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Police Photography Definition of Terms

Actinic rays - light rays of short wavelengths occurring in the violet and ultraviolet
parts of the spectrum, which produce chemical changes, as in photography.

Angle of incidence - the angle of incidence as used here conforms to that used in
optics to describe reflection and refraction of light rays.The angle is measured with
respect to the normal to the surface, rather than to the surface itself. The normal is
an imaginary line perpendicular (90) to the plane of the surface. Thus, a straight-
on impact (along the normal) is said to have an angle of incidence of zero.

Aperture - Adjustable opening, also referred to as f-stop, that controls the amount
of light that is focused on the film.

Aperture preference - Term used to describe the automatic exposure system used
on some cameras, in which a specific aperture is selected but the shutter speed
adjusts automatically to expose the film to the correct amount of light.

Artificial light - Any light other than daylight.

Artificial light film - Color film balanced for use in tungsten artificial light, usually of
3200K. Packs are usually marked tungsten or Type B.

ASA - American Standard Association, formerly a standardized rating number for

film based on its sensitivity to light.

Auto iris - Automatically regulates the amount of light entering the camera.

Auto white balance - Electronically adjusts camera color levels.

Auto focus - Automatically sets the focus (distance) from scene to camera.

Automatic camera - A camera with a built-in exposure meter that automatically

adjusts the lens opening, shutter speed, or both for proper exposure.

Auxiliary lens - A lens element added to a regular lens to shorten or increase the
focal length.
Background - The part of the scene that appears behind the principal subject of the

Backlighting - Light shining on the subject from the direction opposite the camera;
distinguished from frontlighting and sidelighting.

Backscatter - The light reflected back to the camera in underwater photography

caused by flash reflection of particles suspended in the water.

Blur - Indistinct image caused by movement or inaccurate focusing.

Bounce lighting - A light source reflected off of another surface and then onto the
subject.Flash or tungsten light bounced off the ceiling or walls in order to give the
effect of natural or available light.

Bulb - A shutter speed setting used to hold the shutter open for extended periods
with the use of a shutter release cord or continuous pressure on the shutter release
Cable release - A flexible, enclosed wire used to release the shutter mechanism.

Camera - A photographic apparatus used to expose sensitized film or plates to

reflected light images formed by a lens. Also, an electronic device to change film or
live action into video signals.

Camera angle - The photographers point of view of a subject or scene as viewed

through the lens or viewfinder.

Cartridge - A lightproof container that is loaded with film in the dark and can be
handled and placed in the camera in the light.

Cassette - A film cartridge or magazine. A lightproof holder used in autoradiography

for exposing x-ray film to radioactive blots.

Circle of confusion - An optical term describing the size of an image point formed by
a lens.

Close-up - A photograph taken close to the subject or evidence, often requiring an

auxiliary lens. Macro and micro are degrees of close-up.

Color - The sensation produced in the eye by a particular wavelength or group of

wavelengths of visible light.

Color balance - The ability of a film to reproduce the colors of a scene. Color films
are balanced in manufacture for exposure to light of a certain color quality daylight,
tungsten, etc. Color balance also refers to the reproduction of colors in color prints,
which can be altered during the printing process.

Color balancing filter - Filters used to balance color film with the color temperature
of the light source and to prevent the formation of colorcasts. An 85B filter is used
with tungsten film in daylight, an 80A filter with daylight film in tungsten light.

Color compensating (CC) filters - Comparatively weak color filters used to correct for
small differences between the color temperature of the illumination and that for
which the film was manufactured.

Color conversion filters - Fairly strong color filters used for exposing film in light of a
type markedly different from that for which the film was made.

Color negative film - Film that records the colors of the subject in complementary
hues that are subsequently reversed again in the printing paper to give the correct
Color reversing film - Film that produces a direct positive by effectively reversing the
negative image during processing. Transparency (slide) film is of this type.

Contrast - The difference in intensities of light falling on various parts of a subject.

The density range of a negative, print, or slide; the brightness range of a subject or
the scene lighting.

Contrast filter - A colored filter used to make a colored subject stand out either
lighter or darker (for black-and-white film).

Correction filter - Filters used to alter colors to suit the color response of the film.

Coupled exposure meter - Exposure meter built into the camera and linked with the
aperture or shutter speed controls, or both.

Coupled rangefinder - A rangefinder connected to the focusing mechanism of the

lens, which is focused while measuring the distance to the subject or object.

Cropping - The elimination of part of an original image on a single negative during

printing either because of automation or enlargement.
Daylight color film - Color film designed to be used with daylight or a light source of
equivalent color temperature, including blue flashbulbs and electronic flash. The
film is balanced to 5400 EK.

Dense - Dark negative or positive film on paper that is overexposed, overdeveloped,

or both.

Depth of field - The zone between the foreground and background that appears in
sharpest focus for a particular lens, distance, and aperture.

Depth of field scale - Scale on a lens barrel showing the near and far limits of depth
of field possible when the lens is set at any particular focus and aperture.

Developer - A solution used to turn the latent image into a visible image on exposed
films or photographic papers.
Electronic flash - Lighting unit utilizing the flash of light produced by discharging a
current between two electrodes in a gas-filled tube.

Electronic viewfinder (EVF) - A small TV monitor attached to a video camera for

viewing of recorded images.

Emulsion - a suspension of a salt of silver in gelatin or collodion used to coat film.

Existing light - That light present at any one time in a given area no matter what the

Exposure index - Methods of rating film speed developed by the American

Standards Association (ASA), now known as the American National Standards
Institute, Inc. (ANSI).
Exposure setting - The lens opening and shutter speed selected to expose the film.

Extension tube - Increases the distance between the lens and the sensitive film in
the camera and changes the lens capability.

Eyepiece - The optic found on a camera, microscope, telescope, and so on, used to
look through the instrument.
Fade-in/Fade-out - Gradually changing video from dark to picture or picture to dark.

Fast film - Film that has an emulsion that is very sensitive to light. Such films have
high ASA ratings.

Fast lens - lens with a large aperture, requiring less light.

Field of vision - The area a person is able to see through the viewfinder, scope, or

Fill-in - Secondary illumination to keep shadow areas from photographing too dark;
also known as the fill light.

Film - A sheet or strip of celluloid coated with light-sensitive emulsion for exposure
in a camera.

Film plane - That portion of the camera body that holds the sensitized film in place
during the exposure process. It is also that position of the camera where the image
is focused.

Film speed - A means of representing numerically the response of a photographic

emulsion to light.

Finder - A viewer through which the picture to be taken may be seen and centered.

Fish-eye lens - Wide-angle lens with angle of view that may reach 180. Depth of
field is practically infinite.

Flash - A general term for any auxiliary, sudden, brilliant light. A unit holding
flashbulbs is referred to as a flash.

Flash sensor - Electronic unit actuated by light flash.

Flood - Light source providing a wide, diffused beam of light.

Fluorescence - Property possessed by various substances that glow when exposed

to light of a short wavelength. The phenomenon in which some substances absorb
light and re-emit part of it as light of a longer wavelength. Fluorescence ceases
when incident or exciting illumination ceases.

Focal length - The distance in millimeters (mm) from the center of the lens to the
point where the image comes into critical view.
Focal plane shutter - A shutter that operates immediately in front of the focal plane.
Usually contains a fixed or variable-sized slit in a curtain of cloth or metal that
travels across the film to make the exposure.

Focus - Point at which converging rays of light from a lens meet.

Focusing - The adjustment of the lens-to-film distance to produce a sharp image of

the subject.

Format - Size, shape, and general makeup of negatives, slides, photographic prints,
camera viewing areas, or video equipment.

Frame - An individual picture on a roll of film or one full onscreen image of displayed
computerized information.

Frame buffer - A separate area of memory where an image or frame is stored in a


Frame counter - A dial on the camera indicating the number of exposures or frames

f-stop (f-number) - Focal setting for the diaphragm controlling the size of the
aperture; the higher the f-stop, the smaller the aperture opening.

Fully automatic - Term indicates that camera aperture and speed settings can be
combined to give complete automatic exposure for a picture.
Gain select - Increase sensitivity to light. Used when sufficient illumination is not
available for video recording.

Gamma - A process that improves the video image by correcting for the lack of
picture clarity.

Glare - Intense light reflected off highly reflective surfaces such as water, glass, and
very light-toned objects.

Grain - Individual silver particles or groups of particles in the emulsion

which, when enlarged, become noticeable and sometimes objectionable.

Graininess - The grainy appearance of photographic enlargements. More prominent

on higher-speed film. The sand-like or granular appearance of a negative, print, or
slide resulting from the clumping of silver grains during development of the film.
Graininess becomes more pronounced with faster film, increased density in the
negative, and degree of enlargement.

Guide number - An indication of the power of a flash unit, enabling the correct
aperture to be selected at a given distance between flash and subject. The number
divided by the distance gives the f-stop that should be used. A film speed is
specified with the guide number and recalculation is needed for different speeds.
Haze filter - Lens filter that reduces the effect of atmospheric haze. Red reduces
most, green the least. A blue filter induces haze.
Illumination - A specific amount of light present in any given area. Expressed in lux
or foot-candles; the lower the lux of equipment, the less light required for a good

Image - The photographic representation of an object or scene formed by optical or

chemical action.

Image aspect ratio - Ratio of the width to the height of a displayed computer
generated image.

Image resolution - Number of pixels displayed per unit of printed length in an image,
usually measured in pixels per inch (ppi).

Infrared photography - Recording of images produced by infrared radiation.

Iris - The opening of a camera lens that controls the amount of light let in.
Lens cap - A cover used to protect a lens from dust and damage when not in use.

Lumen - Photometric unit equal to the luminous flux on 1 ft2 of

surface from a standard candle 1 ft away.

Luster - The gloss or shine possessed by a fiber, resulting from its reflection of light.
The luster of manufactured fibers is often modified by use of a delustering pigment.
Macro lens - Lens designed to work at close distance, permitting image

Macro photography - Photography usually involving close-up capabilities,whether

with lens or bellows, with a magnification from life size (110) up to 50 times (501).

Magenta - A reddish-blue (minus green) color.

Micro photography - The term used in Europe for the making of large photographs of
small objects, usually through a microscope. In the United Kingdom and the United
States this is called photomicrography, and microphotography is used to refer to the
technique of making microscopically small photographs by the process of optical

Monochrome - Single colored; for instance, black-and-white photographs and sepia-

or other-toned images in one color. Similar light rays of one color wavelength (i.e., a
single, pure color).

Motor drive- Device for advancing the film and retensioning the shutter by means of
an electric motor.

Multiple flash - The use of more than one flash unit, usually operating
Natural size - A photograph enlarged to the true size of the content.
Near point - The closet object to the camera in focus for a given distance.

Negative - Photographic image in which the amount of silver present is more or less
based on the reflectivity from the original object. Black is white, white is black. The
developed film that contains a reversed-tone image of the original scene.

Normal lens - A lens that makes the image in a photograph appear in a perspective
similar to that of the original scene.
Objective - The first lens, lens system, or mirror through which light passes or from
which it is reflected in an optical system.

Open flash - Method of using the flash in which the shutter is opened, the flash is
fired, and then the shutter is closed. It is used when the shutter speed is
unimportant because existing lighting is poor or nonexistent.

Open up - The term used in reference to changing to a larger aperture (f-stop)


Optical microscope - An instrument used to obtain an enlarged image of a small

object, utilizing visible light; in general, it consists of a light source, a condenser, an
objective lens, and an ocular or eyepiece that can be replaced by a recording
device. Also known as a light microscope.

Pan-and-tilt head - Tripod head with separate locks for horizontal (pan) and vertical
(tilt) movements of the camera.

Panning - The movement from left to right and right to left of the camera; normally
associated with movie and video cameras.

Parallax - Difference between the image seen in a viewfinder and that

recorded by the taking lens. Most pronounced at close distance with twin-lens reflex
and rangefinder cameras. Single-lens reflex and studio cameras are free from
parallax error.

Peak - The visual image representing an allele on an electropherogram.

Photo flash lamp - An electronic lamp working at higher than the normal
voltage,giving brighter light.

Photoelectric cell - Light-sensitive cell used in exposure meters and for remote
triggering of the shutter.

Photoflood - Photographic lamp designed to produce a high output of light during a

comparatively short life.

Photogrammetry - The process of surveying or mapping through analysis of

photographs. A scientific method used to determine from photographs the length of
skid marks, width of roadways, or any other types of measurements needed.
Photographic negative - A transparency produced when black-and-white film is
exposed in a camera and then developed. The term is derived from the appearance
of the transparency, in which white areas of the original appear the darkest or most
opaque, while the darkest portions of the original are almost clear. With color film
the lightdark reversal is coupled with a change of colors to the complements of
those in the original material.

Photographic positive - A print made by passing light through the negative generally
onto photographic paper. In this print the tonal values are directly proportional to
those of the original; i.e., light areas of the original appear light, and the dark areas
are dark.

Photography - To write or draw with light. Recording with light is closer to the
modern meaning of the word.

Photomicrographs - Photographs that are made through a compound microscope

and may be a greatly enlarged image of a small area. Similarly, enlarged
photographs, which may be prepared with only a lens of very short focal length, are
accurately termed photomacrographs. It is extremely difficult to distinguish
between photographs made by these two processes, and both are often incorrectly
referred to as a photomicrograph.

Projected prints - A print made by focusing light from the negative on the printing
paper by means of a lens system. These positives are generally enlargements.
Some workers refer to them as bromides because of the type of paper emulsion
originally used.
Quartz lens - A special lens used for ultraviolet photography.
Rangefinder - A viewer system found on cameras without a through-the-lens
viewing capacity (SLR cameras).

Record/review - Automatically rewinds and plays back the last few seconds of
videotape recording. Provides a smooth transition from one segment to another.

Reflection - The bouncing back of rays of light striking a surface.

Reflex camera - A camera in which the image can be seen right side up and full size
on the ground-glass focusing screen.

Refraction - The bending of a light ray when passing obliquely from one medium to
a medium of different density.

Refractive index (N) - The change in direction (apparent bending) of a light ray
passing from one medium to another of different density, as from air to water or
glass. The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of
refraction is the index of refraction of the second medium. Index of refraction of a
substance may also be expressed as the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to
its velocity in the substance.

Resolution - The capability of an optical device to separate into

two or more objects (or points) what to the unaided eye appears to be one object
(or point), thus yielding details not otherwise perceptible. Measurement in units per
inch of the amount of detail in an image file: dpi = dots per inch; ppi = pixels per
inch; lpi = liners per inch.

Reversal - A positive film such as slide film (either color or black-and-white).

Rogues gallery - A file of photographs of arrested individuals; usually includes

fullface and profile photographs (mug shots) along with detailed physical
description, age and place of birth, Social Security number, fingerprint classification,
nicknames and aliases, modus operandi, etc. (also called mug shot file).
Scale - The enlargement or reduction of an object or texture.

Schlieren optics - Imaging system in which the transparent or translucent object to

be examined is placed between two spherical mirrors. The illuminant is a point light
source placed at the focal point of one of the mirrors. Parallel light rays from the
mirror pass through the object to the second mirror, which projects the image onto
a screen. A knife edge is placed at the focal point of the second mirror to block
unrefracted light rays. Only light rays refracted by the object reach the
screen.Schlieren optics can produce images of thickness, density, and refractive
index differences.

Self-timer - A timing device permitting the photographer to delay shutter.

Shoot (shot) - A slang term for taking or having taken a photograph.


Shot sheet - A form for recording all pertinent photographic information on a

particular roll of film.

Shutter - Mechanical device that regulates the time light can act upon the film.

Shutter preference - An automatic exposure system in which shutter speed may be

selected and the aperture is adjusted automatically to give correct exposure.

Shutter speed - The action of the shutter that controls the duration of an
exposure.The faster the speed, the shorter the exposure.

Silhouette - A photograph that shows only the mass of a subject in black against a
white or colored background.

Single-lens reflex - Camera system utilizing a hinged mirror between the lens and
the film that swings out of the light path when the shutter is open, allowing the
taking and viewing functions of a lens to be combined.

Slide - A positive film mounted in a slide mount or a positive print on glass for
projection upon a screen.

Slide film - Direct reversal film; usually color film used in cameras for full-color
projection positives. Sometimes called color transparency film.
Slit-width - Size of the opening of the slit through which light emerges. Size depends
on wavelength range, separation ability of wavelength selector,and desired isolation
of specific wavelength.

Slow film - Film having an emulsion with low sensitivity to light. Typically such films
have an ASA rating of 32 or less.

Slow lens - A lens with a relatively small maximum apertura, such as f-8.

Snapshot - A casual picture taken by amateurs, usually with simple equipment.

Snow Print Wax - Registered name of an aerosol product used to assist in the
photography and casting of footwear impressions in snow.

Speed - The sensitivity of a photographic emulsion to light. ISO, ASA, or DIN

numbers indicate their relative speed characteristics. The higher the number, the
faster the film reacts to light.

Spotlight - Lamp unit with a reflector and lens that can either focus light into a
small, concentrated circle or give a wider beam.

Standard lens - Lens whose focal length is approximately equal to the diagonal of
the film format with which it is used. It is also referred to as the prime or normal

Static streak- Light streak that appears on photographic film, usually in cold
weather when film is advanced too quickly. Static streaks can be harmful to
development of clear photographic images.

Still - A photograph lacking motion; a single frame.

Stop - A lens aperture or diaphragm opening, such as f-4 and f-5.6.

Strobe - Electronic flash unit. An electrical power supply charges the gas-filled flash
tube emitting light between 1/1000 sec and 1/50,000 sec. A strobe can be manual
or manual and automatic.

Surveillance photography - A secretive, continuous, and sometimes periodic visual

documentation of activities involving persons, places, or objects of importance to an

Sync-cord - An electrical power cord used to connect the flash unit to a power

Synchroflash - A term applied to flash photography in which a flash bulb is ignited at

the same instant that the shutter is opened.
Time exposure - The camera shutter is opened and closed manually, not
Time-lapse - A timing device that can be set to take a photograph every few
seconds, minutes, hours, etc.

Transmission - The ratio of the light passed through an object to the light falling
upon it.

Transmitted light - Light that is passed through a transparent or translucent


Transparency - A positive photographic image on film, viewed or projected by

transmitted light (light shining through film).

Trash mark - Mark left on a finished copy during photocopying; results from
imperfections or dirt on the cover glass, cover sheet, drum, or camera lens of a
photocopy machine.

Tripod - A three-legged stand used to support a camera or lens and camera.

Tungsten light - Incandescent light, from a bulb having filaments usually of lower
wattage, 15 to 500 W.

Tungsten light film - Color film balanced to suit tungsten light sources, with a color
temperature of 3200K.

Twin-lens reflex (TLR) - Camera having two lenses of the same focal length; one is
used for viewing and focusing, the other for exposing the film. The lenses are
mounted above each other.
Ultraviolet filter - A filter that transmits ultraviolet light as used for photography by
the reflected ultraviolet light method.

Ultraviolet light - Light rays beyond the visible spectrum of light at its violet end
with wavelengths longer than x-rays, but shorter than visible light.

Ultraviolet photograph - Any photograph that records the document under

ultraviolet illumination. With some of these the ultraviolet radiation strikes the film,
but with others a filter is employed so that only the visual fluorescence caused by
the ultraviolet is recorded.

Underexposure - Results of insufficient light exposing the film. A condition in which

too little light reaches the film producing a thin negative, a dark slide, or a muddy-
looking print.

Unipod - A one legged support for a camera.

Videography - The recording of visual images electronically on magnetic
tape.Usually accompanied by a recorded soundtrack.

Viewfinder - A viewing instrument attached to a camera that is used to obtain

proper composition.
Washed out - A negative or print lacking detail and contrast.
White balance - A procedure used to tune a video cameras color by setting it to
perfectly reproduce a white object.
Zoom lens - A lens with the capacity to have varied focal lengths while maintaining
focus on a particular subject at a given distance.

Zooming - Moving a variable focus lens during an exposure.

Police Photography Review Notes

Important Personalities in Police Photography

*Joseph Nicephore Niepce - was able to obtain camera images on papers sensitized with silver chloride soluti
in 1816.He invented a photographic process which he called "heliography" meaning "writing of the sun"

*Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre - invented "Daguerreotype", an

early photograph produced on a silver or silver-covered copper plate.It formed an image directly on the silver
surface of a metal plate.It was a positive process,thus,it yielded one of a kind images.

*William Henry Fox Talbot - invented a process called calotype, a photographic process by which a large num
of prints could be produced from a paper negative.Calotype use paper with surface fibers impregnated with lig
sensitive compounds.

Calotype vs. Daguerre - fixation in calotype was only partial while

images in daguerreotype were made permanent with the use of
hypo (short for hyposulfite thiosulfate,sodium thiosulfate or a
solution of thiosulfate).
Sodium thiosulfate or hypo is a hygroscopic (readily taken up and
retaining moisture) crystalline salt used especially as a
photographic fixing agent and a reducing or bleaching agent.

*John Frederick William Herchel - coined the term photography and applied the terms negative and positive
photography.He made improvements in photographic processes, particularly in inventing the cyanotype proces
and variations (such as the chrysotype) the precursors of the modern blueprint process.He discovered sodium
thiosulfate to be a solvent of silver halides in 1819, and informed Talbot and Daguerre of his discovery that thi
"hyposulfite of soda" (hypo) could be used as a photographic fixer, to fix pictures and make them permanent af
experimentally applying it in 1839.

*Richard Leach Maddox - was an English photographer and physician who invented light weight gelatin neg
plates for photography in 1871.

*Frederick Scott Archer - invented the photographic collodion process which preceded the modern gelatin

Collodion - is a wound dressing material made of nitrated cotton

dissolved in ether and alcohol and other chemicals on sheet of

*George Eastman - founded the Eastman Kodak company and invented roll film, helping bring photography t
the mainstream.

Definition of Terms:

Photography - To write with light,from two Greek words, Phos - light and Graphia - write.

Police Photography - It is an art or science which deals with the study of the principles of photography, the
reproduction of photographic evidence, and its application to police work.

Forensic Photography - the art or science of photographically documenting a crime scene and evidence for
laboratory examination and analysis for purposes of court trial.

1.Take photographs of the following:

a.crime scene
f.apprehended persons
g.applicants for clearances
h.military and civilian personnel
i.unknown cadaver
j.applicant to possess firearm
k.other physical evidence
2.Conduct comparative examination and analysis of questioned
photographs or pictures to the known photographs.
3.Process color and black and white film, print, reduce and enlarge
4.Reproduce picture and other printed matters.
5.Compose portrait by means of portrait composition.
6.Provides photographic intrusion detection devices.
7.Maintain Rogues Gallery (a collection of pictures of persons arrested
as criminals)

Care and Handling of Camera

* Must be carried using a portable bag or built-in container to avoid

dust and dirt.
* Must be kept dry and avoided contact with water and other liquid
* Must be repaired only by qualified technician.
* Must not be cleaned by oil.
* Must not be fixed without proper equipment and tools to avoid
serious damage on it.

Basic Camera Parts and Functions

Camera is a light-tight box; with a lens to form an image with a shutter and diaphragm to control the entry of th
image; a means of holding a film to record the image/and a viewer or viewfinder to show the photographer wh
the image is.

Camera originated from the term camera obscura. Camera obscura (Latin veiled chamber ) is an opticaldevice
used, for example, in drawing or for entertainment. It is one of the inventions leading to photography.The princ
can be demonstrated with a box with a hole in one side (the box may be room-sized, or hangar sized). Light fro
scene passes through the hole and strikes a surface where it is reproduced, in color, andupside-down. The imag
perspective is accurate. The image can be projected onto paper, which when tracedcan produce a highly accura

1.Light Tight Box. This part of the camera is very essential because
of its capability to exclude all unwanted light that may expose the
sensitized materials or film. It is an enclosure that is devoid of light.
2.Lens. The lens is the only responsible in focusing the rays of light
coming from the subject. It is one of the most important parts of
camera because without lens, it is impossible to form a sharp image
of the film.
3.Film H older. The film holder holds the film firmly inside the camera. It
is always located at the opposite side of the lens of the camera.
4.Shutter. The shutter served as the barriers of the rays of light that
will enter and effect the film inside the camera. It is usually placed
at the path of the light passing thru the lens.

Other Parts of the Camera

1. Viewing system
2. Film advancer
3. Shutter speed
4. Lens aperture
5. Focusing mechanism

Major Types of Camera

1.View Finder Type - The smallest and simplest type of camera.This is
also known as instamatic camera.View finder camera suffers parallax
2.Single Lens Reflex Type - Cross section view of SLR system
1) Lens
2) Mirror
3) Shutter
4) Film or sensor
5) Focusing screen
6) Condensing lens
7) Pentaprism
8) Eye piece

The best way to determine the entire coverage of the camera is to look behind the lens of the camera.In this ma
the object can be framed properly and recorded on the film.This type of camera eliminates the problem of para

Twin Lens Reflex Camera - has two lens, one for viewing and focusing on the subject and for taking lens.In th
type of camera,the image to be photographed is seen as flat surface as the image is reflected by themirror behin
the viewing lens.This suffers parallax error.

Parallax - the difference between what the view finder on a point and shoot camera sees and what the lens sees
(and thus records on film).At close shooting distances,the difference can cause you to crop off the top of a subj

Parallax error - the image you see through the view finder is different from the image the lens will capture.


1.Lens plane
2.Front standard
3.Lens axis
5.Film holder/Ground glass
6.Rear standard
7.Film plane
VIEW OR PRESS TYPE CAMERA - The biggest and most sophisticated among the different type of came
This type of camera is practically useless for candid and action photography.

SPECIAL CAMERAS - These are cameras that have been devised that offer unique advantage or serve
special purposes. Among the special cameras are: a. polaroid, b. panoramic cameras, c. aerial cameras, d. minia
and ultra-miniature cameras e. digital cameras (using computer processing.

Control of Cameras
Knowing the controls on camera is necessary to produce a sharp and normal image and negatives
after photographing. There are threeimportant controls in a camera to be manipulated and adjusted to its
proper setting.

* Focusing control
* Diaphragm/Aperture control
* Shutter speed

Focusing Control
The camera lens bends light rays to form an image or likeness of the object. Adjusting the lens to form the clea
possible image is called focusing .Focusing is defined as the setting of the proper distance in order to form a s

Three Types of Focusing

1.Rangefinder Type (e.g. viewfinder, instamatic camera and 35mm
2.Ground Glass Type (e.g. twin-lens reflex camera and digital camera)
3.Scale Bed Type (e.g. press and view camera, and Polaroid Evidence

Rangefinder Type

The rangefinder type is classified into two:

1.Coincidence type - the object to be photographed looks double when
the focusing control is not in proper distance, and by moving this
control, one of the objects will move and coincide with the other object
to make as one and become accurate appearance of an object.
2.Split Type - Splits the objects to be photographed into two. While
moving the focusing control, the split image will move and unite to form
an undivided appearance and therefore the focus is accurate and

Ground Glass Type

Ground glass type focusing mechanism clearly indicates whether the object distance and the camera is out of fo
or not. If the object is not well focused, the object to be photographed will appear blurred. To make it clear and
accurate the focusing ring of the camera is adjusted on clockwise or counter clockwise to get the desired clearn
of the object.

Scale-Bed or Focusing Scale

In the scale or bed type focusing mechanism, the distance of the object to be photographed is calculated by me
of feet or meter. There are cameras where estimated distance from the camera to objects is being indicated in th
focusing ring.

Diaphragm Control (lens opening)

A device called a diaphragm usually serves as the aperture stop, and controls the aperture. The diaphragm func
much like the iris of the eyeit controls the effective diameter of the lens opening.Reducing the aperture size
increases the depth of field, which describes the extent to which subject matter lying closer than or farther from
actual plane of focus appears to be in focus.

Aperture and shutter speed are the fundamental controls available to the SLR user: Varying one or other of thes
opens up a myriad of creative possibilities. Both also control how much light reaches the film so if you make
hole through which the light passes into the camera (the aperture) smaller; you must keep this hole open for lon
(the shutter speed) to compensate.

Fortunately, on most cameras this adjustment is made automatically. The size of the aperture is measured using
f/numbers (or f/stops). Confusingly, as f/numbers represent fractions, the larger the f/number the smaller the
aperture. The widest aperture on a lens might be f/2, whilst the smallest aperture available may be f/22.

Shutter Speed - is a device that allows light to pass for a determined period of time, for the purpose of
exposing photographic film or a light-sensitive electronic sensor to light to capture a permanent image of a sce

Types of Shutter
1. Central shutters
2. Focal-plane

Central Shutters - are mounted within a lens assembly, or more rarely behind or even in front of a lens,and sh
off the beam of light where it is narrow. A leaf mechanism is usually used.
Focal Plane Shutter - In camera design, a focal-plane shutter is a type of photographic shutter that is positione
immediately in front of the focal plane of the camera, that is, right in front of the photographic film or image

Types of Shutters (as to mechanism)

1.Focal-plane shutters
2.Leaf shutters
3.Diaphragm shutters
4.Central shutters

Focal-Plane Shutters - Focal-plane shutters are usually implemented as a pair of cloth, metal, or plastic curtai
which shield the film from light.

Leaf Shutters - is a type of camera shutter consisting of a mechanism with one or more pivoting metal leaves
which normally does not allow light through the lens onto the film, but which when triggered opens the shutter
moving the leaves to uncover the lens for the required time to make an exposure, then shuts.

Diaphragm Shutters - is a type of leaf shutter consisting of a number of thin blades which briefly uncover the
camera aperture to make the exposure.

Central Shutters - is a camera shutter normally located within the lens assembly where a relatively smallopen
allows light to cover the entire image. The term is also used for shutters behind, but near to, the
lens.Interchangeable lens cameras with a central shutter within the lens body require that each lens has ashutter
built into it. In practice most cameras with interchangeable lenses use a single focal plane shutter in thecamera
body for all lenses, while cameras with a fixed lens use a central shutter.In photography, shutter speed is a com
term used to discuss exposure time, the effective length of time a shutter is open; the total exposure is proportio
to this exposure time, or duration of light reaching thefilm or image sensor.

There are many factors to be considered in using this control . Some of these factors are:
1.The light sensitivity of the film, which are determined through its ISO
2.The lighting condition
3.The motion of the subjects on different angles
4.The purpose of the photographs to be taken, etc.

The different shutter speeds are:

1, 2 or 1/2 sec, 4 or 1/4 sec, 8 or 1/8 sec, 15 or 1/15 sec, 30 or 1/30 sec, 60 o r 1/60 sec, 125 or 1/125 sec,250
1/250, 500 or 1/500 sec, 1000 or 1/1000, 2000 or 1/2000.

Camera shutters often include one or two other settings for making very long exposures:
B (for bulb ) - keep the shutter open as long as the shutter release is held.
T (for time ) - keep the shutter open until the shutter release is pressed again.

Avoiding Camera Shake

Unless you are using a tripod, the first thing you should ensure when choosing the shutter speed is that it is fas
enough to avoid camera shake. However tightly you hold your camera, it will always move slightly as you fire
you use too slow a shutter speed this will mean blurred pictures. The speed you use depends on the focal length
lens you are doing.

How to Hold Your Camera

To be able to use the slowest possible handheld speeds, you must hold the camera correctly to avoid as much
vibration as possible.

Low-level shooting - you don always want to take your pictures from
normal eye level. This kneeling position allows you to take shots at
waist level.

When to Use Slow Shutter Speeds

By using a tripod, or other camera support, photographers can use slower shutter speeds than usual.These allow
you to use apertures that would not otherwise be possible when using a handheld camera and to shoot in the lo
light. Slow shutter speeds can also be used for creative effect, as moving subjects will become artistically blurr

When to Use Fast Shutter Speeds

Moving subjects require you to consider using a faster shutter speed than that needed to avoid camera shake. S
blur may be welcome with action subjects, but often we want to freeze the action. Selecting the right shutter sp
depends not only on the velocity of the subject, but also on the direction in which it is traveling.

The Lens - A lens is an optical device with perfect or approximate axial symmetry which transmits and refract
light, converging or diverging the beam.

Types of Lenses
1. Biconvex
2. Biconcave
3. Plano-convex/plane-concave
4. Convex-concave or meniscus
5. Positive or converging lens
6. Negative or diverging lens

Biconvex - A lens is biconvex (or double convex , or just convex ) if both surfaces are convex.

Biconcave - A lens with two concave surfaces is biconcave (or just concave ).

Plano-convex or Plano-concave - If one of the surfaces is flat, the lens is plano-convex or plano-concave
depending on the curvature of the other surface.

Meniscus - A lens with one convex and one concave side is convex-concave or meniscus.It is this type of lens
is most commonly used in corrective lenses.

Positive or Converging Lens - If the lens is biconvex or plano-convex, a collimated or parallel beam of light
traveling parallel to the lens axis and passing through the lens will be converged (or focused ) to a spot on the
axis, at a certain distance behind the lens (known as the focal length ). In this case, the lens is called a positive
converging lens.This lens is always thicker at the center and thinner at the sides. Light passing through it is be
toward each other on the other side of the lens meeting at a point. It produces a real image on the opposite side
the lens or where light is coming from.

Negative or Diverging Lens - If the lens is biconcave or plano-concave, a collimated beam of light passing
through the lens is diverged(spread); the lens is thus called a negative or diverging lens. The beam after passin
through the lens appears to be emanating from a particular point on the axis in front of the lens; the distance fro
this point to the lens is also known as the focal length, although it is negative with respect to the focal length of
converging lens.This lens is always thinner at the center and thicker at the sides. Light passing through it is ben
away from each other as if coming from a point. It produces a virtual image on the same side of the lens or wh
light is coming from.

Inherent Lens Defects or Aberrations

1. Spherical Aberration
2. Coma
3. Curvature of Field
4. Distortion
5. Chromatic Aberration
6. Astigmatism
7. Chromatic Difference of Magnification

Spherical Aberration - When light passing through near the central part of a converging lens is bended more
sharply than those rays falling in the edge, thus the rays coming from the edges are focused on a plane nearer t
lens than those coming from the central part.

Coma - This is another form of spherical aberration but is concerned with the light rays entering the lens obliq
The defect is noticeable only on the outer edges and not on the central part of the lens. If a lens has coma, circu
objects reproduced at the corners of the negative are comet-like form. Just like the spherical aberration, it is
reduced by combinations of lenses of different curvatures.

Curvature of Field - This is a kind of defect where the image formed by a lens comes to a sharper focus in cu
surface than a flat surface. The correction of this defect is similar to spherical aberration and coma.

Distortion - A lens with distortion is incapable of rendering straight lines correctly; either horizontal or vertica
lines in an object. This is caused by the placement of the diaphragm. If the diaphragm is placed in front of the
lens,straight lines near the edges of the object tends to bulge outside. This is known as the barrel distortion.If th
diaphragm is placed behind the lens, straight lines near the edges tends to bend inward. This isknown as the
pincushion distortion. Distortion is remedied by placing the diaphragm in between the lens component and the
opposite distortions will neutralize each other.

Chromatic Aberration - This defect is the inability of the lens to bring photographic rays of different wavelen
to the same focus. Ultraviolet rays are bent the most while infrared rays are bent to the least when they pass
through the lens. This defect is reduced by utilizing compound lenses made up of single lens made up of glass
different curvatures.

Astigmatism - This defect is present when the size of image produced by photographic rays of one wavelength
different from the size produced by another. Size of the image increases as the wavelength of the rays decrease
color photography it produces a rainbow colored fringes around the edges of objects while in black and
white photography, it appears as a slight blue.

Types of Lenses (as to degree of correction to lens aberration)

1.Achromatic lens - corrected for chromatic aberration.
2.Rapid-rectilinear lens - corrected for distortion.
3.Anastigmatic lens - corrected for astigmatism as well as the other lens
4.Apochromatic lens - also corrected for astigmatism but with higher
degree of correction to color.

Focal length - is the distance measured from the optical center of the lens to the film plane when the lens is se
focused at infinity position or far distance.Focal length is a measure of the light-bending power of a lens. It is
invariably measured in millimeters(mm). The longer the focal length of a lens , the narrower the angle of view
and the larger objects appear in theviewfinder without the need to move any closer to them.

Focal Distance - is the distance from the optical center of the lens to the film plane.

Telephotos - are long focal length lenses.

Telephotos are lenses with focal lengths greater than 50mm. They range from 70mm short telephotos to "long
toms" with focal lengths of 1000mm or more.

Wide angles - are short focal lengths.

A lens with a focal length of 50mm is known as a standard lens the view that it gives is similar to that of the
human eye . Any lens with a shorter focal length, and wider angle of view, is known as wide-angle.

How Focal Length Affects Image Size - Lenses work on the principle that light affecting from a subject can b
bent using the refractive properties of glass to form a miniature image of the subject. Lenses with short focal
lengths, such as the wide-angle lens, produce a small image. Telephoto lenses, with longer focal lengths, produ
larger image, when taken from the same distance.

Zoom Lens - It is a kind of lens with variable focal length.

Does Focal Length Affect Depth of Field?

Aperture is not the only factor that affects how much of a scene is in focus. You should also take into account t
focal length of the lens being used and the distance that the lens is focused at (generally the distance from the
camera to your subject). The longer the focal length, the more restricted depth of field becomes.So, all things b
equal, a wide-angle lens keeps more of the scene in focus than a telephoto one. In addition, depth of field beco
increasingly more limited the closer you are to the subject that your lens is focused on.

Factors Affecting Depth of Field

1.Aperture - The larger the aperture the less depth of field. For
maximum depth of field, use the smallest aperture.
2.Focused Distance - The closer the subject you focus on, the less depth
of field. Depth of field is greater with distance subjects.
3.Focal Length - The longer the lens you use, the less depth of field you
will have. Wide-angle lenses give the greatest depth of field.

Films and Papers

A.Black and White Films

1.Emulsion - a suspension of a sensitive silver salt or a mixture of silver

halides in a viscous medium (as a gelatin solution) forming a coating on
photographic plates, film, or paper.
2.Gray or Anti-Halation Backing - a layer found in modern
photographic films. It is placed between the light-sensitive emulsion
and the tough film base, or sometimes on the back of the film base.
The light that passes through the emulsion and the base is absorbed
by the opaque anti-halation layer.This keeps that light from reflecting
off the pressure plate or anything else behind the film and re-exposing
the emulsion, reducing contrast. The anti-halation layer is rendered
transparent or washed from the film (as in K-14 films) during processing
of the film.
3.Film Base- A film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a
support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it.
Despite the numerous layers and coatings associated with the emulsion
layer, the base generally accounts for the vast majority of the
thickness of any given film stock.

Historically there have been three major types of film base in use: cellulose nitrate,cellulose acetate (cellulose
diacetate, cellulose acetate propionate, cellulose acetate butyrate, andcellulose triacetate), and polyethylene
trephthalate polyester (Kodak trade-name: ESTAR).

Characteristics of B & W Films:

1.Emulsion Speed
2.Spectral Sensitivity
3.Granularity or Graininess

Emulsion Speed
a.ASA (American Standards Association) rating. This is expressed in
arithmetical value.
b.DIN (Deutsche Industrie Normen) rating, which is expressed in
logarithmic value.
c.ISO (International Standards Organization) rating. This is expressed in
the combined arithmetical and logarithmic values.

Spectral Sensitivity
a.Blue sensitive film sensitive to UV rays and blue color only
b.Orthochromatic film sensitive to UV rays, to blue and green color.
It is not sensitive to red color.
c.Panchromatic film sensitive to UV radiation to blue, green, and red
light or all colors.
d.Infra-red film sensitive to UV rays, to blue, green, red light and
infrared rays.

Granularity or Graininess
This refers to the size of the metallic silver grains that are formed after development of an exposed film.Genera
the size of metallic silver grains are dependent on the emulsion speed of the film and the type of developing
solution that is used in processing.

Rules to remember:
1.The lower the emulsion speed rating of the film, the finer is the grain.
2.The higher the emulsion speed rating of the film, the bigger are the
3.A film developer will produce a finer grain that a paper developer when
used for film processing.

B.Color Films
A color film is a multi-layer emulsion coated on the same support or base.

Main types of color film in current use

1.Color negative film forms a negative (color-reversed) image when
exposed, which is permanently fixedduring developing. This is then
exposed onto photographic paper to form a positive image.
2.Color reversal film, also known as slide film, forms a negative image
when exposed, which is reversed to a positive image during
developing. The film can then be projected onto a screen. Ex:

C.Photographic Papers (Black & White)

Photographic paper is exposed to light in a controlled manner, either by placing a negative in contact with the
paper directly to produce a contact print, by using an enlarger in order to create a latent image, by exposing in
some types of camera to produce a photographic negative, or by placing objects upon it to produce photograms
Photographic papers are subsequently developed using the gelatin-silver process to create a visible image.

Characteristics of a Photographic Paper

1.Chloride paper - has a slow speed and is suited for contact printing.
2.Bromide paper - has a fast speed and is recommended for projection
printing or enlarging.
3.Chloro-bromide paper - is a multi-speed and could be used in both
contact printing and enlarging.

Exposure and development latitude

Latitude is the degree or amount of which you can deviate from the ideal exposure or development without
appreciable loss of print quality.

1.Exposure latitude Generally, photographic papers do not have a wide

exposure latitude so exposure must be critical at all times.
2. Development latitude Papers that do not change appreciable in
contrast and image tone with reasonable variations in development
has a good latitude. However, for best quality the developing time
should be as near as those prescribed by the manufacturer.

Contrast Range or Grade

In most photographic papers, the contrast range or grade are indicated by numbers - # 0 to 5
1.#0 and 1 are used on over-exposed or low contrast negative
2.#2 are used on normal exposed or normal contrast negative
3.#3 to 5 used in under-exposed or high contrast negatives

Which Film to Use

Film is available in variety of 'speeds'. The faster the film the more sensitive it is to light, and the shorter the
exposure needed. Fast film produces a grainier image.Film speed is measured on the ISO scale. A film rated as
100 is four times slower than an ISO 400film, and needs four times more light for the same shot.

In photography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted in the optical pa
The filter can be a square or rectangle shape mounted in a holder accessory, or, more commonly, a glass or plas
disk with a metal or plastic ring frame, which can be screwed in front of the lens.

Types of Filters
a.Light Balancing Filter
b.Color Compensating Filter
c.Neutral Density Filter
d.Polarizing Filter

Light Balance Filter - A filter used to change the color quality of the exposing light in order to secure proper c
balance for artificial light films.

Color Compensating Filter - This is used to change the over-all color balance of photographic result obtained
with color films and to compensate for deficiencies in the quality of exposing energy.

Neutral Density Filter - This filter is used when the light is too bright to allow the use of desired f-number or
shutter speed with a particular film.

Polarizing Filter - It is used to reduce or minimize reflections on subjects like water glass, and highly polished

Exposure - is simply a combination of the aperture and shutter speed. Thus, it is defined as the product of the t
light intensity and the length of time it strikes the emulsion.
Exposure is subjective and errors in calculation will result to overexposure or underexposure.

Proper exposure is dependent on:

a. Film speed
b. Lighting condition
c.Type of subject

Light: Its Characteristics and Sources

Light is a form of energy, and to understand light we begin with the electromagnetic spectrum which is basical
grouping of all electromagnetic radiation arranged according to the amount of energy contained in the
radiation.Visible light is a part of this electromagnetic spectrum that creates the sensation of light when it falls
the human eye.The properties of all electromagnetic radiation can be described by three inter-related terms. Th
are wavelength, frequency and energy. Since light is a part of this spectrum, it too can be described by these ter
Hence, it is important to understand these terms as a first step towards understanding light.

Simplistically, we can think of light traveling as a wave. A typical wave form (e.g., ripples on the surface of wa
has crests (or peaks) and troughs (or valleys). The distance between two consecutive peaks (or troughs) is calle
the wavelength, and is denoted by the Greek letter (lambda).The wavelengths of visible light are measured in
nanometers (nm) where 1 nm = 1 billionth of a meter (10-9 meters). The wavelength of visible light is between
400-700nm. The combined effect of the complete range of radiation between 400-700nm appears as white ligh
the human eye.

Rainbow Colors:
* Violet - 400 to 440nm
* Blue - 440 to 490nm
* Green - 490 to 540nm
* Yellow - 540 to 590nm
* Orange - 600 to 650nm
* Red - 650 to 700nm

4 Photographic Rays of Modern Photography

1.X-Rays - 1 to 30 nm
2.UV Rays - 30 to 400 nm
3.Visible Light - 400 to 700 nm
4.Infrared Rays - 700 to 100 nm

Primary Colors of Light


Secondary Colors of Light


White - is the presence of all color.

Black - is the absence of all colors or the absence of light.

Primary Colors of Coloring Matters


Bending of Light - When traveling in open space, light travels in a straight line (186,000 miles/second). Howe
when light comes in contact with an object, it may be bended in the following manner:
* Reflection
face, it bounces off in all directions due to the
microscopic irregularities of the interface.
* Refraction - It is the change in direction of a wave
due to a change in its speed. This is most commonly observed when
a wave passes from one medium to another.
* Diffraction - It is described as the apparent bending of waves
around small obstacles and the spreading out of waves past small
openings.It is also described as the bending of light when it hits a
sharp edge of an opaque object.
Examples of Diffraction
1.The closely spaced tracks on a CD or DVD act as a diffraction
grating to form the familiar rainbow pattern we see when
looking at a disk;
2.The hologram (a picture that changes when looked at from
different angles) on a credit card.

Kinds of Objects
1.Transparent objects - allows sufficient visible light to pass through
them that the object on the other side may be clearly seen.
2.Translucent objects - allows light to pass, however diffuse it
sufficiently that objects on the other side may not be clearly
distinguished. In some cases the objects on the other side may be
recognizable but sharp detail and outlines are obscured.
3.Opaque objects - so greatly diffuse the light that recognizing the
object on the other side is very difficult if not impossible.

Sources of Light
1.Natural Light Source
2.Artificial Light Source

Natural Light Source (Sunlight)

1.Bright sunlight - a lighting condition where objects in open space cast
a deep and uniform or distinct shadow.
2.Hazy Sunlight - objects in open space cast a transparent shadow.
3.Dull Sunlight - objects in open space cast no shadow
1.Cloudy bright - objects in open space cast no shadow but objects at
far distance are clearly visible.
2.Cloudy dull - objects in open space cast not shadow and visibility of
distant objects are already limited.

Artificial Light Source - Light sources of this category are man-made and is divided into the continuous radia
and the short duration.

Forensic Light Sources

1.UV Lamp
2.LASER - Light Amplification through Simulated Emission of Radiation.
3.Alternative Light Sources
4.Forensic Light Sources


Chemical Processing
1.Black & White Processing - development, stop-bath, and fixation.
2.Color Processing - development, stop-fix, and stabilizer

Development - It is the conversion of latent image in an emulsion into visible image.

1.B & W Emulsion - reducing exposed silver halide crystals (black silver)
into metallic silver. (Same reaction is found in photographic papers.)
2.Color Emulsion - Developed silver is replaced with cyan, yellow, and
magenta dye.

Stop-Bath - The purpose of the stop bath is to halt the development of the film, plate, or paper by either washi
off the developing chemical or neutralizing it.

Fixation - The fixer removes the unexposed silver halide remaining on the Photographic film or
photographic paper, leaving behind the reduced metallic silver that forms the image, making it insensitive to
further action by light. Without fixing, the remaining silver halide would quickly darken and cause severe fogg
of the image.The most common salts used are sodium thiosulfate - commonly called hypo - and ammonium
thiosulfate, commonly used in modern rapid fixer formula.

Film Processing - It can be carried out in trays, tanks, or mechanized equipment.

Panchromatic materials - handled in total darkness.
Blue films, orthochromatic films and printing papers - handled under a safe light.

Equipment for Film Processing

1.Tank or tray
2.Developing reel
3.Opener for film cartridge (pliers)
4.Scissors to cut the tongue of the film
8.Photographic sponge
9.Film clips for drying or plastic bottles (gallon size) for storing mixed solutions

Developer Formulation
Typical component:
1.Solvent (water)
2.Developing agent
4.Accelerator or activator

D-76 Film Developer Formula

1.Water 520 C - 750 ml
2.Elon - 2 gm
3.Hydroquinone - 5 gm
4.Sodium Sulfite - 100 gm
5.Borax (granules) - 2 gm
6.Water to make - 1 li

Dektol - Paper Developer

1.Water 520C or 125 0F - 500 m l
2.Elon - 311 gm
3.Hydroquinone - 12 gm
4.Sodium Sulfite - 4.5 gm
5.Sodium carbonate - 67.5 gm
6.Potassium bromide - 1gm
7. Water to make - - 1 li

Stop-Bath - Stop-bath can be plain water only with 28% glacial acetic acid.

Fixing Bath Formula

2.Dissolving agent

Typical Fixing Formula:

1.Water 520C or 125 0F - 600 ml
2.Hypo - 240 gm
3.Sodium sulfite - 15 gm(anhydrous)
4.Acetic Acid (28%) - 480 ml
5.Boric Acid (crystals) - 7.5 gm
6.Potassium alum - 15 gm(fine granular
7 Water to make - 1 li

Photographic Painting
1.Contact Printing - It is a procedure of exposing photographic print
materials while it is pressed in contact with the negative being
2.Projection Printing or Enlarging - It is a type of printing where the
image in a negative is optically projected or enlarged onto a print
material for exposure to produce a picture image. The main equipment
is Enlarger, the so-called camera in reverse.

Equipment for Paper Developing

1.Three plastic trays - one each for the developer, stop-bath, and the
fixer. (The size of the tray is determined by the largest prints size).
2.Metal, plastic, or bamboo tong preferably with rubber ends to hold the
3.Rubber (surgical) hand gloves.
5.Paper cutter
6.A bigger tray or tank for washing prints.


General Application
1.Identification purposes
2.Recording and preserving of evidences
3.Discovering and proving of evidences not readily seen by the naked
4.Recording action of offenders
5.For court exhibits
6.For crime prevention
7.Public information
8.Police training

Specific Applications
1.Identification Photographs
2.Crime-Scene Photography