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Researchs dalam Pendidikan Teknologi dan Kejuruan telah
berjalan lama. Agar arah dan sasaran penelitian-penelitian dalam
bidang PTK memberi manfaat yang besar dalam ranah
pengembangan pengetahuan dan keilmuan PTK maka dipandang
perlu adanya Tema-Tema Payung yang diharapkan dapat memberi
arah dan orientasi bahan-bahan kajian penelitian ke-PTK-an.
Tema-tema tersebut adalah seperti di bawah ini.
Pendidikan Teknologi dan Pendidikan Kejuruan selama ini masih
memerlukan penjelasan ranah dan cakupan risetnya. Pendidikan
teknologi mengkaji penggunaan teknologi untuk memecahkan
masalah dengan ketrampilan pemecahan masalah. Pendidikan
Kejuruan berkaitan dengan ketrampilan atau kemahiran skill
menggunakan tools dan mesin-mesin dalam menghasilkan produk
atau layanan berkualitas dan efesien.

Enam Belas Tema Payung antara lain:

1. Information and Communication Technologies and TVET

2. Comparative studies in TVET
3. Financing TVET
4. Implementation & evaluation of TVET programs or education
5. New and emerging practices in TVET
6. TVET as continuing or lifelong Learning
7. Transfer of Training
8. Formal, Informal & Non-formal TVET
9. TVET policies at local, national, and international levels
10. Occupational competencies and TVET
11. National Vocational Qualification Frameworks & Occupational
12. Occupational Certification, Licensing & Accreditation
13. Cost Effectiveness and Quality Base
14. Curriculum and Instructional methods on TVET
15. TVET Teacher Development
16. Leadership and Management TVET

Pengembangan Topik-topik penelitian dari masing-masing Tema Payung

antara lain:

1. Information and Communication Technologies and TVET

The Growing Role of ICTs in Education and Training
The Pedagogical Framework for On-Line Learning
Blended Learning
Multimedia System, Multimedia Development,
E-Learning readyness
A Short Method for Building Web-Based Teaching and Learning Systems
ICT Application in TVET
Switched on: International Approaches to Skills Development through ICTs
What are the Limits of ICTs and Media in the Delivery of TVET?
Integrating TVET with Open and Distance Learning: Taking Skills Training to the Doorstep
Distance Education: The State of the Art in Career and Technical Education

2. Comparative studies in TVET

Learning for Life and Work: Bridging Academic and Vocational Education
Social and individual bases for understanding work life
Cultural, situational and individual geneses of work life
A relational basis for understanding work life
Indigenous Knowledge of TVET
Indigenous Wisdom, Sustainable Education on TVET

3. Financing TVET
Financing Technical and Vocational Education and Training
Financing Mechanisms and Instruments: A Conceptual and Operational Approach

4. Implementation & evaluation of TVET programs or education
Education and Training in the Context of Poverty Reduction
5. New and emerging practices in TVET
Partnering to Meet the Needs of a Changing Workplace
New Directions for High-School Career and Technical Education in the Indonesia
School/Workplace Partnerships
Vocational Guidance and Career Counselling
Validation of Educational Programmes: Comparing Models and Best Practices

6. TVET as continuing or lifelong Learning
Access to TVET for All: An Essential Basis for Education for All
The Challenges of TVET Global Monitoring

Making Global Classifications of Types and Levels of TVET

Trends and Issues in TVET across the Globe
Adult Education for the Sustainability of Human Kind
The Challenge for ESD in TVET: Developing Core Sustainable Development Competencies
and Collaborative Social Partnerships for Practice
Key Competencies: Overall Goals for Competence Development: An International and
Interdisciplinary Perspective
Changing concepts and requirements of work
Changing work practice and work requirements
Work, learning and identity

7. Transfer of Training
Meeting Training Needs in the Informal Sector
Criteria for Training Policy in the Informal Sector
Teacher Retraining

8. Formal, Informal & Non-formal TVET
New Learning Spaces in TVET
Social and Cultural Aspects of Informal Sector Learning
Education and Training Needs
Creative Industries

9. TVET policies at local, national, and international levels

Education for the World of Work: National and Regional Perspectives
Accountability and Career Technical Education (CTE) Policy
A Profile of TVET in the Indonesia
The Ethics of TVET Policy and Practice: Issues of Access and Quality
Policy Framework on the Retraining for Reskilling of Older Workers through Specialized
TVET Programmes

10. Occupational competencies and TVET

Anticipation of Skill Requirements
The Vocationalization of Secondary Education: The Relationships between Vocational and
Technology Education

11. National Vocational Qualification Frameworks & Occupational

Changing Workplace Requirements: Implication for VET
The Influence of Qualifications Frameworks on the Infrastructure of VET
Reforming Skills Development, Transforming the Nation
Standards for Occupation-Directed Professional Development of TVET Personnel in
Developing Countries
National Qualifications Frameworks: An Analytical Overview

Developing a National System of Vocational Qualifications

Implementing National Qualifications Frameworks: Problems and Possibilities
Labour Mobility and Mutual Recognition of Skills and Qualifications
Quality Assurance in TVET
Meeting labour market needs

12. Occupational Certification, Licensing & Accreditation

From Assessment to Planning: Hope for TVET in Indonesia
Skills Shortages, Over-Education and Unemployed Youth: An International Dilemma
Recognition, Certification, Accreditation and Quality Assurance in TVET
The Certification of Competencies
Modularization and Modular Delivery of TVET

13. Cost Effectiveness and Quality Base
Economic Perspectives on Technical and Vocational Education and Training

14. Curriculum and Instructional methods on TVET
Facilitating Policy-Learning: Active Learning and the Reform of Education Systems
National Initiatives for Reengineering Education for the New Economy
The Adoption and Adaptation of the Work-Team Concept
Strengthening TVET to Achieve Lifelong Learning for All
The Development of Training Modules for Instructors
TVET and Teacher-Training Curricula
A Technical and Vocational Teacher-Training Curriculum
Industrial Attachments for Instructors in TVET Delivery
Education for Work: Research, Curriculum Development and Delivery
Curriculum Approaches and Participative Curriculum Development
The Pedagogy of Apprenticeship
Collaborative Work-Related Learning and Technology- Enhanced Learning
Vocational Learning: Contributions of Workplaces and Educational Institutions
Work-Based Learning: An English Experience
Workplace Learning: Metacognitive Strategies for Learning in the Knowledge Economy
New Learning Strategies and Learning Cultures in Companies
Competency, Meaningful Learning and Learning Styles in TVET
Adult Numeracy forWork and Life: Curriculum and Teaching Implications
Developing common tools for the assessment of practical skills
Instrumental or Sustainable Learning? The Impact of Learning Cultures on Formative Assessment
in Vocational Education

15. TVET Teacher Development
Integrating Education and Work
Teacher Education for Vocational Education and Training
Professionalization of VET Teachers and Lecturers and Practices in TVET Institutions in an
International Perspective
TVET Teacher-Training Requirements
Effective teachers and trainers

16. Leadership and Management TVET


TVET in the Asian Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects

Social Partnership in Vocational Education and Training
Vocational Education, Social Participation and Livelihoods in Post-Conflict
Policy and Management of TVET Systems
National Versus Regional Policy Dimensions of TVET
Decentralisation and School-Based Governance: A Comparative Study
Managing School Change: Continuous Improvement Based on a Shared Vision and a
Strategic Plan
Decentralisation of Education: Promising Initiative or Problematic Notion


A. Skilled human resources are amongst the most crucial inputs of a
modern economy. All TVET learners once they are qualified respond by
producing what customers / consumers want, which, in turn, will assist in
economic growth. The TVET System would deliver human resources according to
labor market needs.
B. Quality of training has become priority and the emphasis is now on
the right education and training for the right person at the right time
from the perspective of the labor market. This concept is generally known
as Demand Driven TVET. When TVET Systems match this demand, the competence
of their students is characterized as appropriate.
C. The demand side of a TVET System is to be based on the Labor Market
Information System and Policy. In its simplest form, demand-driven TVET may
be defined as the minimum quantity of skilled labor required for achieving
an output at a target level. The demand for appropriately educated and
trained human resources will be estimated by:

1. Using forecasting models to predict the number of graduates

required from TVET Institutions (institutes / centres / schools) in terms
of occupational categories
2. Determining to what extent the content of work is related to the
learning programmes presented at TVET Institutions.
3. Determining whether it is getting harder or easier to find work.
4. Determining how quickly graduates find their first work and how
mobile they are thereafter.
5. Determining what kind of work graduates prefer and expect.
Determining how the preference relates to the jobs into which they enter.
6. Determining what the obstacles are to setting up self-employment.
7. Determining to what extent non-educational factors such as family

background, age and location are important in achieving success in school

and in the labour market.

D. Conducting Economy and Labor Market Analysis will assist in

estimating the demand through the identification of:

1. How are jobs distributed in the economy, by sector, industry,

industry segment, and by occupation and occupational level?
2. How is the economy changing? What are the jobs for which training
is needed?
3. How many jobs have been created? How many vacancies exist?
4. Where are the vacancies?
5. What jobs are declining in the economy and how should provision of
training be adjusted?
6. Which changes in content of occupations are to be expected due to
economic, organisational or technological developments

E. In the last decade, many countries have taken great responsibility

for developing an employable workforce and to organize a lifelong learning
strategy by applying a national and Supply Based TVET Strategy. Such a
supply strategy has however failed to respond to the demands from the
labour market. In the 21st century the trend shifted towards the Demand
Based TVET Strategy, albeit through a variety of strategies.
F. Managing to demand involves working closely with customers so that
the overall demand for the enterprise and the supply chain will give rise
to maximum value for all parties concerned. Applying Demand-Based
Management to integrate supply and demand management will eventually lead
to higher customer / consumer satisfaction.
G. Funds for financing TVET are more or less based on the idea that it
is both necessary and possible to encourage a demand based training
approach as compared to a supply based one. Such an option is deemed
necessary to create training courses and programmes adapted to the needs of
economic players; it is deemed possible once the mechanisms that encourage
the emergence and development of a competitive training market exists.
H. The first objective of TVET either 'Basic' or 'Continuing' is the
adaptation of the training to the demand. In Basic Training, customer needs
are more or less taken into consideration depending on the level of
involvement of professionals in the drawing up of training frameworks.
I. Continuing TVET is meant to be more professional in the
sense that it is supposed to either improve a skill through better command
of the training by using higher performance tools, or fulfilling a very
specific need linked to the context of the job / work.
J. Continuing TVET offers a large framework to allow Training
Providers to propose pre-formatted training courses and programmes intended
to respond to the demand. In some cases, such training courses and
programmes are not compatible with the distinctive nature of demand and
this requires the customization of a specific response. There can only be a
specific response if there is sufficiently competent expertise to analyse
demand and to convert it into a formalization and technical know-how
acquisition process. This is the very objective of training engineering.

K. Demand Based TVET places the market / enterprises needs as the

hub for Development of Curriculum and Training Programmes and
identification of the best instruction / teaching methods to be used in
training. Such approach facilitates the matching of the Curriculum and
Training Programmes outcomes to existing units of work.
L. In the Demand Based Training, the demand must prevail and the
existence of a competitive training market will be the condition for moving
from a supply based approach to a demand based one.
A. Lean means little or no flesh / fat / waste or thin. Lean Management
adopts the zero-waste principal and addresses the waste inherent in
bureaucratic communication and reporting systems. Bureaucracy Management
means the management or administration which is marked by hierarchical
authority among numerous offices and by fixed procedures. In Companies /
Enterprises and TVET Institutions, it is hardly to communicate through the
fat of bureaucracy.
B. Many of the successful lean Companies / Enterprises and TVET
Institutions have relatively flat organizational pyramids to begin with;
others find ways to use cross-functional management to ensure that critical
information is not buried or twisted before it can be used. To implement a
Lean Management System in companies and TVET Institutions, practical
methodology based on continuous improvement methods, cross-functional
management and employees involvement should be adopted. The entire
system should be supported by documents and forms that guide the staff in
applying the concepts.
C. In order to adopt a Lean Management System, the senior management of
a TVET Institution needs to follow up the following simple guidelines and

1. Link the key vocational areas in the TVET Institution to

2. Develop a Institution Centre-wide vision, analyze strategically
training capabilities needed in the future and create a five year training
development plan for development of these capabilities
3. Transfer the development plan into an annual improvement

D. Implementing a Lean Management System is designed to lead the TVET

Institution management systematically through the above activities to form
a world-class TVET Institution. World-class is a dynamic state that
requires constant refinement to an excellence level that goes beyond
yesterdays best.

E. In conclusion, the Lean Management System is a complete programme

that aligns and integrates long-term strategically development planning and
day-to-day improvement targets to make the TVET Institution demand focused,
flexible and ready for tomorrows challenges.
I hope that my above moderate thoughts will support our colleague Nur
Sabri in his TVET research.

Best regards.
Eng. Moustafa Wahba
Competency Assurance & TVET Consultant
E-mail address:

World Teachers Day 2012 Take a stand for teachers


Were it not for them would you be where you are

Or in a position to decide what is so right or wrong
Reading and all its benefits would be an alien thing
Life in its present form would be beyond any dream
Do you really appreciate the role that these played

Take time to consider each one of those who know

Every syllable and consonant that you were taught
And weigh how much that translates to in true value
Count the moments when principles were exposed
How your mind was opened to new ways of thinking
Even as you now master all basics and succeed always
Recall times when music notes meant nothing to you
See how much you would be missing out of ignorance

Do not despise men and women who teach with love

As their role has a permanent effect on all the worlds
Your appreciation and thanks can never be too many.

Gilbert M Mabasa: The Teacher.

The report emphasizes that the quality of TVET teachers is key in

determining the skills of future workers. Qualified, trained and motivated
teachers and trainers are essential for effective learning and are at the
heart of TVET quality. The debate furthermore highlighted that the issues
and challenges of TVET teachers are quite different from general teachers
and thus require a distinct response in terms of skills and competencies

that should be regularly updated alongside technological developments and

linkages with industries.

Many thanks to Prof. Masriam Bukit for his work as moderator and for
the synthesis report, which we believe will be very helpful in
further debate and understanding on the topic of TVET teacher education.
Finally, many thanks to all participants for their valuable contributions
and feedback.

The next moderator-driven discussion, taking place on the UNEVOC e-Forum

from 22 October to 2 November 2012, will be on the topic of greening TVET
for sustainable development. You can already sign up for the discussion
More information about this discussion will be circulated shortly.

With kind regards,