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Optics Communications 344 (2015) 5564

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Optics Communications
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/optcom

New RoF-PON architecture using polarization multiplexed wireless


MIMO signals for NG-PON
M.A. Elmagzoub n, Abu Bakar Mohammad, Redhwan Q. Shaddad, Samir A. Al-Gailani
Lightwave Communication Research Group, InfoComm Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor, Malaysia

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Next-generation access networks require provision of wireless services and high data rate to meet the
Received 4 December 2014 huge demands for mobility and multiple services. Moreover, reusing the currently deployed optical
Received in revised form distribution networks (ODNs) is highly benecial and cost effective for providing the new high data rate
29 December 2014
wireless demands. In this paper, bidirectional radio over ber passive optical network (RoF-PON) capable
Accepted 13 January 2015
Available online 14 January 2015
of handling multiple-inputmultiple-output (MIMO) streams at low cost, high spectral efciency and
backward compatibility with currently deployed PON, is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, all the
Keywords: existing RoF MIMO solutions have not considered compatibility with currently deployed ODNs. Eight
Stacked TDM-PON laser diodes (LDs) at the central ofce (CO) are enough for the whole system, instead of having LD or
Next generation PON
optical transmitter at each remote antenna unit (RAU), which makes a colorless and cost-effective RAU.
Polarization multiplexing
Twenty four wavelengths are generated using optical comb technique. Each two 16-QAM MIMO signals
Radio over ber
Multiple-input multiple-output that have the same carrier frequency in the downstream (DS) transmission are optically combined using
polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM), where each two upstream (US) MIMO signals are time divi-
sion multiplexed. The PDM conguration doubles spectral efciency with a power penalty of only 1.5 dB.
The proposed architecture is a bidirectional asymmetric RoF-PON with total 40/10 Gb/s for DS/US
transmission. Even after transmission over 20 km SMF and splitting ratio of 32, acceptable transmission
performance and widely separated constellation diagrams for the 16-QAM signals are achieved, with bit
error rate (BER) of 10  6 for DS signals and 10  3 for the US signals which can be reduced down to 10  6 by
using forward error correction (FEC).
& 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction systems to be working in the same infrastructure. Moreover, tel-


ecommunication operators are investing signicant resources in
Next-generation (NG) access networks require large bandwidth developing PONs to meet the increasing capacity requirements. In
and high data rates to be provided in quadruple-play manner for addition, NG-PON must support at least 40 Gb/s aggregate capacity
the ever-increasing video-based interactive and multimedia ser- per feeder ber downstream (DS) [5]. For NG-PON, time and wa-
vices demands [1]. Therefore, mobility and high bandwidth are velength-division multiplexed PON (TWDM-PON) has been se-
two requirements for NG access networks in order to be able to lected by full services access network (FSAN) group as a primary
offer new applications and develop real broadband. Radio-over- solution [6]. The difference between a typical hybrid TDMWDM
ber (RoF) technology has revealed great potential for the appli- PON and TWDM-PON is illustrated in Fig. 1 (considering four
cation of future broadband wireless access networks, due to its wavelengths for each direction) where in the remote node (RN) in
seamless integration of the sufcient bandwidth of optical ber the hybrid TDMWDM PON an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)
or wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer (WDM Mux/
communication and the high mobility of wireless radio commu-
DeMux) is required. Since it is both costly and troublesome to
nication [2]. Another key requirement to any NG access technology
reconstruct the existing TDM-PON conguration where the RN is
is a seamless and gradual migration from the currently deployed
power splitter/combiner (PS/C), a new WDM-capable PON struc-
solutions to the next-generation solution [3]. Since in recent years
ture that has no need of an AWG in the RN is more attractive [7].
passive optical networks (PONs) have become ubiquitous all over
Therefore, it is necessary to update the traditional TDM-PON
the world [4], it is highly benecial and cost effective for the RoF conguration to support WDM operation. Fig. 1(b) shows the ar-
chitecture of the stacked TDM-PON which is proposed to keep the
n
Corresponding author. Fax: 60 75536155. currently deployed optical distribution networks (ODNs) un-
E-mail address: mgzoob2002@gmail.com (M.A. Elmagzoub). changed. In the TWDM-PON (stacked TDM-PON) architecture each

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2015.01.040
0030-4018/& 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
56 M.A. Elmagzoub et al. / Optics Communications 344 (2015) 5564

Fig. 1. (a) Hybrid TDM/WDM-PON architecture and (b) stacked TDM-PON architecture.

group of optical network units (ONUs) selects its wavelength by a demonstrated. The drawback of this method is dedicating a wa-
tunable optical lter (TOF) by following the optical line terminal velength for each MIMO stream. In [14] polarization-division-
(OLT) commands in the central ofce (CO) [8]. TWDM-PON, also multipexing (PDM) is used to carry each MIMO stream at different
called broadcast-and-select WDM-PON, stacked TDM-PON or polarization of the same wavelength taking an advantage of the
multi-wavelength TDM-PON is one of the most promising candi- wavelength two polarizations.
date architectures for NG-PON due to its compatibility with the The solutions so far offered by researchers elsewhere have not
existing PON and WDM operation capability. considered compatibility with currently deployed ODNs. They are
For wireless broadband transmission, multiple-inputmultiple- proposed for typical WDM-PON or point to point communication.
output (MIMO) is an indispensable technique for all the new Moreover, since most of the currently deployed PON are based on
wireless standards and systems that require high data rate. MIMO TDM-PON ODN and considering that FSAN has selected TWDM-
system is designed to improve transmission range/reliability and PON as solution for NG-PON, it is more attractive and cost effective
deliver higher data transmission rates than the single-input single- to deploy RoF-PON that supports MIMO technique and WDM op-
output (SISO) system [9]. Therefore, to build any RoF-PON system eration with compatibility with currently deployed ODN as shown
for NG-PON, MIMO technique has to be considered. In spite of the in Fig. 2.
importance of MIMO technique, most of the proposed RoF-PONs In this paper, RoF-PON capable of handling MIMO streams at
are considering SISO signal instead of MIMO. The problem of low cost and high spectral efciency, is proposed. Moreover, to the
sending MIMO signals that have the same carrier frequency over a best of our knowledge, this is the rst work that demonstrates
single optical wavelength directly is that they overlap in the fre- bidirectional MIMO RoF wireless trafc in PON compatible with
quency domain. The solution for this problem was proposed using currently deployed ODNs.
WDM and subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) techniques [10,11]. These The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 elabo-
techniques are not cost-effective, since multiple optical sources rates the principles of the proposed method. The MIMO RoF-PON
and photodetectors are required. Transmission of three wireless system design and simulation considerations are covered in Sec-
MIMO signals over an optical ber is proposed and demonstrated tion 3. Section 4 demonstrates results and analysis. Finally, Section
using an electrical single sideband frequency-translation (ESSB-FT) 5 concludes the paper and suggests future work.
technique [12]. The main disadvantage using this approach is the
need to use local oscillators at the transmitting and receiving
sides, moreover, it has a relatively low data rate. In [13], trans- 2. Principle of the proposed MIMO RoF-PON technique
mission of two wireless MIMO signals with the same carrier fre-
quency over ber in RoF system using an optical single sideband A novel method that solves the challenge of transmitting MIMO
frequency-translation (OSSB-FT) technique has been proposed and RF signals with the same frequency over one SMF in a typical
M.A. Elmagzoub et al. / Optics Communications 344 (2015) 5564 57

Fig. 2. Generic architecture of MIMO RoF-PON.

Fig. 3. Principle of the proposed MIMO RoF-PON Technique.

TDM-PON ODN is proposed. This method uses optical multi- continuous-wave (CW) laser. A simple optical double sideband
wavelength frequency generation technique to generate three with carrier (ODSB C) technique is used to generate three wa-
wavelengths for each laser diode (LD), and then using PDM for velengths for each LD by using dual drive MachZehnder mod-
transmitting MIMO RF signals with the same frequency. ulator (DD-MZM). Then, the three wavelengths (optical carrier
Taking advantage from the optical frequency comb techniques (OC), upper optical sideband (UOSB) and lower optical sideband
and high bandwidth optical modulators (up to 100 GHz) [15], (LOSB)) are used independently to modulate MIMO signals.
multiple widely separated wavelengths can be generated from one The lightwave from the LD can be expressed as Ein(t) = Eceict .
58 M.A. Elmagzoub et al. / Optics Communications 344 (2015) 5564

Fig. 4. Detail block diagram of the proposed MIMO ROF-PON design.

The DD-MZM is driven by RF sinusoidal clock signals Eq. (1) it is clear that the power difference between the optical
V1(t) = V2(t) = VRF cos mt applied to the two arms with the fre- carrier and the two sidebands depends on the difference between
quency at fm = m/2 . The optical eld of the output signal Eout (t) J0 (mh) and J1 (mh) Bessel functions. In the simulation design, the
from the DD-MZM can be mathematically expressed as [9,16] values of VRF and V are set to 1 and 4, respectively. This makes the
optical carrier power to be higher than the two sidebands by 4 dB,
1
Eout (t) = Ec the other higher order sidebands are ignored due to the small
2 optical powers. Moreover, these higher order sidebands are sup-
{ J1(mh)ei( +
c m)t + J0 (mh)eic t + J1 (mh)ei(c m)t }} (1) pressed by the WDM lters which passes only the required wa-
velengths. Unlike the other methods that try to maintain atness
Here the modulation index is dened as mh = VRF /V , V is the between the new generated wavelengths or attenuating the op-
necessary driving voltage for achieving a phase shift of (half- tical carrier to be equal to the other generated wavelengths [9] or
wave voltage) and is the insertion loss of the modulator. The suppress the optical carrier [16], in this work the high power op-
three components obtained from Eq. (1) represents the optical tical carrier (compared to the newly generated wavelengths) is
carrier and the two sidebands. The channel spacing of the gener- used to carry the upstream (US) trafc. This means that the OC will
ated wavelengths is determined by the frequency of the sinusoidal arrive at the RAU without any data and is used there to carry the
clock ( fo ) that is applied to the DD-MZM. In this work the sinu- US trafc. The two sidebands wavelengths, LOSB and UOSB are
soidal clock frequency is set at 50 GHz, which makes the optical used to modulate four MIMO signals separately by using PDM as
carrier spacing from each of the sidebands as 50 GHz (0.4 nm) and shown in Fig. 3. The third wavelength which is the optical carrier
the spacing between the two sidebands as 100 GHz (0.8 nm). frequency (OC) is used to carry two time multiplexed MIMO sig-
WDM DeMux is used to separate the generated wavelengths. From nals (US) from the RAU.
M.A. Elmagzoub et al. / Optics Communications 344 (2015) 5564 59

Fig. 5. Optical power spectra of the allocated channels at the OLT. (a) Before the comb. (b) After the comb.

The newly generated wavelengths LOSB and UOSB are sepa- the two MIMO signals are polarization de-multiplexed at a po-
rated using WDM DeMux, and each one is equally divided into two larization beam splitter (PBS), as shown in Fig. 4. For the US an-
portions using power splitter (PS). Each portion is sent to a DD- other TOF is used to select the US wavelength and then the two US
MZM through a polarization controller (PC). The two PCs set the MIMO signals are time division multiplexed and modulated also
wavelength to polarization x (Pol-x) and polarization y (Pol-y). The using OSSB C modulation technique. The approach of time divi-
upper portion (Pol-x) is intensity modulated using DD-MZM by a sion multiplexing (TDM) is used in the US MIMO signals com-
16-QAM MIMO1 signal, while the lower portion (Pol-y) is modu- bining, to reduce the power, area and cost of multiple antenna
lated by 16-QAM MIMO2 also using DD-MZM. Also note that the receivers [18]. Moreover, one DD-MZM will be required at each
two MIMO signals are modulated using optical single sideband RAU, since power, space and cost are a scarce resource at base
with carrier (OSSB C) modulation technique and have an optical station.
spectra as shown again in Fig. 3. The OSSB C modulation method
enhances optical spectral efciency and overcomes the ber
chromatic dispersion problem [17]. The two MIMO signals are then 3. Design of the proposed MIMO RoF-PON system
polarization multiplexed using a polarization beam combiner
(PBC). The multiplexed optical signals are then transmitted to the Fig. 4 depicts the design of the proposed RoF-PON system based
RAU through a length of single mode ber (SMF) and PS/C at the on MIMO transmission. The OLT contains LDs array that has eight
RN as shown Fig. 4. Once the DS wavelength is selected using TOF, LDs. Using the technique explained in Section 2, twenty four
60 M.A. Elmagzoub et al. / Optics Communications 344 (2015) 5564

Fig. 6. Spectra of the transmitted 16-QAM signal.

Table 1 Table 2
The allocated optical wavelengths at OLT. The general specications of the proposed MIMO RoF-PON.

US wavelengths (THz) DS wavelengths (THz) Parameter Value

OCs UOSBs LOSBs Splitter ratio of PS/C 32


Insertion loss: circulator 1 dB
193.1 US1 193.05 DS1 193.15 DS2 Insertion loss: WDM Mux/DeMux 4 dB
193.3 US2 193.25 DS3 193.35 DS4 LD
193.5 US3 193.45 DS5 193.55 DS6 Transmitted power 10 dBm
193.7 US4 193.65 DS7 193.75 DS8 Linewidth 10 MHz
193.9 US5 193.85 DS9 193.95 DS10 PD
194.1 US6 194.05 DS11 194.15 DS12 Sensitivity  30 dBm
194.3 US7 194.25 DS13 194.35 DS14 Type PIN
194.5 US8 194.45 DS15 194.55 DS16 EDFA
Noise gure 4.8 dB
EDFA1, EDFA2 gain 30, 5 dB
wavelengths are generated from the eight LDs as shown in Fig. 5. SMF
Length 20 km
Sixteen of them (upper and lower sidebands) are used to carry the
Attenuation 0.2 dB/km
DS trafc and the remaining eight carriers are used to carry the US Dispersion coefcient 17 ps/nm/km
trafc. Since the DS demands are always higher than the US, the Comb DD-MZM
number of wavelengths allocated in the DS is double the US wa- Bandwidth 50 GHz
velengths. In this design, the total DS trafc is 40 Gb/s and the US Modulation type ODSB C
Half-wave voltage 4V
is 10 Gb/s which meets the requirements of NG-PON. For the DS,
Operation mode Pushpull
each channel of the two MIMO signals is 1.25 Gb/s 16-QAM at the Insertion loss 4 dB
same carrier frequency fc 5 GHz have spectra shown in Fig. 6. For Extinction ratio 20 dB
the US, the data rate for the two time division multiplexed MIMO MIMO signals DD-MZM
Bandwidth 5 GHz
signals is 1.25 Gb/s 16-QAM also at carrier frequency fc 5 GHz.
Modulation type OSSB C
Moreover, these wavelengths are shared in the time domain be- Half-wave voltage 4V
tween the RAUs. For example in the case of 32 RAUs, each 4 RAUs Operation mode Pushpull
will share two DS wavelengths and one US wavelength. Each Insertion loss 4 dB
group of RAUs chooses its DS and US wavelengths pair by using Extinction ratio 20 dB
TOF
TOFs. In the OLT each DS wavelength carries two MIMO wireless
Type Tunable FabryPerot lter
signals that are polarization division multiplexed. In the RAU, two Free spectral range 50 GHz (0.4 nm)
MIMO wireless signals are time division multiplexed to be sent to Insertion loss 2.5 dB
the OLT.
M.A. Elmagzoub et al. / Optics Communications 344 (2015) 5564 61

Table 3
Specications of MIMO signals.

Parameter Value

MIMO type Spatial multiplexing


Spatial streams 2
Data rate/stream 1.25 Gb/s
Modulation type 16-QAM
Transmitted power 0 dBm
Carrier frequency 5 GHz

Fig. 9. The DS performance at BtB and 20 km cases.

Fig. 7. DS wavelengths BER versus received optical power.

Fig. 10. The US performance at BtB and 20 km cases.

coupler. The minority is lead to the RAU receiver for DS signal


demodulation after passing the TOF for DS wavelength selection.
And the majority is used for US transmission which is directly
modulated by the US data, also after passing the TOF for US wa-
velength selection. After US transmission, another EDFA with 5 dB
gain is used to compensate the power loss, and a WDM DeMux is
employed to separate the US signal on different wavelength from
different RAU at the OLT. The parameters of the bidirectional single
Fig. 8. US wavelengths BER versus received optical power.
mode ber and the other components that are used in this design
are summarized in Table 2. Table 3 summarizes the parameters of
Table 1 shows the operating wavelengths for this architecture
the MIMO signals which are used in simulation design.
where the OCs are used to carry US signals and the generated
sidebands are used to carry DS signals. The channel spacing be-
tween the DS wavelengths is 100 GHz (0.8 nm), and 200 GHz
(1.6 nm) between the US wavelengths. The DS and US channels are 4. Simulation results and analysis
in the C-band. This has attractive optical characteristics of using
erbium-doped ber ampliers (EDFAs) for signal amplication, MATLAB and OptiSystem 13 software tools are used to simulate
and of lower transmission ber loss [8]. the proposed architecture shown in Fig. 4, where the transmission
The output power for each LD is 10 dBm to compensate the distance is 20 km and the number of the RAUs is 32.
round trip loss. The receiver sensitivity for all the system receivers To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, in this
is  30 dBm. After EDFA amplication with 30 dB gain, the optical paper, a bit error rate (BER) of 10  3 (error vector magnitude
signal is coupled into the ber link. After the single mode ber (EVM)0.32) is adopted as forward error correction (FEC) limit
(SMF) transmission, the signal carried on different wavelengths is [4]. Using the popular ReedSolomom (255,239) FEC, a BER of
broadcasted to all RAUs by PS/C at the RN. At each RAU, the re- 10  3 is reduced down to 10  6 for 7% overhead [4,19]. Also note
ceived signal is separated into two uneven parts by a 20/80 that this FEC is only needed for the US transmission, where in the
62 M.A. Elmagzoub et al. / Optics Communications 344 (2015) 5564

Fig. 11. Constellation diagrams of one of the DS wavelengths for: (a) transmitted signal, (b) MIMO1 BtB, (c) MIMO1 20 km, (d) MIMO2 BtB, and (e) MIMO2 20 km.

Fig. 12. Constellation diagrams of one of the US wavelengths for (a) transmitted signal, (b) BtB, and (c) 20 km.

DS transmission a BER of 10  6 can be obtained without using FEC. with the kth symbol, Srx, k is the received symbol associated with
The EVMs are calculated considering the following equation Stx, k , and M is the number of the symbols for the inphase-quad-
[9]: rature constellation.
The BER is calculated according to [20]
M 2
Stx, k Srx, k
EVM(dB) = 10log10 k = 1 ,
M
K = 1 Stx, k
2
(2) BER
(1 Q1) ,
log2Q
where EVM is the value of the difference between a collection of
received symbols and transmitted or ideal symbols, Stx, k is the
corresponding transmitted symbol of the constellation associated
M.A. Elmagzoub et al. / Optics Communications 344 (2015) 5564 63

two MIMO signals carried in Pol-x and Pol-y. This is due to the
EDFA polarization dependent gain and polarization mode
dispersion.
Fig. 10 shows the received power for one of the US wave-
lengths, when the BER is 10  3 (FEC limit), the measured received
power is  28.5 dBm for BtB transmission. After a transmission of
20 km the power penalty is 1.5 dB at 10  3 BER.
Figs. 11 and 12 shows the constellation diagrams for one of the
DS and US wavelengths, respectively, in the case of transmitted
and received signals. For the received signal, BtB and 20 km SMF
transmission cases are considered. For BtB case, clear scatter-plots
are achieved for DS an US transmission, although each constella-
tion point appears to have some expansion due to the noise of the
LD, the PD and power loss and noise introduced by the passive
optical components. After a transmission over 20 km SMF, it can
be seen that the clusters in the constellations are still clearly se-
parated for DS transmission. In the case of 20 km US transmission
(Fig. 12(c)), the received signal is also maintaining clear scatter-
Fig. 13. The DS performance with and without PDM. plots, even though the distance between the constellation points
are becoming shorter owing to the noise and ber dispersion, plus
the aforementioned reasons that worsen the US transmission.
1 3 log2Q 2 Using the proposed technique by sending the US wavelengths
= erfc ,
2 (Q2 1) (k EVMrms )2 log2M from OLT is feasible and has an advantage of easily tunable wa-
velength-control at OLT which creates colorless RAU although it is
exposed by Rayleigh backscattering and round trip loss.
Stx, max
k= , The comparison between PDM and single polarization is shown
M
i = 1 ( Stx, i /M) (3) in Fig. 13. It can be observed that the power penalty induced due to
the use of PDM at 10  6 BER is only 1.5 dB. Polarization tracking at
where Q is the number of signal levels within each branch of the the customer premises is required for on-the-eld deployment
constellation diagram, log2 M is the amount of bits encoded into [22].
one QAM symbol, and K is a modulation format-dependent factor Also note that there are two main reasons behind these big
giving the relationship between maximum eld magnitude and uctuations in the BER curves. Firstly, when optical power greater
average overall M eld magnitudes dened by the constellation
than 7.9 dBm is launched onto bere with carrier frequency 5 GHz,
diagram for the chosen modulation format. This factor is calcu-
this results in nonlinearity effects on the system performance [9].
lated according to (3) to be 6/( 5 + 2) for 16-QAM. The Stx, i is the
Secondly, using high gain EDFA results also in nonlinearity effects
ideal transmitted eld vector, and Stx, max is the eld vector of the
such as spectral-hole-burning and Er-ion concentration quenching
outermost constellation point.
[23].
To evaluate the performance of the proposed system,
Figs. 7 and 8 show the BER performance versus the received op-
tical power at the receiver for the DS and the US transmission,
5. Conclusions
respectively.
The power sensitivity differences of the receivers for all the 16
Bidirectional MIMO wireless RoF-PON compatible with cur-
DS wavelengths are small, and the two MIMO streams within each
rently deployed ODN is proposed to satisfy the requirements of
wavelength have almost the same performance. The maximum
NG-PON. The proposed architecture is a bidirectional asymmetric
power penalty of 1 dB is recorded at BER of 10  6 between the DS
RoF-PON with total 40/10 Gb/s DS/US transmission for 32 RAUs at
wavelengths. For US transmission (Fig. 8), the maximum power
a distance of 20 km. Eight LDs at the OLT are enough for the whole
penalty of 1.5 dB is recorded at BER of 10  3 (FEC limit) between system, which makes colorless RAUs. From the eight LDs twenty
the US wavelengths. The difference margins are due to the pro- four wavelengths are generated using ODSB C comb technique.
pagation characteristics of the different wavelengths along the The physical layer performance has been reported in terms of the
optical ber and the slightly difference of power loss in the used BER and receiver sensitivity. In addition, the constellation dia-
passive optical components in the design. Also note that, the DS grams are analyzed in this study. The DS MIMO signals with the
wavelengths performance is much better than the US wavelengths same radio frequency are polarization division multiplexed and
and a BER of 10  6 can be obtained without FEC. That is due to the the US MIMO signals are time division multiplexed. The PDM
round trip loss which is faced by US wavelengths. Moreover, conguration doubles spectral efciency with a power penalty of
Rayleigh backscattered signal transmitted from the OLT during only 1.5 dB. The simulation results show that the 16-QAM MIMO
propagation in ber is detected simultaneously at the receiver in signals carried by the allocated optical DS and US wavelengths
OLT with the US data signal from RAU, and then it may cause keep acceptable transmission performance even after transmission
degradation of system performance as a Rayleigh backscattering over 20 km SMF and splitting ratio of 32. The DS performance is
induced intensity noise, since the same wavelength is transmitted better than the US and that is due to Rayleigh backscattering and
in both direction [21]. round trip loss that faced by the US wavelengths.
Fig. 9 shows the received power for one of the DS wavelengths, Our future research on the MIMO RoF-PON would be steered in
when the BER is 10  6, the measured received power is about enhancing the US performance and make the proposed system
26 dBm for back-to-back (BtB) transmission. After a transmis- symmetric PON (40 Gb/s for US and DS). Also, the network layer
sion of 20 km, the power plenty is 2 dB at 10  6 BER. Also note that aspects of the RoF-PON based on transmission of wireless MIMO
in the 20 km case there is a power plenty of 0.4 dB between the signals over typical TDM-PON ODN will be studied in the future.
64 M.A. Elmagzoub et al. / Optics Communications 344 (2015) 5564

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