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Mary Immaculate College, Limerick,
19th - 21st May, 2017
All venues in TARA Building, Mary Immaculate
College, Limerick



VENUE: T1.18
VENUE: T1.17
19.00 WELCOME RECEPTION - An tSli (TARA Building)
VENUE: T1.18
VENUE: T1.18
11:00 BREAK
12:00 MCGANN- HARNETT- SANTOS- Design and delivery of
Research Multimodal Mix and a self-study A0
Expertise Fluency and the match: a Syllabus for Brazilian
Exchange (REX) Art of method on Learners in Ireland
Remembering: how to
Using the analyse
Graphic Novel pragmatic
to Assimilate competence
Traumatic in second
Memories. language.
12:30 PAOR- Aiding OKEEFFE- Investigating EFL
Methods for Culturally Balancing Teachers Perceptions
researching Responsive acts in of Task-based
verbal Assessment in Corpus Language Teaching in
interactions and Schools Pragmatics: Higher Education in
professional form-to- China
learning in function and
teacher function-to-
induction form
12:30 LUNCH (MIC Canteen)
Promotion of Using a Oideolaochta teacher classroom
cultural political um Theagasc an talk in 3 stages of
awareness in the ecology Lireolais do teacher career
post-primary framework to Bhunmhinteoir development
foreign language examine faoi Oiliint
curriculum extra-legal
strategies: a
based case
study of
cultivation of
and trade in
Bridging the Gap Virtual 'Cad a spreagann Academic Writing:
between the ethnography rogha laethil Presence and
Language of and teanga sa Influence of
Policy and the content/disco Ghaeltacht - Power, Identity,
Culture of Schools urse analysis anails ar an and Culture
rogha teanga i
nGaeltacht na
nDise' 'What
are the factors
that influence
daily language
choice in the
Gaeltacht -
analysis of
language choice
in Gaeltacht na
15:00 BREAK
17:00 T.J. CEALLAIGH- Language Developing A Model Pre-Service
Choices and Ideologies in Teacher Education Programme
Irish-medium Education for the Teachers of English in
17:30 Needs analysis for CALL: Corpus-based contrastive
Developing diagnostic tools analysis of reader engagement
for self-directed language in academic writing: questions
learning and reader pronouns
10.30 Build your own DIY corpus, they The Role of Collaborative
said: the challenges and Writing vs. Individual
opportunities of creating the Work in Improving Essay
Corpus of Fictionalized Irish Writing: A Case Study on
English. Saudi Learners
11.00 Research Methods in the Study of Janey Assumpta!: the
Chinese Second Language exploitation of vocatives
Acquisition in China: A Critical in simulating everyday
Review of Methodologies discourse in radio
advertising in Ireland.
11:00 BREAK
12:00 AISLING MURPHY- Failure, guilt, OBRIEN- HEALY-
ABCs and 123s: The confession, Spanish At the cold-
effect of home based redemption? Language face of a
language and Revisiting Ecosystems in methodology
learning activities on unpublished New Mexico for data
reasoning and research collection:
vocabulary through a how I collected
development in young psychosocial the CLAS
children lens corpus, with a
little help from
my friends.
12:30 When two worlds & SUZANNE TIAINEN- FITZGERALD-
collide: Creative EGAN Legitimizing Irish Oral
design and The role of digital Histories: A
unconventional fathers in earlysurveillance Linguistic
dissemination in childhood in political Perspective
Education Research. caregiving and decision
home learning making: A
activities critical
analysis of
ABSTRACTS (in alphabetical order)

Alammar, Mansour, Structured PhD in TESOL (Forth Year), School of Modern

Languages and Applied Linguistics, University of Limerick

Title: The Role of Collaborative Writing vs. Individual Work in Improving

Essay Writing: A Case Study on Saudi Learners

Little attention has been paid to the use of collaborative writing to improve learners essay writing at
Saudi universities. The current study aims to examine the extent to which collaborative writing is more
or less significant in improving learners skills in writing as opposed to individual work in class.

This research study focuses on the advantages of collaborative writing in class to improve EFL learners
proficiency in essay writing. In the field of applied linguistics, this issue is an interesting area to
investigate. To what extent is collaborative work more or less significant than individual writing in
improve learners skills in essay writing? The researcher chose 20 L2 male students in level three
majoring in English at Imam University, College of Languages and Translation in Saudi Arabia.

To collect data, the researcher utilized four researcher-made instruments: an EFL essay writing test,
error correction writing test, open-ended questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews. The data was
collected from the participants using a mixed method technique that combines qualitative and
quantitative analysis in a unique treatment. The data of this study was found to be very significant,
which will open room for wide research in collaborative writing as a good method to adopt in teaching
EFL writing.


Breathnach, Caitrona, Mary Immaculate College, Limerick

Title: 'Cad a spreagann rogha laethil teanga sa Ghaeltacht - anails ar an rogha

teanga i nGaeltacht na nDise' 'What are the factors that influence daily
language choice in the Gaeltacht - analysis of language choice in Gaeltacht na

This paper focuses on an ongoing study of the 'Gaeltacht' areas of An Rinn and An Sean Phobal in
County Waterford. The aim of the study is to establish the distinctiveness of this area in terms of the
use of Irish as one of the primary modes of communication. The research seeks to identify and explain
the reasons for this reflexive use of language as a form of socio-cultural behaviour that continues
despite external processes that have caused language shift in other similar sized areas. The area of
focus comprises two contiguous places that can be identified by their designations as parishes and
which, together, are also formally designated as Gaeltacht na nDise. The term Gaeltacht denotes
areas where Irish is, or was, the main spoken language of a substantial number of the local population;
these areas are also defined by Government order. However, Gaeltacht areas are not the product of
statutory regulation. Rather, they are vestigial examples of the predominance of Irish as a spoken
language. Historically, Irish was supplanted as the spoken language in response to the process of
colonisation and this happened remarkably quickly but it is equally noteworthy that the replacement
of Irish with English was not complete with the former surviving as the primary language in a number
of locales. One of the main commonalities between areas in which Irish endured is that they tended
to be characterised by geographical remoteness and marginalisation from hubs where more
favourable socio-economic conditions/circumstances prevailed. This study investigates why Irish has
survived in one such community. The paper will outline the study design which includes the following
four phases of data-collection: 1) a household survey (2015); 2) 2 focus groups (2016); 3)
questionnaires to schools (2016); and 4) interviews with people from both parishes, chosen randomly


Burns, Denise, Centre for Evaluation, Quality and Inspection, School of Policy
and Practice, Dublin City University.

Title: Aiding Culturally Responsive Assessment in Schools

The presentation is entitled Aiding Culturally Responsive Assessment in Schools (ACRAS). It present
the methodology involved in a project that has Erasmus+ funding and has partners in Austria,
Ireland, Norway and Turkey. For the purpose of the project the term culturally responsive
assessment refers to classroom-based assessment that acknowledges and respects learners' cultural
background and approaches to learning as they strive for academic success. The target student
population for the project is second-level students with a migration background. The aim of the
project is to produce a toolkit for second-level schools for culturally-responsive assessment.

The methodology includes:

a literature survey with each partner country researching assessment literature in their own

a website in the four languages

a questionnaire of second level schools to seek information on schools current practice

a comparative analysis of the questionnaire findings to develop a conceptual framework

case studies of schools

a toolkit developed from the findings in the four languages piloted in each country.
Dissemination will include a module for pre-service teacher education. An external evaluator will
give a report which will be included in the final report to be published in the four languages in 2019.

Co-authors: Dr. Funda Nayir, ankiri Karatekin University, Turkey.

Dr. Martin Brown, Centre for Evaluation, Quality and Inspection, School of Policy and
Practice, Dublin City University.

Professor Joe OHara, Director: Centre for Evaluation, Quality and Inspection, School
of Policy and Practice, Dublin City University.

Professor Gerry McNamara, Centre for Evaluation, Quality and Inspection, School of
Policy and Practice, Dublin City University.


Corcoran, Santhi, PhD researcher in Education, Mary Immaculate College,

University of Limerick, Department of Learning, Society and Religious

Title: When two worlds collide: Creative design and unconventional

dissemination in Education Research.
How does a researcher respond to the social and political world as an activist in a period of flux and
continue to be relevant? The conventional academic world, requests rigour and standard frameworks
in postgraduate research design. This creates constraints that inhibit creative and divergent designs
in both application and dissemination of research. Can both the unconventional and the conventional
work in synthesis in academic practice and academic research? Or have our rigorous methodologies
created a cautionary approach and framework that inhibits creativity? Can innovation and dissimilar
research methods challenge the status quo which continues to support the directed and structured
rather than participative and collaborative approaches? How can research be relevant and impactful
to the participants and the mainstream if its framework creates elitism and therefore a gulf between
knowledge, understanding and practice? As political and social constructs shift and standard
paradigms are challenged, should unconventional research methodologies be given equal value in
academia? Should these diverse and creative approaches not only apply to research design and
methodology but also in the dissemination and application of findings? This paper aims to discuss the
challenges this poses for researcher and supervisor and this researchers approach to her research.


Curry, Niall, Centre for Applied Languages Studies, School of Modern

Languages and Applied Linguistics and the Faculty of Arts Humanities and
Social Sciences, University of Limerick.
Title: Corpus-based contrastive analysis of reader engagement in academic
writing: questions and reader pronouns
Although a relatively under researched area of academic writing, studies on reader engagement have
received some attention in the context of English academic writing. This has resulted in the
development of comprehensive models of engagement that evoke the use of devices such as
questions, which can create a dialogue between the writer and the reader through the asking of
questions, and reader pronouns which, through the use of pronouns such as we or us, can place the
reader in the text. As is the case in much of the literature on academic writing in general, there are
comparatively fewer studies focusing on reader engagement in languages other than English or
contrastively across languages. However, in a world of increasing international exchange, there is a
growing need for such research on academic writing. This paper proposes the application of English-
language based models of reader engagement to the contrastive analysis of questions and reader
pronouns in the English, French and Spanish research article in the discipline of economics.

The framework applies models of reader engagement contrastively in order to measure equivalence
and investigate the extent to which English-language based models can successfully be applied to
languages other than English. Equivalence of questions and reader pronouns is measured through a
convergent corpus-based contrastive functional analysis, tested for different types of equivalence
such as frequency, distribution, form, word class and sentence length. The preliminary results of this
research indicate evidence of strong similarities and important differences in the use of questions and
reader pronouns as reader engagement, contributing to the literature on the culture and nature of
academic writing in English, French and Spanish. Pedagogically, the attested examples in multiple
languages, acquired from the corpus approach, can be useful in illustrating grammatical structures
used to pose questions and include readers in research. Furthermore, this approach can demonstrate
the application of comparable corpora to the teaching of English for academic purposes, and its French
and Spanish counterparts, francais langue acadmique and el Espaol con fines acadmicos.


De Paor, Cathal, Mary Immaculate College.

Title: Methods for researching verbal interactions and professional learning in

teacher induction
This paper presents an analysis of the verbal interactions from post-observation meetings held as part
of beginning teacher induction programmes in France and Ireland. The enquiry centres on how the
conseiller pdagogique de circonscription (CPC) in France and the mentor in Ireland support the
beginning teachers in their professional learning and in the construction their professionnality. The
CPC and mentor are expected to address important teacher knowledge relating to the observed
lesson(s), while at the same time, ensuring that a successful learning relationship with the teacher can
be established and maintained. Negotiating this balance requires a high level of awareness and
expertise on the part of the mentor/CPC in how they use language. The article identifies certain key
differences in the approach of the CPC and mentor, and these are linked to how teacher induction is
organised in both countries.
Egan, Suzanne Mary Immaculate College, Limerick and Murphy, Aisling,
Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)
Title: ABCs and 123s: The effect of home based language and learning activities
on reasoning and vocabulary development in young children

The aim of this research was to explore the impact of home based learning activities on young
childrens language and cognitive development. The data were drawn from the Growing Up in Ireland
study, a nationally representative longitudinal birth cohort study. We examined whether different
types of learning activities affect scores on a development index when the infants were 9 months, and
on standardised reasoning and vocabulary tests when the children were aged 3 years. We also
controlled for other factors such as the educational level of the parents and whether the child is in
regular non-parental childcare. We found evidence that language activities such as reading and talking
to the infant have a modest but statistically significant effect on cognitive development as young as 9
months. Similarly, at 3 years of age reading is associated with higher reasoning and vocabulary scores
but other learning activities such as games, songs, painting, counting and reciting the alphabet have
mixed effects. We consider the implications of the findings for government and educational policy.

Fitzgerald, Chris. University of Limerick Structure PhD in TESOL

Title: Irish Oral Histories: A Linguistic Perspective

The Irish Bureau of Military History was established by the Irish Minister for Defence in January 1947.
Over the subsequent ten years 1773 witness statements were collected by the Bureau staff. They were
given the task of travelling throughout Ireland to gather as much information as possible from those
involved in the independence movement. This resulted in one of the largest oral history collections of
its kind ever undertaken, comprised of over 36,000 pages of statements. Since becoming available to
the public in 2003, these histories are being used as valuable sources of historical data relating to the
1916 Rising and war of independence, but have hitherto not been investigated linguistically. This study
looks at the statements from a linguistic perspective, using methods of corpus linguistics and discourse
analysis to evaluate their significance as sources of linguistic data. Though oral histories have been
investigated from a linguistic perspective (Schiffrin, 2003), there remains to be a thorough
examination of how they can be utilised within the field of narrative inquiry and how that may bridge
the disciplines of history and linguistics. Narrative inquiry is increasingly being looked upon as a tool
to further our understanding of not only language, but also language teaching and learning (Benson,
2014). This presentation will outline the potential contribution of oral histories to this field while
establishing oral history as a genre of language by outlining the linguistic features that distinguish this
type of narrative from others.

Free, Marcus, Department of Media and Communications, Mary Immaculate

Title: Failure, guilt, confession, redemption? Revisiting unpublished research
through a psychosocial lens
Many researchers leave unfinished projects behind them and experience varying degrees of regret
and uncertainty as to the reasons for reluctance or inability to bring the research to fruition. This paper
concerns a qualitative research project from earlier in the authors career that never reached
completion and remains a source of guilt and shame for him. Possible explanations are considered in
light of insights derived from the psychosocial turn in qualitative research associated particularly with
Hollway and Jeffersons Doing Qualitative Research Differently (2013/ 2001). The project was an
interview based study of the life experiences of middle aged and older Irish emigrants in England,
conducted in the late 1990s in Birmingham and Manchester. The paper considers the failure as a
possible psychic defence against the anxiety that completion and publication would be a betrayal of
the interviewees, many of whom described experiences distressing to themselves and the interviewer.
The psychoanalytic concepts of transference and countertransference are used to speculate as to
the role of the unconscious at work in the interview encounters and how, despite class and
generational differences, psychodynamic fantasies relating to both interviewees and interviewers
migration histories and experiences may have impacted upon each other. It revisits the research
critically using a psychosocial lens in an attempt to identify and consider the possible underlying
reasons for this failure. As an exploratory attempt at a working through of painful and mixed feelings
it is consequently a mixture of orthodox academic writing, analysis and experiment.

Garska, Jessica. School of Linguistic, Speech and Communication Sciences,

Trinity College Dublin

Title: Re-imaging Academic Writing: Presence and Influence of Power,

Identity, and Culture
Issues surrounding English for Academic Purposes in regards to non-native English speakers at tertiary
schools have become increasingly important in recent years with the increase of globalization and
student mobility. Approaches to English for Academic Purposes pedagogy have evolved from a skills
model and socialization model to an academic literacies model. While academic literacies research
has identified that power, identity, and culture play a role in academic writing, the presence of and
attitudes towards these aspects in academic writing has not been studied thoroughly. Therefore, the
mixed-methods research analysed attitudes towards and the presence of power, identity, and culture
in academic writing non-native students at a tertiary institution in Ireland. To form this study,
questionnaires were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively, while three case studies formed from
interviews and writing samples were analysed using discourse analysis. The findings suggest that,
while participants generally have positive attitudes towards these aspects, there is a high level of
negotiation and conflict between dominant norms and the expression of power, identity, and culture
of the individual within their academic writing. Additionally, participants felt that the expression of
power, identity, and culture in academic writing should be allowed to a certain extent, and that this
expression would not negatively impact the meaning of the writing. Significantly, the analysis of
writing samples did find a presence of power and identity within their academic writing which
reflected the findings of the interviews and questionnaires. Possible implications of these findings for
the English language teaching field could be to increase the focus on academic literacies in tertiary
institutions to aid in the negotiation of these aspects and increase the academic success of non-native
English speakers.

Harnett, John, Mary Immaculate College, Limerick, English Language and

Literature Department.

Title: Multimodal Fluency and the Art of Remembering: Using the Graphic
Novel to Assimilate Traumatic Memories.
In accordance with the provisions of this years IRMSS contributions that explore language, learning
and culture as counter-intuitive, alien, and as variables of social analysis are invited. Given this
inclusive spectrum of parameters the expanding field of multimodality makes for a very suitable fit.
According to Gunther Kress and Jeff Bezemer multimodality attempts to provide a framework where
all modes are treated as one integrated domain that constitute the cultural and semiotic resources of
a community and amongst which no hierarchy of prioritisation exists. In this interdisciplinary and
multimodal spirit I will use the graphic novel to explore how negotiating a medium that consists of
multiple modes can provide a highly effective tool for the assimilation and/or restoration of traumatic
and indeed alien memories. To do this I will use Ari Folman and David Polonskys Waltz with
Bashir. Not only does this novel document Folmans attempts to treat his own counter-intuitive
manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder but it also affords the multimodal student with a
variance of resources through which to explore key psychoanalytic terms that play an important role
in the resolution of memory loss and combat trauma. To expand on the multimodal potential of
analysing a condition through as many modes as possible this presentation will then be complemented
by a brief comparison of the novel to the animated feature of the same name, which adds a further
distinctive mode to the overall domain, that being sound. I will introduce this approach by way of
contextual examples taken from another well-known graphic memoir of war time atrocity, Art
Spiegelmans Maus. Thus, a contextual analysis of both novels will be used to theorise the benefit of
visualising traumatic memories while at the same time conveying compelling narratives by way of
navigating an integrated domain capable of exploiting the full potential of multiple modes of


Healy, Margaret, Mary Immaculate College, Limerick

Title: At the cold-face of a methodology for data collection: how I collected

the CLAS corpus, with a little help from my friends.
The Cambridge, Limerick and Shannon (CLAS) corpus project is a collaborative research project
undertaken in partnership with Cambridge University Press (CUP), Mary Immaculate College (MIC)
Limerick and Shannon College of Hotel Management (SCHM), which aims to capture the spoken
language used by both native speakers and nonnative English speakers in a hotel management
education institution. This one-million word corpus of spoken English is drawn from a specialised
academic and linguistic environment where the students undertake a four-year BBS in International
Hotel Management Degree programme. Recorded over two academic years, the participants include
over 450 students, plus lecturers and some additional contributors. The data cover a broad matrix of
recording events such as lectures (general business/industry specific modules), practical classes
(Culinary/Restaurant Service), English language classes, oral exams and student presentations.
This paper recounts the data collection process. Having CUP involved in this project facilitated access
to their standard guidelines and expertise in the design of spoken corpora. Preliminary work in areas
such as documentation, participant database components and transcription conventions were
particularly helpful. These documents were generic guidelines that needed to be adapted to the local
context, as an initial pilot sub-corpus demonstrated. Certain challenges emerged that had to be
addressed locally, for example, CUPs standard transcription conventions did not adequately
accommodate the Irish-English variety spoken at SCHM including vocalisations, elongations and
Gaeilge i.e. Irish language words sprinkled throughout the vernacular. As the researcher, I attended
almost all the recording events, gaining an invaluable emic perspective on the project which enabled
me to identify aspects of the discourse not only for my own research but conscious of subsequent
transcription difficulties. I will highlight some of these specific challenges.

Hoyne, Clara and Egan, Suzanne M., Department of Psychology, Mary

Immaculate College

Title: The role of fathers in early childhood caregiving and home learning

The aim of this study is to explore the role of fathers in childrens cognitive and socio-emotional
development in early childhood. While much is known about the maternal role in the home learning
environment and in caregiving behaviour, less is known of fathers role in these areas. This study draws
on data from a large birth cohort study, Growing Up in Ireland, to investigate fathers roles in early
childhood care and activities. Data from 11,134 young children were collected when they were 9
months, 3 years and 5 years of age. Preliminary findings showed that when the children were aged 9
months, fathers were involved in many activities of a caregiving nature such as bathing and feeding
the infant as well as activities that aided cognitive and socio-emotional development such as reading
to and playing with the infant. However, when the children were five-years-old, mothers were more
likely than fathers to read to their children and listen to their childrens reading. The findings are
discussed in relation to supporting childrens cognitive and socio-emotional development and may
have implications for parenting practices and government policy.

Jiang, Xin, Center for Studies of Chinese as a Second Language, Beijing

Language and Culture University, Beijing 100083
Title: Research Methods in the Study of Chinese Second Language Acquisition
in China: A Critical Review of Methodologies
In this proposal, the current state of research methods in Chinese as a second language in mainland
China is subjected to critical review. The paper first provides a brief overview of the main themes and
issues in L2 Chinese acquisition research. The main focus of the paper will involve a review based on
an analysis of 100 representative empirical works on L2 Chinese teaching and learning, published in
the core journals in mainland China. The analysis of these data focuses specifically on methodological
issues in the body of research. These works are analysed in terms of their rationale, the design and
method of data collection, and the type of analysis carried out on the data. This will lead to a critical
review of the main methodological paradigms which prevail in researching the acquisition of Chinese
as a Second Language in China. Finally, the implications of the study for future research will be


Kashif Jalil, Muhammad, National University of Modern Languages, Assistant

Professor, Head Department of English ( GS), NUML Lahore Campus, Pakistan

Title: Developing A Model Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme for the

Teachers of English in Pakistan.
English enjoys huge popularity in Pakistani educational settings due to post-colonial reasons and socio
economic benefits. Despite its mammoth role in the educational discourse, substantial work is not
available to gauge the impact analysis of pre-service teacher education programmes in Pakistan. Pre-
service English language teaching programme will ensure quality in pre-service teacher education
programme in Pakistan. This study aims to develop principles for pre-service teacher education
programmes in Pakistan. Moreover, a model pre-service teacher education programme will be
developed on the basis of these principles. Attitudinal questionnaire and interviews will be used. Data
will be collected from two public sectors and two private universities in Pakistan from the students
(first semester and final semester), alumni and employers for holistic analysis of all major stakeholders
of pre-service teacher education programme. It will eventually help for developing a model pre-service
for future English language teacher practitioners. The study will employ mixed method approach.
Validity of the questionnaire will be established on the basis of content and face validity while
reliability of the questionnaire will be determined using Cronbach Alpha. SPSS will be used be used for
the quantitative analysis of the data. Population of the study will be faculty, students, alumni,
employers and graduating students of English Language teacher education institutes of Pakistan.
Nvivo will be used for qualitative analysis. Results will help the researcher to develop principles for
pre-service teacher education programme in Pakistan and it will lead to developing a model pre-
service teacher education programme for English language teachers in Pakistan.

Kitching, Karl, School of Education, University College Cork

Title: What can research on education injustice represent? What does it do?
In this paper, Karl will examine the lived ethics and politics of conducting and disseminating research
on education and social injustice. It is possible to assert a set of normative, moral principles on
research conduct and dissemination, and such principles are institutionalised in various codes.
However, drawing on his research on racisms, religious discrimination and sexualities in Irish
education contexts, Karl will outline how the lived everyday reality of research exceeds these
principles in both creative and problematic ways. He will draw on Michel Foucaults work on the
normalising power of discourses, or bodies of knowledge, and Judith Butler on performative citation,
to argue for a form of research community that practices intensive, yet open-ended analyses, which
defy neat categorisations and reifications of dis/advantage apparent in education policy and practice.
Finally, he will examine the merits of post-representational, feminist and Deleuzian research genres
that ask not just what our research findings are, and perhaps more significantly, what our research

Liu, Yuying, Centre for Applied Language Studies (CALS), School of English and
Education, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, P.R. China

Title: Investigating EFL Teachers Perceptions of Task-based Language Teaching

in Higher Education in China
Nunan (2003) suggests that Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) emerges as a central concept from
a study of curriculum guidelines and syllabi in the Asia-Pacific countries including Japan, Vietnam,
China, Korea and Malaysia. The National Curriculum Syllabi for English Language Teaching in China,
published in 2001 and 2011, advocate the use of TBLT. But TBLT has not been sufficiently researched
to be proven empirically in classroom practice in foreign language learning (Carless 2004). Research
on curriculum innovation and implementation suggests that one of the causes of the discrepancy
between theory and classroom practice may be teacher attitudes (Evdokia 1996). Given the teachers
central role in how curricular elements are put into practice, there is a need for systematic
investigation of the relationship between teacher conceptions of TBLT, what actually happens in the
classroom and what kinds of innovation are possible. Few studies have investigated in-service
teachers response to this proposed language teaching method in the Chinese college English context.
This research contributes to filing this gap in the literature by investigating EFL teachers attitudes
towards TBLT and assesses the current implementation of TBLT in Chinese colleges. The methodology
is primarily qualitative and analysis is carried out via questionnaires and interviews. The findings show
that there are opportunities for the implementation of TBLT in the Chinese context. Most of the
Chinese ELT teachers hold positive views on TBLT implementation and the frequency of use of TBLT is
high (Liu 2015; Liu and Xiong 2016). However, this study also reveals that the majority of the
participants are not confident in their understanding of TBLT, but they are willing to get training in
TBLT (Liu, Mishan and Chambers 2016 forthcoming). The article concludes with a discussion of
practical implications of the findings on how successful implementation of TBLT can be encouraged in
the Chinese context.

Morton, Tom, Birkbeck, University of London

Title: Content and language integration in multilingual education as a 'wicked
problem': towards a transdisciplinary approach
Approaches to bi/multilingual education in which the learning and teaching of academic content and
a second/foreign/additional language are combined are attracting increasing interest throughout the
world. These approaches can have different labels, such as content and language integrated learning
(CLIL), content-based language instruction (CBI), immersion, or English-medium instruction (EMI).
Whatever the labels, they all have a similar concern with the issue of 'integration', i.e. finding ways to
combine content and language and their respective pedagogies (Nikula, Dalton-Puffer, Llinares, &
Lorenzo 2016). In this talk I will argue that the integration of content and language pedagogies in
bi/multilingual education is a 'wicked problem'. Wicked problems are complex issues which defy
complete definition, have no final solution, and cannot be effectively solved by existing research
methods or decision-making processes (Brown, Harris & Russell 2010). They can best be tackled by
taking a transdisciplinary approach, which incorporates not only different disciplinary perspectives,
but also the knowledge and worldviews of all those affected by the issue. Drawing on findings from
ongoing interdisciplinary research on content and language integration in bi/multilingual education
carried out by teams in Europe, Asia, and North America, the talk will survey the different ways in
which 'content' and 'language' and their integration have been conceptualised and operationalised. I
will present a framework (Leung & Morton 2016) which attempts to capture the range of possibilities
in the ways in which integration has been addressed. The talk will then turn to some of the different
disciplinary perspectives and methods which have been used in applied linguistics research on CLIL, as
described in Llinares & Morton (2017). These perspectives are second language acquisition (SLA),
systemic functional linguistics (SFL), discourse analysis, and sociolinguistics. While these disciplinary
approaches and the methods they use have been extremely beneficial in illuminating practices,
possibilities and problems in the integration of content and language, I will argue that we need to take
a further step - towards a transdisciplinary approach. Such an approach would increase the possibility
that new ways of thinking about the 'wicked problem' of content and language integration in
bi/multilingual education may emerge, and the possibility of imaginative and creative solutions that
would benefit researchers and practitioners. The talk will conclude with some suggestions and
proposals for what such a transdisciplinary approach would look like, and some of the emerging issues
in integrating content and language in bi/multilingual education that it could address.
Nagy, Gyorgy, Student in Structured PhD in TESO, University of Limerick.
Title: Towards Intercultural Competence: Integrating Irish Culture into TESOL
in Ireland

Without the study of culture, second language acquisition is not complete (Paige and Stringer, 1997).
While teaching culture raises learners awareness of the target culture and their own home culture, it
gives them an intercultural competence (Kramsch, 1997, p. 231). This research contributes to the
vibrant global conversation among professionals about the ways of developing learners intercultural
competence. The study aims to provide insights into the current teaching practices in developing
intercultural competence through teaching Irish culture in the English for Speakers of Other Languages
provisions in the Limerick and Clare Education and Training Board of Ireland where the overall
educational goal is to facilitate the successful integration of newcomer adult learners into Irish society.
As there were only four coursebooks of Irish origin in 2008 (Mishan, 2008) and 97 per cent of teachers
lack appropriate training in teaching English as a second language including developing learners
intercultural competence (Lyons and Little, 2009), this research study pays particular attention to how
teaching materials support teachers and learners in developing learners intercultural competence in
an Irish context. Data collection consists of quantitative and qualitative content analyses of the
materials in use, a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews with the teachers as well as a
participatory action research approach for gathering data from the learners. The investigation also
involves the exploration of the state-of-the-art literature on culture, intercultural competence and the
cultural content of teaching materials. This study aims to offer a recommendation for an Irish national
framework for materials that are to develop newcomer adult learners intercultural competence in an
Irish context and it intends to help teachers incorporate Irish culture into their materials effectively
and appropriately.

Neachtain, Caitlin (Kate), Mary Immaculate College

Title: Needs analysis for CALL: Developing diagnostic tools for self-directed
language learning

This research project will inform the development of an online language diagnostic resource for Irish
at university level, aimed at supporting and improving students language awareness and promoting
efficient, independent language learning. This project investigates students ability to self-assess
language proficiency, comparing these results with a corpus of writing samples from the same cohort.
A mixed-methods approach is used. Qualitative methods are used to compare responses concerning
motivation and self-assessed language proficiency (questionnaire concerning motivation and self-
assessed competence level) with quantitative results (error analysis focusing on grammar in written
work), which are benchmarked against the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages
(CEFR) competency descriptors. Students will reflect on CEFR-based Can do statements, as used by
the Association of Language Testers of Europe (ALTE), to answer the following question:

Do students accurately self-assess their language competence level?

These results will be compared with samples of students writing, produced under test conditions.
Furthermore, the abovementioned questionnaire will also investigate students attitude towards
computer-assisted language learning (CALL), self-directed learning, learning methods, and the target
language (Irish).Finally, a comparative analysis will be carried out on outcomes achieved by
participants with regard to their use of a diagnostic language tool to measure the effect of using an
individualised language diagnostic resource on Irish language grammar proficiency. The data
collection channels are further described in the workflow diagram in the figure below.


N Dhiorbhin, Aisling, Scoil na Teanga, na Litearthachta agus an Oideachais

Luath-ige, School of Language, Literacy and Early Childhood Education,
Ollscoil Chathair Bhaile tha Cliath, Dublin City University (DCU).
Title: Oideolaochta um Theagasc an Lireolais do Bhunmhinteoir faoi
Danfaidh an pipar seo cur sos ar thionscadal taighde modhanna measctha leabaithe (CINN (cil))
a cuireadh i bhfeidhm le hinichadh a dhanamh ar c acu cur chuige follasach, cur chuige
daduchtach n cur chuige ionduchtach-follasach, ab ifeachta le forbairt a dhanamh ar lireolas
grpa MFO sa Ghaeilge. Grpa MFO (N = 75) sa dara bliain den chim Baitsilir san Oideachas (BOid)
a bh mar rannphirtithe sa taighde. Cuireadh cur chuige ionduchtach-follasach i bhfeidhm le dh
ghrpa agus cur chuige daduchtach i bhfeidhm le dh ghrpa, agus n raibh aon idirghabhil sa d
rang-ghrpa eile, a dfheidhmigh mar ghrpa cimheasa sa chuasi-thriail. Mhair an idirghabhil caoga
nimad sa tseachtain i rith ocht seachtaine sa chad seimeastar den bhliain acadil 2015/2016, agus
ba an taighdeoir fin a bh mar theagascir ar na grpa turgnamhacha. Dearadh tr leagan de thriail
ghramada le bheith mar ramhthriail (roimh an idirghabhil), iarthriail (dreach i ndiaidh na
hidirghabhla), agus iarthriail mhoillithe (seacht seachtaine i ndiaidh na hidirghabhla). Lironn
tortha cainnochtla an staidir tomhas mr ifeachta don d chur chuige follasacha, le claonadh i
dtreo an chur chuige ionduchtach-follasaigh mar an cur chuige is ifeachta i gcodanna irithe den
triail. Bailodh eolas cilochtil dh ghrpa fcais (n = 12) le largas a fhil ar dhearcadh na MFO i
leith na hidirghabhla. Tugann an t-eolas cilochtil le fios go bhfadfadh leas sa bhreis a bheith ag
cur chuige ionduchtach-follasach in oideachas MFO i dtaobh mnl a dhanamh ar oideolaocht a
bheadh inmholta don seomra ranga bunscoile. Sonraonn tortha an taighde gur chir cur chuige
follasach a chur i bhfeidhm i dteagasc an lireolais do MFO sna hinstitiid oideachais, agus gur chir
neart ama a thabhairt d. Eascraonn molta n staidar doideachas MFO sa Ghaeilge agus do
thaighde eile amach anseo.
Nohilly, Margaret (Mary Immaculate College) and Tynan, Fionnuala (Mary
Immaculate College)
Title: Bridging the Gap between the Language of Policy and the Culture of
The Department of Education and Skills published Wellbeing Guidelines for both primary and post-
primary schools in response to an increasing suicide trend in young people. The focus of the guidelines
is primary on mental health, an area outside of the comfort zone of many teachers. In response to
the anecdotal confusion about the concept of wellbeing among teachers, a series of workshops was
organised for primary-school teachers in three counties to explore the concept of wellbeing, to listen
to teacher needs in relation to the implementation of wellbeing supports in school and to develop
practical strategies to support the wellbeing of the school community in each participants individual
context. The outcomes of this approach to professional development proved very successful and
resulted in teachers actively engaging in the rhetoric surrounding wellbeing. Findings from the project
showed a lack of awareness of the Wellbeing Guidelines, confusion around the term wellbeing and a
fear of reluctance to engage in the topic with school staff. Yet these same teachers shared practical,
effective and exciting approaches to supporting the wellbeing of students in their individual
classrooms. This professional development approach also supported teachers ability to broach the
topic with their colleagues and develop a shared understanding of wellbeing.

O Brien, Sarah, Assistant Professor of Applied Linguistics, Trinity College

Title: Spanish Language Ecosystems in New Mexico

This presentation will draw on themes of heritage language education and culture-bound language
attitudes, via an exploration of receptiveness to Spanish language learning in New Mexico. The
research underlying the article was carried out by the presenter within three school districts in New
Mexico, a South Western U.S. state with protracted historic ties to the Spanish language yet which
nonetheless struggles to develop Spanish language proficiency within its school going population.
Drawing from mixed-method sourced data collected over a seven month period in 2016 in three
school districts within New Mexico, the paper discusses the stratified views of high school students,
teachers, parents, educators and community members to Spanish language use in New Mexico,
explores concepts of identity that Spanish language evokes in the sampled population, traces the
historic and cultural factors that have impacted on attitudes to the use and learning of Spanish in New
Mexico and makes suggestions on how these research findings can be used by language-planners to
improve outcomes for language learners in the United States and beyond. Finally, data findings will
be discussed in terms of their illumination of the role of family and community engagement in the
cultivation of native, heritage and second languages.
Brolchin, Conchr & Ceallaigh, T.J., Mary Immaculate College, Limerick
Title: Language Choices and Ideologies in Irish-medium Education
A key tenet of immersion education affirms the need to communicate, create knowledge and explore
school environments, predominantly through a prescribed target language, which usually happens to
be pupils L2. Some scholars have questioned the efficacy of completely separating languages for
teaching and learning however, and have called for a more fluid approach to languaging that
incorporates using pupils L1 as a learning resource (Cummins, 2008; Garca, 2011). This presentation
highlights certain tensions between total immersion ideologies on the one hand, that seek to protect
and promote a prescribed, minority language and a translanguaging philosophy on the other hand, in
which pupils are afforded the freedom to engage with content and communicate more fluidly, by
utilizing their full linguistic repertoire. Such tensions become all the more heightened, in contexts
where unequal power imbalances exist between the primary languages of the program (Garca, 2011),
as is the case in Gaelscoileanna and Gaeltacht schools. Using a case-study methodology incorporating
interviews, semi-structured classroom observations and focus groups, we explore how these
translanguaging/immersion tensions get played out in four senior immersion classes, and attempt to
unpack some of the ideologies underlying observed pedagogical practices. Initial findings appear to
show a reticence towards embracing a more cross-linguistic, integrated language approach to
immersion education in which pupils are encouraged to language in their L1, in order to unlock
learning efficiencies. Furthermore, although practitioners see a translanguaging approach as holding
potential benefit for certain cohorts of pupils in other language programs, it is often perceived to be
unsuitable in the minority language immersion contexts of this study. We conclude, that this
reluctance is being driven primarily by anxieties around the perceived fragility of Irish, vis-a-vis the
omnipresence of English in pupils lives, coupled with, a lack of expertise in cross-linguistic pedagogical
practices, such as those espoused in development stages of Irelands Integrated Language Curriculum
(Cummins & Duibhir, 2012). Finally, opportunities for professional development across the
continuum of teacher education are outlined and areas for further research are explored.

O Keeffe, Anne, Mary Immaculate College, Limerick

Title: Balancing acts in Corpus Pragmatics: form-to-function and function-to-
form approaches

One of the many changes, or turns, in linguistics research, since the 1970s, has been the empirical
turn, where introspection on language was superseded by empirical investigations. Within this new
paradigm, corpus linguistics (CL) has become the main methodology (Taavitsainen and Junker 2015).
This methodological dominance has happened within a matter of a few decades and this has been in
tandem with technological leaps in data storage and analysis software. Within its development, corpus
linguistics has spread its application to many sub-fields of linguistics as well as remaining a robust sub-
field in its own right. As del and Reppen note, however, some subfields are more amenable to
corpus-linguistic methodology than others (2008: 1). Pragmatics is one of the sub-fields to take on
this data-driven empirical methodology even though it already had established means of collecting
empirical (elicited) data, mainly through Discourse Completion Tasks (DDLs) and role-plays, especially
in the context of the study of contrastive second language pragmatic competence (Blum-Kulka et al.,
1989). Bringing a CL methodology to pragmatic studies is not without its challenges, as this paper will
discuss. The default analytical approach inherent in CL is to move quantitatively from frequencies of
forms to their functions. In other words, it takes a primarily form-to-function approach to analysing
data. For those involved in the study of pragmatics, and especially speech acts, the norm is to work in
the opposite direction, starting with a quest to investigate a specific pragmatic function and, through
means of carefully designed elicitation tasks, to work from the function under investigation to the
forms which are typically used, in a function-to-form approach. In the context of corpus pragmatics
methodology, this paper will look at how form-to-function approaches can be balanced with function-
to-form approaches.


OSullivan, Joan, Mary Immaculate College, Limerick.

Title: Janey Assumpta!: the exploitation of vocatives in simulating
everyday discourse in radio advertising in Ireland.
The attempt by the producers of advertisements to replicate normal everyday communication
through the exploitation of language variation has been highlighted by researchers, for example Lee
(1992), Kelly-Holmes (2005) and Coupland (2009). As regards everyday discourse in Ireland, the
significance of the vocative in a number of Irish English contexts of casual conversation has been
underlined (for example, McCarthy and OKeeffe (2003), Murphy and Farr (2012) and Clancy (2015;
2016). These items can take a variety of forms including endearments, kin titles, familiarisers, first
names, surnames, titles and honorifics etc. (Biber et al 1999).

On foot of the observation by Clancy (2016: 172) of the need for a comparison of unscripted intimate
discourse with media representations of such discourse as a locus for future research, this paper seeks
to address the question as to what extent the intimate contexts of radio advertising in Ireland
represent naturally occurring intimate discourse. This paper highlights the usefulness of a corpus-
based approach in addressing this question. The research examines the use of the vocative in the
context of radio advertising in Ireland through the analysis of a corpus of ads broadcast on an Irish
radio channel. This linguistic item is examined in terms of its occurrence and functions in the distinct
components of the ad, the Action (comprised of context-based dialogic interaction, designed to
imitate discourses of everyday informal interaction (Lee 1992:172-3)) and Comment (commonly
monologic, decontextualised and associated with the slogan or voice of authority (Sussex 1989)).
Comparisons are made between the findings from studies of naturally occurring Irish English data and
those of the radio ad corpus, with a view to determining how the occurrence and function of this
linguistic item reflects unscripted intimate discourse in the Irish context.

Parker-Jenkins, Marie, Professor of Education, University of Limerick

Title: Education in Times of Fear: Issues of equality, identity and belonging
From the Charlie Hebdo shooting and Bataclan theatre attack in Paris to attacks in Germany, Holland
and London, people are concerned about national security and the enemy within. This is part of a
wider debate about multiculturalism in Europe, religious versus secular traditions the fear of terrorism
and a trend towards assimilation. The issue is unlikely to go away as the debate has been injected
with new life in the post-Syrian, Brexit and Trump era with persistent negative portrayal of minority
ethnic groups such as Muslim communities and immigrants. Ireland along with other European
countries has agreed to receive refugee and asylum seeker families and the integration of children
from these communities is becoming a feature of school life. How well prepared is the education
community to respond to the latest group of arrivals in this climate of hostility and suspicion, and what
research helps us understand key issues of equality, identity and a sense of belonging? This keynote
explores these emerging themes and the implications for policy, practice and research in developing
the inclusive school and acceptance of the Other.

Rmer, Ute, Georgia State University

Title: Combining corpus and psycholinguistic methods in second language
acquisition research: The benefits of interdisciplinary work in applied
In this talk I will report on an interdisciplinary project at the interface of Corpus Linguistics, Cognitive
Linguistics, and Language Acquisition that combines methods from linguistics and psychology to study
second language learners development of English verb patterns. Starting from patterns identified in
the COBUILD Grammar Patterns volume on verbs (Francis, Hunston, & Manning, 1996), the project
examines English language usage and how this affects the first and second language acquisition and
representation of sets of common verb-argument constructions (VACs; Goldberg, 2006), such as the
V about n construction (e.g. she thinks about chocolate all the time). We use corpus- and psycho-
linguistic methods and tools to study the relationship between VACs in usage and speakers mental
VAC representations (Ellis, Rmer, & ODonnell, 2016). The focus of this talk will be on investigating
what second language (L2) learners of English know about VACs and how this knowledge develops
with increasing proficiency. It will address how mental representations of VACs differ between native
speakers and learners of different first languages (including German and Spanish), and which role
language transfer and typology play in this context. Comparisons of learner production data at
different proficiency levels allow us to trace the emergence of constructional knowledge in L2
learners. Data on L2 learner knowledge of VACs come from lexical production tasks, the German and
Spanish subcomponents of ICLE (the International Corpus of Learner English) and LINDSEI (the Louvain
International Database of Spoken English Interlanguage), and subsets of EFCAMDAT (the Education
First Cambridge Open Language Database). Inspired by my positive experiences with this project, I will
also discuss the value of collaborative work in Applied Linguistics. I will show how combining methods
and data types from different fields can be beneficial to research outcomes, and call for more
collaboration between corpus linguists and scholars from neighbouring disciplines.

Santos, Giovani, PhD Candidate, Applied Linguistics, Mary Immaculate

College, Limerick
Title: Mix and match: a method on how to analyse pragmatic competence in
second language.
Studies on spoken language have greatly benefited from Corpus Linguistics over the recent years
(Caines et al. 2016). One of the many insights from spoken corpora studies is that of the interactional
and relational nature of spoken language in use (OKeeffe et al. 2007, p.159). Indeed, face-to-face
communication requires speakers to make use of strategies to convey their messages and orientate
themselves through conversation in real time. Among such strategies is found a body of language
employed to maintain the relationship between speakers, including pragmatic markers (PMs), which
OKeeffe et al. (ibid.) refer to as relational language. This paper presents the methodological strategy
employed in order to inform and support a PhD study with a focus on second language development
within a study-abroad context. Most specifically, the study investigates the production of PMs in the
English spoken as a second language by Brazilian university students in Ireland. However, unlike most
contrastive studies on second language (L2), this research, concurring with Prodromou (2005), does
not subscribe to the deficit view derived from a native-centric perspective, but, instead, analyses L2
in its own right by looking at competences rather than errors. Due to the specific research theme and
its position taken towards L2, a parallel bilingual corpus had to be designed and careful consideration
had to be taken in order to choose, and adapt, an appropriate theoretical framework. The
methodological strategy demonstrated in this paper entailed 4 steps, they being 1) corpus design; 2)
corpus compilation; 3) data transcription; and 4) choice of theoretical framework. The discussion,
thus, includes issues of representativeness in corpus design; challenges of data transcription (when
adapting a transcription convention that was originally devised for native speaker data); the fusion
between Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics, namely Corpus Pragmatics, and its valuable theoretical
framework to analyse small context-specific corpora; and, finally, how a contrastive method
commonly associated with a native-centric approach, namely Contrastive Interlanguage Analysis
(Granger 2015), can also be successfully employed to investigate and analyse L2 in its own right.

Seely, Jane, PhD Applied Linguistics Candidate, Mary Immaculate College,

University of Limerick
Title (paper 1): Variations in teacher classroom talk in 3 stages of teacher
career development
During this presentation I will present the findings of the first 3 months of research for my PhD
dissertation in Applied Linguistics, using data collected from in-classroom observations of 3 teachers
at varying stages in their careers. This study aims to focus on the nature of teacher talk used using
data collected from in-classroom observation using Conversation Analysis methodology, if the nature
of teacher talk varies according to the teachers career stage, and how teacher talk impacts learner
response. While teacher talk is identified to trainees during initial TEFL qualifications, the focus is
usually on reducing the quantity of the teacher talk, with little to no focus on the nature of the teacher
talk being used and how it may impact the learner experience. In this study, I examine both the teacher
talk itself in terms of its different aspects, and whether the teachers stage of career development
impacts the nature of their teacher talk. Through interviews and reflective questionnaires I examine if
awareness of different aspects of teacher talk, and a knowledge of the metalanguage surrounding the
topic, used in the classroom leads to a development or change in teachers approach to their own in-
class talk. The long-term aim of this study is to aid in the building of a corpus of recorded teacher talk
of EFL teachers in Ireland. Once established, this corpus and the data drawn from it could be used to
develop teacher training modules in Teacher Talk which focus, not only on the minimisation of teacher
talk, but the effective use of Teacher Talk as a tool to promote learner development.

Seely, Jane, PhD Applied Linguistics Candidate, Mary Immaculate College,

University of Limerick
Title (paper 2): Design and delivery of a self-study A0 Syllabus for Brazilian
Learners in Ireland
A significant proportion of EFL students in Ireland at the moment are Brazilian, with over 8000
Brazilians currently studying in Ireland and the majority based in Dublin. As a Director of Studies in a
private language school with a large cohort of Brazilian leaners, I underwent to design an introductory
syllabus targeted specifically towards Brazilian learners entering Ireland at A0/A1. While there are A0
syllabi and textbooks already in existence that could meet the general needs of beginner learners, I
believe that there are specific needs for Brazilian learners which can be better met in a purpose-
designed course. In order to highlight these specific needs I conducted research in my school and
several schools in Dublin city centre, conducting interviews and questionnaires to Brazilian learners
about their experience learning English in Brazil, their initial reasons for learning English, and some
linguistic problems they faced on arrival in Ireland.

As the majority of schools operate a system of rolling enrolment, these learners may find themselves
seeing grammatical and lexical topics that they have never encountered before, while still needing the
time to master more basic linguistic content. This can be very demotivating for learners, but often
schools do not have the resources or the student numbers to deliver an A0 or beginner course in
order to bring these learners up to speed. The A0 syllabus which I designed is a 20 hour programme
designed for autonomous study, delivered fully online via an e-learning platform using original
materials and videos, but can easily be adapted to the classroom or as a blended learning course.

Terrazas-Calero, Ana Maria, Mary Immaculate College, Limerick, Ireland

Title: Build your own DIY corpus, they said: the challenges and
opportunities of creating the Corpus of Fictionalized Irish English.

The usefulness of Corpus Linguistics (CL) as a tool for the investigation of language use has become
increasingly obvious over the last few decades. By means of computerized software, this discipline
allows for the application of a scientific approach to linguistic research which provides quantitative
and qualitative empirical data on language use, patterns, and developments which simple intuition
could never discern. Although controversial, literary dialects can function as linguistic evidence, seeing
as their use of orality to infuse realism into books can also provide insight into potential linguistic
developments (Hodson 2014: 200). Traditionally, research conducted in terms of fictionalized Irish
English (FIrE) has either concentrated on the use of this literary dialect by specific writers or on the
use of particular features (Sullivan 1980; McCafferty 2009; Amador-Moreno 2015, among others).
However, few academics have looked at the use of this literary dialect systematically using corpora
(Hickey 2003, Cesiri 2012, and Connell 2014), and none have look at its use in contemporary literature.
Thus, my PhD thesis investigates the use of FIrE in a corpus of contemporary IrE literature that I
compiled, i.e. Corpus of Fictionalized Irish English (CoFIrE), which consists of 16 works of fiction and
contains over 1 million words. Despite the considerable help corpus analysis tools offer researchers,
building a DIY corpus can also be an arduous task. From selecting and digitizing the books to creating
a reliable coding system, among other issues, building CoFIrE was challenging, yet the advantages of
using it far outweigh the drawbacks. In this paper, therefore, I discuss the strengths and weaknesses
of building a corpus of contemporary Irish English fiction.

Tiainen, Minna, PhD student in Applied Linguistics, Department of language

and communication studies, University of Jyvskyl, Finland
Title: Legitimizing digital surveillance in political decision making: A critical
discourse analysis of Finnish legislative documents
In the digital age, where security agencies world-wide have been challenging some basic democratic
principles by gathering massive amounts of internet user data, Finland has been a rare exception: a
country with long outdated surveillance legislation and, consequently, one not conducting large-scale
surveillance on citizens online activities. Now, however, Finland is trying to catch up and is planning
such a massive expansion of state surveillance that even alterations to the constitution are needed.
The planned legislation has attracted severe criticism as it causes concern for citizens privacy and
political freedoms. Consequently, the legislative process offers fruitful data for examining discursive
struggles over the justification of surveillance at a critical moment in political decision-making. This
article examines the ways digital surveillance is legitimized and contested in the political documents
relating to the Finnish legislative process. Thus, it hopes to shed light onto the strategies that are used
for constructing increases in surveillance as necessary and beneficial, as well as the ways that these
strategies are challenged. The main theoretical and methodological framework applied here is Critical
Discourse Studies (e.g. Wodak & Meyer 2016, Fairclough 1992), from which the article draws its view
of the constructive nature of language use and subsequent societal relevance of political discourse
and the legitimation strategies appearing in it. The central analytical concept applied in the analysis is
discourses, understood as socially constructed perspectives that are related to specific understandings
of legitimacy (e.g. Foucault 1972). For a deeper understanding of particular legitimation strategies,
insights from van Leeuwens work on categories of legitimation (2007) are applied.