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# Running head: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 1

Descriptive Statistics

Students Name

University Affiliation

Course Title

Instructor

Date
DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 2

## 1. Does gender affect students performance?

a) The tested hypothesis is whether gender affects students performance as measured

## utilizing final exam points (final course points).

b) Ho: mean final course points is equal for both genders.
Ha: mean final course points is not same for both genders.
c) The name of the test that we will run is a two sample t-test for means or independent

samples test.
The outcome is as shown below.

d) From our SPSS output, the p-value is 0.156 and the test statistics obtained is 1.431,

assuming the same variance. Therefore, we do not reject the null hypothesis since p-value

is greater than the alpha value of 0.05. Further, as observed from the output, the p-value

which is 0.168 is still more than 0.05 even for unequal variance.
e) Failing to reject the null hypothesis implies that gender does not have a significant

influence on the students overall performance. Thus, the mean final course points are

## 2) Total points for learners in Stat Grades.

A) The tested hypothesis is whether the mean value of the total points is different from the

## success value of 90 points.

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 3

## B) Ho: The average value for student's total points is 90.

Ha: The mean success value for total points is not equal to 90.

C) The name of the test that we are going to run is a 1 sample t-test for mean since we do not

## know the standard deviation for the population.

D) The p-value is 0.000, and the test statistic is -3.676. Consequently, we will reject the null

hypothesis since our p-value is less than the alpha value of 0.05.

E) When we reject the null hypothesis, it implies that the students' performance is different than

the given population mean. As a consequence, the means success value for the total points

statistically differs from the population mean of 90 points for the learners in the set.

## 3) Comparing Quiz 1 and 2

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 4

a) Our tested hypothesis is whether there is a significant difference in the average student

## Ha: The average learners performance is not equal in quiz 1 and 2.

C) A paired sample t-test is the one we are going to run in this test.

## mean N Std. deviation Std. Error

Mean
Pair 1quiz 1 points and 7.80 105 2.280 .223

## Paired sample correlations

N Correlation Sig.
Pair quiz 1 and 2 105 .445 .000

points

## Paired samples Test

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 5

Paired Differences
Std. Std. 95% Confidence t df Sig.(2-tailed)

## Deviatio Error Interval of the

n Mean Difference
Lower Upper

Mean
Pair Quiz 1 -0.67 2.176 .212 -.488 .354 -.314 104 .754

and 2

points

d) The p-value is 0.754 whereas the test statistic is -0.314. Thus, we fail to reject the null

hypothesis because the p-value is more than the alpha value of 0.05.

E) Failing to reject our null hypothesis suggests that the mean student success points do not vary

amongst Quiz 1 and 2. Therefore, the average learner's performance is similar between Quiz 1

and 2.

## 4) Use the following SPSS to answer subsequent questions.

A) Ho: Final Exam Points is same for both lower division and upper division students.

Ha: Final Exam Points amongst lower division and upper division students is not equal.

## B) The test being utilized is independent samples test or 2 sample t-test.

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS 6

## C) The p-value is 0.730 when assuming equal variances.

D) The outcome of the trial, when using alpha at 0.05 is that we fail to reject the null hypothesis

## since p-value is more than 0.05.

E) Statistically, there is no significant difference in Final Exam Points amongst Lower Division

and Upper Division students. It means that the average final points are similar across the two

divisions.

F) The number of lower students in this sample of data is 22. Yes, the mean points for Lower

Division are different than for Upper Division. The p-value is less than the alpha value of 0.05.

Thus, mean points for the lower division is significantly different than the number of upper

division students. We conclude that a sample parameter can be different but not statistically

different. A statistically significant implies that the result is not ascribed to chance.