinkling filters

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Rotating Biological Contactors

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Design Information for Trickling Filters

ITEM Low rate High rate Super high


rate

Filter Medium Rock, slag Rock, plastic Plastic

Hydraulic loading (m/dia) 1-4 9-37 14-84

BOD5 loading (kg/m3.d) 0,08-0,40 0,5-1,0 0,5-1,6

Depth (m) 1,5-2,4 0,9-1,5 3,0-12,0

Recirculation ratio (-) 0 1-2 1-2

Sloughing (-) Intermittent Continuous Continuos

BOD5 removal efficiency (%) 80-90 68-85 65-80

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Activated-sludge process:
SECONDARY
Conventional (plug-flow);
TREATMENT Continuous-flow stirred-tank;
(BIOLOGICAL) MAJOR Pure oxygen;
SUSPENDED Extended aeration.
GROWTH
Oxidation ditch

Aerated lagoons.

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The activated sludge was developed in England in 1914 by Arden and Lockett
and was so named because it involved the production of an activate mass of
microorganisms capable of aerobically stabilizing a waste. Many versions of the
original process are in use today, but fundamentally they are all similar. The
system shown in figure is a continuous-flow stirred-tank activated sludge
system.

Reactor Settling tank

Q
8
Q , S0 (Q Qw ), S, Xe
X, V, S

Qr , Xr , S
Qw , Xr Q-Flow ; S-Substrate; -Volume;
X-Biomass
Qw, Xr Excess sludge
Qr, Xr recirculating sludge
e - effluent

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Operationally, in the activated sludge process organic waste is


introduced into a reactor where an aerobic bacterial culture is
maintained in suspension. The reactor contents are referred to as the
mixed liquor (ML). In the reactor, the bacterial culture carries out the
conversion of organic matter. MLSS is the suspended solids in the
mixed liquor.

The aerobic environment in the reactor is achieved by the use of


diffused air or mechanical aeration, which also serves to maintain the
mixed liquor in a completely mixed regime.

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After a specified period of time, the mixture of new cells and the old
cells (X) is passed into a settling tank where the cells are separated
from the treated wastewater. A portion of settled cells (sludge) (Xr) Is
recycled to maintain the desired concentration of organisms in the
reactor, and a portion is waste (excess sludge). The level at which the
biological mass in the reactor should be kept depends on the desired
treatment efficiency and considerations related to growth kinetics.

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CONTINUOUS-FLOW STIRRED-TANK REACTOR


(MECHANICAL AERATION)

CONTINUOUS-FLOW STIRRED-TANK REACTOR


(MECHANICAL AERATION)

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CONTINUOUS-FLOW STIRRED-TANK REACTOR


(DIFUSED AERATION)

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DIFUSED AERATION

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COMPRESSED AIR PIPING

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Typical design information for suspended growth treatment processes

Process Qc, (d) F/M Volumetric MLVSS (mg/l) Tr (h) Rec (%


modification Kg CBO/(kg loading kg
Qm)
MLVSS.d) CBO/(m3.d)

Conventional 5-15 0,2-0,4 0,3-0,6 1500-3000 4-8 0,25-0,75

Complete-mix 5-15 0,2-0,6 0,8-1,9 2500-4000 3-5 0,25-1,00

Extended aeration 20-30 0,05-0,15 0,16-0,4 3000-6000 18-36 0,50-1,50

High purity oxygen 3-10 0,25-1,0 1,6-3,2 2000-5000 1-3 0,25-0,50

Oxidation ditch 10-30 0,05-0,30 0,08-0,5 3000-6000 8-36 0,75-1,50

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Secondary sedimentation tanks


(circular)

Extended aeration

SIMARSUL, S.A. / LAGOINHA WWTP (PALMELA)

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SECONDARY SEDIMENTATION TANK (Beirolas,


Lisboa)
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SECONDARY SEDIMENTATION TANK - Details

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POND SYSTEMS (4 different types)

Anaerobic ponds, which are designed to cater for high organic


loading, and are typically absent of DO and contain no significant algal
population. They typically involve long detention times and are deeper
than other types of ponds;

Facultative ponds, which incorporate two different operating modes,


aerobic at the surface and , with the settlement of sludge, anaerobic at
the base of the pond. These ponds are typically shallower than
anaerobic ponds.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

POND SYSTEMS

Aerobic ponds, which are shallow to allow algal development and


receive lower solids and BOD loadings.

Maturation / Oxidation ponds, which essentially are used for polishing


of effluent, and are shallow to allow for ultraviolet light penetration and
subsequent disinfection.

There are also


. mechanically aerated ponds, which can be deeper
than naturally aerobic ponds, since the aeration will reach the lower
layers. which helps in DO as well as mixing ability to prevent short
circuiting

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Pond systems typically comprise a treatment train, which may involve


a series of ponds:

Anaerobic;
Facultative,
Aerobic/Maturation

To achieve BOD reduction (sometimes also nutrient reduction)


(anaerobic and facultative pond) and pathogen reduction (maturation
pond) prior to transfer to the environment (for irrigation reuse or
disposal to receiving waters).

The appropriate treatment train series is dependent on WWTP loading


and requirements of discharges, according to legislation.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Typical Design Information for Pond Systems


Parameter Aerobic Aerobic Aerobic- Anaerobic Aerated
Low rate Maturation anaerobic pond lagoon
facultative

Flow regime Intermittently mixed Intermittently mixed Mixed surface - Completely


layer mixed

Pond size (h) <4 0,8-4,0 0,8-4,0 0,2-0,5 0,1-4,0


multiples multiples multiples multiples multiples

Operation Series or parallel Series or parallel Series or parallel Series Series or


parallel

Detention time (d) 10-40 5-20 5-30 20-50 3-10


Depth (m) 0,9-1,2 0,9-1,5 1,2-2,4 2,4-4,8 1,8-6,0

pH 6,5-10,5 6,5-10,5 6,5-8,5 6,5-7,2 6,5-8,0

Temperature range (C) 0-30 0-30 0-50 6-50 0-30


Optimum temperature (C) 20 20 20 30 20
BOD5 loading (kg/ha.d) 67-135 17 56-202 224-560 20

BOD5 conversion (%) 80-95 60-80 80-95 50-85 80-95


Principal conversion Algae, CO2, bacterial Algae, CO2, bacterial cell Algae, CO2, CH4, CO2, CH4, CO2,
cell tissue tissue NO3 bacterial cell bacterial cell bacterial cell
tissue tissue tissue

Algal concentration (mg/L) 40-100 5-10 5-20 0-5


Effluent suspended solids (mg/L) 80-140 10-30 40-60 80-160 80-250

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

RAW WASTEWATER

WASTWATER
TREATED
GRIT PRIMARY BIOLOCICAL SECONDARY
SCREENING OIL AND GREASE
SEDIMENTATION REACTOR SEDIMENTATION
REMOVAL

Grit, sand Primary Recirculated Excess


Coarse solids and gravel sludge sludge sludge
oils and grease

TYPICAL FLOWSHEET OF A WWTP LIQUID PHASE

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FLOWSHEET OF A WWTP

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

14/11-visita

LESSON 9

WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Small wastewater treatment systems.
Preliminary design examples

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Typically used for small


communities (< 250 p.e.)

p.e. population equivalent

Septic tank (one or more units) and final land disposal (ex: infiltration trenches, soakaway,
mound systems, construted wetlands.)

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IMHOFF Tank : Typically used for small communities (< 2000 p.e.)

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Typical Information for Design of Septic tanks

Single , two or three compartment tanks

Detention time 1 to 2 days

Depht -1 to 1,5 m

Lenght to with ratio - 2:1 to 5:1


.
Sludge should be removed at least once per two years.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Natural treatment systems


(typically for small agglomerations,and at least after primary treatment)

Slow rate (Irrigation) (i.e irrigation of crops)


Rapid Infiltration (sandy soil with high hydraulic condutivity)
Overland flow (over impermeable soils)
Wetlands

(watewater treatment system common in parts of Portugal for


rural small agglomerations: subsurface horizontal flow constructed
wetlands after septic tanks)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Information for design of subsurface flow constructed wetlands

Hydraulic detention time (tr) >= 2 days

Height (media) (h) 0,6 to 0,9 m

Porosity of the media (n) 0,32

. Material and influent characteristics (k) - 0,8 1,1 day-1

Design expression:

A Q ln (BODinf/BODefl)/(k.h.n.)

A (area); BODinf (influent BOD); BODefl (efluent BODe)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

1st Example: Preliminary Design of a Primary settling tank


Population (P ) 2000 pe, C = 150 l/(e.p.day) and Inf.Coef. = 0,8

Fav (average flow) = (2000 x150 x 0,8)/86,400 = 2,77 l/s = 240 m3/day

fp (Peak factor) = 1,5 + 60/ =3,4

Finf. (infiltration flow) = 0

Fp (Peak flow)= fp x Fav + Finf = 2,77 x 3,4 + 0 = 9,4 l/s = 813 m3/day

CRITERIA
SLR (surface loading rate) > 30 m/day (for Fav) and < 120 m/day (for Fp) (criteria)

1,5 h < Tr (Detention time) < 2,5 h


240 4
1 8 2 3,19 3,2
30
A = x 3,22/4 = 8,04 SLR (Fp) = 813/8,04 = 101 < 120 m/day

= 8,04 x 2,8 = 22,51 m3


22,51
H = 2,8 m; Detention time (tr) = x24 = 2,25 h
240

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

2nd Example: Preliminary design of a low rate trickling filter

BOD5 load = 2000 x 60 g BOD5/day = 120 kg BOD5/day

CRITERIA

BOD5 loading rate (BL) = 0,08 to 0,40 kg BOD /(m3.day) (criteria)

Hyd. Loading (HL) = 1 to 4 m/day (criteria)

Fav = 240 m3/day = 1 / = 240 2

D = 17,5 m

Depth = 2 m = 240 x 2 = 480 m3

Considering BOD5 Efficiency of settling tank = 30%

BL = 120 x (1-0,3)/480 = 0,35 BOD5/(m3.day) < 0,40

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

3rd Example: Preliminary design of a constructed wetland after septic tank


based on retention time

Population 500 ep; C = 100 l/(ep.day); Inf.Coef. = 0,8

Fav = (500 x 100 x 0,8)/1000 = 40 m3/day = 0,46 l/s

Fp (peak flow) = 2 l/s

BOD5 load = 500 x 60 g BOD5/day = 30 kg BOD5/day; BOD5 BOD5 inf.= 30/40 = 0,750 g/l

Considering BOD5 Efficiency of septic tank 50%

BOD5 inf = (30 x 0,5)/40 = 0,375 g/l

Data: porosity = 0,32 and Tr = 3 days

Tr = detention time; = volume of the wetland

40 x 3
= = 375 3
0,32
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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

3rd Example: Preliminary design of a constructed wetland after


septic tanks (Cont.)

h = 0,7 m A = 535 m2 (16,37 x 32,73)

A Q ln(BOD5 in /BOD5 efl)/(k h n)

Efficiency of BOD5 removal:

BOD5 efl = BOD5 inf exp-(A k h n/Q)


= 0,375 exp (-535 x 0,98 x 0,7 x 0,32/40)
= 0,02 g/l

BOD5 efficiency of the total system =(0,750-0,02)/0,750 = 97%

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

LESSON 9 (CONt)/10

WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Technical visit
(Rio da Mula WTP and Valdeo WWTP)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Valdeo WWTP, Almada


(Technical visit of 3012-11-26)

Pop 6 000 e.p. BOD5 inf = 375 mg/l


Fav 1271 m3/day SST inf = 563 mg/l
Fp 47,7 l/s CQO inf = 844 mg/l

Effluent requirements (future) (The municipality is considering the up-grading


of the WWTP with disinfection in order to fulfill those requirements)
BOD5 efl = 25 mg/l
CQ efl = 125 mg/l
SST efl = 35 mg/l
FC (MPN/100ml= 2 000 (for discharge in the Tagus estuary)
FC (MPN/100ml= 100 (for irrigation and cleaning)

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Valdeo WWTP - Location

Valdeo WWTP photo

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Fase Lquida
guas Residuais Legenda
Afluentes
Circuito Principal
Meio de Gradados Circuito de lamas
disposio Gradagem
Obra de Entrada
final
Areias Desarenador

Parshall Fase Slida


Descarga
EE de Lamas
EE Lamas

Cmara de
distribuio
Tanque de Espessamento
Lamas Gravtico
Tanque Tanque
(V= 1 m3) ( V= 6.7 m3)
Arejamento Arejamento
Desidratao
Mecnica
Decantador Decantador
(filtro banda)
Secundrio Secundrio

Meio de disposio final


Meio receptor (aterro sanitrio)

Valdeo WWTP Treatment scheme

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Valdeo WWTP Future layout

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Valdeo WWTP Screening Valdeo WWTP Grit removal and flow


measurement

Valdeo WWTP Parshal Fume

Valdeo WWTP Headworks

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Valdeo WWTP Pumping installation

Valdeo WWTP Pumping installation

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Valdeo WWTP Aeration tanks

Valdeo WWTP Aeration tanks

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Valdeo WWTP Settling tank

Valdeo WWTP Settling tank

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Valdeo WWTP sludge thickening tank


Valdeo WWTP sludge thickening tank

Valdeo WWTP sludge filter press equipment Valdeo WWTP sludge storage tank

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

21/11 e 25/11-Fil

LESSON 11

WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Tertiary Treatment. Legislation.
Solids Processing

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

MAIN TERTIARY TREATMENT PROCESSES

Removal Treatment method

Total suspended solids (TSS) Filtration and microscreening

Sand filtration
UV disinfection
Microorganisms Maturation ponds
Disinfection with chlorine or ozone
Membrane technologies (microfiltration)

Nitrogen Nitrification /denitrification

Chemical precipitation
Phosphorus
Biological processes

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TERTIARY TREATMENT / SAND FILTRATION


BEIROLAS (LISBON) WWTP
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TERTIARY TREATMENT / SAND FILTRATION


BEIROLAS (LISBON) WWTP
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TERTIARY TREATMENT / UV Disinfection (MPN FC2000; TSS40 mg/l)


GUIA (CASCAIS) WWTP
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TERTIARY TREATMENT / UV DISINFECTION


BEIROLAS (LISBON) WWTP
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MAIN LEGISLATION (WASTEWATER)

Decree-law n 152/97 ,of 19 June (Diretive n91/271 CEE, of 21 May)


(urban wastewater treatment Diretive);

Decree-law n 345/98, of 9 November (1st modification of the DL n


152/97, concerning requirements for discharging to sensitive zones)

Decree-law n 194/2004, of 22 June (2 nd modification of the DL n


152/97, identification of 25 sensitive zones and 9 no sensitive zones) ;

Decree-law n 188/2008 of 8 October (3 rd modification of the DL n


152/97, identification of 18 sensitive and no 3 sensitive zones) ;

MAIN LEGISLATION (WASTEWATER TREATMENT SLUDGE)

Decree-law n 275/2009 of 25 June (use of wastewater treatment sludge


for farming pruposes );

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Decree-law n 152/97 (Article 2)


.e. (population equivalent) means the organic biodegradable load having a
five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 60 g of oxygen per day;

primary treatment means treatment of urban waste water by a physical


and/or chemical process involving settlement of suspended solids, or other
processes in which the BOD5 of the incoming waste water is reduced by at least
20 % before discharge and the total suspended solids of the incoming waste
water are reduced by at least 50 %;

secondary treatment means treatment of urban waste water by a process


generally involving biological treatment with a secondary settlement or other
process in which the requirements established in Table I are respected;

appropriate treatment means treatment of urban waste water by any


process and/or disposal system which after discharge allows the receiving
waters to meet the relevant quality objectives ....

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Decree-law n 152/97, of 19 June


Pop 2000 in fresh waters sensitive zones (or Pop 10000 in coastal zones):
Appropriate treatment is applicable.
Pop >2000 (or >10000 in coastal zones): Secondary treatment, at least
TABLE 1
Parameter BOD5 CQO TSS*

Concentration (mg/l) and/or 25 125 35


% of reduction 70-90 75 90

*facultativ parameter

For Sensitive zones (risks of eutrophication or bacteriological comtamination)


(Pop >10000 p.e) further treatment ( reduction of NCOD , P ou CF/CT)
TABLE 2

Parameter P N
Concentration (mg/l) 2 (<100 000) 15 (<100 000)
1 (100 000) 10 (100 000)
% reduction 80 70-80

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Decree-law n 152/97 (Cont.) (Art 4)

Member States shall ensure that urban waste water entering collecting
systems shall before discharge be subject to secondary treatment or
an equivalent treatment as follows:

- at the latest by 31 December 2000 for all discharges from


agglomerations of more than 15 000 p.e.,

- at the latest by 31 December 2005 for all discharges from


agglomerations of between 10 000 and 15 000 p.e.,

-at the latest by 31 December 2005 for discharges to fresh-water and


estuaries from agglomerations of between 2 000 and 10 000 p.e.

-For urban waste water discharging into receiving waters which are
considered sensitive areas..... the Member States shall ensure that
collection systems are provided at the latest by 31 December 1998 for
agglomerations of more than 10 000 p.e.

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Decree-law n 152/97 (Cont.) (Art 5)


. Urban waste water discharges from agglomerations of between 10 000 and 150 000 p.e.
to coastal waters ....and between 2 000 and 10 000 p.e. to estuaries situated in less
senstive areas may be subjected to treatment less stringent than seconday providing that:

- such discharges receive at least primary treatment; comprehensive studies indicate that
such discharges will not adversely affect the environment.
-..............

Member States shall ensure that urban waste water entering collecting systems shall
before discharge be subject to appropriate treatment in the following cases:

- for discharges to fresh-water and estuaries from agglomerations of less than 2 000 p.e.,

-for discharges to coastal waters from agglomerations of less than 10 000 p.e.
-.............

-In exceptional circumstances, when it can be demonstrated that more advanced treatment
will not produce any environmental benefits, discharges into less sensitive areas of more
than 150 000 p.e. may not be subject to secondary treatment

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Decree-law n 152/97 (Cont.) (Art 5)


Member States shall ensure that urban waste water shall before discharge into sensitive
areas be subject to more stringent treatment than secondary treatment, ... from
agglomerations of more than 10 000 p.e.

Discharges from those urban waste water treatment plants shall satisfy the relevant
requirements (tertiary treatment) (Table 2).

Less sensitive areas

A marine water body or area can be identified as a less sensitive area if the discharge of
waste water does not adversely affect the environment as a result of morphology,
hydrology or specific hydraulic conditions which exist in that area

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Decree-law n 152/97 (Cont.) (Art 5)


A water body must be identified as a sensitive area if it falls into one of the following
groups:

(a) natural freshwater bodies, estuaries and coastal waters which are found to be eutrophic
or which in the near future may become eutrophic if protective action is not taken.

(b) surface freshwaters intended for the abstraction of drinking water which could contain
more than the concentration of nitrate laid down under ...

(c) areas where further treatment is necessary to fulfil Council Directives (i.e
microorganisms removal...).

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

DL n. 188/2008, of 8 October

25 sensitive zones (see map)


3 no sensitive zones
(Cabo da Roca, Madeira, Porto Santo)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Sludge Wastewater Treatment

The main purpose of sludge stabilization is control of patogenic


microorganisms and odor.

The main purpose of dewatering is to reduce the water content in


the. sludge.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS


CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLIDS AND SLUDGE PRODUCED
Unit operation / unit process
Function
or treatment method

Preliminary operations:
Grinding Particle size reduction
Screening Removal of fibrous materials
Degritting Grit removal
Blending Homogenization of solids streams
Storage Flow equalization

Thickening:
Gravity thickening Volume reduction
Flotation thickening Volume reduction
Centrifugation Volume reduction
Gravity-belt thickening Volume reduction
Rotary-drum thickening Volume reduction

Stabilization:
Chemical stabilization Stabilization
Anaerobic digestion Stabilization, mass reduction
Aerobic digestion Stabilization, mass reduction
Composting Stabilization, product recovery
Sludge wetlands Stabilization, value indution

Conditioning:
Chemical conditioning Improve dewaterability
Other conditioning methods Improve dewaterability

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS


CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLIDS AND SLUDGE PRODUCED

Unit operation / unit process


Function
or treatment method
Dewatering:
Centrifuge Volume reduction
Belt-filter press Volume reduction
Filter press Volume reduction
Sludge drying beds Volume reduction
Reed beds (constructed wetland) Storage and volume reduction
Lagoons Storage and volume reduction
Heat drying:
Direct dryers Weight and volume reduction
Indirect dryers Weight and volume reduction
Incineration:
Multiple-hearth incineration Volume reduction, resource recovery
Fluidized-bed incineration Volume reduction
Co-incineration with solid waste Volume reduction
Application of biosolids to land:
Land application Beneficial use, disposal
Dedicated land disposal Disposal, land reclamation
Landfilling Disposal
Conveyance and storage Solids transport and storage

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS / SLUDGE PUMPING


GUIA (CASCAIS) WWTP
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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Sludge

Sand

Gravel

Drains

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS


SLUDGE DRYING BEDS (Small WWTP)
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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Biogas storage
Heat exchangers
Sludge thickening

Sludge digesters

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS


LAYOUT EXAMPLE
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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Conventional standard-rate High-rate, continuous-flow


single stage process stirred tank, single stage process

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS


ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Two-stage process

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS


ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS/ANAEROBIC DIGESTION


BEIROLAS (LISBON) WWTP

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS/ANAEROBIC DIGESTION


Costa do Estoril (CASCAIS/Outeiro da Lota) WWTP-4 km far from
WWTP Liquid phase.
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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS/ANAEROBIC DIGESTION


BIOGAS STORAGE

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS/CENTRIFUGE SLUDGE


DEWATERING

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS/CENTRIFUGE SLUDGE


DEWATERING

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS


SLUDGE TRANSPORT BY TRUCK

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS/CO-GENERATOR

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SOLIDS PROCESSING METHODS / ODOR CONTROL (Scrubbers)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SECONDARY SLUDGE
PRIMARY SLUDGE

DEWATERED
SLUDGE
SLUDGE DIGESTION DEWATERING
THICKENING (ANAEROBIC) (CENTRIFUGATION)

TYPICAL FLOWSHEET OF A WWTP


SLUDGE TREATMENT

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

28/11 e 2/12

LESSON 12

WASTEWATER TREATMENT
WWTP Photos. Planning of WWTP.
Aspects of detailed projects. Tender
procedures. Hydraulic and
environmental aspects.
Construction and operation.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

SIMTEJO - SANEAMENTO INTEGRADO DOS MUNICPIOS DO TEJO


E TRANCO, S.A. / THE COMPANY

SIMTEJO - Saneamento Integrado dos Municpios do Tejo e Tranco, S.A. is


AdP Group company responsible for the collection, treatment and disposal of
wastewater from the municipalities of Amadora, Lisbon, Loures, Mafra, Odivelas
and Vila Franca de Xira (Tagus and Tranco watersheds) serving a total
population of about 1.5 million inhabitants. The wastewater is conducted to
several pumping stations and WWTP, where it is treated and returned to the
receiving environment or in some cases reused.

The investment plan, to be completed by 2013, includes 32 WWTP, 93 pumping


stations and 339 km of pipes and interceptors.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

ALCNTARA (LISBON) WWTP


SIMTEJO, S.A.

Municipalities served: Lisbon - Amadora Oeiras;


Population: 756 000 inhabitants-equivalent;
Dry weather design flow: 3.3 m3/s;
Wet weather design flow: 6.6 m3/s;
Type of treatment: tertiary, comprising:
Pretreatment;
dry weather primary treatment Multiflo;
wet weather primary treatment Actiflo;
secondary treatment Biostyr biofiltration;
UV disinfection;
liming of sludge;
chemical odor control.
Investment: 72 M (10 M financed by EU).

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

ALCNTARA (LISBON) WWTP


SIMTEJO, S.A.

1 WWTP head works 6 Pumping station


2 Pumping station 7 Secondary treatment Biostyr biofiltration
3 Grit / oil and grease removal 8 UV disinfection
4 Dry weather primary treatment Multiflo 9 Sludge treatment
5 Wet weather primary treatment Actiflo 10 Odor control

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

ALCNTARA (LISBON) WWTP


SIMTEJO, S.A.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

ALCNTARA (LISBON) WWTP


SIMTEJO, S.A.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

ALCNTARA (LISBON) WWTP


SIMTEJO, S.A.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

ALCNTARA (LISBON) WWTP


SIMTEJO, S.A.

Tertiary treatment Secondary treatment

Primary sedimentation

Biogas
Sludge digestion
Preliminary treatment

INSTALAES DE TRATAMENTO 104


WASTEWATER TREATMENT

WWTP Portinho da Costa, Almada


(preliminary treatment, enhanced primary treatment (DENSADEG) and
biofiltration)
Discharge in the estuary by a long sea outfall

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

WWTP Quinta da Bomba, Almada


(preliminary treatment-screening and sand removal; primary treatment, trickling filters.
Thickening and mechanical dewatering of sludge)
(currently up-grading the treatment (filtration and UV desinfection) and anaerobic
digestion of sludge)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

WWTP Machico, Madeira


(preliminary treatment, enhanced primary
treatment, biofiltration and UV disinfection)

Saneamento [A25.5]

INSTALAES DE TRATAMENTO 107


WASTEWATER TREATMENT

WWTP Meia Serra, Leachate from landfills, Madeira


(Aerated pond, physical-chemical treatment and reverse osmosis)
(treated wastewater reuse for industrial uses)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

WWTP S. Joo da Talha


(preliminary treatment, equalization tank, physical-chemical treatment
(enhanced primary), activated sludge; sludge anaerobic digestion,
mechanical dewatering).
Discharge in the Tagus Estuary

entrada da ETAR jusante do tratamento primrio tanque de arejamento efluente final

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

WWTP, Fataca, Odemira


(septic tank and constructed wetland)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

WWTP Sado, Beja


(Stabilization ponds, 32 constructed wetlands (2 ha), and chlorine disinfection.
Treated wastewater reuse for urban park irrigation.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Ponte de Vagos WWTP, SIMRIA

Example of a WWTP Project, based


on low rate activated sludge
(extended aeration)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Pop (2030) 5000 ep


Fav 5000 m3/day
Fp 15 l/s

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Casal Novo WWTP, guas da


Figueira, SA

(Example of a WWTP Project,


based on a constructed wetland)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Casal Novo WWTP

Pop (2025) 100 ep

Cap (2025) 100 l/hab.day)

Fav 10 m3/day

Fp 55 m3day

Wastewaters Septic tank Septic tank wetland

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Septic tank Wetland


3 compartments (17,5 x 10) x 0,7
(4,80 x 2,40) x 1,60

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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ETAR DE CASAL NOVO

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

TENDER PROCEDURES (announcement, tender programme, technical and


juridical and legal clauses, technical specifications, project and other technical
documents.)

WITH DETAILED PROJECT (including description and justification, and


drawings)

WITH PRELIMINARY PROGRAM (including established requirements)

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

HYDRAULIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

Gravitic or pumping inflows (continuous or intermittent flows to the WWTP).

Overflows and by-pass.

Flow measurement: different approaches and flowmeters (critical section;


parshall plume) for WWTP management and invoicing.

Hydraulic profile (taken into account continuous and local head losses).

Level of the receiving waters (hydraulic calculations from downstream to up-


stream), effects of climate change-adaptation.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

HYDRAULIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS


(cont.)

Efficient use of water (reuse) and energy (variable special drivers in


pumps, aeration). Production of energy (turbines; co-generation).

Use and fate of biosolids/sludge (land application farming; landfilling).

Equipment and electrical installations.

Instrumentation and control.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

LAYOUT CONCERNS
Topography for available heads construction of platforms.
Ensuring access to water and energy. Access to vehicles (circulation)
Soil foundations sand? clay? mud? Strategy of construction and groundwater
control (lowering water table by well point or other systems).
Construction aspects and materials protective coatings; impervious surfaces;
thermic isolation (anaerobic digestion). Structural calculations Concrete (walls,
pillars, beans in buildings).

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

LAYOUT CONCERNS

Final discharges works.


Hydraulic circuits: water supply; effluent reuse pipes; irrigation pipes; overflows
and by-pass sewers; sludge pipes; storm water and drainage sewers;
recirculation pipes.
Aesthetic concerns. Green structures.
Odor and noise control.
Sampling sections for monitoring.

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT

9/12 (A.Galvao Pt) 12/12 (Vitor ) 16/12 e 19/12

LESSON 13

WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Problems and review

INSTALAES DE TRATAMENTO 134