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Eur J Pediatr (1999) 158: 469 473 Springer-Verlag 1999

IMMUNOLOGY/ ALLERGOLOGY

M. A. Lopez-Gonzalez P. D az F. Delgado M. Lucas

Lack of lymphoid cell apoptosis in the pathogenesis of


tonsillar hypertrophy as compared to recurrent tonsillitis

Received: 8 July 1997 / Accepted in revised form: 2 April 1998

Abstract he pathogenic mechanism of tonsillar hypertrophy is unknown and lacks a


proper infectious or immunological explanation. Epidemiological studies point to polluted
environments as the main cause of tonsillar hypertrophy in the adaptation of the juvenile
organism. Tonsils and adenoids of 67 children aged 216 years (mean 5.9 years) were
divided into three groups: recurrent tonsillitis (n 21), recurrent tonsillitis with tonsillar
hypertrophy (n 21) and tonsillar hypertrophy without history of tonsillitis (n 25). The
following biological markers were studied: anti-streptolysin O antibody and anti-deoxy
ribonuclease B antibody serology, microbiology and cell count of granulocytes in tonsils
and adenoids as well as lymphocyte subsets and ``ex vivo'' endonuclease activity in tonsils.
Anti-streptolysin O antibody and anti-deoxyribonuclease B antibody titres were signi-
cantly raised in recurrent tonsillitis. Positive bacterial cultures for Streptococus pyogenes
were rare in cases of tonsillar hypertrophy. T-lymphocytes counts were lower and the
proportion of basophils was higher in hypertrophic tonsils than in recurrent tonsillitis.
Two parameters of apoptosis were studied; the activation of endonuclease, inducing
breakdown of DNA resulting in cell death, and the sensitivity to thapsigargin, known to
trigger the cleavage of DNA by apoptotic endonuclease. In children with tonsillar hy-
pertrophy both parameters were decreased contrasting with those with recurrent tonsillitis
where apoptosis is increased. It may be speculated that the increase of basophils in children
with tonsillar hypertrophy results in increased release of interleukin-4, which could prevent
lymphoid apoptosis and lead to cell proliferation in tonsillar tissue.
Conclusion Whereas recurrent tonsillitis is characterised by apoptotic death of lymphoid
tissue, tonsillar hypertrophy is caused by environmental pollution agents that trigger the
chronic inammatory process without apoptotic cell death.

Key words Tonsils Adenoids T-cells Endonuclease Basophils

Abbreviations ADB anti-deoxyribonuclease B antibody ASLO anti-streptolysin O


antibody RT recurrent acute tonsillitis RT-TH recurrent acute tonsillitis with tonsillar
hypertrophy TH tonsillar hypertrophy

of throat infections [1, 4] which may lead to obstructive


Introduction sleep apnoea [19, 20]. The pathogenesis of TH is poorly
understood although obstructive sleep apnoea is an in-
Idiopathic tonsillar hypertrophy (TH) is characterized dication in children for tonsillectomy and adenoidec-
by massively enlarged tonsils in children without history tomy [2, 11]. Since recurrent tonsillitis (RT) is caused by

M.A. Lopez-Gonzalez F. Delgado M. Lucas (&) P. D az


Department of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Molecular Biology Service,
Virgen del Roc o University Infantile Hospital, Virgen Macarena University Hospital,
c/Manuel Siurot, s/n, c/Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41 009- Sevilla, Spain,
E-41 013- Sevilla, Spain Fax: +34-95-455 74 81
470

Streptococcus pyogenes [4, 5], RT and TH could be immunonephelometry (Behring, Germany), ADB by enzyme inhi-
considered as two quite dierent pathogenic entities. bition assay (Wampole Laboratories, USA) according to the pro-
tocols of the manufacturers. The upper limit of normal values was
TH is associated with an increase in lymphoid ele- 333 and 660 U/ml for ASLO and ADB respectively.
ments without alteration of the connective stroma.
Nonetheless, the disruption of the normal relationship
of the lymphocyte subsets has not been related to TH,
neither has a proper infectious nor immunological ex- Dierential count of white cells and the subsets of lymphocytes
in tonsils and adenoids
planation of TH been postulated [21]. The life-span of
the lymphocyte includes a nal step in the secondary Pieces of tonsils and adenoids were minced with scissors in
lymphoid tissue. Many cells survive and the rest are phosphate-buered saline and cells released into the medium by
committed to apoptotic cell death [9, 23]. Activation of gentle shaking. The cellular suspension was recovered from the
an endogenous endonuclease has been described asso- supernatant by sedimentation. Dierential count of leucocytes
was done by optic microscopy after Giemsa staining. Lymphocyte
ciated with apoptosis in many cell types. The endonu- subpopulations were analysed by ow cytometry after labelling of
clease is present constitutively in some cells (rodent cells with uorescein isothiocyanate or phycoerytrin-conjugated
cortical thymocytes, T-lymphocytes) in which apoptosis monoclonal antibodies. The antibodies to cluster of dierentia-
is triggered by dierent agents, but is inducible in others tion were purchased from Becton Dickinson (CD3, CD4,
[7, 22]. We questioned whether pathological conditions CD5, CD8, CD11b, CD14, CD16, CD19, CD25, CD38, CD45,
CD62L, T-cell receptor), from Inmunotech (CD29, CD45RA,
in diseased tissues could modify the pattern of endonu- CD45RO), from Knickerboker (CD4) and from Immunoquality
clease activity in secondary lymphoid tissues. (plasmocytes). Cells were analysed in a Becton Dickinson cyto-
Basophils are known to participate in the immediate uorometer equipped with a 15 mW argon laser and CellQuest
and late phase of the allergic response [8, 17]. Migration software.
of basophils to the aected lymphoid tissue could ex-
plain the pathogenesis of TH by mechanisms dependent Analysis of DNA breakdown
on the allergic reactions. Experiments were designed to
study the activity of endonuclease (a marker of apop- Tonsillar lymphocytes were isolated and incubated at 37C under
totic cell death) in tonsillar cells and its sensitivity to be 5% CO2. DNA was extracted and the molecular size determined by
1.8% agarose gel electrophoresis [10]
triggered ``in vitro'' by the apoptotic agent thapsigargin
(a trigger of DNA breakdown [10]).
Chemicals

Materials and methods Agarose was from BRL; 8-DNA/HindIII digested molecular
weights markers, proteinase K and ribonuclease A were from
Patients Boehringer-Mannheim; N-laurylsarcosine and ethidium bromide
were from Sigma; RPMI medium, fetal bovine serum, strepto-
mycin and penicillin were from Flow. Thapsigargin was from
The group of patients consisted of 67 children (23 females and 44 Calbiochem.
males) aged 216 years (mean 5.9 years). The main symptoms were
recurrent bouts of acute tonsillitis (more than four times a year for
more than 1 year) and/or TH leading to obstructive sleep apnoea
and dysphagia. This study excluded children receiving antibiotics Results
within at least 2 weeks before surgery. The patients were divided
into three groups based on tonsil size and history of infections. RT Microbiology and serology
included children (n 21) with recurrent infection and small tonsils
that occupied less than 20% of the oropharyngeal airway. The
group recurrent tonsillitis with tonsillar hypertrophy (RT-TH) Microbiological studies showed that the percentage of
contained children (n 21) with recurrent infections and massively positive cultures for Streptococcus pyogeras of tonsillar
enlarged tonsils that occupied 5075% of the oropharyngeal air- surface and core and of adenoids was signicantly
way. The group TH consisted of children (n 25) with enlarged
tonsils, occupying up to 100% of the oropharyngeal airway, but no higher in case of RT and RT-TH (close to 30%) than in
history of infection. TH (4%). Raised ASLO and ADB titres were found in
100% of RT and RT-TH cases whereas only 10% of
these with TH had raised values (Fig. 1).
Bacteriology

A culture swab of the surface and the core of the tonsils and ade-
noids was sent to the microbiology laboratory. Positive cultures Basophil count in tonsils and adenoids
contained more than 100,000 colony-forming units per plate.
Polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the diseased lymphoid
tissues showed no dierences in the percentage of neu-
Measurements of anti-streptolysin O trophils and eosinophils whereas the basophil content
and anti-deoxyribonuclease B antibodies
was raised in both tonsils and adenoids in cases of TH.
Anti-streptolysin O (ASLO) and anti-deoxyribonuclease B (ADB) The basophil count was quite similar in tonsils and ad-
antibodies were measured in serum of the patients within the enoids within each patient. The degree of increase in
week before adenotonsillectomy. ASLO was quantied by laser basophils in the hypertrophied adenoids and tonsils
471

Fig. 1 Titres of anti-streptolysin O antibody (ASLO) and anti-


deoxyribonuclease B antibody (ADB) in patient serum. Results,
given in dilution units, are the mean ``SEM of the grouped values:
RT (21), RT-TH (21), TH (25). Values of ASLO and ADB were
higher in RT than in RT-TH and TH (P < 0.005) and higher in
RT-TH than in TH (P < 0.05)

ranged from 65% to 140% compared with cases of RT


and RT-TH respectively (Fig. 2).

T-cell subsets
Fig. 2 Basophil content of tonsils and adenoids in recurrent acute
tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy. Filled circles refer to tonsils
The distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations varied and empty circles to adenoids. Single and mean values are given as
signicantly among the infectious and obstructive ton- a percentage of total leucocytes. The number (in parentheses) of
sillar pathology only in the percentage of T-lympho- children studied are distributed in the following groups: (a) Tonsils,
cytes(CD3+ and TCR alpha+/beta+) that increased in RT (10), RT-TH (16), TH (21); (b) adenoids, RT (4), RT-TH (9),
cases of RT, RT-TH compared to TH. We found TH (11). The basophil count was lower in RT than in RT-TH and
TH in tonsils (P < 0.01) and in adenoids (P < 0.05). The basophil
no other dierences in the cellular subpopulations count was higher in TH than in RT-TH in tonsils (P < 0.01) and
studied in cases of infectious and obstructive tonsillar in adenoids (P < 0.05)
pathology.
DNA cleavage

Figure 3 shows the pattern of endonuclease activation in


TH, RT-TH and RT. RT was characterized by a high
spontaneous sensitivity to DNA breakdown under
control conditions contrasting with a low sensitivity to
thapsigargin. RT-TH showed a quite dierent pattern

b
Fig. 3 Analysis of DNA breakdown in tonsillar lymphocytes from
RT, RT-TH and TH children. Cells were incubated for 24 h in the
presence and in the absence of 0.5 lM thapsigargin to determine:
(a) the spontaneous DNA cleavage in cells cultured without
thapsigargin (lled bars); (b) thapsigargin-dependent cleavage of
DNA (low grey bars) and; (c) the lack of sensitivity of the cultured
lymphocytes to endonuclease (dark grey bars). The last group refers
to cells with high molecular weight DNA both under control
conditions and in the presence of thapsigargin. Results were
obtained in lymphocytes prepared from RT (n 6), RT-TH (n 7)
and TH (n 7) tonsils. The DNA was extracted after 18 h
incubation and the size analysed as described in Methods and
Fig. 4
472

role for other cytokines, i.e. tumour necrosis factor al-


pha cannot be ruled out.
We propose that RT is caused by the immune re-
sponse to pathogenic bacteria that, in addition to the
inammatory process, induce the breakdown of DNA
by activating the apoptotic endonuclease. In contrast,
TH could be caused by environmental agents, non-
bacterial or allergic, that result in the recruitment of
basophils which in turn trigger the chronic inammatory
process and the inhibition of apoptotic cell death.
Nevertheless, the possible involvement of viral infections
remains to be studied.

Acknowledgements Supported by grant 96/0278 from the Fondo


Fig. 4 The pattern of internucleosomal breakdown. Lymphocytes de Investigaciones Sanitarias. We thank Manoli Lopez and Salud
isolated from tonsils were incubated for 0 h (lanes 1 and 3), 8 h Ponce for clerical and technical assistance.
(lane 4) and 18 h (lanes 2 and 5) in the absence (lanes 1 and 2) and
in the presence (lanes 3, 4 and 5) of 0.5 lM thapsigargin. DNA was
isolated and aliquot run in 1.8% agarose gel stained with ethidium
bromide. The right-hand lane was loaded with N174/haeIII
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