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Text 1

Didactics: concept, objective, purposes


I. Introduction and orientations
It is imperative to know that everything around us is based on didactics. This art exists in different contexts
that connect us with the learning process. The same happens in a full classroom in which people are learning
constantly. There will always be didactics if there is someone learning; also, this leads to different learning
possibilities. Classes for younger students are also based on didactics, because the main aim is to catch the
young students attention in a stimulated manner.
II. Objectives
The most important aspects in didactics is the introduction of terminology comprehension to know the
significance of the concept and recognize its purpose. It is also imperative to know its importance and to
discriminate between its essential elements in teaching-learning and the formal and informal didactics.
III. Content schema
Didactic is the educational science which studies the learning process so as to obtain intellectual formation. In
other words, it is an innovative way of educating.
IV. Content Development
1. Concept of Didactics
1.1 Etymological Origin and Brief Historical Overview comes from GREEK
1.2 Definition
Even though many people have tried to define Didactics, their definitions have a certain coincidence level.
Estebaranz, Senz Barrio and Ruiz tried to assemble the most accurate definition, putting together all the
elements each definition had in common and got to some conclusions:
- The simplest and accepted was the definition done by Dolch: didactics is the science of learning and
teaching in general.
- Fernndez Huerta says that the objective of Didactics is to achieve learning thanks to the help of teaching
methods.
- ESCUDERO insists in didactics being a science whose objective is to organize and to guide each teaching-
learning situation.
- Didactics is the education science that studies and contributes in the teaching-learning process aiming to
fulfil the learners intellectual development.
Questions revolve around didactics because it is seen as an artistic conception but also as a scientific
conception
1.3 Didactics, between theory and praxis
For Titone, didactics is a mixture between theory and praxis. Didactics is the theory of the teachers praxis.
Praxis has a great value since it shows not only in activities with students but also within teachers. We learn
and teach by experience. A theory is not good enough if it does not apply to practice.
We need to see theory and praxis as two terms that need to be together in order to exist. Yet, it is necessary for
them to coexist in the same way. For instance, we cannot have too much theory and a little praxis nor too
much praxis and no theory at all.
If we separate both terms, we will have different roles and some sort of hierarchy between them.
Grundy sees curriculum development as a way of praxis according to the following principles:
- Action and reflection are the elements of praxis
- Praxis is not hypothetical
- Praxis exists within the interaction between the social and cultural world
- Praxis is constructed
- Praxis is a process of constructing meanings
According to Zabalza, the way Didactics has been approached is given by: theory>praxis>theory, being the
prevailing discourses the theoretical and nominalist. They all have their basis in beliefs rather than data.
The solution that is being proposed can be understood as: praxis>theory>praxis, allowing theory to adjust to
praxis conditions.
There is a need to elaborate a teaching theory since it is wider than the learning theory because it has way
more elements.
The theoretical aspect of Didactics is related to the knowledge of the teaching and the learning processes.
(?) General didactic: THE STUDY OF COMMON ELEMENTS OF TEACHING IN ANY SITUATION
OFFERING A GROUP VISION.
1.4 Scientific, Technical and Artistic Characteristics
Didactics is a practical science and is considered as a science or a technology. It is even considered an art by
some authors.
a. Artistic view MODIFICATION OF LESSONS
Educators need different abilities so as to solve everyday problems; these abilities keep on growing with time.
Rousseau, Stenhouse and Eisners view of the educator, metaphorically speaking, is as a gardener. We cannot
keep the same models always just because they worked one time, we need to modify them according to the
situation we are in. We need to make the best of classroom experience (including the bad ones) in order to
reflect and cooperate in groups to build new theories.
Eisner considers teaching as an artistic activity because:
- It allows experience for teachers and students thanks to the results of both
- The actors performance allows him/her to adjust to the climate
- Didactic activities are not a routine
- The aims are created during the process
b. Technological Dimension
Technology is the technique used by scientific knowledge. Not to be confused with technological artefacts.
Didactic processes are technological when they have a scientific method: it is based in theories and/or they are
already proved. Didactics is not a practical application of knowledge, principles, theories and/or norms.
Practical activity cannot happen according to a technological pattern because behaviours change every time.
c. Scientific Character
Didactics fulfils scientific rationality criteria and possess enough concepts, judgements and arguments capable
of generating new ideas inductively and deductively. It is a group of semantic knowledges because of the
order, structure and internal coherence degree and it is not exempted of fragmentation and accumulation of
uncoordinated data.
It has an explanatory character since it explains and describes the phenomena related to the teaching-learning
process. The possibility to verify knowledge is the difficult characteristic to fulfil and prove because the field
is insufficient.
Text 2

Transpositions Restricted Character

According to A. Petitjean, didactic transposition is the transference of knowledge to the learner. It seeks to
develop the different language competencies.

It is argued that the term didactic transposition can be changed to didactic development.

THE OBJECT OF KNOWLEDGE BECOMES THE OBJECT OF TEACHING

According to the different authors, the theory of didactic transposition is valid and strong in the mathematical
field and its branches. In other subjects, such as languages it does not apply because of its theoretical
framework.

The Rejection of Didactic Transposition

In the field of Philosophy, didactic transposition is rejected because of two reasons: a) philosophy does not try
to be a science and b) philosophical research does not take place in scientific laboratories.

This is why the author proposes didactization at an institutional level. By this, the author means determining
an object for teaching through the following: a) stating the objectives and b) defining the pedagogical model.

According to J. Marchal, at schools there are two different elements that will determine the schools
knowledge: i) the theory of didactic transposition and ii) the hypothesis that explains that what is taught
derives from school culture.

School discipline is characterized by: a) knowledge considered as characteristic in the field; b) motivation
procedures in order to engage students; c) canonical exercises; and d) common evaluation practices.

Finally, transposition leaves aside what is considered essential and answers the limitations imposed by the
institution.

Text 3

1. The didactic transposition, for the one applying didactics, is a tool that allows reflecting, taking distance,
interrogating evidence and questioning simple ideas. However, it is one of the instruments of the "rupture"
that the didactics must apply in order to be constituted under its own domain. For teachers, didactic
transposition can be understood as functioning. Nevertheless, in order to make this functioning well and
possible, some elements must be modified and deformed; therefore, it will be suitable to be taught.
Knowledge is different from the knowledge to teach. Knowing is not enough, that's why it must suffer
modifications to make it suitable for teaching.

Text 4
Stage of Elaboration
In this stage, must be obtained the intellectual formation of the concept underlining the qualitative quality of
learning. The teacher starts from the vocabulary and creates challenges that canalize inside the investigation
that the student realizes.
The teacher must always respect their students, so their creativity and originality transform into knowledge.
furthermore, they will demonstrate its entire knowledge of the topic, using at all times the motivation to
establish valid conclusions. The elaboration stage has three phases: Observation, Achievement and
Transformation.
Stage of Enunciation
The main aim of this stage is to put a name to what it has been discovered and understood for real. This stage
cannot be in function to the subjectivity of the teacher.
The identification for the student (relation or concept) must be always valid.
Stage of Concretization
It is the stage that the student applies what it has learned using examples based on its experience.
Starts with simple exercises and its difficulty increase progressively.
Stage of Abstraction
Stage in which the student applies the knowledge, that has already acquired, to any situation independent
from its experience, and is capable of identifying this knowledge into everything that surrounds it.
In this process, there must be considered different important points:
- The successful application of the four stages in the classroom.
- All the students who could pass to the stage of elaboration will come to the next stage.
- To avoid the textbook and to ensure itself a suitable material
- There cannot be seen the stages presented as four different steps, but as any ligature to the didactic Act.
Text 5
Theory
It is necessary to considerate the psychological and didactic theories in the teaching practices. In France, the
analysis of systems in pedagogical sequences, such as pedagogy of objectives, content organization and the
acquisition of linguistic and cultural knowledge are proposed. RELATION BWT A PERSON AND
ENVIROMENT
As for the teaching of Spanish as a foreign language, didactic actions have been created in order to seek the
structuring of linguistic contents.
For Gagn, before preparing the didactic action, it is necessary to study the DOMAIN, category or type of
learning (transposition of concepts and phonetic). From this, it develops the creation of didactic activities such
as internal (learning processes) and external events (pedagogic activities), those that belong to cognitive and
behavioral currents, that is why Gagn's theory is considered as eclectic.
The author recognizes 8 stages in the didactic sequence:

Motivation: to catch the attention of the student (EXPECTATION or reward)

Comprehension: relationship between stimulus-learning (attention/selective perception)

Acquisition: begins the real learning (storing and coding)

Retention: what is learned penetrates the MLP

Remembrance: what is learned is perceived as a scope (recovery)


Generalization: as soon as the information was recovered, should be used in different contexts
(transfer)

Action: reflex of what the person has learned

Reinforce: reinforcement (action-learning)

According to Gagn the stages of comprehension, acquisition, retention and remembrance are working in
cognitive psychological fields, and the other stages working into psychological behavioral fields. To be
able to structure our didactic actions, it is necessary to take these 8 stages into consideration. In teaching
of texts from Spanish to a foreign language, there is a transmission of concepts and oral practice. This
will identify intellectual and motor skills.