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NPTEL Online Certification Course

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee


Sub: Steam and Gas Power Systems
Instructor: Prof. Ravi Kumar

Assignment 4 Solutions

1. A steam nozzle covert


(a) heat energy of steam into kinetic energy
(b) potential energy of steam into kinetic energy
(c) kinetic energy of steam into mechanical energy
(d) heat energy of steam into mechanical energy

2. The smallest section in nozzle is known as


(a) convergent
(b) venture
(c) throat
(d) divergent

3. Which of the following is not true for steam nozzles?


(a) in convergent nozzle there is divergence after throat
(b) convergent-divergent nozzle has longer convergent part
(c) convergent-divergent nozzle can only impart subsonic velocity to steam
(d) all of the above

4. Which of the following is not true for steam flow through nozzle?
(a) the gain in kinetic energy of steam is only due to change in potential energy
(b) the steam loses its pressure and gains heat while passing through nozzle
(c) the work done is equal to the adiabatic heat drop
(d) the flow is assumed to be adiabatic

5. The critical pressure ratio for initially wet steam is


(a) 0.577
(b) 0.601
(c) 0.585
(d) 0.546

6. The maximum velocity of steam at throat is




(a) (( ) )
+
3
2n 2
(b) (( ) p1 v1)
n+1
1
2n 2
(c) (( ) p1 v1)
2n+1
3
2n 2
(d) (( ) p1 v1)
2n+1
Where, n=1.135 for saturated steam and 1.3 for superheated steam. p 1= initial pressure of
steam, v1=initial volume of 1 kg of steam at pressure p1.
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7. The flow through a nozzle is regarded as
(a) constant pressure flow
(b) isentropic flow
(c) constant volume
(d) isothermal flow

8. The steam leaves the nozzle at a


(a) high pressure and a low velocity
(b) high pressure and a high velocity
(c) low pressure and a high velocity
(d) low pressure and a low velocity

9. The critical pressure gives the velocity of steam at the throat


(a) equal to the velocity of sound
(b) less than the velocity of sound
(c) more than the velocity of sound
(d) none of these

10. The supersaturated flow of steam through a nozzle as compared to a stable flow, the
mass flow rate
(a) remains the same
(b) increases
(c) decreases
(d) is unpredictable

11. The difference of supersaturated temperature and saturation temperature at that


pressure is called
(a) degree of supersaturation
(b) degree of superheat
(c) degree of undercooling
(d) none of these

Linked questions 12-15


Air enters a nozzle at a pressure of 35 bar and temperature 500 oC. It leaves at a pressure of
7 bar. The rate of air through the nozzle is 1.3 kg/s, expansion may be considered to be
adiabatic and follow the pv = constant. Determine

Solution:

(1)To find the critical pressure


1
2 2
=( )
1 1

2 2 1
( )=( )
1 +1
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1.4
2 2 1.41
( )=( )
1 1.4 + 1
2
( ) = 0.528
1
P2 =350.528 = 18.48 bar

To find throat area


1
2 2
=( )
1 1
18.5 0.2857
T2 = 773.15( 35 )

T2= 644.39 K
Specific volume of air @ throat section
2 287644.39
2 = = = 0.09866 m3/kg
2 18.51.01325105
Velocity of air @ throat

C2= 2(1 2 )

C2= 2 (1 2 )

C2= 2 1005 (773.15 644.39)


C2 = 508.73 m/s
Area @ throat
2 2
= 1.3
2

0.098661.3
A2 = = 252.11 mm2
508.73
To find exit area
1
3 3
=( )
1 1

7 0.2857
T3 = 773.15( )
35

T3= 488.16 K
Specific volume of air @ throat section

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3 287488.16
3 = = = 0.1975 m3/kg
3 71.01325105

C3= 2(1 3 )

C3= 2 (1 3 )

C3= 2 1005 (773.15 488.16)


C3 = 756.855 m/s
Area @ throat
3 3
= 1.3
3
0.1975 1.3
A3= = 339.23 mm2
756.855
Mach no at exit
3 756.855
M= =
3 1.4287 488.16

M = 1.708

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