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PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860

Q1
a)

n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Detect 1 39 127 255 374 467 498 459 382 239 131 28
ions
P(x)dx 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
03 13 42 85 25 56 66 53 27 80 44 09

b)
For the mean, we can calculate:
11
x = ni P ( x i ) dx
i=0

Giving a result of
x =5.97 nm

For standard deviation:


x )2
( Std . Dev ) = (n

So that:
11
(Std . Dev) = (ni x ) P ( x i ) dx
2 2

i=0

Giving the result

( Std . Dev ) =2.178 nm


PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860

Histogram of n against dN(x)


Normal
600 Mean 5.972
StDev 2.178
N 3000
500

400
Frequency

300

200

100

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
n

This histogram (produced in Minitab) plots number of detections against position, and shows the
statistics calculated above.

Q1
c)
In this case, dx can be set to 1, so the quantity dN(x)/N is equal to dN(x)/Ndx.

Histogram of dN(x)/ Ndx against x


0.18

0.16

0.14

0.12
dN(x)/Ndx

0.10

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
x

Histogram produced using Minitab


PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860
Q1
d)
For the wave function:

( x )=
2
L
x
sin ( )
L

The probability distribution is:


2 2 x
| ( x )| = sin 2 ( )
L L

The plot below (made using Wolfram Alpha) shows this function for L=12 and 0<x<12

This histogram is the plot from part c) with the function plotted onto it.

Histogram of dN(x)/ Ndx against x


Normal
0.20 Mean 5.972
StDev 2.178
N 3000

0.15
dN(x)/ Ndx

0.10

0.05

0.00
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
x
PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860

Q1
e)
L
2 x
L 0 ( )
x = x sin2
L
dx

L
1 2 x
x (1cos
L0 ( )
L
)dx

L L
1 1 2 x

L0
xdx (1cos
L0 L( )
)dx

L
L 1 2 x
(1cos
2 L0 L
)dx ( )
Integrate by parts for the remaining integrand:
2 x
1cos ( )dx
L



xLsin ( 2 Lx ) + L cos ( 2 Lx )
2

2 4
2

Evaluating from 0 to L:
L

(1cos ( 2 Lx )) dx=0
0

L
x = =6 nm
2

This suggests that the 5.97nm estimate from part b) was a fairly good estimate.
PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860
Q1
e) Continued

x= x x
2 2

2
x2 = x 2 x

2
L
x2
4

Need to find x2 :

L
x = 2 x 2 sin 2 x dx
2
( )
L0 L

( 2Lx )
1cos dx

x2
L
1

L0

L
L2 1 2 x
x 2 cos
3 L0 L
dx ( )
Integrate by parts for the remaining integrand:

x 2 cos ( 2 Lx ) dx=
x 2 Lsin ( 2Lx ) xLsin ( 2Lx ) dx
2

Integrate by parts again:


2
x Lsin ( 2Lx ) + x L cos ( 2 Lx ) + L cos( 2Lx ) dx
2 2

2 2 2 2 2


2
x Lsin ( 2Lx ) + x L cos ( 2 Lx ) + L sin ( 2 Lx )
2 3

2 2
2
4
3

Evaluating from 0 to L:
L 3
x 2 cos ( 2 Lx ) dx= 2L 2
0
PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860
2 2
L L
x =
2
2
3 2

2 L2 L2 L2
x = 2 =4.7
3 2 4

x=2.17

This is very close to the estimate of 2.178 from part b).


PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860
Q2
a)
2
If P =0 then ( P ) = P
2

2 2
P implies P
( )
2 x 4 x2

2
P
2
>
4 x 2 x2
2

For kinetic energy:

P2
K=
2m

2

From above: P 4 x 2
2

P2
2
K=
2 m 8 m x2

2
K
8 m x 2
PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860
Q2
b)
i)
Note:

d2 d2
2
= 2 2 k 3 /2 x ekx =2 k 5 /2 ekx (kx2)
dx dx

kx
As all terms have an e term in them, it shall be cancelled immediately.

Substituting:

2 5 /2 (
k kx2 )2 q2 k 3 /2=2 E k 3 /2
m

Expanding:

2 7 /2 2 2 5 /2
k x+ k 2 q2 k 3 /2=2 E k 3 / 2 x
m m

Cancelling:

2 2 2
k x + k q2=Ex
2m m

Substituting:

m 2 q 4 2 2
2
x + q q =Ex
2

Cancelling:
2 4
m q
E= 2
2
PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860
Q2
b)
ii)

2
x = x | ( x , t )|


2
x = x ( 2 k 3 /2 x ekx )
0

The new boundaries are 0 and because the function vanishes below 0.

2 kx 3 3 2 2
kx 2 e (4 k x +6 k x +6 kx +3)
x(2k 3/ 2
xe )=
2k

Evaluating this at infinity, e2 kx goes to zero, sending the whole function to zero.

Evaluating at zero, e2 kx goes to 1, and all x terms inside the brackets go to zero.

3
This leaves 2k

3
x =
2k

iii)
The probability distribution is:
2
| ( x , t )|

When k=1, this becomes:


2
( 2 x ex )

x 2
Plot of ( 2 x e )
PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860

Plot made with Wolfram Alpha

Q2
b)
iv)
The uncertainty in the particles position is:
2
x 2= x 2 x

3
x = , we need x
2
We have 2k


x2 = x2| ( x , t )|2

3 2
2 2
x = x 2 k x e ( 2 kx
)=3
0 k2

So:
2
3 3
x 2=
k 2 ( )

2k

3 9 3
x2 = 2
2= 2
k 4k 4 k

x=
3
2k
PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860

Plot from Wolfram Alpha, x drawn on in MSPaint


PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860
Q2
b)
v)
From part a):

2
K
8 m x2

Substitute in x, then k:

2 k 2 q 2
K =
6m 6

vi)
2
q
V=
x

2
V = q ( 2 k 3/ 2 x ekx )
2

0 x

m 2 q 4
2
k q =

vii)
E=V + K

m 2 q4 m 2 q4
= 2
+K
2

m 2 q 4 m 2 q4 m 2 q 4
K= 2
=
2 2

Comparing to v):

m 2 q 4 q 2
K=
2 6
PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860
Q3
a)
Subsitute (x,t) into the left and right hand sides of the Schrodinger equation separately, and
check for equality.
RHS:

( ))
i E1 t i E 2t
(
2
2 ( x ,t ) 2 2 1
= ( x) e + 2 ( x ) e
2m x2 2 m x 2 2 1

Note that:

n ( x) =
2
L
sin
nx
L( )
, En =
2 n2 2
2mL
2

Substitute in and expand:


i E1 t i E2 t
2 2 1
2 m x 2 2( ( 2
L
sin
x
L ( )
e
+
2
L
sin
2 x
L
e ( )
))
i E1 t i E2 t


2 1
2 m 2 (2 2
L x 2
sin
x
L
e ( ) 2
+ 2 sin
x
2 x
L
e ( )
)
i E1 t i E2 t


2 1
2 m 2 (
2 2
L L 2
sin
x
L
e ( )

4 2
L 2
sin
2 x
L
e( )
)
i E1 t i E 2 t

( ( )
1 2 2 2
2
2 2m L L
sin
x
L
e
+
2 4 2 2
2m L L2
sin
L
2 x
e ( )
)
i E1 t i E2 t


1
2
(
E1 1 (x)e
+ E2 2 ( x) e
)
LHS:
i E1 t i E2 t

i
( x , t ) i
t
=
2 t
(
1( x ) e
+ 2 ( x ) e
)
i E t i E t

(
i i E 1 i E2
)
1 2

(x ) e 2 (x ) e
2 1

i E1 t i E2 t


1
2
(
E1 1 ( x ) e
+ E2 2 ( x ) e
)
PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860
i E1 t i E 2t

So LHS and RHS are equal and ( x , t )=


1
2
(
1 (x ) e
+ 2 ( x ) e
) is a solution to the

equation.
PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860
Q3
b)
2

| ( )|
i E1 t i E2 t

P (x , t)=
1
2
2
L
sin
x
( )
L
e
+
2
L
sin
2 x
( )
L
e

|( ( )|
i E1 t i E2 t
1 x 2 x

L
sin
L
e )
+sin
L ( )
e

Note:
2
|z| =z z

So:
i E1 t i E2 t i E1 t i E 2t
1
L
sin( ( )
x
L
e
+sin
2 x
( )L
e
)( ( )
sin
x
L
e
+sin
2 x
( )
L
e
)
E
( 2E1) 2 x
it

+sin 2
L ( )
i t( E2E1 )
x x 2 x 2 x x
sin2
L ( ) ( ) ( )
+ sin
L
sin
L
e
+ sin (
L ) sin ( ) e
L

1

L

Note:

Z + Z =2 Re(Z)

So:

E
( 2E1)
it

it( E2E1 )

e + e

2 x x 2 x 2 2 x
sin ( )L
+2 sin
L ( ) ( )
sin
L
( +sin
L ( ) )

1

L


1
L( ( ) ( ) ( ) (
sin 2
x
L
+ 2sin
x
L
sin
2 x
L
cos
t ( E2E1 )

+ sin 2
2 x
L ) ( ))
PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860
Q3
c)
L

( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ))
2
1 x x 2 x t ( E 2E1 ) 2 x
PLHS ( t )= sin2 +2 sin sin cos +sin 2 dx
0 L L L L L

L L L
2 2 2
t ( E2E 1)

1
L0
x
( )
sin 2
L
1
dx+ sin 2
L0
2 x
L
2
( )
dx + cos
L ( ) ( ) ( )
0
sin
x
L
sin
2 x
L
dx

L L L
2 2 2
t ( E 2E1 )

1

2L 0
1cos
2 x
L ( ) 1
dx + 1cos
2L 0
4 x
L
4
dx + cos
L ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0
sin2
x
L
cos
x
L
dx

L L L
2 2 2
t ( E2E 1 )
1 1
cos
4 2L 0
2 x
L
1 1
( )
dx + cos
4 2L 0
4 x
L
4
dx+ cos
L ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
sin 2
x
L
cos
x
L
dx

The two cosine integrals will become functions with sin() in them and will vanish.
L
2
t ( E 2E1 )
1 4
+ cos
2 L ( ) ( ) ( )
0
sin
2 x
L
cos
x
L
dx

For the final integral, let:

u=sin ( xL )
x
du= cos
L L
dx ( )
Then:
L
2 1
x x L
sin2
0
( ) ( )
L
cos
L
dx= u2 du
0

L

3
PHYS201 Assignment 2 Christopher Bagnall 40607860
Q3
c) Continued
So that:
L
2
t ( E2E1 ) t ( E2 E1 )
1 4
+ cos
2 L ( ) ( ) ( )
0
sin 2
x
L
cos
x
L
1 4
dx = +
2 3
cos ( )
This means that the probability of finding the particle on the LHS of the well oscillates. It has a
maximum probability at:

t E2E 1)
cos (( )
=1

Giving:

1 4
+ 0.924
2 3

The minimum probability is at:

t E2E 1)
cos (( )
=1

Giving:

1 4
0.076
2 3

The period of the probability function is:

2
E 2E1

Alternatively:

( E2E1 )
Let =

Then the period is:


2