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PRINSIP DAN KLASIFIKASI

KROMATOGRAFI

Oleh :
Drs. Hokcu Suhanda, M.Si.

JURUSAN PENDIDIKAN KIMIA


2015 1
PRINSIP KROMATOGRAFI

Prinsip Dasar Kromatografi adalah:


pemisahan yang didasarkan atas distribusi
diferensial komponen-komponen sampel
diantara dua fasa yaitu
1. fasa diam (stasionary phase) dan
2. fasa gerak (mobile phase).

Gerakan fasa gerak ini mengakibatkan


terjadinya migrasi diferensial komponen-
komponen dalam sampel.

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PRINSIP KROMATOGRAFI

Animasi Prinsip Dasar Kromatografi


Fasa Diam Fasa Gerak

Fasa Gerak

Klik disini untuk animasi

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PRINSIP KROMATOGRAFI

Animasi Prinsip Dasar Kromatografi

Fasa Gerak

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PENDAHULUAN

Fasa Diam (stasionary phase) :


dapat berupa zat padat atau zat cair yang
terikat pada permukaan padatan (kertas atau
suatu adsorben).

Fasa Gerak (mobile phase) :


dapat berupa cairan sebagai eluen atau pelarut
atau gas pembawa yang inert.

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PENDAHULUAN

Chromatography is a widely used method


that allows the:

1. separation,
2. identification, and
3. determination of the chemical components
in complex mixtures.

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KLASIFIKASI

Chromatographic methods are of two basic


types.
1. In column chromatography, the stationary
phase is held in a narrow tube, and the
mobile phase is forced through the tube
under pressure or by gravity.
2. In planar chromatography, the stationary
phase is supported on a flat plate or in the
pores of a paper. Here the mobile phase
moves through the stationary phase by
capillary action or under the influence of
gravity.
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KLASIFIKASI

The basis of separation in :

(a) adsorption chromatography,


(b) partition chromatography,
(c) ion-exchange chromatography,
(d) size-exclusion chromatography, and
(e) electrophoresis.

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KLASIFIKASI

(a) adsorption chromatography,

In adsorption
chromatography, solutes
separate
based on their ability to
adsorb to a solid
stationary phase.

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KLASIFIKASI

(b) partition chromatography,


In partition
chromatography, a thin
liquid film coating a solid
support serves as the
stationary phase.
Separation is based on a
difference in the
equilibrium partitioning of
solutes between the liquid
stationary phase and the
mobile phase.
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KLASIFIKASI

(c) ion-exchange chromatography,


Stationary phases consisting of
a solid support with covalently
attached anionic (e.g., SO3 )
or cationic (e.g., N(CH3)3 +)
functional groups are used in
ion-exchange chroma-tography.
Ionic solutes are attracted to
the stationary phase by
electrostatic
forces.
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KLASIFIKASI

(d) size-exclusion chromatography,


Porous gels are used as stationary
phases in size exclusion
chromatography, in which
separation is due to differences
in the size of the solutes.
Large solutes are unable to
penetrate into the porous
stationary phase and so quickly
pass through the column.
Smaller solutes enter into the
porous stationary phase,
increasing the time spent on the
column.
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KLASIFIKASI

(e) electrophoresis
Not all separation methods
require a stationary phase.
In an electrophoretic
separation, for example,
charged solutes migrate
under the influence of an
applied potential field.
Differences in the mobility
of the ions account for their
separation
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KLASIFIKASI

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KLASIFIKASI

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KLASIFIKASI

For each chromatographic separation, certain governing


factors have to be taken into consideration while making
choice of a particular method from amongst the methods
listed in Table 4.4.

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SEKIAN DULU

Terima Kasih

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HOKCU SUHANDA