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# Course Number:

INDU-6331

Course Title:

Winter 2017

Assignment # 4
Q1: Discuss the relationship between acontrol chart and statistical hypothesis testing
Ans:

The control chart is mathematically equivalent to a series of statistical hypothesis tests. So there is a
close connection between control charts and hypothesis testing. To illustrate this connection, suppose
that the vertical axis in Fig. 1 is the sample average. Now, if the current value of plots between the
control limits, we conclude that the process mean is in control; that is, it is equal to some value m0. On
the other hand, if exceeds either control limit, we conclude that the process mean is out of control; that
is, it is equal to some value . In a sense, then, the control chart is a test of the hypothesis that the
process is in a state of statistical control. A point plotting within the control limits is equivalent to failing
to reject the hypothesis of statistical control, and a point plotting outside the control limits is equivalent
to rejecting the hypothesis of statistical control [1].

## Figure 1 A typical control chart

The hypothesis testing framework is useful in many ways, but there are some differences
in viewpoint between control charts and hypothesis tests. For example, when testing statistical
hypotheses, we usually check the validity of assumptions, whereas control charts are used to
detect departures from an assumed state of statistical control. In general, when we are applying control
charts to a process to reduce variability and achieve statistical control, no need to give much attention
about assumptions such as the form of the distribution or independence. Moreover, an assignable cause
can result in different types of shifts in the process parameters. Such as, the mean could shift to a new
value and remain there, or it could shift suddenly; but the assignable cause could be short-lived and the
mean could return to its nominal or in-control value, or may be the assignable cause could result in a
steady drift or trend in the value of the mean [1]. Only the sustained shift fits nicely within the usual
statistical hypothesis testing model.
One place where the hypothesis testing framework is useful is in analyzing the performance of a control
chart, specifically when we think about the probability of type I & type II errors of the control chart, it is
useful to use the operating-characteristic curve of a control chart to display its probability of type II
error. This would be an indication of the ability of the control chart to detect process shifts of different
magnitudes, and that would be an important factor when deciding which type of control chart to apply
in certain situations.

## Page 2 of 10 INDU 6331

Q2: What is meant by the statement that a process is in a state of statistical control?
Ans:
A process is in a state of statistical control means that the special causes of the variation have been
removed while only the common causes of variation remain and the characteristic parameters such as
[the mean, standard deviation and probability distribution are constant ] so the process behavior is
predictable.

Q3: If a process is in a state of statistical control, does it necessarily follow that all or nearly all of the
units of product produced will be within the specification limits?
Ans:
No. Basically when a process operates in a state of statistical control does not mean that nearly all
product meets specifications. It simply means [ as in Q2-Ans] that process behavior (mean and
variation) is statistically predictable. While Capability is the term, which refers to the ability to meet
product specifications, and to calculate the capability, the process must be in control.

Q4: Consider the control chart shown here. Does the pattern appear random?

Ans:
The pattern does not appear random, because there is evidence which might be part of a cycle, which is
a "low - high - low - high" pattern for Samples 13 17.

Q5: Consider the control chart shown here. Does the pattern appear random?

Ans:
The pattern does not appear random, because there is an evidence of cycle, which is a "low - high - low
- high - low wave for all samples.

Q6: Ans:

(a) (2)
(b) (4)
(c) (5)
(d) (1)
(e) (3)

Q7: Ans:

## a) By using Mainitab: Stat-Control charts-Variables charts for subgroups-Xbar-R

Based on the chart the process is in statistical control with no out-of-control signals, runs, trends or
cycles.

## Page 4 of 10 INDU 6331

b) Since : n=4, = 10.32, = 6.25 Then we can find: =
2
d2 = 2.059 X = 6.252.059 = 3.035
And since the actual specifications are 350 5V with = ( 350) x 10

## Then USLT = +50, LSLT =-50

+()
= = (.)
= . As a result the process is Capable, since its > 1.

## By using Minitab : Stat-Qulity tools-Capability analysis-Normal

c) We can use the Normality test to show that but In order to do a normality test, all data must
be in one column, and that can be achieved by:
Minitab: Data-Stack-Rows.

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Now, by using Minitab: Stat- Basic Statistics- Normality Test we get:

So, The Normality Test shows the distribution is very close to normal

Q8: Ans:

## Page 6 of 10 INDU 6331

The process is in statistical control with no out-of-control signals, runs, trends, or cycles

## Then we can find: =

b) Since : n=5, = 63.5
2
= 63.52.326 = .
d2 = 2.326

## c) USL=+100, LSL= -100

+()
= = (.)
= . , As a result the process is Capable since its > 1.

## Page 7 of 10 INDU 6331

Q9: Ans:

a) The process fails the x-bar and R chart, so the process is out of control.

If we find out what are the assignable causes for the points 15 and 22 which are out of control, and
remove them then the process will be as in the following figure:

## Page 8 of 10 INDU 6331

It can be clearly seen that the process still out of Control on the
chart because of the sample 14.

Now If we find out what are the assignable causes for the samples 14,15 and 22 which are out of
control, and remove all of them then the process will be in control, as in the following figure:

## Page 9 of 10 INDU 6331

b) Since : n=3, = 0.000823 Then we can find: =
2
d2 = 1.693 = 0.0008231.693 = .

## c) The Natural tolerance limits which are:

= . (. ) = [. , . ]

d) If we assume that the printed circuit board thickness is normally distributed and after removing
the samples 14, 15, and 22 then :

+. (. )
= = = .
(. )

## By using Minitab : Stat-Qulity tools-Capability analysis-Normal

Refrences:

[1] D. C. Montgomery, Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, 2008, Wiley, ISBN: 978-
0470169926.