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this is not a pen,

its a weapon to set a child free.

CRY | CHILD RELIEF & YOU

   

>EDITORIAL

>EDITORIAL

>EDITORIAL

>EDITORIAL

>EDITORIAL

J
J

oseph Allen Stein passed away in October 2001 in North Carolina, USA.

His significant contribu- tion to the post indepen- dence Indian architecture stands apart. A distinguished architect and an inspiring pro- fessional, he shall always be remembered for his strong environmental concerns. In this issue, we pay our tribute to this great architect. In the special feature on him, Shri A. P. Kanvinde, his contemporary, shares some thoughts regarding his association with him. Prof. Ravindra Bhan, eminent landscape architect remembers him as a very sensitive person. Anuraag Chowfla, who was associated with Stein for the last twenty five years, talks about aspects of Stein’s life - both professional and personal.

features case study of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi where water harvesting techniques have been successfully adopted to ameliorate the scarcity of water in a rocky terrain. briefly introduces various param- eters such as location, shape, finishes etc. to be considered while designing pools. In the horticulture section, Dr. Saroj Tuli lists a few tips for making hanging baskets and better flower arrangements.

With this issue, the journal completes its first year. It certainly has been a hard and strug-

gling year, but positive response and encour- agement from all has inspired us to keep go-

ing

No words can express our sincere thanks

... and gratitude to our advisory panel, who has guided us at all times, especially in these ini-

tial stages. We would also like to thank our readers and subscribers, and professionals, students, institutions, people from building industry and many others for their constant support.

Wishing you all a very happy and peaceful year ahead.

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INNER COURT, INDIA INTERNATIONAL CENTRE (IIC), NEW DELHI. ARCHITECT: JOSEPH ALLEN STEIN

4th water asia 2002

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION ON ASIAN WATER INDUSTRY

30TH JANUARY – 1ST FEBRUARY, 2002 | PRAGATI MAIDAN, NEW DELHI

>CONTENTS >CONTENTS >CONTENTS >CONTENTS >CONTENTS VOLUME I / ISSUE 4 / WINTER 2001-2002 06 NEWS 07

>CONTENTS

>CONTENTS

>CONTENTS

>CONTENTS

>CONTENTS

>CONTENTS >CONTENTS >CONTENTS >CONTENTS >CONTENTS VOLUME I / ISSUE 4 / WINTER 2001-2002 06 NEWS 07
VOLUME I / ISSUE 4 / WINTER 2001-2002 06 NEWS 07 LETTERS 09 ANNOUNCEMENT GENDER AND
VOLUME
I
/
ISSUE
4
/
WINTER
2001-2002
06
NEWS
07
LETTERS
09
ANNOUNCEMENT
GENDER AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
SYMPOSIUM
TRIBUTE:
JOSEPH
ALLEN
STEIN
11
JOSEPH STEIN IN INDIA
A. P. KANVINDE
13
A DEEP PERSONAL LOSS ...
PROF. RAVINDRA BHAN
10
14
NATURE IN THE CITY
ADIT PAL
26 32 STUDENTS’ SECTION
26
32
STUDENTS’
SECTION
  • 16 A GLOBAL MAN IN A TRUE SENSE ...

  • 20 LANDSCAPE RAINWATER HARVESTING: PART 2

CASE STUDY - JNU, NEW DELHI

  • 26 SWIMMING POOLS

SAMIR MATHUR

HORTICULTURE

  • 30 HANGING BASKETS BETTER FLOWER ARRANGEMENT

DR. SAROJ TULI 34
DR. SAROJ TULI
34

CONVERSATION WITH ANURAAG CHOWFLA

DESIGN

>CONTENTS >CONTENTS >CONTENTS >CONTENTS >CONTENTS VOLUME I / ISSUE 4 / WINTER 2001-2002 06 NEWS 07

Editor :

Brijender S. Dua

Associate Editor :

Geeta Wahi Dua

Advisory Panel :

Savita Punde, Landscape Architect Manoj Mathur, Architect Adit Pal, Landscape Architect

Nimret Handa, Nature Writer Overseas Correspondent : Runit Chhaya, New York

Design :

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RIVER YAMUNA: PRESENT STATUS & A

VISION FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

PRIYANKA BATRA

  • 34 TECHNOLOGY AUTODESK VIZ 4

  • 36 SITES

WEB

www.topos.de

  • 37 PLANTS

KNOW

YOUR

BAUHINIA PURPUREA

REGISTRATION NUMBER : DELENG/2000/2943 // Duration of Print : Quarterly, 4 issues per year. Editorial and Subscription Office : C-589, Vikas Puri, New Delhi 110 018 Phone : 550 7652, 552 7652 (Telefax) E-mail : grafiniti@satyam.net.in Owned, Printed & Published by Brijender S. Dua, C-589, Vikas Puri, New Delhi 110 018 Printed at Kaveri Printers, 4634/19-A, Daryaganj, Delhi 110 002

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>NEWS

>NEWS

>NEWS

>NEWS

>NEWS

OUR BUILT HERITAGE IS OUR IDENTITY, LETS PRESERVE IT ...

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MOSQUE AT KASHMERE GATE, OLD DELHI

The Zonal Plan for walled city (Old Delhi, Shahjahanabad) has iden- tified certain areas of importance, which require to be conserved or else, need to be maintained, while dealing with the buildings of this zone. These are areas of conservation, different control zones, and identified buildings of urban heritage as well as the monuments of his- torical importance, as listed by Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

Over the last decade, the walled city has witnessed tremendous growth in terms of new built up structures and settlement colonies. While the monuments protected by the ASI have been identified and listed in the Zonal Plans, no exercise has been carried out for other buildings of historical significance. These structures have been altered and new por- tions are constructed without any planning norms and guidelines. This has resulted in severe distortion of the character of the old city.

The Indian Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH), a non gov- ernment national organization has compiled a list of buildings all over Delhi, which need to be conserved. However, no development norms are given along the list. In order to distinguish between the heritage buildings with reference to:

Total prohibition of any construction, in respect of specified heritage buildings;

Permitting renovation / repairs / reconstruction of other heritage buildings, retaining the outer envelope / facade;

and to regulate uncontrolled developments in these historically impor- tant buildings in future, a committee has been constituted under the chairmanship of Chief Town Planner, Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Other members of the Committee include representatives (including architects and town planners) from INTACH, Delhi Development Au- thority (DDA), New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC), Delhi Urban Arts Commission (DUAC) and ASI.

Scope of the work of the Committee shall aim at formulating develop- mental controls and construction guidelines for carrying out any modi- fications / alteration in respect of these unprotected heritage buildings and sites in the walled city and notifications of the list of these areas under DDA Act along with the amendments in the Master Plan of Delhi. The work shall also include examining proposals of alterations of these areas, given by private bodies, govt. organizations or individu- als and giving necessary clearance for carrying out the work. Anyone seeking to have a particular entry deleted from the list of these heritage buildings on the ground that it has no heritage value, or to add an entry to the list that it has heritage value can apply for the purpose to the Committee. It has been further decided that no heritage building shall be demolished, altered, repaired, modified, reconstructed or changed in its facade without seeking permission from the Committee.

For further information:

Committee for Heritage Buildings, Office of Chief Town Planner, Municipal Corporation of Delhi, Nigam Bhavan, Kashmere Gate, Delhi 110 006 Tel: 91-11-396 6788

ALL INDIA WINTER ROSE SHOW

All India Winter Rose Show was organized by the Rose Society of India and the Indian Rose Federa- tion. This show was held for two days (22 - 23 December, 2001) in National Rose Garden, New Delhi. This annual show, cover- ing an area of almost 6 acres, ex- hibited more than 100 varieties of roses. Exhibits were invited from all over India under various classes like fragrant roses grown under natural conditions, under green house conditions, polyantha vari- ety, miniature variety and climbing roses variety among others.

>NEWS >NEWS >NEWS >NEWS >NEWS OUR BUILT HERITAGE IS OUR IDENTITY, LETS PRESERVE IT ... grafiniti

For further information:

The Rose Society of India,

Dr Bharat Ram,

President,

C/o Shri Ram Rayons, 4th Floor,

Akash Deep , Barakhamba Road,

New Delhi 110 001

>NEWS

>NEWS

>NEWS

>NEWS

>NEWS

>LETTERS

>LETTERS

>LETTERS

>LETTERS

>LETTERS

CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW

Biswajit Biswajit Biswajit Biswajit Biswajit Roy Roy Roy Roy Roy
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Biswajit
Roy
Roy
Roy
Roy
Roy

It was interesting to read the interview with landscape architect

Michael Van Valkenburgh (‘Intuition interests me

...

, Issue 3, Mon-

soon 2001). He comes across as a simple and straight forward personality who has no qualms admitting that he feels uncomfort- able working in a foreign culture or that at times he does rely on his intuitive senses for his design concerns. In an age of showman- ship and, at times, forced concepts in almost every field including that of architecture, a lot of our own professionals here would do well to learn a few things from him.

  • I would certainly like to see more of Michael’s projects in your future issues.

A. Siddharth, Bangalore

Come winters and you have one of the most popular flowers - Chrysanthemum, for pots, baskets, beds and any other flower arrangement. The flower has a list of amazing varieties in differ- ent colors, sizes and shapes. Its bloom lasts over a period of a couple of months and continues to look attractive in a semi dry condition.

All India Chrysanthemum Show 2001 was organized on 1st - 2nd December, 2001 at DDA Park, Purana Quila, New Delhi. Orga- nized by the Chrysanthemum Society of India and Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation (DTTDC), this annual show is exclusively for showcasing various varieties of Chrysanthemums. This year, there were around 7000 exhibits. Prizes were given to various categories of the flower show includ- ing best chrysanthemum garden, small flowering in bush form, hanging baskets and islands of chrysanthemum.

>NEWS >NEWS >NEWS >NEWS >NEWS >LETTERS >LETTERS >LETTERS >LETTERS >LETTERS CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW Biswajit Biswajit Biswajit Biswajit

Refer ‘Rainwater Harvesting’ (Issue 3, Monsoon 2001), it is really unfortunate that almost always we tend to act quite late in the day. Mindless urbaniza- tion has resulted in India facing a plethora of problems includ- ing scarcity of water. Respon- sible use and tapping of natural resources like rainwater is the only way we can probably ex- pect to survive in future. Mandatory application of rainwater techniques in all building projects in some states like Madhya Pradesh, is a right step in this direction. It should be definitely enforced in all other states as well.

>NEWS >NEWS >NEWS >NEWS >NEWS >LETTERS >LETTERS >LETTERS >LETTERS >LETTERS CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW Biswajit Biswajit Biswajit Biswajit

For further information:

Chrysanthemum Society of India,

A-1/24, Safdarjung Enclave,

New Delhi 110 029

P A E C S A D R N C S I S U A H
P
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Raj K. Rathod, Bhopal

It was good to see you introducing the concept of Cultural Land- scapes (‘Cultural Landscapes’, Issue 3, Monsoon 2001). I was particularly interested in its Indian context, which I found almost

missing in the article. It certainly is a new issue as far as India is

concerned. Along with its public awareness, stringent regulations

need to be formulated for conservation of our heritage zones.

Anant Varma, Ahmedabad

  • I certainly enjoyed the article on Lodi Gardens as I walk there

every evening.

Patwant Singh, New Delhi

Water refreshes thirsty roots and allows landscapes to flourish. It is essential that water is delivered in the right amount and where and when the same is needed.

RAIN BIRD, world’s number one manufacturer of Irrigation Hardware Systems and a premier water resource management organization provides the industry with the most and effective water management products, systems and services.

RAIN BIRD INTERNATIONAL, (USA), is represented in India by HARVEL IRRIGATION PRIVATE LIMITED - an irrigation engineering company whose core is built around the principle of cost effective excellence. HARVEL, as distributors of RAIN BIRD, offers an extensive range of irrigation systems and solutions for every irrigation requirement.

HARVEL IRRIGATIONS PRIVATE LIMITED, 304, Meghdoot, 94, Nehru Place, New Delhi 110 019 Tel: 6413370, 6424802, 6485365 | Fax: 91-11-6464819 E-mail : harvel@vsnl.com | Website: www.harvelindia.com

>ANNOUNCEMENT

>ANNOUNCEMENT

>ANNOUNCEMENT

>ANNOUNCEMENT

>ANNOUNCEMENT

Gender and the Built Environment

gender and the built environment

>ANNOUNCEMENT >ANNOUNCEMENT >ANNOUNCEMENT >ANNOUNCEMENT >ANNOUNCEMENT Gender and the Built Environment gender and the built environment A

A SYMPOSIUM ORGANIZED BY WOMEN ARCHITECTS’ FORUM IN ASSOCIATION WITH

CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING & TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING COLLABORATIVE,

AHMEDABAD, FEBRUARY 7TH AND 8TH, 2002

Women’s movements across the world throughout the 20th century have generated changes in social patterns, roles and lifestyles, in short, transformed identities. In India, since the past one decade, there is now 33% reservation for women in local governments. Departments of women’s studies flourish in many universities and women have begun to occupy positions in the bureaucracy and in political life. Specifically, in the field of architectural education, 50% of the students are now girls and there are more women on the faculty and more women planners in the field than ever before. A symposium is being organized at Ahmedabad with the aim of exploring the gender perspective in architecture, urban design and planning and to examine the role of women as both consumers and creators of the built environment, particularly in the South Asian context. This symposium hopes to generate a debate on how women’s needs may be better addressed and their capacities tapped in shaping the built environment.

Thematic Concerns

Appropriation of space is a political act and therefore, access to space is fundamentally related to status and power. Spatial arrange- ments in a society reflect and reinforce the nature of gender, race, caste and class relations. At various levels, from the city to the dwelling, the ideals and reality of the relationship between men and women is expressed in built form. Cultural rules govern the use of space and codes regulate behavior between genders. Over the years, increased attention has been focused on gender issues in fields such as the social sciences, politics, management and cultural studies. However, in the disciplines connected with the built environment, ideas and theories continue to remain male dominated. Today, women are better represented in urban planning as well as in housing policy groups. Systems in the building industry and urban planning policy are needed that are more gender sensitive. For example, new build- ing byelaws being introduced for fire or earthquake safety could also include provision for wheel chair / baby carriage access in all public buildings. If fundamental change is to occur, it becomes imperative to theorize a gender perspective into the discipline that trains pro- fessionals. The symposium will focus on India and South Asia. The proceedings of the symposium would be later published.

Organizing Committee

Madhavi Desai Architect and Faculty, CEPT, Ahmedabad

Manu Agrawal Student, CEPT, Ahmedabad

Malini Doshi Architect, Ahmedabad

Dr Darshini Mahadevia

Arch-Plan, CEPT, Ahmedabad

Ismet Khambatta Arch-Urban Designer, HCPDPM, Ahmedabad

Nivedita D’Lima Urban Designer, EPC, Ahmedabad

Gita Shah Arch-Plan, GIDC, Gandhinagar

Parul Jhaveri Architect, Abhikram, Ahmedabad

Themes for the Sessions

Building byelaws and planning policies.

Gender and the public realm.

Gender and the appropriation of private space

Gender and the building industry

Theorizing gender into the built environment

Curriculum and pedagogy

Education and faculty development

Relationship with other theoretical perspectives and academic disciplines.

Follow up Activities

The findings of the symposium should be of value to academicians, theo- rists, practitioners, government policy makers and NGOs. The Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology includes Schools of Archi- tecture, Planning and Building technology. It could take lead in developing a theoretical angle relating to gender and the built environment to be incorporated in design education in the country. The aim of Women Architects’ Forum is to work towards the empowerment of women profes- sionals to make a positive and consistent contribution to the field in terms of practice, research and education. The symposium will help generate awareness on gender issues in government and private spheres and create a professional network at the South Asia level for an ongoing sustained dialogue. The document published at the end of the symposium will dis- seminate its findings to the broader academic and professional world in South Asia.

For further information:

Madhavi Desai, Convener CEPT, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009 INDIA Fax: 91-79-6302075 | E-mail: mmdesai@icenet.net

>TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE
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I
I

s it the setting of the

building, its relationship

with natural elements or

informal layout of the

open and built forms or its easy scale

with its sheer simplicity? What is it

that makes the experience of enter-

ing a Stein’s building so serene and so

peaceful? There will always be a mys-

tery

...

Joseph Allen Stein was a man

very close to nature. Whether it is

the urban setting of the India Habitat

Centre at New Delhi or the pictur-

esque setting of hills for Kashmir Con-

ference Centre, his imminence to na-

Architecture Sushant Sushant Sushant Sushant courtesy: courtesy: courtesy: courtesy: Architecture Architecture Sushant Architecture Architecture 1912-2001 JOSEPH
Architecture
Sushant
Sushant
Sushant
Sushant
courtesy:
courtesy:
courtesy:
courtesy:
Architecture
Architecture
Sushant
Architecture
Architecture
1912-2001
JOSEPH ALLEN STEIN
Archives
Archives
Archives
Archives
Archives
courtesy:
Photo
of
of
of
of
of
Art
Art
Art
Art
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& & & & &
Photo
Photo
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School
School
School
School
School

scape architects is very much ap-

parent in his works in India, espe-

cially the experiences gained dur-

ing his association with ‘Telesis’ (in

Greek, means progress intelligently

planned), a seminal voluntary as-

sociation of Bay area architects,

landscape architects and planners,

during 1940s, in San Francisco.

Throughout his professional career,

apart from architectural projects,

he was also involved in many en-

vironmental development pro-

grams. Some of these include the

ture and environmental concerns are very effectively interpreted

in his design vocabulary. His architectural designs were visualized

as a combination of indoor and outdoor spaces, both merging to

create a perfectly harmonious setting. As a result his architectural

building blocks were never gigantic or over imposing but of a scale

that is easy to relate with both man and nature. His buildings,

along with their settings, are not only to be looked at. They are to

be experienced ...

development of Master Plan of Lodi Garden with landscape

architect Garrett Eckbo, Conservation of regional environ-

ment of the Himalayan mountain range including Master Plan

for Dal Lake area and Gulmarg-Tanmarg area in the Kash-

mir Valley and Environmental Development Planning for

Bhutan.

After spending nearly five decades of his distinguished and suc-

cessful career in India, Padma Shree Joseph Allen Stein passed

His influences of working with people like Richard Neutra, a dis-

away on 6th October, 2001. He was 89.

ciple of Frank Llyod Wright and San Francisco Bay Area land-

The entire earth, or at least its fertile portions, could be a garden of paradise, with intensive agricul- ture in the irrigated lowlands, protected wilderness in the highlands and well engineered, pleasant new towns sheltering both industrial and agricultural workers on the less fertile lower slopes. In the case of India, much of the country has an ideal geological structure for realizing such a pattern of total landscape, in which there would be room for all, including the creatures of wildness.

Joseph Allen Stein

- from ‘Building in the Garden’ by Stephen White. Reprinted with kind permission of Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

>TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE JOSEPH STEIN IN INDIA
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JOSEPH
STEIN
IN
INDIA

ACHYUT P. KANVINDE

>TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE JOSEPH STEIN IN INDIA ACHYUT P. KANVINDE Architectural profession in India

Architectural profession in India lost a fatherly

figure with the passing away of Joseph Stein over

two months back. Stein had been in teaching and

practice for the last about forty five years. Start-

ing at Calcutta, where he was associated with the

Bengal Engineering College and also with the hous-

ing of Durgapur Township, he subsequently shifted to Delhi. His initial

work was in the Aligarh University. Amongst his significant projects in

Delhi was the India International Centre in early sixties. This was about

the time that we used to meet very often and exchanged thoughts. I

could appreciate his concern for values associated with building envi-

ronment. The India International Centre was planned and completed

around nineteen sixty one. So also was the American School in Delhi.

These projects had a big impact on the architectural profession in the

country.

Stein. Both, Neutra as well as Raymond, were onetime disciples of

Wright. Joe actually was working with Richard Neutra at Los An-

geles and Neutra one time was keen to have him as a partner in his

office. Association of Raymond is seen in the India International

Centre, particularly with the introduction of concrete shells similar

to Aurobindo Ashram, Pondicherry.

Among Stein’s other important projects are the Conference Centre

at Srinagar, Industrial Complexes for the Escorts organization, Ce-

ment Research Institute at Faridabad, American School in Delhi

and the last one and most important, in my opinion, is the Habitat

Centre, Delhi. The greatest quality about his projects has been the

transparency and mobility of spaces in association to landscape

and also heritage buildings. This is actually in a way a continuity

associated with New Delhi plan which is very significant and which,

I feel, is in a way getting lost in the present daytime.

... the building on the site as well as adorning the building take on environment and
...
the building on the site as well as adorning the building take on
environment
and building are one. Planting the ground around
new importance as they become features harmonious with the
space-to-be-lived-in. Site, structure, furnishing
...
all these become
as one in organic architecture. Therefore, all are elements of this
synthesis of features of habitation
...
the environment. This is what posterity will call ‘modern archi-
tecture’.
and [are] harmonious with
- from ‘Building in the Garden’ by Stephen White. Reprinted with kind permission of Oxford UniversityPress, New Delhi.
Architecture
Architecture
Architecture
Architecture
Architecture
in
in
in
in
in
the
the
the
the
the
Twentieth
Twentieth
Twentieth
Twentieth
Twentieth
Century,
Century,
Century,
Century,
Century,
Taschen
Taschen
Taschen
Taschen
Taschen

FRANK LLYOD WRIGHT

Joe initially studied architecture at University of Illinois, USA. He

then joined the Beaux Art School in Paris. He subsequently joined

the School of Architecture at the Cranbrook Academy of Fine Arts.

At that time, the Academy was headed by Eliel Saarinen who was

a highly respected architect from Finland. Stein had a great re-

spect and fascination about Frank Llyod Wright and his work,

which also equally influenced him. Association with architects Ri-

chard Neutra and Antonin Raymond left a great impression on

We often met and exchanged thoughts on the professional sce-

nario. During one of our meetings at the India International Centre,

after his return to Delhi, when Mrs. Stein was no more, and his own

health was not particularly in good condition, he mentioned to me

that he would like to walk together with me on the plaza of Habitat

Centre and also around the National Science Centre, Delhi. How-

ever, with his failing health such a thing was not to happen.

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Stein’s contribution to modern Indian architecture, after Lutyens about seventy years

back, is extremely significant and will remain as a great source of inspiration to the future

generation of architects in India. One rarely comes across with someone like him, who is

completely devoted to architecture. Architectural profession was fortunate with his asso-

ciation and participation in India. His association will always remain alive.

Eminent architect Achyut P. Kanvinde needs no introduction. Recepient of the Padma Shree in 1975 and one of the most respected architects in India today, Kanvinde is truly considered as one of the pioneers of Modern Movement in Indian architecture. Throughout his long and distinguished career, he has designed a variety of projects including instituitions, industrial and housing complexes.

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THE MEMORIAL PLAZA WITH INDIA INTERNATIONAL CENTRE (IIC) COMPLEX AT THE BACKGROUND

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STEPPED OUTDOOR THEATRE AT TRIVENI KALA SANGAM, NEW DELHI

www.neutra.com

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www.neutra.com

www.neutra.com

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A
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PROF. RAVINDRA BHAN

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Joseph Allen Stein’s passing away has been a great

loss to society and a deep personal loss. I knew

Joe Stein very closely since early seventies and

admired him for work that showed great environ-

mental concern and sensitivity in creating ap-

propriate simplicity of built form, organization

of open spaces, use of natural building materials and meticulous detail-

ing of building components.

His deep concern for environment could perhaps be traced back to his

academic environment and the people with whom he got associated

during his formative years. His association at Cranbrook (Detroit, Michi-

gan - USA), where he completed part of his formal education under

Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo courtsey: courtsey: courtsey: courtsey: courtsey: Ravindra Ravindra Ravindra Ravindra Ravindra Bhan
Photo
Photo
Photo
Photo
Photo
courtsey:
courtsey:
courtsey:
courtsey:
courtsey:
Ravindra
Ravindra
Ravindra
Ravindra
Ravindra
Bhan
Bhan
Bhan
Bhan
Bhan

CRANBROOK ACADEMY OF ART, MICHIGAN, USA

Although I did not have the privilege of working professionally as a

landscape architect with Joe, but nonetheless we did interact and discuss

with each other on a number of issues that concerned his projects. I

would always treasure these discussions we had together. What made Joe

Stein the architect, distinctively different from his contemporaries was

his keen perception of understanding the building site. He was one of

the few architects who knew well that shaping of land for human use

should be based on the understanding of the natural processes which

form it. This ecological viewpoint was Joe’s greatest strength, which led

him to a holistic approach in visualizing a built form appropriate to its

surroundings. He has been one of the very few architects in our country

whose buildings have been successful in creating a union between man

and nature.

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RICHARD NEUTRA, 1970

He was a great believer that

regional identity can only

grow out of an environmen-

tal context. He also believed

that without coherent

landuse solution, one cannot

have a coherent urbanism

and thus one cannot have a

coherent architecture. His

contribution to architecture

in India has been very sig-

nificant and he has left be-

hind some of the finest ar-

chitectural creations. One of

his outstanding complexes

architect Eliel Saarinen, had left a positive mark on his design philoso-

built between 1959 - 62, India International Centre in New Delhi, will

phy of later years. The building complex designed by Saarinen at

remain his memorable creation.

Cranbrook is a superb example of sensitively organized buildings and

spaces with consistent use of natural building materials, unfailing con-

As a person, he was a wonderful human being, caring, modest, decisive,

trol of scale, the play of water and the integration of Carl Milles

soft spoken and a great teacher whose warm personality made one feel

sculptures. His later association with Richard Neutra, a disciple of Frank

Llyod Wright, for whom Joe also worked for few years before starting

his own practice in California, and also his association with landscape

comfortable in his presence. He was a won-

derful conservationist and above all a trusted

friend who will be long remembered.

architects Garret Eckbo and Robert Royston, must have strengthened

his bond with environmental concerns.

Professor Ravindra Bhan - Architect,Landscape Architect and Ecological Planner is one of the foremost practising landscape architects today. He is also a recepient of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture & Landscape for the MughalSheraton, Agra.

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O
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I
N
NATURE
IN
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CITY

ADIT PAL

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It was a few years ago in a short encounter with

the ever sharp Joseph Allen Stein that he leaned

across his worktable and in a soft voice asked me

if I knew what his favorite place was in New Delhi.

Images of India International Centre and Triveni

Kala Sangam drifted through my mind but I de-

cided not to put my foot in my mouth and con-

fessed ignorance. The answer initially surprised me for it was Prakriti -

the little nature shop located in the setback area to the south side of

Triveni. Hidden away behind the main building, the impromptu nature

of its bamboo and cane construction comes as a delightful surprise. In

retrospect however, there is nothing surprising about Stein’s preference

at all - with earthy pots and lush green plants set among the sound of

trickling water, the intimate little shop must have struck a chord deep

down in the heart of this simple man.

The ambience of Prakriti also epitomizes the essence of Stein’s rela-

tionship with nature and his attitude to open spaces - he wanted people

to feel good in and around his buildings and gardens, he wanted his places

and spaces to elevate the spirit. Using the elements that are integral to

human existence - earth, sky and water, he proportioned these beauti-

fully in his work so that the right balance was struck and you simply felt

good being there. At one level, the architecture of Stein is best described

as tranquil and composed - his projects were to be an oasis of respite

from the urban world around. The notion of proportioning the sky

may seem odd at first glance but - if you think about it - in his projects,

the amount of sky brought down to earth by the manipulation of scale

and built form fits beautifully with the sense of place that he tried to

create. The courtyard at Triveni, which surely must have been one of

his favorite projects, is so oriented and scaled that it simply draws the

morning sunlight down on to its garden terraces.

Joseph Allen Stein was a liberal from all accounts and his open attitude

towards life seems to manifest itself in the clean plans and lines of his

buildings - they are essentially welcoming, not exclusionary. His back-

ground as a modernist architect in the spectacular natural surrounds of

the San Francisco Bay-Area was replete with associations with the likes

of the great modernist Richard Neutra. These influences resulted in an

openness of plan that I would term modernist-Californian, apart from

the ‘International Style’ as it is more commonly referred to. The

approach can be analyzed at one level in terms of architectural tecton-

ics, but it also expresses an important attitude towards nature and the

great outdoors, embodied in what Stephen White refers to in his book

Building in the Garden, as the concept of “collaborative environmen-

tal design”. 1 The transparency of the plan and the façade makes for a

seamless visual integration between the room and nature. In the ex-

treme climate of north India, home to the courtyard, Stein blended this

approach with a more protective one in order to make his buildings

habitable - resulting in the incorporation of semi-enclosed courtyard

spaces and semi-covered building spaces protected by screens (jaalis).

However, he strived to maintain the essential connection between the

building and the garden, both in plan and in detail. The orientation and

massing of the India International Centre and the Ford Foundation are

such that the connection to Lodi Gardens (to the rear) is given its due

importance. In Stein’s buildings, the view out to nature was all-impor-

tant and the outside appears to flow inside. The complementary side of

this approach was that his buildings never feel aloof from the land-

scape, an aspect reinforced by his sensitive use of natural materials.

The vertical garden is characteristic of Stein’s projects, symbolic of

what White refers to as “a means towards transforming the urban

environment”. 2 In keeping with this approach, window planters and

terrace gardens have long been a trademark of Stein’s buildings, bringing

the garden in, and adding a delicate touch to complement the earthy

textures of the façade(s). Whether these have been successful or not

has depended on the quality of horticultural maintenance - since in the

hot north Indian climate, planters and terrace gardens are essentially

high maintenance devices. The availability of cheap labor has meant

that when there is a will, maintenance is effective. However, experi-

ence has shown that should the institution using the office space be

uncooperative in letting gardeners tramp over their carpets - as could

be in the case of a multi-tenant office building - these planters become

essentially unviable to maintain in the long run.

The attention to architectural detail in the works of Mr. Stein is well

known - it stands as an example to students and practitioners of archi-

tecture anywhere in the world. And while his and Margaret Stein’s

concern for nature and love of plants manifested themselves in vi-

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GLASSHOUSE AT LODI GARDENS, NEW DELHI

brancy in the herbaceous borders of the garden spaces, their somewhat

colonial attitude to horticulture did not result in the same critical ap-

proach to planting design in the manner of the great landscape design-

ers of the art-and-crafts movement - Beatrix Farrand and Gertrude

Jekyll. One could also argue that his gardens are essentially passive in

the sense that there are no normative ideas of cultural landscape, ecol-

ogy, native planting or even exotic planting built into them. However,

one has to keep in mind that when some of these gardens were concep-

tualized in the late 1960s and early 1970s, landscape architecture as a

discipline was in its infancy in India. Secondly, this sort of criticism of

Steins’ gardens might be hard to sustain, since a critical look at the

landscape architecture profession in India today will show that most

practitioners still deal with landscapes as gardenesque adjuncts of build-

ings, not spaces in their own right - and planting selection is usually on

a limited botanical, not intellectual basis.

Among Stein’s projects, the one that most interests me is the Glass-

house at Lodi Gardens. Though not as finely crafted as the nearby

International Centre, it is a beautifully proportioned set of modest

structures in stone, steel and glass in which one can see the influence of

the works of Frank Lloyd Wright on Stein. Along with the - unfortu-

nately now demolished - Summerhouse at the India International Cen-

tre, the neglected Glasshouse must have been amongst Stein’s favorite

places; these structures were about gardens and nothing else and brought

nature to the forefront more than any of his other works did.

End Notes

  • 1 White, Stephen, Building in the Garden, Oxford University Press, 1993.

  • 2 Ibid. p.116.

Adit Pal did his masters in landscape architecture from the University of Pennsylvania. Practising landscape architect in New Delhi, he is also a visiting faculty member at Departments of Landscape Architecture and Urban Design, School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi. >e-mail: aditpal@satyam.net.in

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A global man

in the true sense ...

IN

CONVERSATION

WITH

ANURAAG

CHOWFLA

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Anuraag Chowfla did his graduation in architecture from MS University, Baroda. He joined the office of Joseph Allen Stein in New Delhi

in December 1977. He did Masters in Urban Design from Rice University, USA in 1982. The partnership of Stein Mani Chowfla was formed

in 1993.

Anuraag about Stein - the professional and the person ...

In 1952, when Stein arrived in India, a newly independent country

must have offered him tremendous possibilities and freedom in terms of

starting a new design vocabulary without any prejudice and presump-

tions – would you comment on this notion?

It certainly did. But, one also has to look at his background first. Joe had

set up his office in San Francisco. He was extremely captivated by the

natural setting of the Bay Area. But, he had to leave the US - he was sort

of hounded out of the place, because of his liberal left views. One of the

issues was that he was working on the design of a community project,

which was one of the first designed mixed race housings of that time.

The federal system banned housing loans for such projects and Joe was

finding it extremely difficult to work there.

When he arrived at Calcutta in 1952, in his own words, ‘the spirit of

Gandhi and Tagore was fresh and bright’. The overall atmosphere was

positive. The promise and hope of a better future was there. He was

extremely enthused and excited. He was certainly very happy and con-

sidered himself fortunate to have students at Bengal Engineering Col-

lege, who, according to him, possessed a strong sense of the arts and

crafts and a great sincerity towards learning. The overall academic

standards were quite high. Some of them, he used to remember, drew

beautifully.

So, yes, he did find this a very fresh place - receptive to new ideas, and

architecture which was inclusive of a greater social purpose.

Do you think Stein’s experience with Richard Neutra and the San

Francisco Bay landscape architects Garrett Eckbo and Robert Royston

influenced his later works, especially in context of India?

Joe had worked in Richard Neutra’s office before setting up his own

practice in San Francisco. I can’t speak with great authority regarding

Neutra - if he had any literal influence on Joe’s works here in India. But,

Joe was certainly very deeply influenced by the geography of the Cali-

fornia Bay Area landscape. He often said that it was a perfect meeting

of land and water. The experience was always there in his mind. After

coming to India, he collaborated with quite a few architects as well as

landscape architects from the Bay Area, for his projects in India. I

know for sure that he was in touch with Garrett Eckbo. Eckbo actually

worked with him for redevelopment plan of Lodi Gardens and other

projects for the Ford Foundation in the 1960s.

I think he also collaborated with Royston for some international works.

Unfortunately, none of it was realized.

During your interactions with him, did he express an opinion about the

works of masters such as Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier, espe-

cially with context to the way they dealt with open spaces and nature

i.e. light, air and water?

Well, he was admirer of both. But perhaps, he was more in tune with

Wright’s philosophy of architecture. While he was growing up, the

legacy of Wright was very much alive and strong in the US. He appre-

ciated Wright’s ideals of organic architecture and his response to nature

in his projects. The apparent simplicity of his works and his thorough

attention to smallest details was particularly admired by Joe. When it

came to the relationship of the built forms to the natural, Joe felt that

Wright’s buildings - especially some of his residential buildings and the

prairie houses, were perfect examples - the courtyards, the walkways,

and the extended arms of the buildings effortlessly flowing into the

outside spaces ...

He was certainly deeply influenced by Wright’s ap-

proach to the crafts, and that was one thing that struck him most. In

Joe’s own words, Wright ‘crafted his buildings’.

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Joe certainly thought very highly of Corbusier. But, I feel that he was a

little cold towards Corb’s notion of space. He felt Corb’s work was too

classic, too sculpturesque and perhaps too monumental a scale. Joe was

always interested in breaking down the scale to the human measure.

This was something Joe had always been trying to achieve, successfully,

in his own projects. But I don’t think he found this in Corbusier’s works

especially bigger projects like Chandigarh. This was something he was

not comfortable with. Although he did admire Corb’s smaller scale

projects. I know he liked the Sarabhai house in Ahmedabad. Also, when

it came to Corbusier’s innovations like the pilotis and the idea of the

roof garden, Joe was certainly influenced by these. The notion of sim-

plicity in design and form, without any pretensions - which was one of

the fundamental tenets of the modern movement, was particularly taken

up by Joe.

What about his intellectual interactions with Indian contemporaries

such as Balakrishna V. Doshi and Achyut P. Kanvinde - did those

influence him to any extent in his thinking about Indian notions of

space?

He was great friends with both and a partner with Doshi. With Doshi,

the relationship was complex. He actually collaborated with Doshi on

many projects including the Master Plans for Dal Lake in Srinagar and

for Gulmarg - Tanmarg area, both in the Kashmir Valley in 1970s. Of

course, due to change in the political scenario in Kashmir, none of the

schemes were realized. The collaboration had been formed for specific

projects. But sadly, Stein and Doshi never actually got to work together

fully for a collaborative design. And, I think both of them were upset

with this.

Stein certainly respected Doshi and Kanvinde and their respective works.

He felt that each one was sincerely trying to define a modern Indian

vocabulary. Though at times, he did not necessarily agree with their

approach.

We see a major role played by his wife Margaret Stein in giving inputs

in terms of interiors and exteriors or in landscape design of some of his

buildings - could you shed some light on this?

How did his closeness to nature influence his approach towards ecol-

ogy and environment in his projects? And during his later years of

profession, was he was involved in any environmental conservation

projects?

Stein was extremely concerned about environmental issues. He was

very much a global man in the true sense. In his views, everyone on this

planet deserves a better life. He had figured out very early that unless

one takes care of the planet, it would not be a place worth living in.

Putting in extra care not in glossy interiors, but into a nice lovely

garden, however small, in a house was his way of responding to the

general deterioration outside. This was probably a first response and a

defense against the decay-

ing world

...

his little gesture

of giving back to nature.

This has always been his un-

derlining philosophy for all

his works irrespective of

the scale of the project.

Few people are aware that

after the development of

the Master Plan for the Dal

Lake in Srinagar, one of his

concepts was to actually re-

vive the perfume industry

of Kashmir Valley. Joe had

learned from the history of

the state that at one point

of time, due to abundance

of scented flowers, the per-

fume industry of Kashmir

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Putting in extra care not in glossy interiors, but into a nice lovely garden, however small, in a house was his way of responding to the general deterioration outside.

was counted at par with world-renowned perfumeries in France. He

planned planting of rows of flowers on land along the rivers and canals

with little perfumeries interspersed in between. He felt that part of the

problem of the Kashmir Valley was general unemployment. In his views,

his scheme could eradicate this problem to some extent. Sadly, the

project was never realized.

This is a classic example of a life long relationship. Though Margaret

was never formally trained in architecture or interior design, she had,

over the years, acquired a fine-grained understanding of design prin-

ciples and a fine sense of aesthetics. She frequently gave her inputs and

actually collaborated in landscape and interior design schemes for Joe’s

works starting right from the various residences designed during his

California days in the 1950s to the later projects here in India. I don’t

think she was particularly interested in larger projects. She focussed on

interiors, fabrics and landscape.

Mr. Stein’s attention to architectural detail is legendary - did this same

attention extend to his notions of landscape and horticulture or was

that an aspect he left to others to work out?

Joe was always the one seeking balance between built and the natural

environment. He was not formally trained as botanist, horticulturist or

ecologist. But over the years, with his experience and interest, he

gathered knowledge about plants - their characteristics, flowering pat-

terns and growth.

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The natural landscape was an integral part of all Stein’s works which, in

smaller projects, he himself took care of. For medium to large size

projects, often, he took the services of professional landscape archi-

tects and horticulturists, though it always was a collaborative effort.

The details - forms, colors and heights, planting materials used etc., got

the same attention as the architecture. He had a lot of respect for the

maalis (gardeners) in the IIC. In his opinion, they are the people who

actually take care of the complex.

You have been very closely associated with Mr. Stein over the years.

Could you tell us about your association with him

...

what it was like to

work with the man?

It has been a very rich and learning experience. Joe was a very private

person, not easy to make friends with. He was, by nature, reserved. It

took quite some time and work to know him. But, once he took you

under his wings, he would take great care of you - took you to his house,

showed you his books, and sketches. He was extremely meticulous ...

days and months of work would be scrapped and started afresh if he had

a better design idea. Quite often, when our working days ended on a

certain design discussion, he would come up with innumerable sketches

the very next morning. Obviously, he had been working half of the

previous night!

When I joined his office in 1977, there was no publication to showcase

Indian architecture. It was through travelling and by word of mouth

that one would know about good projects and offices. I knew that his

was a good office and I have stayed here ever since. The partnership of

Stein Mani Chowfla was established in 1993. By that time he had some-

what withdrawn himself partially from work. And I guess he had enough

confidence in Meena and myself to carry his work and directions fur-

ther. So he was a sort of emeritus

...

but he was always there as a guide. He

was an extremely simple person, and I guess this reflects in his works

also. I find this very inspiring.

Which of his projects in India - in your opinion - truly reflect the spirit

of his design?

One of his very first projects in India - the Triveni Kala Sangam in New

Delhi was also one he loved most. He liked the idea of Triveni as a place

- an open public building as a center for the arts and crafts and for

people to meet and gather. It has a lovely scale. This was the place he

first successfully attempted the concept of the vertical garden in the

form of planting boxes interspersed with large perforated jaali panels,

stepped outdoor garden theatre and overhanging pergolas. Every ele-

ment played a crucial role for the overall simple design

...

a perfect

balance of nature and built form in an urban setting. He also enjoyed

working on the India International Centre plan.

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USE OF JAALI AND VERTICAL GREENS AT TRIVENI KALA SANGAM

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CLIMATE CONTROLLED COURTYARD WITH SUN SCREENS, INDIA HABITAT CENTRE

(IHC), NEW DELHI

Another project Joe really cherished was the development of the Kash-

mir Conference Complex, Srinagar. For him it was the Bay Area where,

according to him, land and water meet in absolute harmony, and where

the site articulate itself so beautifully.

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LEGEND 1. ENTRANCE 2. INNER COURT 3. RECEPTION 4. ROOMS 5. AUDITORIUM 6. OFFICES / SERVICES
LEGEND
1.
ENTRANCE
2.
INNER COURT
3.
RECEPTION
4.
ROOMS
5.
AUDITORIUM
6.
OFFICES / SERVICES
7.
LODI GARDENS
8.
MEMORIAL PLAZA
7
3
4
2
1
6
5
8

LAYOUT PLAN, INDIA INTERNATIONAL CENTRE (IIC), NEW DELHI

Drwaing from ‘Building in the Garden’ by Stephen White. Reprinted with kind permission of Oxford UniversityPress, New Delhi.

India Habitat Centre (IHC), which has over a million square feet of

usable space, Joe particularly felt, was a successful attempt at meeting

modern urban demands - a series of blocks of optimum heights built

around semi enclosed landscaped courts. He evolved the idea of climate

controlled courtyards with sun screens which not only filter the light

but also give a sense of a notional ceiling - just enough enclosure,

perfect for gatherings and exhibitions.

After completing his innings, would you say Stein was a satisfied man?

When he came to India in early fifties, the country was looking up

positively. There was hope for a better tomorrow. Stein had dreamt the

same. But the gradual decay in the political and social structure, which

has suddenly accelerated over the last few decades, had left him as a

disappointed man. Deteriorated condition of the urban scenario due to

shortsighted planning schemes, uncontrolled urban growth and the irre-

placeable loss of nature had made him quite sad in the last few years. He

felt that India is not equipped to handle big city problems and we should

focus on developing a network of smaller urban centres.

Joe was man of great integrity. He always possessed that child like

quality - of believing that things would definitely change for the better.

His sketches always had little children - playing, flying kites

...

His

works, his simplicity and his belief of giving back to nature shall always

remain as a source of inspiration for generation of architects to come.

>TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE >TRIBUTE LEGEND 1. ENTRANCE 2. INNER COURT 3. RECEPTION 4. ROOMS 5.

ANURAAG CHOWFLA

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part 2

DR. SAUMITRA MUKHERJEE & DR. ANITA MUKHERJEE

In continuation of the article on Rainwater Harvesting from our last issue, we hereby feature a case study where water harvesting techniques have been successfully implemented.

WATER HARVESTING AT JNU, NEW DELHI

water harvesting at JNU, new delhi

W
W

ater planning, within the context of overall

landscape planning, should not be defined only

within the plan’s strategy, but also via the

identification and definition of specific re-

gional issues: a new approach to protection of

the surface associated with water utilization,

protection and valuation of water bodies and

related territories. It should take into account the landscape character-

istics. In urban areas, dependence on ground water is high, resulting in

deterioration of ground water resources, qualitatively as well as quanti-

tatively. This necessitates replacement of ground water reservoirs

through artificial recharge by rainwater harvesting, which involves col-

lecting, storing and conserving local surface runoff.

Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, has initiated the pilot

project within the New Campus and its surrounding areas. The study

area, JNU, is situated in the Southwest of Delhi metropolis, occupying

a sprawling, undulating rocky terrain of over 400 hectares. Due to

improper land use and a natural quartzite aquifer system, the quality of

groundwater had deteriorated with lowering of the water table. The area

also constitutes unused and some underused brick kilns (6.885sqkms),

which have been in operation since many decades. In certain localised

stretches, the clay content is high. Earlier dense cover of vegetation

and high moisture content in the soil of these areas have not only

minimised the removal of fine clastics (accumulated weathered materi-

als) by wind action but also have increased the clay content of the soil.

But, repeated heating of these areas has resulted in change in texture of

the topsoil, which has effectively reduced the ground water recharge of

the area. Selective lowering of ground water level of these areas sup-

ports the relationship between land-use pattern and the ground water

environment. In general, JNU area lacks sufficient (required for sus-

taining ecosystem) surface water bodies and palaeochannels. Very thin

soil cover in this area does not support the use of dug wells. Groundwa-

ter occurrence is restricted to the deep-seated fracture zones only.

  • OBSERVATIONS

observations

The hydrogeomorphological features of JNU shows three units:

Low

residual ///// Structural

residual residual residual

residual

Structural

Structural

Structural

Structural hills

hills

hills

hills

hills

low residual / structural hills

This unit constitutes the surface runoff zone and therefore has very

poor prospects of groundwater. They are mostly barren areas, with

scanty vegetation along joints and slopes.

Pediment

Pediment

Pediment

Pediment

Pediment

pediment

The undulating, eroded and dissected shallow, buried planer surfaces

along the fringes and slopes of ridges form this unit. The main drainage

systems are developed in this unit. Weathering is shallow and soil thick-

ness varies, the maximum being in the valleys near the streams. The

soil is generally clayey and fine silt, and partly has grit and gravel.

Drainage dissection is quite intense at places, often developing gullies.

Weathering is more intense in coarse gritty. Ground water potential is

generally low in this unit due to poor infiltration, and high runoff

resulting from varying slopes and clay mantle.

  • Buried Buried Buried Buried Buried pediment

pediment

pediment

pediment

pediment

buried pediment

The flat terrain in the Northeastern part of the campus has a shallow to

moderately thick soil cover, which is mainly silt and clay and at places,

with grit and gravel. This unit forms a moderate to good groundwater

potential especially, along fractures and drainage. Linement is linear or

curvilinear feature of the surface whose parts align in a straight or

slightly curving relationship that may be the expression of a fault or

other line of weakness. Few lineaments have been identified in the area

from satellite images. Among these, the two nearly E-W trending lin-

eaments, traced in the northern part of the campus are prominent. The

less conspicuous lineament / fractures identified in the images are along

NW-SE.

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Fallow land
AB
VC
Water
JNU
COMPLEX
C 1
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VASANT KUNJ
Map
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author.
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author.

JNU & SURROUNDINGS: HYDROMORPHOGEOLICAL MAP based on IRS-1C PAN Data

C 3 C 1 C 2 RAVINES ROCKY JNU: PHYSICAL FEATURES based on IRS-1C Data
C 3
C 1
C 2
RAVINES
ROCKY
JNU: PHYSICAL FEATURES based on IRS-1C Data

North

CHECK DAM 1

C 1

VICE CHANCELLOR’S RESIDENCE

VC

AREAS BENEFITTED BY

CHECK DAM 2 C 2 ADMINISTRATION BLOCK AB CHECK DAMS

CHECK DAM 2

C 2

ADMINISTRATION BLOCK

AB

CHECK DAMS

CHECK DAM 3

C 3

SPORTS COMPLEX

SC

 

RECHARGE AREA

 

LINEAMENT

LINEAMENT

DENSE VEGETATION

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STATISTICS

TOTAL AREA

500 HECTARES

GREEN BELT

442 HECTARES

CONSTRUCTED AREA

47 HECTARES

DENSE FOREST

11 HECTARES

(PART OF RESERVED FOREST)

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TECHNIQUES & INFERENCES

techniques & inferences

Rainfall cycles were identified each year, from 1996 to 2001. Their

effects of recharging the groundwater regime were observed in sixteen

piezometers. In order to choose appropriate positions for check dams

by check dams across drainage at appropriate locations is one

method for artificial recharge.

Soil properties and land use patterns are the major contributing factors

to the hydromorphogeology of a particular area. Information on the

(to replenish groundwater) in the JNU campus, historical monuments

existing land use pattern is very essential for the formulation of poli-

and other prominent urban features have been analysed by satellite

cies and programmes for sustainable development. People transform

imagery. Rainwater harvesting was

done in the campus by selection of

the check dam sites with the help of

IRS-1C satellite data as well as obser-

vations of Ground Truth Radiometer,

resistively surveys and magnetic sur-

veys. Multispectral and

multitemporal data from SPOT, IRS-

1A, IRS- 1B and IRS -1C satellites

when integrated with land use, geo-

logical, geomorphologic,

hydrogeological and magnetic data,

have potential for identifying suit-

able areas for constructing check

dams. Interception of surface runoff

grafiniti grafiniti grafiniti grafiniti grafiniti
grafiniti
grafiniti
grafiniti
grafiniti
grafiniti

SURFACE RUNOFF COLLECTED AT CHECK DAM 2, JNU

land for different activities and quan-

tifiable information on these domi-

nating activities is necessary to de-

velop future plans. Knowledge of past

human activities on the site may also

be useful.

Check dam sites have been selected

in the places with low soil moisture.

Locations for these have been se-

lected where valley section is narrow

and maximum spreading up of steam,

with least bearing on the height of

the structure is possible. Thus, 14 sites

have been selected for check dams.

 

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POSITIVE RESULTS ... positive results ...

POSITIVE RESULTS ...

positive results ...

The water discharge in bore wells in neighbouring areas of JNU has

shown remarkable improvement. The check dams are also creat-

 

After adopting water harvesting techniques like construction of check

dams, the campus area has shown very positive results as far as the

recharging of ground water aquifers, vegetation cover and improve-

ing water bodies, which the master plan says “should be develop-

ed to act as major lung spaces to attract migratory birds and for

improving the microclimate”.

ment in the quality and quantity of ground water is concerned.

After artificial recharge by check dams, the rise in water table has

Multidate satellite images infer changes in vegetation canopy cover

from 1987 to 2001. There is an increase in soil moisture by

artificial recharge in JNU campus.

The water level in some parts of JNU has already risen by over ten

meters in less than two years. The depth of water level in the area

prior to check dam construction was ranged from 17 to 22 meters

below land surface. From 1996, the rise of water level was noticed

between 5.26 and 12.50 meters. It was computed that 45,000

cubic meters of water was recharged per year to the shallow and

deep aquifers.

attributed to increase in vegetation. Increase in soil moisture, the

total area under dense and sparse vegetation canopy cover has

increased. Dense vegetation has increased by 47%, vegetation has

increased by 24%. Area without vegetation has also shown 2.14%

vegetation. It is now planned to recreate the forest cover of the

large denuded parts of the ridge through planting of new trees of

indigenous varieties. The areas where planting is proposed on

priority basis are on sides of roads, where no trees have been

planted so far, or where already planted trees have died. Planting

is also being proposed in selected forest areas, especially around

the check dams to increase the percolation of water and to

prevent silting through soil erosion.

QUALITATIVE IMPROVEMENT OF GROUNDWATER AFTER ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE qualitative improvement of groundwater after artificial recharge The quality
QUALITATIVE IMPROVEMENT OF GROUNDWATER AFTER ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE
qualitative improvement of groundwater after artificial recharge
The quality of water for domestic consumption is of paramount significance as the chemical and microbiological contamination
of potable waters can lead to serious health hazards/body disorders through a waterborne disease or toxic chemicals. This is
evident through the following table:
Value prior to artificial recharge
Value after artificial recharge
pH
Electrical
Hardness
Ca
Mg
NO 3
F
Conductivity (EC)
CaCO 3
micromohos / cm
mg / l
mg / l
mg / l
mg / l
mg / l
8.5
7
694
137
460
394.5
92
148
73.3
22.06
296
148.2
0.9
0.9
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ECO HYDROMORPHOGEOLOGY OF JNU CAMPUS
eco hydromorphogeology of JNU campus
Being situated on a structural hill made up of hard, massive quartzite rocks and buried pediment, the flora of this campus is unique. An
attempt was made to classify the suitable hydromorphogeological niche for new plantation. IRS-1C and SPOT data were used for this
purpose. The eco hydromorphogeology of JNU campus gives clear guidelines of suitability of plant species in this varied terrain.
GEOMORPHIC UNIT
LANDFORM
HYDROGEOLOGY
SUITABLE FLORA
Residual / structural hills
Rocky ridges and mounds.
Massive compact jointed
Prosopis juliflora (Kabuli kikar)
quartzite.
Azadirachta indica (Neem)
Poor ground water.
Mitragyna parvixora (Phaldu)
Pediment
Undulating, eroded and dissected,
Weathered coarse gritty or
Acacia senegal (Kumta)
shallow buried pediment with
sandy quartzite with cover of
Wrigtia tinctoria (Dudhi)
rock exposures.
clayey and silt soil along stream
Balanites aegyptiaca (Hingota)
Thickly vegetated with scrub.
course.
Sterculia urens (Kullu)
Moderate to good ground water
Boswellia serrata (Salai)
prospects along fracture and
shear zones.
Buried Pediment
Plain to gently sloping ground
Silt clayey and at places gravely
Ficus benghalensis (Bargad)
with occasional rock outcrops
soil derived from weathering of
Cassia fistula (Amaltas)
sandy and gritty quartzite.
Albizzia lebbeck (Siris)
Good ground water prospects.
Ficus religiosa (Peepal)
Ficus infectoria (Pilkhan)
Terminalia arjuna (Arjun)
Bauhinia variegata (Kachnar)
 

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Glossary Glossary Glossary Glossary Glossary of of of TTTTTerms of erms erms erms erms glossary of

Glossary of

Glossary

Glossary

Glossary

Glossary

of

of

of TTTTTerms

of

erms

erms

erms

erms

glossary of terms

Palaeochannels

Remnants of older river course.

Multispectral

More than two bands of spectrum, it is a remote sensing terminology.

 

Piezometer

The aquifer tapped by drilling in which ground water is available under atmospheric condition.

Lineaments

Linear features, it may be hidden fault line.

 

Hydromorphogeological

Hydro means water. Morpho stands for morphology or structure and geological stands for the earth science.

Micromohos

Unit of measurement of resistivity value.

 
References:

References:

1

.

Bhattacharya, A. K. and Gupta, A., Monitoring of the quality of drinking

8 .

Mukherjee, S., Eco-conservation of a part of JNU campus by GIS Analysis,

water in JNU-Munirka area, Proc. Nat. Symp. On Groundwater Quality,

Proc.Nat.Sem.on artificial recharge of groundwater, New Delhi,

New Delhi, India, 2000.

India,

1998.

2

.

Cantanese, A. J., Scientific Method of Urban Analysis, pp. 47-74,Univer-

9 .

Mukherjee, S., Das, A.K., Kumar, and Verma, Synthesis of Remote

sity of Illinois publication, Urbana, Illinois, 1972.

sensing, Geophysical and Chemical data to delineate Groundwater pollution in Kalindi

 

Kunj area, New Delhi, Proc.Nat.Symp. on Groundwater Quality, New

 

3

.

Kale, P., Sustainable Development: Critical Issues, 20(4):183-186, J Indian

Delhi, India, 2000.

 

Soc Remote Sensing , 1992.

 

1 0 . Rao, L. K. M., Remote Sensing for Landuse Planning, 16 (1): 53-60, Int J

 

4

.

Mishra, J. K., Aarthi, R., and Joshi, M.O.,Remote sensing quantification

Remote

Sensing ,

1995.

and change detection of natural resources over Delhi, 28 (19): 3131-3137,

Atmospheric Env ., 1994.

1 1 . Sokhi, D. S., Spotting historical monuments and sites from SPOT images, 20 (1):

 

65-71, J Indian Soc Remote Sensing , 1992.

 

5

.

Mukherjee,S. and Mukherjee, A., Qualitative and quantitative improvement in

groundwater by artificial recharge: A case study in Jawaharlal Nehru University, New

Delhi . pp 35-39, Proc. 10 th International Rainwater Catchment

system Conference, Mannheim, Germany, September 10-14,

2001.

6

.

Mukherjee, S., Change in Groundwater Environment with land-use pattern in a part

of south Delhi: A remote sensing approach, 9(2):9-14, Asian-Pacific Remote

Sensing and GIS Journal , 1997.

7

.

Mukherjee, S., Re-evaluation of seismogenic potentiality of Delhi-Rohtak area using

remote sensing and seismological data, Unpublished DST project report,

1997.

Dr Saumitra Mukherjee is Head (Remote Sensing Applications) and Associate Professor

at School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

>e-mail: dr_saumitramukherjee@usa.net

Dr Anita Mukherjee is an Environmental Consultant.

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WATER HARVESTING AT JAMIA HAMDARD, HAMDARD UNIVERSITY
water harvesting at jamia hamdard, hamdard university
PROF. P. S. SRIVASTAVA & SAPNA MALIK
Hamdard University is located in the South of New Delhi city. Today, most of the existing tube wells in the
region of South Delhi either have lower water levels or have dried. In Jamia Hamdard at Hamdard University
(spread over an area of 100 acres), the average daily requirement is of almost 6 lakh litres of water, while the
availability is only 2.5 lakh litres per day from the existing tube wells. To ameliorate the shortage of water,
Hamdard University has initiated a project on water conservation and harvesting within the campus. The
project has already been partially implemented by achieving:
Cleaning of the existing stormwater drains and construction of check dams for capturing of rainwater
that is being diverted to the sedimentation tanks.
Digging of recharging wells near sedimentation tanks in the vicinity of the tube wells.
Rainwater collected from the rooftop and water reaching from higher regions or hillocks in the
campus is being channelized to the newly constructed drains that are diverted to recharging wells.
All the taps in the campus have been replaced with spring taps to prevent water wastage (by dripping),
when not in use.
The strategies adopted here have taken into consideration the fact that the use of wells to develop ground
water supplies can, in some instances, be an economical alternative to dams and surface reservoir for the
purpose of flow regulation and storage. During good rainy season, excess rainwater should be stored in the soil
and also underground sources using suitable soil moisture conservation measures and water harvesting struc-
tures on the watershed basis.
The engineering measures adopted differ with location, slope of land, soil type, and amount and intensity of
rainfall. Depending on these parameters, the methods commonly used are contour trenching, contour stone
walls, construction of temporary and permanent check dams and gully plugging structures. Additionally,
percolation ponds, silt detention tanks and irrigation tanks need to be constructed to harvest water and
recharge it to the ground for use in agriculture. Farm pond can be constructed for every 4 to 5 hectares in the
watershed to provide protective / supplemental irrigation.
The above mentioned water conservation management and water harvesting programs should be imple-
mented in an integrated manner. There are some demonstrated technologies which are promising for
cleaning contaminated aquifers. New technologies that are evolving include soil vapor extraction, in situ
bioremediation, bioventing, air sparging and in situ thermal barriers.
Prof. P. S. Srivastava is Head, Centre for Biotechnology and Dean, Faculty of Science
at the Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi
>e-mail: dean@hamduni.ren.nic.in
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SAMIR MATHUR
T Luca Luca Luca Luca Luca Invernizzi Invernizzi Invernizzi Invernizzi Invernizzi Tettoni Tettoni Tettoni Tettoni Tettoni
T
Luca
Luca
Luca
Luca
Luca
Invernizzi
Invernizzi
Invernizzi
Invernizzi
Invernizzi
Tettoni
Tettoni
Tettoni
Tettoni
Tettoni
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A SWIMMING POOL IN A HILL-TOP GARDEN WITH A THATCHED ROOOF SITOUT AND PALMS GIVING IT A TROPICAL FEEL

T
T

he presence of water has traditionally been a sign of plenty, as also a metaphor for quenching of material desires. Physical contact with water has been found to be therapeutic. The value of pools is an important link in the relationship be- tween humans and nature. Swimming pools, even for the nonuser are a source of visual delight, and convey a sense of association to the natural landscape. Many

questions arise relating to swimming pools, both in terms of their design and utility

What makes

... a pool safe and easy to use? What are the points to bear in mind while locating and building a swimming pool, especially in India? Pools are much more than just an element of visual relief in the landscape, and require careful handling if they are to fulfill their functional requirements...

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Anthony Anthony Anthony Anthony Anthony & & & & & Sylvan Sylvan Sylvan Sylvan Sylvan Pools
Anthony
Anthony
Anthony
Anthony
Anthony
& & & & &
Sylvan
Sylvan
Sylvan
Sylvan
Sylvan
Pools
Pools
Pools
Pools
Pools

ONE OF THE MOST COMMON SHAPED POOL- THE RECTANGULAR SHAPE

Anthony Anthony Anthony Anthony Anthony & & & & & Sylvan Sylvan Sylvan Sylvan Sylvan Pools
Anthony
Anthony
Anthony
Anthony
Anthony
& &
& & &
Sylvan
Sylvan
Sylvan
Sylvan
Sylvan
Pools
Pools
Pools
Pools
Pools

A FREEFORM SHAPED POOL

Luca Luca Luca Luca Luca Invernizzi Invernizzi Invernizzi Invernizzi Invernizzi Tettoni Tettoni Tettoni Tettoni Tettoni /
Luca
Luca
Luca
Luca
Luca
Invernizzi
Invernizzi
Invernizzi
Invernizzi
Invernizzi
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Tettoni
Tettoni
Tettoni
Tettoni
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A SALT-WATER FREEFORM POOL IN PHUKET, BUILT IN THE ROCKS OVERLOOKING

THE ANDAMAN SEA

Design of pools spans many interrelated fields such as site planning,

framing a program of requirements as to its size and geometry, civil,

plumbing, electrical engineering and horticulture. The reason why images

of some pools are more appealing than others is due to a combination of

factors relating to the pool location, design and construction. Safety

considerations play a major role in design as a whole as well as of all its

components. The key is to remember that pools are usually designed to be

viewed as well as used and as in art, principles of light and proportion play

a significant role in making them visually attractive.

SITE

SITE

SITE

SITE

SITE

PLANNING

PLANNING

PLANNING

PLANNING

PLANNING

CONSIDERATIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

site planning considerations

The relationship of landscape and built form, especially with respect to

the functional requirements, needs detailed examination. A key notion in

the location of swimming pools is a semblance of privacy, especially in

pools which have multiple family units using them, whether in a group

housing or a sports complex or hotel. In residential housing clusters,

swimming pools are located away from the main circulation areas, though

proximity to central open spaces is usually desired for ease of access. In

single-family residences, the pool may take on an additional dimension of

being the focus of social and party activity.

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

CONSIDERATIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

CONSIDERATIONS

design considerations

The following are components of a swimming pool which are of interest

to a designer:

Shell, water proofing and tiling.

Water recirculation system including inlets, outlets and pumping

system.

Deck.

Planting around the pool.

Lighting inside and around the pool.

Shape

Shape

Shape

Shape

Shape

shape

Rectangular and freeform shaped pools are the most common. Of these,

rectangular pools of proportion 1:2 between the sides are most widely

used.

Freeform pools with trees and planting, especially those facing the sea,

enhance viewing pleasure like no other pool. Though, these pools are

most challenging to build and maintain, these are often used in residential

situations and in resorts to contrast with stark and rigid geometry of the

architecture. Considerations of bottom drainage, water supply and access

to center are difficult in these pools and these have been prone to struc-

tural failure, possibly due to the uneven distribution of stresses.

A perfect circular form is not used often, as swimming of lengths is not

possible.

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STEPPED DECK AROUND KIDS’ POOL ADD INTEREST TO THE OTHERWISE SIMPLE SHAPE OF THE MAIN POOL

Steve Steve Steve Steve Steve W W W W W Marley Marley Marley Marley Marley /
Steve
Steve
Steve
Steve
Steve
W W W W W
Marley
Marley
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Sunset
Sunset
Sunset
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Swimming
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EVERGREEN SHRUBS ARE OFTEN PLANTED ALONG THE POOL FOR SCREENING AND A SENSE OF ENCLOSURE

There are functional divisions in the swimming pool

relating to the depth of water. These are used to char-

acterize the usability of the pools such as ‘shallow end’

(for nonswimmers), ‘deep end’ and ‘clear length’ (for

swimmers). Other elements such as shower, foot-wash

and the deck are integral to the layout and should be in

physical proximity in sequence of use when approach-

ing the pool.

DESIGN OF

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

OF

OF

OF

OF POOL

POOL DECKS

POOL

POOL

POOL

DECKS

DECKS

DECKS

DECKS

design of pool decks

It is assumed that at given time two thirds of the users

are not inside the pool. Thus, the deck size should be at

least the same as the surface area of water. Deck chairs

about seven feet long are placed on pool deck with

appropriate space in between and enough space to walk

around them. Dimensions of the pool deck should fol-

low from this. The pool deck slopes away from the

pool. The edge grating is at level and handhold slopes

inwards to prevent a mixing of rainwater or muddy

water with the pool water. Chlorinated water from the

pool is harmful for plants around, and the dimensions

of the pool deck should be wide enough for excess

water droplets falling off from the swimmer’s body.

Finishes

Finishes

Finishes

Finishes

Finishes

finishes

Pool deck material should be impervious to water or

with low water absorption. Thus, common stone like

sandstone is not recommended as it get stained. Stone

on deck should be non-flaky that does not pierce the

feet, as skin is soft after swimming and more suscep-

tible to damage. This is the reason timber or exposed

aggregate decks are not preferred. Deck stones are usu-

ally chisel dressed after lying to remove flakes. Tiles

are usually found to be slippery with the deposition of

materials along with water. Anti-skid tiles which pro-

vide a grip for children while running are best to use.

These should be non corrodible.

Special heated decks in hilly areas require piping to be

underplayed the deck. The stone paving of the deck

should be such so as to allow the heat to penetrate

through.

>LANDSCAPE

>LANDSCAPE

>LANDSCAPE

>LANDSCAPE

>LANDSCAPE

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

PLANTING

PLANTING

PLANTING

PLANTING

PLANTING

planting

Planting around swimming pools play a major role in

enhancement of the visual qualities of water. The prin-

ciples behind planting for swimming pools serve two

conflicting requirements:

Privacy and sense of enclosure for the users.

Spaciousness and visual delight as often the pools

are located in proximity to other built up struct-

ures such as change rooms, pavilions, or habitable

rooms.

Planting with shrubs and ground covers is usually most

appropriate from the maintenance aspect. Plants such

as Lantana sellowiana, Chlorophytum comosum and

Dracaena reflexa are often used for this purpose. Large

trees are best avoided in the near vicinity for their leaf

litter and also as they block sunlight. Even evergreen

trees are best avoided as they shed a proportion of

their leaves during the year.

Shrub beds fulfill the function of providing an edge and

privacy to the pool environs. Evergreen shrubs at the

periphery to provide screening and the use of bold tex-

tured or flowering plants as accents are preferable.

Plants such as Furcraea watsoniana, Cycas revoluta

Lumascape Lumascape Lumascape Lumascape Lumascape Product Product Product Product Product Manual Manual Manual Manual Manual 2000
Lumascape
Lumascape
Lumascape
Lumascape
Lumascape
Product
Product
Product
Product
Product
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
/ / / / /
LSI
LSI
LSI
LSI
LSI
Systems
Systems
Systems
Systems
Systems

and Cycas circinalis, varieties of bamboos and yuccas

are often proposed. In coastal areas, bromeliads are

also used to great effect. Bushy flowering shrubs such as

Hibiscus varieties, Hamelia patens, Bauhinia varieties,

Tecomas and similar species are used to provide both

screening as well as floral displays. Ornamental ever-

greens such as Ficus benjamina, Ficus nuda, Duranta

plumieri and Schefflera arboricola are used for screen-

ing and enclosure.

Poolside lawns add value to a pool, both through in-

creased use and through better visual perception. How-

ever, strips of grass reaching up till the pool is not

advisable, as these are difficult to maintain due to con-

stant wetting with chlorinated water.

References:

  • 1 Carpenter, Jot D. (Ed), Handbook of Landscape Architecture Construction, The Landscape

.

Foundation, Virginia, 1976.

  • 2 Hospitality and Leisure Architecture of Wimberly Allison Tong and Goo, Rockport Publishers,

.

Massachusetts,

1997.

  • 3 Lumascape Product Manual 2000, Queensland, Australia, 2000.

.

  • 4 Rutherford, Don (Supervising Editor), Swimming Pools, Sunset Publishing Corporat -

.

ion, California, 1996.

  • 5 Harris, Charles W. & Nicholas T. Dines (Eds), Time-Saver Standards for Landscape

.

Architecture, McGraw-Hill Inc., Singapore, 1995.

  • 6 Warren, William, The Tropical Garden, Thames and Hudson, London,1997.

.

Samir Mathur did his Masters in Landscape Architecture from the University of Massa-

chusetts, Amherst, USA. Presently, he is Assistant Professor in the Department of

Technical details and regulations of pool design shall be dis- cussed in our upcoming issues.

Landscape Architecture in School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.

>e-mail: mathur@vsnl.com

>LANDSCAPE >LANDSCAPE >LANDSCAPE >LANDSCAPE >LANDSCAPE DESIGN DESIGN DESIGN DESIGN PLANTING PLANTING PLANTING PLANTING PLANTING planting Planting

>HORTICULTURE

>HORTICULTURE

>HORTICULTURE

>HORTICULTURE

>HORTICULTURE

>HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE DR SAROJ TULI With the land resources shrinking in the cosmopolitan

DR SAROJ TULI

>HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE DR SAROJ TULI With the land resources shrinking in the cosmopolitan

With the land resources shrinking in the

cosmopolitan cities, there is hardly any

or no space for gardening around the

house. This is more evident in apartments.

Thus, one has to resort to airspace for

greenery and flowers in hanging baskets.

A variety of baskets can be used for the pur-

pose:

STYLE 2. In this case, seedlings are

planted on the sides from bottom to top,

to give basket a round appearance.

Method

Line 1/3rd of the basket at the

bottom with fiber and put soil mixture in it.

Take plant seedlings and insert the lower part

of the stem with roots through the holes in the

basket. Spread the roots on the soil, where seedlings have

been placed all round. Put a thin layer of soil to cover the roots. (Fig 1)

Again line the remaining basket with fiber upto 2/3rd of the

basket depth and fill soil to this depth, plant another layer of seedlings

as before. (Fig 2)

Various types of terracotta and ceramics pots with provi-

Iron wire baskets (with or without covering).

Painted cast iron baskets.

sion for hanging.

Coconut shells or hollow bamboo pieces.

After one week, cover the top sides of basket with fibers, put soil

Wooden baskets or boxes made of durable wood and painted inside

with charcoal powder in kerosene.

and plant seedlings on the top. The top seedlings grow faster than the

ones planted on the sides. (Fig 3)

These can be hung with ropes, chains wires or macrane holders. Selec-

tion of the container should be done keeping in mind:

Put the basket in shade for about 10 days and then transfer it to

the permanent site, depending on the need of the plant for sunlight and

air. Water daily.

The pores for drainage.

The plant that has to be grown in it.

Suitable size which is easy to handle.

Long life of the material used for basket.

A suitable place to place it.

And above all, its visual appeal.

If the basket is with slits or holes, a layer of moss

and palm leaf or coconut fibers is placed in its

inner portion. Birds have a tendency to pull out

moss. Therefore, a nylon wire mesh is fixed be-

tween the moss and basket shell. Coconut fibre is

ideal, as it has longer life and looks natural and

blends well with the green.

Two styles of baskets can be prepared:

STYLE 1. Here the plants are raised on the top

surface only. Plants that are used are trailers and

Pinching and pruning should be done regularly to encourage branch-

ing so as to cover the entire basket surface. Remove the flower buds if

SOIL FIG 01 MOSS FIG 02 FIG 03
SOIL
FIG
01
MOSS
FIG
02
FIG
03

they appear early. This operation also gives a neat

and clean look to the basket.

Put liquid manure in small quantities and spray

‘Malathion fort’ at night.

PLANTS THAT CAN BE GROWN IN BASKETS

STYLE 1

Asparagus, Philodendron, Tradescantia,

Ferns, Chids and Jade.

STYLE 2 Green leafy vegetables - Coriander,

Mint, Parsley and Spring Onion.

Small sized winter annuals - Nasturtium,

Pansu, Allysum and Jafari.

Kalanchoe, Succulents, Orchids, Lantana,

creepers with long hanging branches.

Ferns and Pilea muscosa.

>HORTICULTURE

>HORTICULTURE

>HORTICULTURE

>HORTICULTURE

>HORTICULTURE

>HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE Today more and more people are decorating their living rooms, study

Today more and more people are decorating their living rooms, study tables, dining tables, bathroom

shelves, kitchen shelves with flower arrangement. These designs reflect one’s creativity, mood,

>HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE Today more and more people are decorating their living rooms, study

ALWAYS CARRY FLOWERS IN HEAD-DOWN

POSITION

hospitality and occassion.

Here are a few tips to keep flowers fresh for a longer time, enhancing the appearance of the

arrangement.

Carry flowers from the garden or market in a head down position, so that heavy flower heads

do not cause damage to their stems. Even if such a thing happens, pass a toothpick through the center

of the flower into the stem.

Use newspaper for wrapping the flowers. Keep flowers in neck deep water for a few hours to

acquire turgidity.

If any flower wilts, cut its stem by 1/2” to 1” under water and leave it in water for a few hours.

If the stem is woody, hammer at the base before putting in water. Alternately remove the bark

from the lower 2” portion of the stem and shift this part into four longitudinal parts.

>HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE Today more and more people are decorating their living rooms, study

WOODY STEMS SHOULD BE HAMMERED AT BASE

BEFORE PUTTING THEM IN WATER

All sketches by the author.

Remove all leaves, thorns or tendrils from the stem that is under water to delay decaying.
Remove all leaves, thorns or tendrils from the stem that is under water to delay decaying.
Flowers like Gerbera, Dahlias and Poppies have hollow stems and lose their sap fast. Sear the
stem base on a flame.
Tie cellotape round the rose buds to
prevent their openings. Put paraffin wax
at the base of Chrysanthemum flowers to
prevent the bottom petals from falling.
If the stem is thin, insert it in a thicker
stem, ensuring that it reaches water.
Spray the flowers with water twice a
day.
Do not put the flower arrangement
directly under the fan, in front of a cooler,
heater or sunlight.

Dr Saroj Tuli is Reader at Maitreyi College, New Delhi

>HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE Today more and more people are decorating their living rooms, study
>HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE >HORTICULTURE Today more and more people are decorating their living rooms, study

>STUDENTS’

>STUDENTS’

>STUDENTS’

>STUDENTS’

>STUDENTS’

SECTION

SECTION

SECTION

SECTION

SECTION

RIVER YAMUNA: PRESENT

RIVER YAMUNA:

RIVER YAMUNA:

RIVER

RIVER

YAMUNA:

YAMUNA:

PRESENT STATUS

PRESENT PRESENT PRESENT

STATUS &&&&& VISION

STATUS

STATUS

STATUS

VISION

VISION

VISION

VISION FOR

FOR AAAAA SUSTAINABLE

FOR

FOR

FOR

SUSTAINABLE FUTURE

SUSTAINABLE

SUSTAINABLE

SUSTAINABLE

FUTURE

FUTURE

FUTURE

FUTURE

PRIYANKA BATRA

The following is an extract from a study done in the Landscape Department of School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.

It was covered under the subject of Advanced Landscape Engineering. The objective of the study was to understand the role of

river Yamuna in present context and future, including the ecological aspects relating to it. This also included the study of the

proposal of channelisation for the river.

>STUDENTS’ >STUDENTS’ >STUDENTS’ >STUDENTS’ >STUDENTS’ SECTION SECTION SECTION SECTION RIVER YAMUNA: PRESENT RIVER YAMUNA: RIVER YAMUNA:

Rivers are zones of concentration for human settlements from the historic times to the present day. The soil of the river bottomland is fertile, rich

and valuable source that, with natural processes, replenishes itself. The ebb and the flow of the Nile have sustained one of the oldest civilizations

on the earth, beyond its contribution in the food-chain. Similarly, Yangtzes in China and Ganges in India offer perennial water supply, agricultural

land, transportation as well as communication facilities. The respect given to a river can be seen in the historic examples of New Delhi’s Central

Vista and Shahjahanabad’s alignment towards the river Yamuna, whereas in contrast one sees the abandoning of
Vista and Shahjahanabad’s alignment towards the river Yamuna, whereas in contrast one sees the abandoning of Fatehpur Sikri due to lack of water.
RIVER
FLOOD PLAINS
BUILT AREAS
GREENS
MONUMENTS
North
LANDUSE FOR AREAS SURROUNDING RIVER YAMUNA, DELHI

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF RIVER YAMUNA

Source of origin

- Yamunotri glacier.

The river enters the Union Territory of Delhi at Palla (in North-

210 MSL) and leaves at Jaitpur (in South-198.12 MSL) after traversing

a distance of about 50 kms.

Its spread varies from 1.5 km to 3.0 km.

Water depth during floods is 9m and during the lean periods is 7.9

m.

10 road bridges, 2 railway bridges and 3 fair weather Pontoon

bridges cross-river Yamuna.

17 major drains are discharging untreated effluents into the river.

The area has an assortment of authorized and unauthorized uses

like samadhis, cremation grounds, sports complexes, thermal power

stations, embankments etc.

RIVER YAMUNA: ISSUES

River Yamuna has been subjected to pressures of fast urban and

industrial growth.

At present, the physical inaccessibility to the river has resulted in

the mushrooming of squatters and its potential for social and recre-

ational value lies untapped.

Lack of foresight, on the part of planners, has resulted in the

location of thermal power stations, fly ash ponds, landfill sites and

other such harmful landuses along the river.

The bathing ghats - used for bathing, cremation or public washing

adds to the pollution of the river.

Monuments that are sited close to the river are in no way incor-

porated in the riverfront development.

The storm water channels that originally recharged a series of

wells, baolis (step wells) and tanks on their way have now ended up

polluting these secondary sources of water supply.

PROPOSALS FOR FLOOD CONTROL IN RIVER

YAMUNA

The various engineering techniques for flood control include dams,

levees, dikes, embankments and channelisation or channel modifica