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IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 9, No. 1, January 1994

TRANSFORMER MAGNETIZING

CURRENT

AND

IRON-CORE LOSSES

IN

HARMONIC

POWER

FLOW

M. A. S. Masoum, Member, IEEE

E. F. Fuchs, Fellow, IEEE

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309

Keywords: load flow, anisotropic nonlinear transformers, harmonics, iron-core losses.

Abstract - The problem of modifying the harmonic power flow analysis to permit the inclusion of nonlin- ear anisotropic transformers and computation of their

iron-core (and copper) losses, so far ne ected in power flow studies, constitutes the objective ofl this pa er. The nonlinear model used for transformers is capabE of sim- ulating saturation of iron-cores, anisotropy of lamina- tions, and the iron-core and copper losses associated with anisotropic transformers, but simple enough to be included in the harmonic power flow algorithm without deteriorating its convergence properties. The de en- dency of iron-core losses on the maximum value ofthe

fact th at iron-core losses are a 1unction of the wave-

total fundamental and harmonic

flux density and the

form of the induced volta e -that is its harmonic phase

shifts with respect to the fundamental phase angle- are included. The induced voltage is transformed from fre- quency domain to time domain: the instantanenous induced voltage and the computed X-i characteristics are employed to compute the instantaneous magnetiz-

ing and core-loss currents.

Thereafter, a transformation

is made from time domain back to frequency domain to compute the fundamental and harmonic components of the above-mentioned currents. Therefore, transformer harmonic couplin s are pro erly modeled and included in the analysis. $he modifed harmonic load flow for-

mulation is applied to a balanced three-phase feeder consisting of a grounded-wye, grounded-wye nonlinear anisotropic transformer and linear and nonlinear loads.

The main contribution of this paper is the computa-

tion of iron-core

used in balanced

and copper) losses of transformers th ee-phase and single-phase systems

at (non)sinusoidal operation.

Introduction

The nonlinearity of power system components and loads results in nonsinusoidal currents and voltages which can propagate throughout the power system. The deviation from sinusoids is generally expressed in terms of harmonics. Consequences of power system harmon- ics are the degradation of telephone communications caused by electric noise, amplification of harmonic levels resulting from series and parallel resonances [l], over- volta es and, therefore, failures of capacitor banks and transformers [21.

Perhaps the best avenue for the harmonic analysis is the power flow (load flow) study, which is the calculation of the line loading given the genera- tion and demand levels. The work on harmonic power

flow analysis was originated

about a decade ago by Xi?,

Heydt and Grady [3,4]: the HARMFLO program [4]in its present form is capable of analyzing power systems containing nonlinear loads with known v-i characteris- tics such as full-wave rectifiers, nonlinear resistors [3 HVDC converters [5] and gaseous discharge lighting dl

under balanced three-phase conditions. The work on unbalanced fundamental load flow analysis originated

about two decades ago [7]. The recent multiphase har-

monic load flow technique of

Xu, Marti and Dommel

bhot the balanced and unbalanced (fundamental and

8,9

is

nonlinearity

these publications.

a main contribution in this field. However, in

harmonic) power flow analyses, transformers are as- sumed to be linear elements and as a result transformer

and iron-core losses have been neglected in

Transformers are one of the contributors to harmonic distortion. The subject of power quality dis- tortion by nonlinear transformers has been investigated since the early 1900’s and many contributions have been made [10,11] including a nonlinear model of anisotropic

transformers capable of computing

istics and the fundamental

the X-i character-

as well as the harmonic

(non)linear loads [13,14,1d 3.

iron-core losses for (non sinusiodal excitations and

References 11 and 12 in-

troduce a detailed algorithm for the inclusion of trans-

harmonic power flow approximating mea- sured X-i characteristics, however, transformer core-loss current and iron-core losses are neglected in their anal- ysis.

In this paper, the nonlinear transformer model

of [13] will be used to modify the harmonic power flow

alogrithm of

[3,4] to permit the inclusion of transformer

magnetizing current and iron-core losses in power flow

studies. The main advanta e of the algorithm presented

in this paper compared to

ta at of references 11 and 12 is

the computation

of transformer iron-core losses within

In addition com-

the harmonic load flow algorithm.

puted transformer X-i characteristics are used as com-

Measurements are not always feasible and/or possibi e

pared to the measured ones (as proposed in

11 and 12 .

for large power transformers.

92 SM 496-0 PWRD A paper recommended and approved by the IEEE Transmission and Distribution Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presenta- tion at the IEEE/PES 1992 Summer Meeting, Seattle, WA, July 12-16, 1992. Manuscript submitted January 20, 1992; made available for printing May 15, 1992.

Large-Signal Nonlinear Model for Anisotropic Transformers

Given the physical dimensions of an &SO- tropic transformer and the measured with- and cross- grain B-H characteristics of its nonlinear iron-core ma- terial (as obtained from Epstein frame measurements), a quasi three-dimensional magnetic field analysis is used in [13] to compute representative B-H and loss- density characteristics and the X-i curve of the trans-

0885-8977/94/$0

14.00 @ 1992 IEEE

11

former. These representative characteristics -which ac-

count for the presence of interlamination and butt-joint

air gaps and the anisotropy of laminations- are used

with phase-factor functions in the lar e-signal nonlin-

em equivalent circuit of transformers 141. The phase-

factor functions account for the h-3that iron-core losses

are a function of the waveform of the induced volt e,

that is its harmonic phase shifts with r ect to%e

fundamental phase an

e.

Therefore th3-i and the

representative B-H an d@loss-density characteristics of a

nonlinear transformer must be computed in order to use

the large-signal nonlinear transformer equivalent circuit

of [13]. Note that these characteristics are to be com-

puted only once for a given transformer type.

In order to include anisotropic transformers

in the harmonic power flow analysis, nonlinear three-

phase power system transformers are assumed to consist

of three identical single-phase transformers. The above

assumption is due to the fact that a large-signal non-

linear equivalent circuit for three and five legged three-

phase transformers capable

iron-core losses has not yet been reporte8 in the liter-

of computin

transformer

ature. The proposed model of [13] as shown in Figure

1 is capable of computing the magnetizing and core-

loss currents for

a 'ven instantaneouslyinduced voltage

(Appendices I1 an3 111).

The 3'd order harmonic generated by trans-

former saturation is of zero sequence (althou h the sys-

tem is balanced). The zero-sequence equident circuit

of three-phase transformers depends on the transformer

connection and is discussed in reference 16 (pages 298

300) assumming zero magnetizing and core-loss cur-

rents. The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of three-

phase transformerstaking into account transformer sat-

uration (e.g., ma etizin and core-loss currents) is iden-

tical to that of I?!

igure 1 or grounded-wye, grounded-

wye transformers. Note that primary and secondary

transformer impedances (gp)= Ilp+jXj:) and 9ik)=

R, +jXi:)) have the same values for positive, negative,

and zero-sequence equivalent circuit since the three-

phase transformer is assumed to consist of-three identi-

cal single-phase transformers. Zero-sequence equivalent

circuits for other types of transformer connections are

presented in [17].

*) -Updated at each Newton--kaphson iteration U&

transformer induced voltage and X-i characteristic; r$

= iteration number.

Figure

1

former as used in Earmonic power flow analysis.

Sigle- hase equivalent circuit of a trans-

In Figure 1 buses i and j represent primary

and

bus i + 1 represents the node, where the trans? ormer

and secondary transformer terminals, respectivel

cross branch meets the series branch between Xi:) and

Xi:).

The voltage at

this bus is equivalent to

the

transformer induced voltage.

Also, Rr), dk),X(k)

L P

and XP) are the transformer per-unit primary and sec-

ondary resistances, the primary and secondary leakage

inductances (for the kth harmonic), respectively. Note

that the magnetizing and core-loss currents are modeled

as constant current sources for a given induced voltage.

These currents are to be updated (Appendices I1 and

111) at each Newton-Raphson iteration since they are

functions of the induced voltage which will be changing

with each iteration.

The equivalent circuit of Figure 1 works fine,

however, in order to save computing time the core-

loss currents (fundamental and harmonics) are assumed

to be zero during Newton-Raphson iterations and are

only included in the last ste of the solution proce-

dure

for the computation of tYl e transformer iron-core

losses (A pendix 111). This is a valid assumption since

the core-P

oss currents (fundamental and harmonics) are

Inclusion of Nonlinear Transformers in the

Harmonic Power Flow Algorithm

There are two t

es of buses defined in the

harmonic power flow al

ori%

[3,4]: linear buses e.g.,

PQ, PV and swing busy and nonlinear-load buses (e.g.,

buses connected to full-wave rectifiers). In order to in-

clude transformers in the harmonic power flow alge

rithm a third type of bus (for modeling transformer

induced voltages) is defined and called a "transformer

bus"

(e.g.,

bus

  • 2 + 1 in

Figure

1).

Therefore, trans-

formers are treated as nonlinear loads connected to the

newly defined transformer buses injecting current har-

monics into the power system. The functional form of

a transformer bus is identid to a nonlinear-load bus

formulation of [3,4], to permit the inclusion of newly

defined transformer buses, are given in Appendix I.

Note that in order to include the magnetiz-

ing and core-loss currents in the load flow analysis an

additional bus (bus i + 1 of Figure 1) is required. Ad-

ditional buses for the re resentation of transformer in-

duced voltages are not $ways required since power sys-

tem transformers are mall connected (at one side)

to transmission lines or

cab9 e s. In such cases the se-

ries impedance of the transformer side connected to the

transmission line could be added to the line impedance

avoiding the addition of an extra bus.

12

The convergence properties of the har-

monic load flow in the presence of nonlinear transform-

ers are similar to those of the harmonic load flow algo-

rithm with linear transformers, however, the presence of

triplen current harmonics (in the case of ounded-wye

transformers) and the addltion of nodes Er the repre-

sentation of transformer induced voltages (if transmis-

sion line and transformer impedances are not combined)

‘increase the required CPU time of one Newton-Raphson

iteration. The increase in computing time depends on

the number of transformer buses and the highest har-

monic order considered.

An Illustrative Example

six-pulse rectifier

[TI The 240

(F=0.07 per unit reactance at 60 Hz

as ex-

V, lkVA anisotropic

has the following per-

and R is com uted by the load flow algorithm

plained in

transformer ppendix A

unit impedance values at

Rp)=0.020 pu;

Xi;’ =0.007 pu;

R(,1)=0.027 pu;

AY!’) =0.016 pu.

The equivalent circuit of the thr%e-phasesystem of Fig-

ure 2 (as used in harmonic power flow analysis) is shown

in Figure 3. Note that the grounded wye-delta trans-

former connecting the six-pulse bridge rectifier to bus

#2 is assumed to be

linear as done in [3,4] and all

impedances are in per-unit with a voltampere base of

1.0 kVA and a voltage base of 240 V.

It

is

desired to

keep the

volta es

at

the

nonlinear-load bus (bus #2)

put

(bus #? about 1 per-unit for a rated transformer

and at the transformer out-

resistive loa . To establish this consider the following

cases:

Case 1: The

eneration bus voltage is regulated at 1.0

per-unit and tie transformer is loaded with a rated re-

sistive load. The rectifier injects about 19 and 9% of the

5th and 7th current harmonics, respectively, resulting in

a nonsinusoidal voltage waveshape

transformer losses are aL out

nals of the transformer

at the primary termi-

first row of Table la). However,

45% below (first row of Ta-

ble lb) the rated losses (e.g., transformer losses under

sinusoidal input and rated output conditions) which is

due to the fact that the fundamental transformer volt-

age magnitude is only about 73%.

Case 2: In order to achieve rated fundamental trans-

former voltage magnitude, the voltage at the genera-

tion bus is increased to 127%. The injected current

harmonics by the rectifier and the harmonic volta es at

the transformer input are about the same as for 8ase 1

Iormer output volta e and current are rated. This re-

second row of Table la). However, fundamental trans-

sults in about a 1.4% increase above the rated trans-

former losses (second row of Table lb), which is due to.

the harmonic voltages at the primary terminals of the

transformer.

This configuration has the disadvantage

of overvoltage operation of the rectifier at a voltage of

106%, and an overvoltage of

127% of the generation bus.

Case 3: Another method for achieving rated trans-

former output voltage is by introducing

a capacitor at

and increasing the volta e at the eneration bus (thirh

the secondary terminals of the transformer (bus #5

row of Tables la and lby to llO#. This configuration

results in rated transformer output apparent power and

losses however, transformer real output current drops

to 50% of the rated current resulting in a low output

power factor.

Cases 4 and 5: These cases are examples of over-

voltage operations of transformers and are identical to

Case 3 with the exception that the voltage at the gen-

eration bus is increased to 115 and

120%, respectively.

As shown in rows 4 and 5 of Tables la and lb, respec-

tively overvoltage operations of about 6 (Case 4) and

12% (Case 5) result in transformer losses of about 11

and 23% above the rated losses, respectively, and pos-

sibly transformer failures.

Case 6: In order to improve the transformer secondary

power factor of Case 3 the capacitor bank is placed

t

at the primary terminals of the transformer (bus #3

As shown in the last rows of Tables la and lb, wit

X, = 61%, transformer secondary apparent power and

losses are rated and the power factor

at the transformer

secondary has improved.

Case 7: This case illustrates a transformer terminat-

ing an open line and is identical to Case 6 with the ex-

ception that transformer load is removed. Transformer

unloading results in considerable increase in volta es at

busses 2, 3, and 4 and a substantial increase ( 205) in

transformer iron-core losses.

BUS 1

BUS 2

BUS 3

-

 

7

 

LONG LINE

SHORT LINE

IN

NONLINEAR

 

TRANSFORMER

 

x, =7.5%

 

LINEAR

 

=‘ ’

LOAD

BUS

Q=O

Figure 2 The three-phase system of the illustrative ex-

ample.

BUS 1

*) Updated at each Newton-Raphson iteration using

transformer induced voltage and A-i characteristic; N

= iteration number.

Figure 3

Equivalent circuit of Figure 2 as used in the

modified harmonic load flow analysis.

13

yr)

Voltage at Nonlinear-Load Bus harmonic order k

Transformer Secondary Voltage harmonic order k

Case

R

X,

[%I

I%]

1

lOOLO

100

-

2

127LO 100

-

3

llOLO

200

116

4

115LO

200

116

5

12OLO

200

116

6***llOLO 100

61

7***

llOLO

-

-

 

[WI

1

16-48

2

30.64

3

28.67

4

32.68

5

36.99

68’8

30.13

7**.*

43.79

Case

Vz’

R X,

1

[%I

lOOLO 100

IRI

-

2

127LO 100

-

3

llOLO 200

116

4

115LO 200

116

5

120LO

200

116

6***

llOLO 100

61

7***

llOLO

-

-

Case

 

[WI

1

16.48

2

30.64

3

28.67

4

32-68

5

36.99

;;’

6

30.13

7”*

43-79

N* Time**

 
 

[sec]

k=l

k=3

k=5

k=7

k=l

25

59

77.12L-7.96

0.12L 128. 8.68L26.4

5.25L-53.772.89L-9.70

15

40

14

38

101.0L-8.76

1.57L 47.3

2.79L-53.0

0.65L-89.5100.6L-12.4

29

67

106.7L-8.54

2.08L 48.7

2.74L-50.0

0.62L-92.2106.3L-12.2

19

49

112.4L-8.33

2.68L 50.0

2.69L-47.2

0.59L-94.9111.9L-11.9

12

35

104.4L-14.9

1.06L-15.6

2.09L-124.

26

63

118.1L-9.59

2.71 L-15.3

1.94L-103. 0.14L144.119.8L-10.3

[w]

[%]I

k=l

k=3

k=5

k=7

I

k=l

42.19

-45.7 b.30L-98.1

0.43L-111

0.28L-114

0.05L-94.8)72.89L-9.70

78.84

1.42

7.75L-96.9

3.15L-108

0.98L-106 0.20L-58.

 

100.1L-8.38

77.55

-0.25

7.14L-100.

2.91 L-121 0.89L-144

0.05L-73.

100.3L47.5

8626

11.0

9.07L-100.

3.87L-119

1.09L-141 0.05L 72.

 

106.0L47.7

95.36

22.7

11.3L-99.6 4.97L-118

1.28L-138 0.67L 51.

111.5L48.0

78.05

0.40

7.85L-107.

3.24L-140

0.91L-178

44.39

-42.9

15.5L-100.

7.101-121 1.72L-145

0.12L 75.

0

N* Time**

Voltage at Nonlinear-Load Bus harmonic order k

 
 

[min]

k=l

k=3

k=5

k=7

k=l

13

20

77.12L-7.96

0.12L 128. 8.68L26.4

5.25L-53.7 72.89L-9.70

24

37

106.0L-6.72 0.91L 130. 9.12f43.8

4.25L-49.9 100.I.L-8.38

13

20

101,OL-8.76

1.57L 47.4

2.79L-53.0

0.65L-89.5100.6L-12.4

16

24

106.7L-8.54

2.08L 48.7

2.74L-50.0

0.62L-92.2106.3L-12.2

13

19

112.4L-8.33

2.68L 50.0 2.69L-47.2

0.59L-94.9111.9L-11.9

24

37

104.4L-14.9

1.06L-15.6

2.09L-124.

20

30

118.1L-9.59

2.71 L-15.3

1.94L-103. 0.14L144. 119.8L-10.3

k=3

k=5

k=7

0.14L 123. 8.11L17.7

4.85L-66.1

3.92L-62.5

2.04L 38.8

5.94L-98.4

l.llL143.

2.72L 40.2

5.79L-95.2

1.06L140.

3.49h 41.5

5.64L-92.3

1.02L137.

3.11L-143.

0.58L82-8

2.86L-12.2

3.07L-113.

0.55L113-

k=3

k=5

k=7

0.14L 123 8.11L17.7

4.85L-66.1

1.04L 125 8-51L35.5

3.92L-62.5

5.38L 118 25.8L-15.0

6.74L-132

7.16L 119 25.1L-11.9

6.39L-135

9.19L 121 24.5L-8.92

6.17L-138

 

3.11L-143.

0.58L82-8

0

0

0

106.0L-6.72 0.91L 130. 9.12L43.8 4.25L-49.8 100.1L-8.38 1.04L 125. 8.51L35.5

0.18~-130.100.2L-17.5 1.08L-15.2

0.10L 13. 100.2L-17.5 1.08L-15.2

Transformer Secondary Voltage harmonic order k

k=3

k=5

k=7

0.14L 123. 8.11L17.7

4.85L-66-1

1.04L 125. 8.51L35.5

3.92L-62.5

2.04L 38.8

5.9411-98.4

1.11L143.

2.72L 40.2

5.79L-95.2

1.06L140.

3.49L 41.5

5.64L-92.3

1.02L137.

3.11L-143.

0.58L82.8

2.86L-12.2

3.07L-113. 0.55L113

0.18~-130.100.2L-17.5 1.08L-15.2

Transformer Magnetizing Current harmonic order k

Transformer Secondary Current harmonic order k

Core Losses Total Losses At

[W]

[%]

k=l

k=3

k=5

k=7

k=l

k=3

k=5

k=7

42.19 -45.7 2.301-98.3 0.43L-111 0.28L-114 0.05L-94.872.89L-9.70 0.14L 123 8.11L17.7 4.85L-66.1

78.84

1.42

7.75L-96.9

3.15L-108 0.98L-106 0.20L-58.6 100.1L-8.38

1.04L 125 8.51L35.5

3.92L-62.5

77.55 -0.25 7.14L-100. 2.91L-121 0.89L-144 0.05L-73.8 100.3L47.5 5.38L 118 25.8L-15.0

6.74L-132

86.26

11.0

3.07L-100.

3.87L-119

1.09L-141

0.05L

72.7

106.0L47.7

7.16L 119

25.1 L-11.9 6.39L-135

95.36

22.7 11.3L-99.6 4.97L-118 1.28L-138 0.67L 51.8 111.5L48.0 9.19L 121 24.5f-8.92

6.17L-138

78.05

0.40 7.85L-107.

3.24L-140 0.91L-178 0.10L 13.2 100.2,~-17.5 1.08L-15.2

3.11 L-143.

0.58L82.8

44.39

-42.9

15.5L-100.

7.101-121 1.72L-145

0.12L 75.5

0

0

0

0

14

Case yi)

R

X,

N* Time**

Voltage at Nonlinear-Load Bus harmonic order k

 

Transformer Secondary Voltage harmonic order k

[%I

[%I

[sec]

k=l

k=3

k=5

k=7

k=l

k=3

k=5

k=7

1

lOOLO 100

-

21

11

77.40L-8.07 - 8.721 25.4

5.281-54.4 73.17L-9.86 - 8.15L

16.5 4.88L-66.7

2

12710 100

-

17

9

106.8L-7.01 - 9.07L 40.5 4.29L-51.8 101.OL-8.80 - 8.48L 31.6 3.96L-64.1

3

11OLO 200

116

20

11

101.7L-9.11 - 2.65L-56.3

0.64L-92.4 101.5L-12.9 -

5.80L-102.

1.09L 139.

4

11510

200

116

13

8

107.7L-8.96 - 2.57L-54.2

0.61L-95.8 107.5L-12.7 -

5.62L-100.

1.03L 136.

5

120LO

200

116

13

8

113.6L-8.84 - 2.49L-52.2

0.58L-99.2 113.3L-12.6 -

5.44L-98.2 0.99L 132.

105.11-15.3 - 2.00/-129. 0.17L 127.101.OL-18.1 -

120.1L-10.4 - 1.77L-113. 0.12L 135.122.1L-11.3 -

6***

llOLO 100

61

10

7

3.07L 147. 0.571 78.8

V***

llOLO

-

-

14

8

2.97L -121. 0.54L 105

As explained before, in order to save com-

puting time transformer core-loss currents (fundamental

and harmonics) are assumed to be zero during Newton-

Raphson iterations and are only included in the last

step of the solution procedure for the com utation of

the transformer iron-core losses (Appendix EI). To 'us-

tify this assumption, the above seven cases are studied

(Table 2) with transformer core-loss currents included

in the entire Newton- Raphson iterations (as ex-

plained in the last paragraph of Appendix 11). Com-

parison of Tables 1 and 2 indicates that elimination of

transformer core-loss currents during Newton-Raphson

iterations intro- duces considerable saving in computing

in transformer iron-core losses (CO 1umn 2 of Fables lb

time (column 6 of Tables la and 2a and negli 'ble error

and 2b) and power system voltages (columns 7 to 14 of.

Tables la and 2a and columns 5 to 12 of Tables lb and

2b).

In order to compare the convergence behav-

ior of the modified harmonic load flow algorithms (with

nonlinear transformers) with the harmonic load flow al-

gorithms with linear transformers, the above seven cases

are studied without the nonlinear model of the trans-

former and the addition of the transformer

bus as shown

in Table 3. Although, the number of required iterations

for the convergence of the two algorithms (column 5 of

Tables la and 3) are about the same, the required CPU

computing times (column 6 of Tables la and 3) are in-

creased due to the fact that nonlinear transformers are

treated

as nonlinear loads for which additional Jacobian

entries must be computed.

and output (secondary) powers. However, this method

results in large errors since transformer losses are only

a fraction of the input and output real powers [17]. A

better approach for measuring transformer losses (for

transformers with transformation ratios close to one)

was employed, where [vd(t)- vp(t)] and [id(t) +ip(t)] as

well as [vd(t)+vp(t)] and [is(t) - ip(t)]are measured si-

multaneously [17] and transformer losses are computed

as

where Pl(t) = [U$)

Iv&)

+'Up(t)l

mary and secondar

Transformer loss =

- vp(t)] [ia(t) + ip(t)] and p2(t) =

are transformer primary and seconA)

currents, respective1

[is@) - ip(t)l. vp(t), vs t),ip(t , and is(t)

ary vo tages, pri-

For trans-

formers with transgrmation ratios very zfferent from

one, the above method

will give accurate losses if two

identical transformers are connected back-to-back. As

shown in Table 4, the measured and computed losses

indicate good agreement.

Table 4:

Measured and computed (usin

the proposed

modified harmonic power flow algorithm! losses for the

anf parallel RC loads.

sin

e-phase transformer of [13] subjected to resistive

Measurement Procedure In order to show the accuracy of the modified

harmonic power flow algorithm, transformer (iron-core

and copper) losses are measured and computed

for the

sin e-phase transformer of 131 subjected to a resistive

an%l

a

arallel RC loads. 4ransformer losses are com-

puted PTable 4) using the proposed modified

harmonic

load flow algorithm with transformer primary terminals

modeled as the

minals modeled as

a parallel RC branch tied to

an additional bus (a

tation of transformer induced voltage.

Transformer losses could be measured as the

difference between the measured real input (primary)

*)Percentage of error in computed losses (using the pro-

posed modified harmonic load flow) with respect to

measured losses.

Discussion

The modified harmonic load flow algorithm

resented above is an extension of the harmonic load

gow algorithm with linear transformers [3,4]. Nonlinear

transformers are treated as nonlinear loads, which are

connected to the newly defined transformer buses and

are injecting harmonics into the power system.

Some of the shortcomings of the present har-

monic load flow approach taking into account nonlinear

transformers are:

1. Additional buses are introduced for the represen-

15 tation of transformer induced voltages resulting in an buses, buses m through L - 1
15
tation of transformer induced voltages resulting in an
buses, buses m through L - 1 to be the transformer
increase in computing time.
buses and buses L to n
as
conventional non- linear-
2.
Three- hase transformers are assumed to consist
load buses (TI =total number of buses). The Newton-
of three igntical single-phase transformers.
Raphbn method is used [3] to cQmpute the correc-
3.
Only grounded-wye, grounded-wye transformers
tion terms, Afr, by forcing the appropriate mismatches
are considered.
A&t = J A 0. In the case of the harmonic ower flow
Some of the advantages of this power flow ap-
study with nonlinear transformers the JacoEan J is a
proach taking into account nonlinear transformers are:
2(nK - 1) + 2 n - L + 1
by 2 nK - 1) + L TI - 1 + 1)
1.
Computation of transformer copper and and iron-
matrix ((m - 1) = nuder of Lneax buses, L - m) =
core losses within
a load flow analysis is
ossible.
numberpf transformer buses K = number oI harmon-
2.
Educated
rediction of transformer E eating and
ics considered (including fundamental) and l3q.18 of [3]
possible transrormer failure, based on the percent-
becomes (neglecting transformer core- oss current)
age increase of transformer losses compared to trans-
former rated losses.
3.
Proper placements of capacitor banks is possible
takin into account transformer losses.
yG(5,L)
H(5)
4.
In8usion of transformer magnetizin
current in the
harmonic power flow algorithm, thereP
ore, improving
the accuracy of the harmonic
ower flow.
5.
Com uted transformer A-i %aracteristics are used.
his is teneficial in case of large power transformers
where measurement of transformer A-i characteristics
where L = maximum harmonic order considered and all
is not always feasible and/or possible.
subvectors and submatrices are as defined in 131 except,
Linear Bwes
The dependency of transformer iron-core losses
c
.on the magnitude and phase an e of the fundamental
Am= [P{+h,i, - * ,PA-l+fm-i,i, &k-i+fm-i,;,
and harmonic flux densities maf es it almost impossi-
Nontinear-Load
Bwes
ble to predict transformer losses without the applica-
A
/
AFnlin
. . .. . .
%
tion of the above algorithm-that is the transformation
>n
Apnonlin,
AQ;odin)t
4
'
of transformer quantities during each Newton-Raphson
="latch active powers and reactive volt--
*iterationfrom the frequency domain to the time domain
peres at all but transformer buses (Aplronlm
and back to the frequency domain in order to compute
and AQY""'
= total mismatch active power
the magnetizing and core-loss currents and the corre-
and reactive voltamperes at non- linear-load bus
sponding iron-core losses. However, the price for the
L, respectively).
computation of transformer losses is paid via comput-
Transf "er
Buses
ing time.
Conclusions
A harmonic load flow algorithm capable of
($2
-
-
-
, $2
simulating nonlinear transformers and computing trans-
+ g$,
+ gg, I!,? + gi:)t
*
*
former iron-core and copper losses is developed by mod-
= mismatch fundamental current (fiAg(and r) ,m
ifying an existing harmonic load flow algorithm [3,4J.
The convergence properties are similar to the harmomc
I(') mg(i),m are transformer fundamental real and
load flow algorithm with linear transformers. A sim le
imagmary magnetizing-currentsat
bus m,
re-
exam le consisting of a linear load, a full-wave brig
spectively,
as computed in Appendix 11).
rectizr and an anisotropic transformer with linear lo$
Linear Buses
is examined. The computed and measured losses of a
sin e-phase circuit consisting of a linear load and a 1
kV! f anisotropic transformer show good agreements.
Acknowledgements
The work described
was supported by the Na-
tional Science Foundation, Washington, DC, under con-
tract number ECS-8813405.
APPENDIX
I
= mismatch harmonic (IC # 1) currents. Note:
The Harmonic Power Flow Formulation in
fi2g(and r) fi!g(i),m ,m are transformer harmo-
the Presence of Nonlinear Transformer Buses
nic real
and imaginary magnetizins currents at
With the introduction of the newly defined
bus m, respectively, as computed in Appendix
transformer buses the harmonic load flow algorithm of
11.
1341 can be easily modified to include nonlinear trans-
J(l)= fundamental
ower flow Jacobian [3] written for
ormers. This is the case since the functional form of
all but transgrmer buses.
a transformer bus is very similar to a nonlinear-load
J(k)= ICth harmonic power flow Jacobian [3] written for
bus I3,4]. The notations of reference [3] will be used
all but transformer buses.
throughout this section.
Also YG("j) is the same as [3] with the exception that
Define bus 1 to be the conventional swin bus,
G(kf)is given by
buses- 2 through m - 1 to be the conventionaJ inear
16 A: B imaginary ( fiAg(i)components ,,) of the magnetizing ................................................. current for each harmonic using
16
A:
B
imaginary ( fiAg(i)components ,,) of the magnetizing
.................................................
current for each harmonic using
jCig,m= ~z~(,.),~
+ j fi2g(i),m
f.r k = 1,3,. - *, L,
where j = a.
c:
Note that the above numerical method of
computing the magnetizing currents in the time domain
0
does not rely on the superposition of harmonics. In-
stead, the nonlinearity between the induced voltage and
0
t,he magnetizing current is included in the computation
of the instantaneous magnetizing current by using the
nonlinear X-i characteristic and the instantaneously in-
where A, B and C are zero submatrices of sizes 2(m- 1)
duced voltage.
b 2(m-1),2 m-1) by2 n-m+l)and2(n-m+
lf by 2 m - l\, respectivei y.
The partial derivatives
of transI
ormer real and imaginary magnetizing currents
The modified harmonic load flow Jacobian
(IELs(r),m and I;ig(i),m) and the partial derivatives of
matrix entries, corresponding to the fundamental and
harmonic magnetizing currents (entries of G(I">j) corre-
g('") are computed in [3] and Appendix 11, respectively.
sponding to the partial derivatives of Izg(r),mand
In the above formulation, the transformer
core-loss current is assumed to be zero to save comput-
I,!,!g(i),m with respect to voltage magnitudes and phase
ing time and is included in the last step of the Newton-
angles), are numerically computed as follows:
Raphson solution procedure along with the computa-
Step 1: For given fundamental and harmonic volt-
tion of transformer iron-core losses Appen- dix 111). If
age amplitudes and phase angles at transformer bus m
desired, transformer core losses cod6 be included in the
entire solution procedure as explained in the last para-
(transformer induced voltage), let V(l)loid = I pi)1,
graph of Appendix 11.
V(3)(01d= Ipg)]e , , V(L)lold = IPAL)!,and use the
..
above three-step procedure to compute transformer fun-
damental and harmonic real and imaginary magnetiz-
APPENDIX
I1
ing currents, I::,(,),,
= Ir(1) loid,
I(3)
mag(r),m=~r
(3) loid,
Computation of Jacobian Matrix Entries for
Transformer Magnetizing Current
I(L)
*
*
-PIold, I::g(i),m
=-ri (1) lold, I(3)
mag(i),m=
7
mag(r),m-
Given the volta e
at transformer bus m
4(3) lold, . * *, I(mag(i),m=l!
L)
L) lold.
in the frequency domain !which
is identical to trans-
former induced voltage Em) and the corresponding X-i
Step 2: Let I$$)[ = V(j)lnew= V(j)lold+IAv(j)Iwith
characteristic [13], a transformation from frequency do-
all other harmonic voltage amplitudes and phase angles
main to time domain and from time domain back to
being a percentage of V(j)Jold
' frequency domain is made to compute the fundamen-
corresponding transformer fun-
tal and harmonic components of the magnetizing cur-
real and imaginary magnetiz-
rent of the transformer connected to ths bus. NQte
ing currents and let
(1)
(3)
that the fundamental and harmonic phase angles of V,
= Imaolr,.m,Ir lnew =
need to be shifted by -90 degrees since the harmonic
load flow of [3,4] is based on the sinusoidal phasor anal-
ysis [18], while the transformer model of [13:14] uses
the cosinusoidal phasor definition. After computing the
corresponding fundamental and harmonic magnetizing
monic real and imaginary magnetizing currents with re-
currents, their angles will be shifted by 90 degrees in
spect to the jth harmonic voltage magnitude are:
order to express them
in the sinusoidal phasor domain.
The procedure is as follows:
Step 1: Compute the harmonic components of the flux
linkage using Faraday's law
where j = t/--i and w1 = 2nf1= 2n60Hz rad/sec.
Step 3: Repeat Ste
2 for other harmonic orders j
(e.g.,
Step 2: Synthesize the instantaneous flux-linkage time
j = 1, 3, 5,
. , LT to compute the partial derivatives
function and use the X-i characteristic (Fjgure 1 of
[14])
of the magnetizing currents with respect to all harmonic
to compute the instantaneous magnetivng time func-
amplitude voltages.
tion.
Step 4: Repeat Steps 2 and 3 for the fundamental and
Step 3: Fourier analyze the magnetizing current to gen-
harmonic voltage angles to compute the partial deriva-
tives of the fundamental and harmonic magnetizing cur-
erate its fundamental (j%kg,m)and harmonic (j%g,m)
rents with respect to the fundamental and harmonic
components. Compute the real (IEig(r),m) and the
voltage angles.

Using a stepsize of about 5% (e.g., I Av(j)I =

0.05. V(j)lold), we have not experienced any numerical

instabilities by introducing the finite difference e ua-

tions of Step

2 in the harmonic power flow algorism.

However, the required CPU time for a given iteration

increases considerably

(see Tables la and 3) since ad-

ditional Jacobian entries are introduced by the trans-

former equivalent circuit.

In the above formulation, the transformer

core-loss current is assumed to be zero. However, for

a given voltage V, at transformer bus m, the trans-

former core-loss currents can be included in each step

of the Newton-Fbphson iterative procedure, if the real

and imaginary components of the exciting transformer

current are computed using

(k)

Ee,m + fiAg,m = Iezei(r),m + j

(k)

Iezci(i),m

for k = 1,3, - - ,L, where j = J-7 and

is trans-

former core-loss current as computed in Appendix 111.

nary magnetizing currents the corresponding Jacob&

matrix entries are computed using the same above-

mentioned four-step procedure.

APPENDIX

I11

Computation of Transformer Fundamental and Harmonic Iron-Core Losses

In order to save computing time, transformer

fundamental and harmonic core-loss currents are as-

sumed to be zero throughout the iterative Newton-

Raphson solution procedure. After the solution has con-

verged, the proposed method of [14] is used to com-

pute the iron-core losses and the associated core-loss

currents.

For given fundamental and harmonic induced

voltage amplitudes and phase angles at transformer bus

  • m the procedure is as follows:

Step 1: Repeat Step 1 of Appendix 11.

Step 2: Synthesize the instantaneous flux-linkage time

functions and use the computed flux link

7

density curves (e.g., Figure 4 of

each mesh

of the transformer gri6 systemO

141) t

e versus flux

(e.g., Figure

etermine

for

  • 16 of [13]) the flux-density time functions.

Step 4: The kth harmonic total iron-core losses

Pcore,total

(k)

are the sum of all local kth harmonic iron-

core losses. The total transformer iron-core losses are

k=1,3, ...

The harmonic core-loss resistance and core-loss currents

The phase shift of ,,&f

E%)).

17

is identical to that of

vAk)

References

C .K. Duffey and R. P. Stratford, ”Update of Har;

monic Standard IEEE519: IEEE Recommended

Practices and Requirements

for Harmonic Control in

Electric Power Systems, IBEE Trans. on Industry

Applications, Vol”. 25, No. 6, November/December

1989.

V.

M. Montsinger,“Loading Transformer by Tem-

perature”, Trans. AIEE., Vol. 49, 1930, p. 776.

D.

Xia and G. Heydt, “Harmonic Power Flow Stud-

ies, Part1 and Part II”,IEEE Trans. on Power

Apparatus and Systems, June 1982, Vol. PAS-101,

No.6 , pp. 1257-1265 and pp. 1266-1270.

G.

T. Heydt

and

W. M.

Grady,

“User Manual,

HARMF’LO Version 3.1”, Electric Power Research

Institute, Publication EL - 4366 - CCM, Palo Alto,

CA, 1985.

 
  • W. Song, G. T. He dt, and W. M. Grady “The In-

tegration of HVD6Subsystems into the Harmonic

Power Flow AI orithm”, IEEE Trans. on Power

Apparatus an8 Systems, August 1984, Vol. PAS-

103, No.$, pp. 1953-1961.

  • W. M. Grady and G. T. Heydt, “Prediction of Power

System Harmonics Due to Gaseous Discharge

Lighting”, w, March 1985, Vol. PAS-104, pp. 554-
561.

  • A. H. El-Abiad and D. C. Tarsi, “Load Flow Solu-

tion

of

Untransposed

EHV

5th Power Industry Computer

Networks”, Proc. of

Applications Confe-

rence, Pittsburgh, pp. 377-384, 1967.

  • W. Xu, J. Marti, and H. W. Dommel, “A Mul-

tiphase Harmonic Load Flow Solution Technique”,

IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, February

1991, Vol.

6, No. 2, pp. 174182.

  • W. Xu, J. Marti, and H. W. Dommel, “Harmonic

Analysis of Systems with Static Compensators” ,&d,

February 1991, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 183-190.

[lo] H. W. Dommel, A. Yan, and W. Shi, “Harmonics

from

Transformer

Saturation”, IEEE Trans. on

Power

Delivery, April 1986, Vol. PWRD-1, pp. 209-

215.

  • 1111 A. Semlyen, E. Acha, and J. Arrillaga,“Harmonic Norton Equivalent for the Magnetising Branch of

a

Transformer”, IEE Proc., March 1987, Vol. 134, Pt.

C, No.2, pp. 162-169.

[12] A. Semlyen, E. Acha, and J. Arrillaga, “Newton-

Type Algorithms for the Harmonic Phasor Analy-

sis of Nonlinear Power Circuits in Periodical Steady

State with Special Reference to Magnetic Nonlinear-

ities”, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, July 1988,

Vol. 3, No.3, pp. 1090-1098.

[13] E. F. Fuchs, M. A. S. Masoum, and D.

J. Roesler,

“Nonlinear

Model

of

Anisotropic Power Trans-

Part I: A-i

formers for Nonsinusoidal Operations.

Characteristic”, w, January 1991 , Vol. 6, No.1 ,

pp. 174185.

[14]

M. A. S. Masoum, E. F. Fuchs, and D. J. Roesler,

“Nonlinear

Model

of

Anisotropic Power Trans-

formers for Nonsinusoidal ODerations. Part 11: Mae-

netizin

1991, $01.

and Core-Loss CGrrents”, U, Octobzr

6, No. 4, pp. 1509-1516.

  • M. A. S. Masoum, E. F. Fuchs, and D. J. Roesler,

“Impact of Nonlinear Loads on Anisotropic Trans-

formers”, U, October 1991, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp.

1781-1 788.

W.

D. Stevenson, “Elements of Power System Anal-

ysis”, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Fourth Edition,

1982.

hl. A. S. Masoum, “Generation and Propagation of

Harmonics in Power Systems Containing Nonlinear

Transformers and Loads”, Ph.D. Thesis, University

of Colorado at Boulder, May 1991.

W.

M. Grady, Private communication, January 22,

1991.

Mohammad A. S. Masoum was

born in Isfahan, Iran, on August

23, 1959. He received his Bache-

lor’s, Master’s and Ph.D. de ees

in Electrical and Computer Kgi-

neering in 1983, 1985 and 1991,

respectively, from the Univer-

sity of Colorado. His main in-

terests include numerical analy-

sis as applied to harmonic power

flow studies, finite-difference and

finite-element formulati on as well

as optimization of electrical devices and solar power

plants. He has been on the staff of the Electrical En-

gineering Department at University of Colorado as a

Teaching Assistant, Research Assistant, and instructor

since 1983. Presently Dr. Masoum is a postdoctoral

fellow at the University of Colorado at Boulder.

Ewald F. Fuchs received his

Dip1.-Ing. degree in Electrical

En ineering from the University

of Btuttgart, Germany, and the

Ph.D. degree in Electrical En-

neering from the University of

f3 olorado at Boulder in 1967 and

1970, respectively. From 1972 to

1978, he was employed as an en-

gineer in the Lar e Steam Tur-

bine Division of &e Kraftwerk

Union AG in Miilheim, Germany.

Presently Dr. Fuchs is a Professor of Electrical Engi-

neering

at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Col-

orado

80309.

His main interests are design and opti-

mization techniques of drive systems, harmonic power

flow studies, and finite-difference and finite-element for-

mulations. Dr. Fuchs is a Fellow of IEEE, a member of

VDE, a member of Eta Kappa Nu, and of Sigma Xi. At

the annual meeting of the VDE in 1972 he was the re-

cipient of the annual best paper prize. At the Summer

Power Meetin 1989 in Long Beach, CA, he received

the PES/IEEl$ Prize Paper Award 1989 and the IEEE

1989 Power System Relaying Committee Award.

19

Discussion

ALTERNATOR

D. J. Roesler (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC):

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

The implementation of a nonlinear transformer model in har- monic load flow programs (e.g., HARMFLO) is an important contribution, since it makes an assessment of the energy savings ,\ of emerging nonlinear power electronic loads easier. For exam- ple, it is important to study the potential effects of single-phase adjustable-speed drive heat pumps on power system distortion and losses. Such heat pumps can have a high seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of about 15 but a high total harmonic distortion (THD) of the current of more than 75%, or a low SEER of about 10 with a low current THD of less than 20%. To assess the benefits of such newly emerging high-efficiency heat pumps one has to weigh the energy savings for the consumer in comparison to the energy loss within the power system caused by the injected harmonic currents originating in nonlinear con- sumers such as variable-speed heat pumps. In reading this paper one notes that the authors have only presented a zero-sequence equivalent circuit for wye/wye trans- formers with both neutrals grounded. In view of the above-men- tioned need to evaluate the potential effects of high-efficiency heat pumps on power system distortion and losses, one has to know as well the zero-sequence equivalent circuits for other

three-phase transformer connections (e.g., delta/wye). Are these zero-sequence equivalent circuits identical to those listed in [ 16, page 2991 or are there any differences, if magnetizing currents are not neglected? What difficulties and adjustments are antici- pated in using the transformer model of this paper for unbal- anced harmonic power flow analysis?

Figure D1 Grounded-wye i"' ungrounded-wye three-phase

transformer connected to a balanced grounded-uye al-

ternator (a). and corresponding measured current and

voltage waveforms (b).

ALTERNATOR

SECONDARY

VSpH

M.A.S. Masoum and E.F. Fuchs: The authors

thank Mr. Roesler for his interest in this paper and for

providing an opportunity to address important ques-

tions. There are two types of zero-sequence currents

in power systems: type I consists of zero-sequence sig-

nals (e.g., 3rd, gth,

Gth,...)

due

to system imbalance

as discussed in pages 298-300 of reference 16; type I1

consists of zero-sequence currents injected by nonlin-

ear loads (e.g., saturated transformers). Therefore, sat-

urated transformers inject zero-sequence harmonics of

type I1 in balanced as well as unbalanced power sys-

tems.

The injection of triplen (3rd7gth:

15th. ...

)

harmonics in

power systems by saturated transformers is greatly in-

fluenced by transformer connections. Transformer sat-

uration usually results in generation of zero-sequence

harmonic currents as shown by the measured waveforms

of Figure D1. However, if a zero-sequence path is not

provided in either the primary side or the secondary

side (e.g., in case of ungrounded-yve/ungrounded-wye

transformers , predominantly 3rd, gth, isth,

harmonic vo1 tages are generated as indicated in Figure

...

order

D2.

Figure D2

(b)

Ungrounded-wyejungrounded-wpe three-

phase transformer connected to a balanced ungrounded-

wye alternator (a). and corresponding measured current

and voltage wayeforms (b).

In Figure D1 a zero-sequence path is provided in the pri-

mary, therefore. transformer saturation results in dom-

inant triplen (including positive and negative sequence)

harmonics in the primary phase current (IFH 1,

ligible zero-. positive and negatil-e sequence armomcs

in the line and phase voltages \7f-L. In

Figure D2 no zeru-sequence current path is provided,

20

therefore, transformer saturation results in triplen har-

monics in the phase voltages (V;,, VSH)and no zero-

sequence harmonics in the line current (Iz) contain-

ing negative and positive sequence current components.

These nonlinear phenomena associated with saturated

transformers must be properly included in transformer

zero-sequence equivalent circuits as illustrated in Fig-

ures D3 to D6 neglecting iron-core loss currents.

P

t (YEgjN=0

*) Updated at each Newton-Raphson iteration using

traasformer induced voltage and A-i characteristic; N

= iteration number.

**) Contains 3rd, gth, 15th,

...

order harmonic voltages

ca,used by transformer saturation.

Figure D3 Zero-sequence equivalent circuit of ungroun-

ded-wye/ungrounded-wye connected three-phase trans-

formers neglecting iron-core loss currents.

BUS i

M

4

Fi re D4 Zero-sequence equivalent circuit of delta/

de!% connected three-phase transformers neglecting

iron-core loss currents.

*

I-

Figure D5 Zero-sequence equivalent circuit of ground-

ed-wye/delta connected three-phase transformers ne-

glecting iron-core loss currents.

Figure D6 Zero-sequence equivalent circuit of ungroun-

ded-wye/delta connected three-phase transformers ne-

glecting iron-core loss currents.

If iron-core loss currents are not neglected Figure D3

becomes Figure D7 and Figures D4 to D6 can be aug-

mented similarly.

--

Figure D7 Zero-sequence equivalent circuit of ungroun-

ded-wyelungrounded-uye connected three-phase trans-

formers including iron-core loss currents.

In above figures (Figures D3 to D6) three-phase trans-

formers are assumed to consist of three identical single-

phase transformers, transformer core loss currents are

neglected, and balanced three-phase systems are consid-

ered. Therefore, the generated zero-sequence harmonics

are caused by transformer saturation and are not due

to system imbalance.

These equivalent circuits could be used for three- and

five-legged three-phase transformers under unbalanced

conditions, if

1. the fact that transformer legs are asymmetric is in-

cluded in the computation of the transformer mag-

netizing current (e.g., different A-i characteristics are

  • used for different phases
    2. the existence of mutual A ux linkages between trans-

,

former phases are taken into account in the compu-

tation of the transformer magnetizing current.

Manuscript received December 21, 1992.