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Baina Bay ,


This is to certify that the following study on PASSENGER SHIP

TERMINAL ( Cruise Terminal)at Goa

Is a bonafide work of SAMSON V. GOMES, carried under my


Professor In-charge


I acknowledge with gratitude the guidance, creativity, criticism, endued

encouragement, advice and continued interest shown throughout this
project by my Thesis Guide Prof. Jal Aria, without whose help, the study
would not have been successful.

Special thanks are due to Mr. PANJAWANI , Chief Navigator of

Marmagoa Port Trust, and the employees who helped in site searching and
Mr. ELVIS GOMES the captain of Captain of Ports Jetty.

My heart full thanks to my friends and well- wishers, all my classmates ,

and school mates who helped increase my motivity.

My all thanks to Tammy, Larisa and their Mom Riza for my continous
help in Goa.


TOURISM) for the information on the GOA tourism analysis.

Last but not the Least , I am highly indebted to my parents for their
constant support, appreciation and timely help without which the study
would not have been successful.


1. Introduction to Goa
2. General information & Transport
3. History and Climate of Goa
5. Why Goa and Why Vasco
Trends and Forecasts of Tourist Traffic
World Tourism
Indian Scenario
International And Domestic Tourists
6. Existing Terminal & Aims and Objectives
7. Travel demand modeling for Vasco Cruise Terminal
8. Types of Ports, Eight Plan
9. Inland water transport in India By Cdr R.M. Nair
10.National Transport Policy Committee (NTPC) report (1980)
11.GOA map ..VASCO with respect to heart of city
12.Considerations of three proposals of the port
13.Statistics of all the vessels (CRUISE LINERS) which came to goa in the past
14.Comparision of all the 5 PORTS having cruise ship Ports
Harumi Passenger Ship Terminal.
The New York City Passenger Ship Terminal.
BPX Bombay Cruise Terminal.
18.Environmental and Economic appraisal.
19.General Design Principles.
22.Terminal and offshore Facilities.
23.DESIGN CONCEPT and typical terminal photos.
24.Structural and Roofing System.



Goa occupies a narrow strip of the Western Indian Coastline. It is approximately 105 kms. Long
& 65 kms. Wide, with a total area of 3702 sq.kms. the boundaries of Goa are well defined . In the
North, It is surrounded by the Sindhu Durg district of Maharashtra state & in the west by Arabian
Sea. In the East and South it is surrounded by Belgaum & Karwar districts of Karnataka State.
The state is situated on the slope of Western Ghats and is in heavy rainfall zone, having an
average rainfall of 3200 mm per annum. The climate is temperate with temperatures ranging from
15.7C to 35.6C.
The state of Goa is intersected by an extensive network of waterways, important among them
being Terekhol, Mandovi, Zuari & Talpona rivers. All these rivers are navigable and as such are
very vital for the development activities of the state.
Administratively Goa has been organized into two districts namely (1) North goa comprising
6 talukas with an area of 1736 sq.kms. and (2) South Goa having 5 talukas covering an area of 1966
sq.kms. no. of inhabitated villages are 374, which have been grouped into 183 village panchayat. As
per 1991 census, there are 31 towns, of which 13 are municipaltiesand 18 are census towns.
In terms of Topography, Goa falls into three district areas (1) Western Ghats, (2) The
midland region and, (3) The coastal region.

Western Ghats

In the east of the state lie the foothills and some of the peaks of the Sahayadri ranges of Western
Ghats. Some of the main peaks are Sonsagad (1166m); Catlanchimauli(1107m); Vaguerim(1067m)
and Morlemchogad(1036m). Another high point, Dudhsagar, is the site of waterfall. The eastern
talukas of Goa are relatively an developed but are vital for Goan environment, because all the rivers
of Goa originate from the hills in them. These sahayadri ranges are also responsible for high annual
rainfalland are rich in Flora & Fauna.

Midland Region

Between the Western Ghats and the coastal area lies the second area aptly known as midland region.
This is Goas hinterland. It is mostly made up of plateaus between 30m and 100m elevation. In some
areas they extend upto coastline itself. Almost all have been used for fortresses. In this region, spice,
fruit and areca nut plantations have been established. The terraced orchards are made up of coconut
palms, areca, jackfruit, pineapples and mangoes. In the fields below, rice paddy is cultivated.

Coastal Region

Though coastal region is very small portion of total area of the state , it is best known to the tourists
coming to Goa. The tidal stretches of rivers- sometimes even upto 40 kms. Inside, have mangroves
that provide habitat for birds and marine animals. Further, the low-lying areas, known as Khazans,
are reclaimed by building embankments. These help in fish farming and making of salt.


Area 3702 sq.kms

Population 1,343,998 (2001 census)
Languages Kongani, Portuguese, Marathi, Hindi & English.
Climate Summer March to June(24 C 32.7 C ).
Winter --November to February(21.3 C 32.2 C)
Monsoon- June to September ( Rainfall = 320 cm)
Altitude Sea level to 1022 metres.
Location Between latitude 15 4800&
14 53 54 and Longitudes
74 20 13 E & 73 40 33 E.
Religion Christianity, Hindu, Islamic


Air Transport Facilities:

Goa has one airport at Dabolim, 3 km from the city of Vasco-da-gama and 29 kms from
Panaji. The airport is under the cover of Indian Navy and operates as civil airport only for a few
hours during the daytime.
Among International flights, Air India operates a flight via Bombay to Europe twice a week.
Indian Airlines operates a bi-weekly flight from Chennai via Trichy and Goa to Sharjah and Quait.
Apart from the above, charter flights which mostly originates from Europe, are allowed to directly
land as Goa only on three days a week.
Domestic flights, Indian Airlines, Jet Airways, Sahara and Gujarat Airways operate flights
from Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Kochi (via Bangalore), Pune and Agatti (Lakshadweep).
The charter flights originate normally from England, Germany Switzerland, Holland. Some
of the frequent charter services are operated by Monarch Airlines, Air Holland, LTU Airways,
Brittannia Airways, Caledomain Airways, Fin Air, Maersk Air, TEA Cross Air, etc.

Water Transport Facilities:

Goa as a major port at Mormugao, It is almost entirely for Cargo movement and does not
play any significant role as a gateway for tourists. A luxury Catarman service is operational between
Mumbai and Panjim, except on monsoons.

Rail Transport Facilities:

Goa has developed excellent rail linkages with the rest of the country. The distance of the
railhead at Margoa to some of the major cities are:

Bangalore - 672 km.

Chennai - 1045 km.
Delhi - 2170 km.
Mangalore - 450 km.
Mumbai - 771 km.
Pune - 579 km.

Road Transport Facilities:
Kadamba bus service mainly operates in the Goa, It accounts for entire bus transportation in
Goa. Though the intra state services of KTC ( Kadamba Transport Corporation) the inter
state services cater almost excessively to the tourist population. The Corporation has a fleet
strength of 331 buses, operates services within Goa state as well from places like Mumbai,
Bangalore ,etc. A large number of private tour operators also run bus services from
Maharashtra, Karnataka, etc to Goa.

BOMBAY: The capital of Maharashtra, The economical hub of India, of the major metros Mumbai,
Delhi, Calcutta Mumbai lies at the natural harbour bay . thus coastal shipping can be in a great
demand. Mumbai has developed their coastal region for inbound water traffic or passenger & also
cargo ships. Passenger cruise lines come at BPX Bombay Port Trust cruise terminal& Domestic
ships come at Gateway of India& Bhaucha Dhakka. Both these are free port for inbound domestic
traffic (passengers).

GOA: The hub of India and World as a Tourist spot. People over all world and also over all India
visit Goa for leisure.Goa has a very long coastline of 105 km palm fringed. All beaches , unbroken
for several kilometers, have fine stretches of sand. There are a total 34 important beaches.It has one
major Port which caters to passenger and cargo .It caters to international tourist passengers. Goa also
has small port at Panaji which caters to domestic tourist traffic.

Goa came under various rulers including the Satavahanas, the Chalukyas and the Kadambas. The
Kadambas built their capital at Old Goa, just 9 km off Panaji, in the 11th century. The Muslims took
over Goa in the 14th century, only to lose it to the Vijayanagaris. Finally, the Adil Shahis of Bijapur
made Old Goa their second capital and built a palace at Panaji. When Goa came under the
Portuguese in the 16th century, this palace was taken over as the Viceroys official residence. They
made Panaji the capital in 1843 after the collapse of Old Goa. Panaji, the land that never floods,
was now renamed Panjim by the Portuguese and it was also referred to as New Goa.

Goa has an equable climate with not much variation in the average minimum and maximum
temperatures. During the summer (April to June) the minimum is 26C and the maximum is 34C.
The monsoon (July to October, 225 to 300 cm) brings temperatures down marginally so that the
minimum is 24C and the maximum is 31C. In winter from Nov to March the minimum is 21C,
while the maximum is 32C.

The town itself is laid out in a criss-cross grid fashion, being built around the Church Square or
Municipal Gardens, as the park is called. The Secretariat, housed in the Adil Shahi palace, lies to the
north of Church Square. Panjims Portuguese Quarter, Fontainhas and the suburb of Pato, overlook
the Qurem Creek, while Sao Tome, the other Old Quarter, lies to the north of Fontainhas.
A large bridge spans the Mandovi estuary to the north, while the NH-7 heads off the south,
connecting Panaji to the airport and to the rail station at Vasco da Gama.

Passenger Ships are used to move passengers from one state to another . Cruise lines are used for
movement of passengers.

There are three major modes of transport Roads, Railways & Airways. All these are used for
movement of passengers from station to station, to outstation, one to another state, country to
another country. Waterways is also another mode of transport. Cruise lines used for transport of
International tourists( from one country to another country). Cargo is also passed through ships for
the least cost of transport. Domestic transport of passengers by waterways is now been started in
India. The coastal region of India consisting of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Tamilnadu, Kerala,
Calcutta etc, has a very good capacity of developing a good water terminals for inland domestic
water transport system. Thus this will lessen the traffic catered by railways. The coastal states:

Several alternatives were examined for the terminal layout for Vasco with different
plans. The recommended layout is based on optimum circulation, good level of service
and cost considerations besides environmental/aesthetical considerations. The facilities include the

1. Terminal building
2. Administrative Building
3. Link Span
4. Quay wall
5. Car park, taxi park and public transport parking
6. Maintenance work shop
7. Internal roads
8. Fuel Station

The terminal building includes the following facilities:

1. Departure hall for Cruise ships

2. Departure hold for Cruise ships
3. Arrival hall for for Cruise ships
4. Security check
5. Circulation, kiosks, toilets, offices, stores.
6. Restaurants
7. Crew room
8. Office room
9. Duty free shops.
10. Medical care (First aid)
11. Child care
12.Postal services.
13. Communication Area, (Phone , Internet connection,etc).
14. Check- in offices
15 Visitors Lounge.

16 Baggage handling for Arrival passengers
17 Baggage handling for Departure passengers
18. Customs and Immigration clearance area.
19 Security area at the entrance
20. check in for the vehicles parking.

The Administrative building consists of the following facilities.

1. Fire fighting office with equipment and staff.

2. General meeting room
3. Police office room
4. Fuel maintaining room
5. Reception Area
6. Technical officers , with Chief technical officer
7. Security chief office
8. Duty officer
9. Waiting area
10. Life guard with staff and equipment
11. Maintenance officer
12. Ship companies offices
13. Salary administration
14. Cash flow analysis
15. Insurance and Taxation
16. Salary Administration
17. TERMINAL MANAGER with secretary.

10 | P a g e
Why GOA & Why VASCO Tourists Traffic in GOA

Goa has a rich inventory of World class tourism resources, both natural as well as manmade, they
Picturesque landscape, beautiful mountains (the Western Ghats ) and serene rivers like the Mandovi,
Zuari, etc.
105 km of palm-fringed shoreline with fabulous beaches.
Luxuriant greenery dotted with beautiful villages.
Wildlife sanctuaries at Bondla, Mollem, Cotigao in the Ghat region and Sal;im Ali Bird Sanctuary at
Chorao Island.
Tranquil Lake at Mayem and breath-taking waterfalls and Dudhsagar.
Heritage monuments- many Churches reflecting Baroque or traditional Portuguese style of
architecture with exquisite interiors;
Temples and mosques which are thronged by thousands of devotees every year-great potential for
religious tourism.
7. Rich cultural heritage- Celebration of various Hindu and Christian festivals through fairs,
dances, fun and frolic, a mix of Konkani and Portuguese traditions- enjoyed by residents and tourists
8. Warm, hospitable, peace-loving nature of the ethnic Goan people, high level of literacy and
working knowledge of English.
9. Pleasant climate for most part of the year, ranging from 24c- 35c in summer and 21c-32c in
winter-plenty of warm sunshine which attracts lakhs of foreign tourists.
10.Accessibility by all modes of transport:
By air directly from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Pune ,Cochin, Agathi, Sharjah & Kuwait
apart from direct chartered flights from Europe.
By rail from anywhere in India by Konkan railway via Mumbai,Mangalore and South Central
Railway via Londa/Castle rock.
By Road from Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore and other important cities in the states of Maharashtra,
Karnataka, Kerala, etc.
By sea- Luxury Catamaran service from Mumbai except during monsoons.
11. Fairy developed tourism related and supportive industries:
Reasonably developed hotel industry and inexpensive, popular paying guest accommodation
Acceptable levels of local public transport facilities.
Decent network of financial services.
Large number of rural and handicrafts/cottage industrial units, cashew processing units, etc.
12. Some of the new policies of the government of India are oriented towards giving a thrust to the
tourism sector and are applicable in Goa as well.
Export house status granted to specified units with easier criteria.
Tourism export promotion council established with the objective of marketing India as a vital tourist
destination within ten years and act as a single window clearance facility for approval of all export
related requirements.


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Goa has enormous potential for development of new product ideas , some of which are the latest
craze in the western world today.
Heritage Tourism.
The state has an abundance of old mansions , palaces, several forts, which can be suitably renovated
and opened up for tourism.

2. Health Tourism.
Western tourists has great regard for the ancient Indian practices of treatment
and Goa can capitalize on the same by opening health parlours similar to those in Kerala.

3. Educational Tourism
The state has an already established base of a reputed university medical,
engineering and law colleges, institutes of management, catering technology hotel management, etc.
Development of residential public schools, professional institutes and specialized research centres
like the National Institute of Oceanography, can open up a new area of educational tourism to attract
students not only from all over the country but from various parts of the world as well. This would
also stimulate substantial visits by the family members of students, teachers, researchers, etc to Goa.

4. Business Tourism
Goa is already an established centre for conferences and conventions for
domestic and multi-national companies. The state has also hosted major political conventions like
the commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in 1983. the State can serve as a major
destination for conventions, conferences, industrial trade fairs, etc provided such centres with
residential facilities , exhibitions grounds, dte are created.

5. Entertainment Tourism
Tourism activity in the state of Goa thrives mainly on the natural tourism resources
like beaches and few architectural marvels.One of the features of modern tourism , completely
absent in Goa, is entertainment complexes such as amusement parks, water parks cable car rides ,
aquariums, casinos, sound and light shows, etc. These features are highly popular in the west as well
as in India, wherever available. These features have a great potential in Goa as they will introduce a
variety of recreational facilities to tourists.

6. Cultural Tourism
The Carnival in Goa is one of the unique festivals in the world, attracting
lakhs of domestic and International tourists, every year. Apart from the above, religious festivals like
Shigmotsav, feast of St Francis Xavier, etc are also very popular with the residents as well as
domestic tourists. The food and the cultural festival exhibiting the culinary delights and ethnic
tradition, is another popular festival which if properly marketed ( in India and abroad) can give a
major boost to tourism in Goa.


The Global scenario

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At global level, tourism has emerged as one of the major economic activities today. In 1995, the
World Tourist arrival were about 567.4 million of which Europes share wa
wass almost 60 % , followed
by America with 20 % . The share of South Asian region was an abysmally low 0.8 %.


Region No. of Tourists ( in Million) Percentage Share

Europe 337.2 59.4
America 111.9 19.7
East Asia & Pacific 84.0 14.8
Africa 18.8 3.3
Middle East 11.1 2.0
South Asia 4.4 0.8
World Total 567.4 100.0
Share of India 2.1 0.4

2.0 0.8

14.8 East asia & Pacific

Middle East
South Asia

The World Tourism Organisation ( W.T.O.) in its forecast World tourism Tourism -2020 Vision
has estimated 692 million tourist in the year 2000; more than one billion in 2010 and around 1.6
billion in 2020.

According to WTO estimates, Europe will continue to remain the most popular tourist destination
with about 717 million tourist estimated for the year 2020. Eas
Eastt Asia and Pacific region will surpass
America by 2010 to become the second most visited destination. International tourists arrival in
South Asia is expected at 19 million in 2020, which is almost 5 times that of 1995, but still quite low
as compared to other destinations.

India is expected to fuel 4.5 times growth in international tourist arrivals, more than half of the total
arrivals in South Asia.

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International Tourists In India

1) Past Trend

The Eight Five Year Plan of the Government of India had envisaged a growth target of 9% per
annum in international tourist arrivals during the Plan period. The actual figures however fell short
substantially due to various socio-political unrest across the globe and in the country as well and
registered an average annual growth rate of 6% only.

International Tourists Arrivals in India

Year Targets ( in million) Actual ( in milliom) % Variation
1991 1.68 1.68 --
1992 1.83 1.87 +0.01
1993 1.99 1.76 -11.56
1994 2.17 1.89 -12.90
1995 2.36 2.12 -10.17

International Tourist Arrivals in India( in millions)

1.5 Actual
1.0 Targets
1990.5 1991 1991.5 1992 1992.5 1993 1993.5 1994 1994.5 1995 1995.5


2) Forecast

The past trend in tourist arrivals from all the major countries and regions, since 1972, was analysed
by the Working Group on Tourism for the Ninth Plan (1997-2002) by using linear and exponential
regression models with the help of National Informatics Centre. The exponential mode has been
found to be most appropriate than the linear model in the case of several countries . Based on this

14 | P a g e
model, the aggregate forecast of international tourist arrivals to India ( using exponential model).
According to said forecasts, the average annual rate of growth during the Ninth Plan Period is 6.4 %.
It confirms to the WTO projections for the South Asia region.

Forecast for International Tourist Arrivals by using Exponential Model

Year Tourist Visits( in million) % change

1996 2.26 --
1997 2.40 6.2
1998 2.55 6.4
1999 2.71 6.3
2000 2.89 6.6
2001 3.08 6.6

3) Modified Growth Forecast

The forecast given in the table are based on past trends and do not take into account the changes
which have been taking place and various contributory factors, which include the following:

The process of economic liberalization and globalization initiated since july, 1991 and the
consequent increases in foreign investment in the tourism sector.
The changes that are taking place in the air transportation industry including liberal policy on
bilateral agreements liberalized charter policy , privatization of airports and air services etc.
Greater momentum in the domestic investment in tourism infrastructure.
Greater awareness on the part of State/Union Territory Governments about the economic
benefits of tourism and
Overall developments in the basic infrastructural sectors like airports, air and rail services,
special roads and road transport system, telecommunication facilities, power, etc.

In view of the above factors , the Working Group on Tourism for the Ninth Plan has assumed a
growth forecast of 8% per annum is given:

Forecast of International Tourist Arrivals Based on Modified Growth Rate of 8% per


Year Tourist Arrivals(Thousands)

1996 2289
1997 2472
1998 2670
1999 2884
2000 3114

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2001 3363
2002 3632
2003 3922
2004 4236
2005 4575

2006 4940
2007 5336
2008 5762
2009 6224
2010 6722

2011 7259
2012 7840
2013 8467
2014 9144
2015 9876

2016 10655
2017 11578
2018 12440
2019 13435
2020 14510

4) Purpose of Visit

According to estimates of the Deptt. Of Tourism , Government of India, 89% of the tourists visit
India for holiday and sight-seeing, followed by 7.3% for business while the rest comprise of people
visiting for Conference, Education, Visiting friends7 relatives, etc.

Foreign Tourists in India- Purpose of Visit

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7% 4%


Holiday Business Others

Domestic Tourists

1) Past Trend

The main stay of Indian Tourism is domestic tourists. Travel for Trade, or for ppilgrimage
ilgrimage has been
an integral part of Indian society since ancient times. The economic growth achieved by the country
since independence and the emergence of the large urban middle class with disposal incomes have
resulted in the growth of domestic touris
m for holiday and sight seeing in the recent past. The
domestic tourists visits during 1991--1995
1995 is shown in the table. The domestic tourism scenario
appeared to be much brighter with an average annual growth rate of 12.9% during the aforesaid

Domestic Tourists- 8th Plan Period


Year Tourist Visits (in million) % change

1991 66.44 --
1992 81.46 22.6
1993 86.64 6.4
1994 100.04 15.4
1995 108.04 8.0

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
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Tourists(in millions)

Based on econometric models and taking into account the present day scenario, the working group
on tourism for the Ninth Plan has projected that domestic tourist visits would grow at an annual rate
of growth of about 9.5% as per table

Forecast of Domestic Tourist Visits

Year Tourist Arrivals( Thousands)
1996 120000
1997 131400
1998 143883
1999 157552
2000 172519

2001 188908
2002 206854
2003 226505
2004 248023
2005 271585

2006 297385
2007 323636
2008 356572
2009 390446
2010 427538

2011 468154
2012 512628
2013 561327
2014 614653
2015 673045

2016 736984
2017 806997
2018 883662
2019 967610
2020 1059532

18 | P a g e

Foreign Tourist to Goa

Goa has been one of the major tourist destinations in India for Foreign visitors
visitors.. Its share is around
11% of the total foreigners visiting the country as is visible

Foreign Tourists to Goa

Year Foreign visitors to Foreign visitors to %

India Goa
(million) (million)
1991 1.68 0.078 4.64
1992 1.87 0.120 6.42
1993 1.76 0.170 9.66
1994 1.89 0.210 11.11
1995 2.12 0.230 10.85
1996 2.26(p) 0.240 10.62
1997 2.40(p) 0.260 10.83
1998 2.55(p) 0.280 10.98
1999 2.37(actual) 0.280 11.81

Share of Foreign Tourists in India Visiting Share of Foreign Tourists in India

Goa in 1991 Goa in 1991

5% 12%



Rest of India Goa Rest of India Goa

During the years from 1990 to 1998, the share of foreign tourists as share of total tourists visiting
Goa has considerably increased from 11.83% in 1990 to 22.39% in 1998 as shown in the table. This
is significantly higher than the normal trend of about 3.
37% (1997) of foreign tourists observed in

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Percentage Distribution of Foreign and Domestic tourists visiting Goa

Year % of Foreign Tourists

1990 11.83
1991 9.37
1992 13.55
1993 17.60
1994 19.83
1995 20.69
1996 21.06
1997 21.97
1998 22.39

The arrival of Foreign tourists to Goa by charter flights has increased rapidly from a mere 3568
people in 1985-86 to almost 90,000 in 1997-98, as depicted in the table

Arrival of Foreign Tourists by Charter Flights to Goa

Year No. of Flights Tourists

1985-86 24 3568
1986-87 26 4401
1987-88 25 5419
1988-89 83 9705
1989-90 107 9266
1990-91 41 5815
1991-92 121 17102
1992-93 259 39871
1993-94 299 58369
1994-95 313 59881
1995-96 337 75694
1996-97 282 73172
1997-98 340 88817

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1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Domestic Tourist to Goa NO OF Flights

As regards domestic tourists, the share of Goa is less than 1% of the tota domestic tourist visits in the
country. Further more, as evidenced in the table. The share of Goa has steadily declined over the

Domestic Tourists to Goa

Year Domestic visitors in Domestic visitors in %

India (million) Goa
1991 66.44 0.76 1.14
1992 81.46 0.77 0.95
1993 86.64 0.80 0.92
1994 100.04 0.85 0.85
1995 108.04 0.88 0.81
1996 120.00(p) 0.89 0.74
1997 131.40(p) 0.93 0.71
1998 143.88(p) 0.95 0.66



Share of Domestic Tourists in India Visiting

Total Tourist Traffic to Goa

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During the present decade, one observes an average increase of 2.59% for domestic tourists, a
whooping 12.88 % for foreign tourists and 4.24% for overall tourist traffic during the period 1990-
1998 as shown in table. In between , the year 1991 has seen a drastic fall in the arrival of foreign
tourists, which may be attributed to unstable socio-political situation in the country. The year 1996
again has seen a significantly low growth rate compared to the previous year.

Trends in Growth of Tourist Traffic to Goa

Year Domestic % increase Foreign % increase Total % of

1990 776993 104330 881323
1991 756786 -2.60 78281 -24.97 835067 -5.25
1992 774568 2.34 121442 55.14 896010 7.30
1993 798576 3.10 170658 40.53 969234 8.17
1994 849404 6.36 210191 23.17 1059595 9.32
1995 878487 3.49 229218 9.05 1107705 4.54
1996 888914 1.19 237216 3.49 1126130 1.66
1997 928925 4.50 261673 10.31 1190598 5.72
1998 953212 2.61 275047 5.11 1228259 3.07
CARG AVG. 2.59% Avg. 12.88% Avg. 4.24%

All the Statistic are taken from the TOURISM MASTER PLAN : GOA-2011

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There is one vaco port called Marmagoa port trust. Water Transport services and
communication crafts in existence for instance between Goa and rest of the world is carried from this
This port serves for both cargo and passengers cruise liners. But due to the demand of Goa
and also the cargo exported and imported is iron ore , thus it becomes difficult for the passengers and
also for cruise liners to drop the passengers at this Marmagoa port.


This will intentionally bring the cruise passengers and also more beneficial to the state and
the country for earning foreign currencies.This will thus increase the tourism for the Goa. 365
DAYS ON A HOLIDAY , GOA Everything included.
As the tourism in Goa is increasing day by day as shown in the statistics of the Goa 2011
master plan, Goa can fully survive on its own upon the tourism.


As STAR CRUISE have started the service of Cruise liners to and from Goa, Mumbai
& Lakshadweep. Middle income group have also started to board the cruise liners for
entertainment and for traveling.
As published in Mid-day 24/04/05 Sunday about the STAR CRUISE trips
to and fro form Mumbai , Goa and Lakshadweep.
Also Marmagoa port trust has proposed a Cruise terminal on the Baina Bay
attaching Four lane highway.


Terminal should include the following facilities.

Good access to landward transport system, i.e. Roads, buses, taxis .
Reception area ticketing ,waiting, refreshments toilets.
Embarkation/ disembarkation facilities.
Safe approaches and departure routes for ships & small workshops for maintaining.
Fueling and Water supply.
Toilet cleaning facilities.


The terminal is intended to serve as:

A gateway to travelers coming to Goa. It will be serving the proposed the four lane highway.
A landmark in the Goa.
An interchange to the passengers between water and land transportation modes.

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The terminal will principally cater to the national and international cruise liner and allied activities.
The complex as an interchange will also harbour parking facilities for Private cars buses,
The complex is to be principally developed as a recreational waterfront, with walkways pedestrians
decks cafes and restaurants.

Total navigable length of inland water-ways in the country is 15,783 km of which maximum stretch
lies in the state of Uttar Pradesh followed by West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Kerala and
Bihar successively. Amongst the river system, the Ganga has the largest navigable length followed
by the Godavari, the Brahmaputra and the rivers of West Bengal. Waterways are having the unique
advantage of accessibility to interior places. Besides, they provide cheaper means of transport with
far less pollution and communicational obstacles. The waterways traffic movement has gone up
progressively from 0.11 m.t. in 1980-81 to 0.33 m.t. in 1994-95.
The development of inland water transport is of crucial importance from the point of energy
conservation as well. The ten waterways identified for consideration for being declared as national
waterways are namely:
Sea routes between east and west directions pass through major ports of India. The sea routes
towards east and south from India move to Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, China and
Japan. Towards west they move to United States of America, Europe and Africa.


The Eighth Plan has as its main objective acquisition of a modern, diversified fleet
capable of helping in the realization of the objectives of export promotion and improved balance of
payments of the country. From this point of view about 15 lakh GRT will be replaced during the
Eighth Plan period and about 10 lakh GRT will be added to the tonnage increasing the Eight Plane to
70 lakh GRT the outlay for the eight Plan for the shipping is Rs 3,668.91 crores.

Indias coastline of about 6,000 km is dotted with 11 major, 11 intermediate and 168 minor
ports. Nearly 95 per cent of the countrys foreign cargo (by volume) moves by sea and, therefore,
ports/and their development assume an important place in policy making. Development and
maintenance of Indias major ports are the responsibility of the Central Government, while Other
Ports are in the Concurrent list.

24 | P a g e
Indias major ports are governed by the Indian ports Act 1908 and the Major Port Trusts Act 1963.
The former allow the Statutory to declare any port a major port, define port limit, levy charges etc.
while the formation of Port trust Boards and vests the administration control and management of
major ports in these Boards.

At the time of independence, India had five major Ports, viz. Mumbai, Calcutta, Vishakhapatnam,
Chennai, and Cochin. With the Karachi Port going to Pakistan after Partition, there was the for a
major port on the western coast. A new port was developed at Kandla, which was declared a major
port in 1955. The Marmugao Port, developed by the Portugues, joined the ranks of major ports in
1964 after the liberation of Goa in 1962. Para deep, on the eastern coast, was declared a major port
in 1966. Eight years later, New Mangalore and Tuticoin were added to the list of major ports. The
inclusion of the Jawaharlal Nehru Port at Nhava Sheva on the western coast took the number of
major ports to 11.

Development of port after the independence, the development of major ports was taken up in a
planned manner. Mechanization and modernizations of cargo-handling facilities at Ports have been a
thrust area in recent years, with emphasis on development of dedicated infrastructure. Deepening of
ports to receive lager vessels has been another priority area. Vishakhapatnam and Chennai ports
have already been deepened.


Minor and intermediate ports fall in the Concurrent list and their administration is the responsibility
of the respective coastal states. Their number as well as their categorization into minor or
intermediate Ports has varied from time to time, depending upon the volume of cargo and the
number of passenger they handle. In 1996, there were 11 intermediate and 168 minor ports and state
wise distribution was:

Orissa -2, Andhra Pradesh - 12, Tamil Nadu -10, Pondicherry - 1, Andarnan and Nicobar - 22,
Lakshadweep -10, Kerala - 13, Karnataka - 9, Goa - 5, Maharashtra - 53, Darnan and Diu - 2 and
Gujarat - 40.

Name of the 11 major ports

Calcutta, Haidia, Paradeep, Mumbai, Chennai Cochin, Tuticorin, JNPR, Kandla Vishakhapatnam,
New Mangalore, and Marmugao.


In the world and Asia-Pacific perspective, the Indian shipbuilding industry is quite small.
In 1995, Japan built 394 ships of 8.4 million DWT for domestic purpose and 124 ships of 6.2 million
DWT for export trade. Similarly, South Korea built 43 ships of 2.2 million DWT for domestic
sailings and 100 ships of 7.9 million DWT for export trade. During the same year, 1,128 ships of
33.9 million DWT were built worldwide while in India, the Hindustan Shipyard Ltd. has built only
109 ships since 1952. Cochin Shipyard Ltd., the biggest in India, has built seven ships and 30 small

25 | P a g e

India has 14,500 km of navigable inland waterways comprising of river system, canal, backwaters,
creeks and tidal inlets. About 5200 km of major rivers and 485 km of canals are suitable for
mechanised crafts. Even these navigable waterways lack the needed infrastructure such as
navigational aids, terminals and communication facilities. The total cargo moved by inland water
transport is about 20 million tonnes corresponding to just over 1.5 billion tonne km or 0.15 percent
of the total inland cargo of about 877 billion tonne km, the balance being moved by road, rail and
pipelines. The stretch of water way from Allahabad to Kolkata on the river Ganges (1620 km), the
stretch from Sadiya to Dhubri on the river Brahmaputra (891 km) and the West Coast canal from
Kottapuram to Kollam including the Champakara and Udyogamandal canals (205 km) have been
declared as National Waterways I, II and III respectively. Kakinada- Marakkanam on the Godavari
and Krishna rivers is likely to be declared as National waterway IV in the 10th plan. Other
waterways that have potential for being declared as national waterways are Sundarbans, Mahanadhi,
Narmada, Mandovi, Zuari rivers, Cumberjua canal in Goa and Tapi.


Ferry Passengers To carry tourists ,passengers to
work, school or visit friends.
Yacht Passengers & Sailors For cruising, races, holidays
Salvage Tug
Bark Canoe
Ocean Liner
Rowing Boat
Surf Board





Cdr. R.M. Nair, FIS*

The prevailing trends towards rising population, increasing urbanization, spread of more
water intensive lifestyle as well as the agricultural technology sweeping round the world
require more water than essential. Preservation and optimum utilization of water assume

26 | P a g e
greater importance in this regard. Navigation is one of the non-consumptive uses of water. If
the waterways are developed for navigation it can provide an energy efficient and environment
friendly mode of transportation for the sustainable development of the transport
infrastructure. It is in this context that the navigation component derives its importance in any
water resources project.

2. Development and commercial use of inland waterway transport have assumed great
significance in many countries particularly in the USA, China, Germany, and Russia.
Commonly known reasons for such development are higher fuel costs, rail and road network
congestion and the large increase in the demand for dry and liquid bulk commodity
movements. The investment and operating costs of commercial inland waterway transport are
significantly lower per unit of output and the capacity of waterways is usually not only large
but easily and cheaply augmentable. In some countries such as China, inland waterway and
coastal transport produces nearly as many ton-km of output as rail, road and air cargo
transport combined. Nearly seventy per cent of the movement is on the Yangtze River
primarily with commodities like coal, crude oil, iron ore, rolled steel and building materials.
While inland waterways transport was traditionally the mode of choice for dry and liquid bulk
or low unit value cargo transport, recent developments of higher speed inland water craft, as
well as delays caused by increased rail and road congestion have resulted in significant
movements on inland waterways of higher value goods, including containerized break bulk

3. A successful example is China where freight and passenger movement is predominantly

on waterways. Similarly, the European continent has a navigable network of inland waterways
measuring nearly 11, 000 km. On a comparative scale waterways are found to be cheaper than
rail for freight movement and the sector is much more competitive. Russian and Chinese
waterways together constitute the worlds largest waterway network. USA has one of the best
waterway infrastructures. Nearly 65% of total tonnage is moved on this waterway system
the major advantage

4. India has an extensive network of inland waters consisting of rivers, canals and lakes,
natural and manmade and a coast line of over 6000 kilometers, dotted with a number of major
and minor ports. Inland Water Transport (IWT) represents a significant resource for India.
The total length of navigable waterways in India is about 14500 kms, of which 5700 kms are
navigable by mechanically propelled vessels. IWT in the past was a major means of
communication in many parts of India. Today IWT is unique as a participant of two major
economic sectors - a multi-purpose water resources system and an inter modal transportation
system. The relative success of IWT is highly dependent on the overall economic environment
and the Governments regulatory and investment policies.

5. Setting up of Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) in 1986, a statutory

autonomous body for regulating and developing navigation and shipping in the inland
waterways has been a major landmark in the IWT development in India. The authority since
its inception has endeavored to develop a scientific temperament for the development of inland
waterway. Three waterways, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the West Coast Canal totaling

27 | P a g e
a distance of 2700 Kms. have been declared national waterways and are being developed for
shipping and navigation.

6. Inland Water Transport in India, as is in other countries, is location specific; confined to

the geographical regions gifted with waterways. In such regions the IWT can have a larger
share of the cargo linking the ports and the hinterland. In linking such regions with rest of the
country IWT become part of an intermodal link, achieving higher efficiency in a multimodal
service where cargo is carried by different modes, in more than one carrier but under the same
transport document. It also has a role as a stand alone mode when the origin and destination
are on the water front. The major benefits of the IWT are the achievable fuel savings,
reduction in overall cost of transportation, reduction in environmental cost and line cost

7. The IWT policy formulation preceded a detailed study closely examining the current
sector characteristics and its amenability and options for private sector participation and
component for a sustainable development of the sector. These documents included the IWAI
Action Plan 1994, IWT Vision 2020 of 1998 and the IWT Strategy Document for Presentation
to the Group of Ministers. A risk profile assessment of the sector and hence, an identification
of the key concerns and challenges to private participation has been measured up against the
existing policy of the government, international precedents and specific case instances of
successful IWT projects. The endeavor was to explore solutions that optimally balance both
public and private interests in developing a joint participation approach to support the sector.

8. In general, to make the IWT a viable and acceptable mode, certain conditions are to be
fulfilled. These relate to rationalizing tariff structures, ensuring sufficient reductions in line
haul, travel time, improved safety of goods in transit and providing sufficient financial
incentives to consignees and end users of the transport product by providing:

Fairway development with sufficient depth and width.

24 hours navigation,

Terminals and mechanical loading facilities,

Access and cargo assurance to improve the load factor and hence profitability.

9. The IWT system in India has suffered from under investment and financial constraints
not only in absolute terms but also in comparison to other modes of transportation. Conscious
and bold investment is needed for the systematic development of fairway, fleet, terminals and
navigational aids. Institutional set up is needed to be put directly by public private
partnership with a long-term objective of minimizing the public money and maximizing the
share of private investment. The Government, as a facilitator, should also step in to reduce the
investors risk. This could be by way of fiscal concessions, easy availability of capital flow, and
long-term assurance of cargo and concessionary rates of port charges for IWT vessels. IWT,
like in any infrastructure sector, will have long gestation period for return of investment and

28 | P a g e
hence at the initial stages government support would be inevitable. As the mode becomes
popular and its viability well demonstrated, the private sector investment risk would reduce
resulting in large flow of funds from the private sector and gradually a stage would emerge
when the role of the Government would be only that of a regulator.

10. The Indian transportation system has been led by road and rail development. With the
benefit of door to door service in case of roads and substantial investments already been made
in backup linkages for railways, there is a high switching cost to other modes of transport.
Being location specific multimodal transfers to access waterway adds to the IWT cost. User
reluctance to experiment new modes is another impediment for a developing mode. Various
measures have been considered to overcome these teething problems such as committed traffic,
long term cargo assurance, captive users as project participants, joint ventures by
Government, shipper, carrier, etc. being some of the important steps to reduce the financial
risks and are considered under the policy objective. Development of successful pilot projects
paving the way for a more comprehensive development of other projects on the waterway and
prioritization of subsequent projects that sustain private interest is the focus of privatization.
Stable cash flows and a few revenue streams from commercially stable projects could be then
leveraged to finance investments in subsequent projects.

11. The basic policy objectives of Indian IWT have short term and long term
components. The short term objective is to effect a sizeable increase in the traffic volume, from
the present level of around 1 billion tonne km to at least 20 billion ton-km within a five year
period. The long term objective is to develop the full IWT potential of the country which
going by successful examples of other countries - could be as much as a 5 to 8 per cent of the
total national transport output. A veritable IWT revolution is thus a key component of plans to
improve Indias competitiveness and to place India among the leading industrial nations of the
world in the 21st century.

12. The physical components of the short term programme will be the removal of
impediments to the full exploitation of the existing waterways by tackling the fairway, terminal
and vessel related issues, and providing the initial support for significant private participation.
The physical components of the long term plan would cover, in addition to the above, the
development of new waterways and the upgrading of vessel and cargo handling technologies to
modernize the total IWT system and integrate it fully with the national transport effort.

13. The institutional set up needs to be directed to a public-private partnership. The

financial analysis in a number of cases indicated that initially the government has to be
involved to enhance the project viability. However, the objective must be to minimize the
public money necessary in the long run to make the project viable by having a maximum share
for the private investor. Private investors will only get involved when their expectations on the
return on investment justify the risks, which they have to incur. The total risk of a project can
be minimized if the risk is more transparent.

14. The financial risk comprises of debt financing risk and equity financing. Since, the debt
financing risk will be perceived as being big for this kind of project, the possible revenue risk
premiums will be high. Reducing this risk premium would require a large share of equity

29 | P a g e
capital or external loan guarantees, thus, bringing the Government of India back into the

15. Operating risk can be fully taken by the operator as long as government does not
intervene into major cost components (wages and fuel). Revenue risk pertaining to fare is very
much influenced by government regulation. The more transparent the risk, the lower is the
risk premium. Thus, the Government should give a clear and stable picture very early in the
project to avoid paying unnecessary risk premiums later on. The IWT policy has focused on
specific components to remove or reduce the investor risks to a large extent, by clearly defining
the parameter for the private sector participation and defining the role of the Government.

16. Central to the invitation of the private sector participation and a key pre-requisite
thereof, is the need for bankable and clear policy guidelines defining the scope and terms of
private participation. The policy take cognizance of the risk issues endemic to the sector,
constraints that have limited the development of the IWT sector as a preferred mode of
transport in India, developmental initiatives and public and private partnership models in
countries where IWT has proved successful, existing sector legislation, Government incentives
and initiatives. The challenge is one of addressing the key risk issues plaguing the sector and
breaking free of the inertia stymieing popular use and private participation in development of
the sector.

17 he IWT policy announced by Government of India contains the following fiscal and
administrative measures:

i) Inland Water Transport sector has been accorded the status of infrastructure under
Section 80 I A of the Income Tax Act. Under this the investors in IWT infrastructure are
eligible for 100% tax exemption for 5 years and further 30% tax exemption next 5 years to be
availed of within a period of 15 years. The infrastructure sector being a priority sector this also
facilitates priority lending by financial institutions for projects in IWT sector. There are spin-
off benefits of the infrastructure status such as 74% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) with
automatic clearance, priority lending by financial institutions etc.

ii) The role of the Inland Waterways Authority of India has been enlarged to facilitate its
participation in commercial / joint ventures with equity participation. This is a major step
towards public / private partnership.

iii) Provision for BOT projects for IWT infrastructure with Government participation up to
40% equity; details to be worked out on case-to-case basis.

(iv) Vessel building subsidy of 30% of the cost to the ship owners for inland vessels built in
India. Such vessels to be registered under the Inland Vessels Act, 1917 and to be operated in
the national waterways.

(v) Higher depreciation rate for inland vessels at par with sea going ships (presently 20%).

30 | P a g e
(viii) Assistance to the State Governments for implementation of Centrally Sponsored
Schemes (CSS) for IWT development by way of 90% subsidy.

(ix) Cargo allocation of 5% of the Govt. controlled cargo to the IWT in corridors where
waterways are functional.

(x) Setting up of an IWT Development Council under the Chairmanship of the Minister of
Shipping with representation from 14 riverine states for coordinated IWT development.

(xi) Empowerment of Inland Waterways Authority of India to sanction projects costing up

to Rs.15 crores.

18. The IWT resurgence in India is more demand driven than of supply driven. The
opening up of the Indian economy during mid nineties resulted in an unprecedented boom in
the industrial and agricultural sectors and in export resulting in a sudden demand in the
transport sector. Capacity constraints and inflexibility of the transport modes resulted in
bottlenecks; shortage of wagons, non aailability of trucks and long waiting time at ports. This
lead to a search for new modes and concerted actions for improving the existing modes.
Another important factor, which influenced the revival interest of IWT, was the initiative by
the UNESCAP. The New Delhi Action Plan of ESCAP for the development of transport and
communication in the ESCAP region has to a large extent supported the national initiative for
institutionalizing the neglected inland waterway transport services to emerge as a dynamic and
sustainable mode and its integration in the overall transport system.

19. Systematic development of fairway, terminals and navigational aids and the IWT fleet
would result in IWT providing an economic, efficient and environment friendly mode of
transportation supplementing the other modes namely, road and railways for an optimal
modal split. A synergy of various measures being taken up is bound to create an attractive
investment climate in the IWT sector both for creation of infrastructure and IWT fleet

20. Substantial stepping up of the Plan funds for the IWT development has been the first
outcome of the Govt policy to give a greater priority for the IWT sector. The Plan Support
increased from Rs.240 crores during 8th Plan (1992-97) to Rs.408 crores in the 9th five year
plan (1997-2002). The tentative provision for the 10th Five Year Plan period (2002-2007) is
close to Rs.800 crores. It is also envisaged that substantial external funding would flow in for
development of IWT sector in India during the 10th Plan period. The Government of India has
embarked on a massive programme for linking of rivers or river connectivity, which would be
a multi-purpose water recourses project with a large navigation component. Though the
details of this programme are yet to be finalized, this project is expected to provide a great
impetus to the IWT development programme already under way.


Cdr R.M. Nair is a Hydrographic and Navigation Specialist, a Charge Surveyor of the
Indian Navy, and a Master Mariner. He was appointed Member (Technical) of the

31 | P a g e
Inland Waterways Authority rity of India (IWAI) in 1997 in the rank of a Joint Secretary to
the Govt. of India. Cdr. Nair was a member of the Working Group set up by the Indian
Planning Commission for formulation of strategy for the Indian IWI sector, both for
the 9th and 10th Plan periods. Cdr. Nair has made significant contributions for the
revival / resurgence of the Indian IWT Sector which have been duly acknowledged. He
is presently the Hydrographic Chief of the IWAI.





IWT is the most efficient mode of transportation from the point of energy consumption, lower
cost of transportation and environment friendliness. Notwithstanding these advantages, IWT
in India has gradually declined due to various reasons, lack of investment for creation of
infrastructural facilities being a major contributory factor. Simultaneous development of all
modes of transport for an optimal modal split should be the strategy in a holis
transportation planning. In many countries where such a holistic approach has been adopted
like the USA, Europe, China, the IWT has a substantial share of the national cargo which in
effect reduces the transportation cost, provides access to the interi
or and hinterland port
connections and providing easy market accessibility for the low value bulk products. The
Indian Inland Water Transport is expected to play a major role to meet the emerging
transport infrastructure requirements.


Navigable inland waterways in India

India,, comprising of river system, canal, backwaters, creeks
and tidal inlets, extends to about 14,500 kms. Most waterways, however, suffer from
navigational inadequacies such as shallow waters, narrow width, siltation and bank erosion,.
Moreover, vertical and horizontal clearances at overhead structures are not adequate for
navigation throughout the year. Consequently, at present about 5200 kms of major rivers and
485 kms of canals are suitable for mechanised crafts. Even these navigable waterways lack the
ed infrastructure such as navigational aids, terminals and communication facilities. The
mechanised operations are confined to only few locations. Cargo transportation in an
organised manner is confined to Goa, West Bengal, Assam and Kerala. The total cargocarg moved
by IWT is about 20 million tonnes corresponding to just over 1.5 billion tonne kms or 0.15% of
the total inland cargo of about 1000 billion tonne kms, the balance being served by the road
and rail.

If the waterways are developed for navigation wi

th the necessary infrastructure such as

32 | P a g e
fairway, terminals and navigational aids the IWT mode would become competitive and would
attract cargo. The objective of the IWT sector is to provide the above facilities in all potential
inland waterways for their systematic and sustainable development for shipping and


The National Transport Policy Committee (NTPC) in its report (1980)

recommended various measures for development of IWT in the country. In order to maintain
inland water channels in navigable conditions, NTPC recommended the following urgent
measures :

a. To frame a detailed conservancy programme for each navigable section of the

b. To undertake the maintenance works regularly on priority basis;
c. To make specific financial provisions for conservancy and maintenance works; and
d. To set up an independent Authority to design, direct and execute such projects.

NTPC while recommending setting up a statutory authority, namely Inland Waterways

Authority of India (IWAI), also suggested that IWAI can be entrusted with the responsibility
of conducting economic surveys to assess future potential of traffic and provide infrastructure
facilities in this sector. The committee, in addition, recommended that the Authority may be
entrusted with IWT regulatory and administrative functions. As a follow up of the
recommendations of the NTPC, Inland Waterways Authority of India was set up in October,
1986 under the IWAI Act, 1985. As per this Act the Authority consist of Chairman, Vice
Chairman, and Members not exceeding five. At present there is a full time Chairman, three
full time and two part time Members in the Authority. The Head quarter of the Authority is
situated at NOIDA, U.P. and its field offices at Kolkata, Farakka, Bhagalpur, Patna, Ballia and
Allahabad on NW 1, Guwahati on NW 2, and Kochi & Kollam on NW 3.



The NTPC recommended the following principles for declaration of a national waterways.

a. It should possess capability of navigation by mechanically propelled vessels of a

reasonable size;
b. It should have about 45 m wide channel and minimum 1.5 m depth;
c. It should be a continuous stretch of 50 kms. The only exception to be made to waterway
length is for urban conglomerations and intra-port traffic;
d. It should
i. pass through and serve the interest of more than one State(or)/li>
ii. connect a vast and prosperous hinterland and major ports(or)
iii. pass through a strategic region where development of navigation is considered
necessary to provide logistic support for national security (or);
iv. connect places not served by any other modes of transport.

33 | P a g e
Hydrographic surveys and techno economic feasibility studies are the prerequisites for
establishing the potential and viability of a waterway. Extensive surveys and investigations
have been carried out on all the above waterways based on which three waterways have been
so far declared as national waterways namely the Ganga, the Brahmaputr
Brahmaputra a and the West
Coast Canal. Development of many more new waterways as national waterways are planned
during the 9th Plan period.



Vasco is located on the exterior of the Goa . its has the maximum interface with the sea thus
port trust ( MARMAGOA PORT TRUST ) has been set up at this place. Its location with respect to
the panaji the capital to the city is

Vasco Panaji 30 kms




34 | P a g e
In olden days old Goa was the port for inland water transportation. It was the port from
where the trading of goods was taken place the , different rulers who ruled on Goa , stated the Old
Goa as their capital . Further when Portuguese conquered Goa they shifted the capital to Panaji as ,
It was near to the sea,
It had the boon of a good draft for the vessels , that time it was 8 -9 m depth, thus the ships
could easily enter the Mandovi river and dock to the port . from then on the Panaji port was
greatly used.

As on today no larger ships could enter the Old Goa, due to the Bridge constructed to link the
North Goa and south Goa . Thus the entry of larger ships was restricted to panaji.


Away from the main city Panaji . also away from Vasco city. A ideal place for the big
ships and also congestion free of the roads as lots of passengers are to get down and
transportation to the various parts of the city.
Access to important places like, Old Goa, Aguada Fort , and other main beaches like
Sinquerim, Calangute, Covla, is easy to access.
The terminal will be much isolated to the liveable place. Thuws a barrier free for the
residential and commercial place. The transportation is easy.
The proposed terminal is near to the Baina Beach, but it is a restricted as said , Red light
Area and thus the termainal will serve a good open area.


Capital of the city. The tourist spot of most of the people maximum.thus a crowded area and
political and social barriers
The vessel which will arrive in the heart of the city will kill the river . The river side view
will be totally destroyed incase of a ship stands for more than a day.
The Mandovi river brings a lot of silt from the interior of the Goa thus the most important
will be very costly.
This port is easily accessible , as it is located in the centre of the city .
The panaji has a depth of 4 - 4.5 m. This will be difficult to cater a large amount of ships.

35 | P a g e
The largest Cruise vessels that called at Goa in the recent years along with their
dimensions are given as:

Largest Cruise Vessels & Vessel Characteristics

Year Name LOA GRT Crew Passenger
(m) (tons) (Nos.) (Nos.)
2003-04 Sea-Born Spirit 133.4 9975 162 160
2002-03 Norwegian Crown 187.7 15401 489 844
2001-02 Legends of The Seas 190.0 26449 580 7038
2000-01 Legend of The Sea 264.3 69130 707 1341
1999-00 Legend of The Sea 264.3 69130 707 1341
1998-99 Rotterdam 237.0 59620 637 690
1997-98 Crystal Symphony 238.0 51044 542 506
1996-97 Europe 199.6 37102 2889 483
Source: Marmugao Port Trust



Sr. Vessel Name GRT(T) Length Beam Draft Av. Passenge Crew
No. (m) (m) (m) Speed(knot r
s) Capacity
A Cruise Vessels at GOA
1 Albatros 24803 182 24.0 807 485 330
2 Astor 20606 174 22.5 7.2 250 269
3 Aurora 266 31.8 8.1
4 Black Watch 28668 206 589 375
5 Bremen 6752 112 100 136
6 C Colombus 14903 144 359 177
7 Clelia II 4077 88 73 65
8 Crown Odyssy 34242 188 908 451
9 Crystal Symphony 51044 238 542 506
10 Delphin 16214 156 289 224
11 Deutschiand * 22496 172 22.8 416 267
12 Europa * 28518 196 23.7 6.0 299 272
13 Europia 37012 200 263 266
14 Hebridean Spirit * 4200 89 16.8 4.5 54 73
15 Island Princess 20186 169 575 370
16 Legend of the Sea 26449 190 1038 580

36 | P a g e
17 Maxim Gorkiy 27220 195 474 341
18 Mermoz 13804 162 281 320
19 Michael Rose 525 49 13 120
20 Minerva 12331 135 291 163
21 Norwigian Crown 34242 188 900 490
22 Ocean Majesty 10417 135 200 219
23 Prinsendam * 38000 202 28.8 7.8 794
24 R Two 30277 180 526 365
25 Renaissance I 30277 181 581 365
26 Renaissance II 30277 181 596 375
27 Renaissance VII 4200 90 102 74
28 Renaissance VIII 4200 90 113 72
29 Rone 30277 181 610 364
30 Royal Star 5067 112 191 135
31 Royal Viking Sun 37845 205 447 449
32 Sea Goddess II 4260 105 77 93
33 Sea Wing 16710 164 648 347
34 Seabourn Spirit * 9975 132 18.9 5.7 160 162
35 Silver Cloud 16927 156 219 219
36 Silver Shadow * 28258 183 24.3 6.0 142 262
37 Silver Wind 16927 156 272 212
38 Song of Flower 8282 130 157 123
39 Southern Cross 17042 163 331 293
40 Star Flyer 2298 112 49 72
41 Switzerland 15739 162 236 231
42 Vistamar 7478 121 304 112
Other Cruise Vessels in the World
1 Adonia 257 31.8 7.8
2 Adventure of the Seas 138000 306 47.3 8.7 22 3114 1185
3 Aidacara 190 27.3 6.0
4 Amsterdam 61000 234 1380
5 Brilliance of the Seas 90090 289 31.7 8.0 25 2501 859
6 Century 77713 260 21 1870
7 Constellation 91000 290 24 1950
8 Enchantment of the 74000 275 31.8 7.5 22 2446 760
9 Explorer of the Seas 138000 306 47.3 8.7 22 3114 1185
10 Galaxie 77713 260 22 1870
11 Horizon 47255 205 21 1374
12 Infinity 91000 290 24 1950
13 Legend of the Seas 70000 260 31.5 7.4 24 2076 723
14 Majesty of the Seas 73941 264 31.8 7.5 19 2744 827
15 Massdam 55451 216 1266
16 Mercury 77713 260 22 1870
17 Millennium 91000 290 24 1950

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18 Monarch of the Seas 73941 264 31.8 7.5 19 2744 858
19 Navigator of the Seas 138000 306 47.3 8.7 22 3114 1181
20 Nippon Maru 164 23.7 13.2
21 Noordam 33930 132 1214
22 Norwegian Sky 77140 256 32.4 7.8 23 2002 950
23 Norwegian Star 9100 291 32.1 8.4 25 2240 1100
24 Norwegian Sun 78309 255 33.3 7.9 21 1936 970
25 Norwegian Wind 50769 226 28.2 6.9 21 1750 700
26 Oosterdam 82000 285 1848
27 Princess Coral 92000 290 1970
28 Princess Dawn 77000 257 1950
29 Princess Diamond 113000 293 2670
30 Princess Golden 109000 285 2600
31 Princess Grand 109000 285 2600
32 Princess Island 92000 290 1970
33 Princess Pacific 30200 179 680
34 Princess Regal 70000 243 1590
35 Princess Royal 45000 227 1200
36 Princess Sapphire 113000 293 2670
37 Princess Sea 77000 257 1950
38 Princess Star 109000 285 2600
39 Princess Sun 77000 257 1950
40 Princess Tahitian 30200 178 680
41 Queen Elizabeth II 50800 294 31.5 9.9 28 1700 900
42 Rindam 55451 216 1266
43 Rotterdam 62000 233 1316
44 Sovereign of the Seas 73192 264 31.8 7.5 19 2852 825
45 Standam 55451 216 1266
46 Summit 91000 290 24 1950
47 Superstar Aries 37301 200 28.5 22 611
48 Superstar Leo 76800 268 32.2 24 1960
49 Superstar Virgo 76800 268 32.2 24 1960
50 The Topaz 192 25.5 9
51 Veendam 55451 216 1266
52 Vision of the Seas 78491 275 31.7 7.5 22 2435 765
53 Volandam 63000 234 1440
54 Voyger of the Seas 138000 306 47.3 8.7 22 3114 1181
55 Zandam 63000 234 1440
56 Zenith 47255 205 21 1374
57 Zinderdam 82000 285 1848

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The site is situated on the southern side of Marmagoa Port trust . the land adjoining the site is proposed
for a four lane highway . There is existing contour 7m high. The land slopes towards south side.

The area of the Terminal is wholly done as a reclaimed land. The Retaining walls retains the earth . The
reclamation is done to a 100 m in the sea.

The highway passes by the Baina Beach. The plot is totally isolated and far from the city. The land is
touched by the Arabian sea on the South side. Further there is a PIQUERIUM land

The land has a natural slope of 1:10 .thus the movement of cars, buses, Fire Brigades, Taxis becomes
easy.. On the southern side where land touches the reclaimed area wall to the height of 30 cm is created
so as not allow the rainwater to penetrate in the site. Gutters are been arranged so as to take the
Rainwater into the sea.

The South side faces the sea thus windows and openings has fenestration s to avoid the glare

39 | P a g e

Outbound Cruise Traffic

The Indian market for outbound cruises, though small , is rising significantly. The penetration of cruise
tourism as a concept is estimated at 0.5 1 percent of the estimated 4.5 millions Indians who go on
foreign holidays annually. A recent government report indicates that the Indian spending of cruise
tourism stood at rs 1. billion in 2001. This is from as estimated 22,000 passengers originating from India.

Cruise vessels and Passengers at Indian Ports

Year Mumbai Mormugao Mangalore Cochin Tuticorin
Vessel Tourists Vessel Tourists Vessel Tourists Vessel Tourists Vessel Tourists
1999 33 7141 23 3882 - - 21 9713 - -
2000 20 5657 20 5239 - - 23 18335 - -
2001 34 14831 25 9340 14 3639 34 20197 - -
2002 17 9115 11 3329 5 1032 22 5637 3 205
2003 10 7040 10 3720 1 291 11 1090 1 283


Share of Goa
The three WTO, GDP and Growth Base forecast be considered as high, low and medium. At
present 20-25% of cruise ships calls are appointed by Mormugao Port. Once a modern cruise terminal is
developed (say by 2010) it is not responsible to expect every cruise ship touching Indian coast, to anchor
at Mormugao Port. However, as a modest projection at least 50% must call at Mormugao. This,
however only accounts for the cruise traffic an account of inbound traffic. In future there are visible
prospects of originate cruise service demand to be generated by:
 Incoming International tourist arriving in India by air and take to cruising ex-Goa.
 Domestic tourists looking for cruising experience for which most of them go to Singapore.

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The Harumi Terminal, with a vessel docked at right. The tower signals incoming ships about
harbor traffic conditions.


Size: 25,723 square metres.
Cost: $103 million.
Completion date: 1991
Designers: Minoru Takeyama Architect and U/A
Built in 1991 to handle growing passenger ship traffic, the new Port of Tokyo Passenger Ship
Terminal is a triumphant beginning of a planned transformation of the landfill precint known
as Harumi. This section of the Tokyo Harbor is targeted to become an international of Offices
and Hotels.
A stunning yet practical six storey structure, the Harumi terminal accomplishes
something rare for a transportation facility a sense of romance. Located a short distance
from the heart of Tokyo (only three kilometers from the Ginza district) and accessible

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by bus and ferry, the terminal is already a favourite spot for visitors
of all ages.
Architect Minoru Takeyama explains that the intent was to
create a waterfront park at the base of the terminal. This has been
done beautifully, using colourful tiles in a bold pattern, water. The new Harumi Passenger
Ship features and successfully incorporating an earlier adjoing. Terminal on Tokyo Harbor
the public park, a rare section of open space in the industrial Main vessel entrance is at left
Tokyo Harbor.

A front view from the Harbor shows the tiled pattern of the lower level plaza. A caf is
located on the first level.

The new terminal is surrounded Cruise ships and commercial vessels Across the harbor is
downtown Tokyo An upper deck of the terminal features

An observation Platform and an elevator to the fifth- floor restaurant, left

The Harumi Terminal is completely open to the public. The ground-level deck has a caf, and
the upper levels contain the passenger waiting room, an observation deck at the third level,
and the restaurant on the fifth floor. The views from all the levels, which take in the entrance
into the inner area of Tokyo Harbor, are spectacular. Nearby is Rainbow Bridge, named for
the multicoloured lights that line it. distinctive feature of the terminal is an electric sign
advising ships of the direction of traffic flow.

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With its striking design, a white structural envelope with bright red accents capped by
a pyramid shape, the Harumi Passenger Ship Terminal is a new landmark for the changing
Tokyo Harbor. It does the job of loading passengers onto and off vessels efficiently, but is
capable to accomplish much more as well. It creates a welcoming public space in a harbor that
traditionally has been allocated to industry, fishing and flood protection. This is no longer its
sole function, and the popularity of the Harumi Terminal is evidence for residents and visitors
that the initiative has been well worth the effort.

The East elevation shows the passenger vessel dock in the foreground.

The west elevation is the perspective as seen from the public park that adjoins the Harumi

Entry points, the restaurant space inside the

triangular roof, and the observation and gallery space above it on the sixth level are visible in
the section.

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A landscaped public park near
the terminal has been incorporated
into the scheme.

The interior of the fifth-floor restaurant, surrounded by tall windows on three sides, provides
excellent harbor views.

Sculpture in a reflecting pool outside the building represent wind, water and fog and mirror
the forms of the terminal and traffic-signal tower.

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An axonometric drawing of the six-level main terminal structure, surrounding plazas
and observation decks.

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The New York City Passenger Ship Terminal
Owned by the City of New York and
operated by P&O Ports North America,
provides five 1,000-foot-long berths suitable
for servicing the Worlds largest cruise
vessels at a convenient location on
the Hudson River only a few blocks
west of Times Square in the heart of
Manhattan. The terminal occupies
the West Side of 12th Avenue between
46th and 54th streets. Among P&O
Ports North America customers
are Carnival, Celebrity, Costa,
Crystal Cruises, Cunard, Festival
Holland America, Norwegian
, P&O Cruises,Premier, Princess,
Regal, Royal Caribbean, Seabourn
and Silversea. The terminal is also hom
e to an array of trade shows
and special events managed by P&O
Ports North America

The New York City Passenger Ship

Terminal provides Five 1000 foot
long berths suitable for servicing the
Worlds largest cruise vessels at a
convenient location on the Hudson
River only a few blocks west of
Times Square in the heart of Manhattan.
The terminal occupies the West Side of
12th Avenue between 46th and 54th Streets.

There are three levels at which

operations take place. Taxi
Cabs and Personal Vehicles
drop and receive passengers at
the elevated Mid-Level of the
Viaduct which is where cruising
passengers access their vessels.This level is reached by driving up the ramp past the guard
booth at54th Street, the northern limit of theTerminal. Passengers traveling by cab or
personal auto connect with their vehicles here where they can enter or exit the Customs Hall,
the Embarkation Booths and the Vessel Gangways at this level.

46 | P a g e
Buses and Limousines operate on the Street Level. Buses are slotted both inside and outside
the Piers. Limo Passengers are processed mainly at the mouths of the three piers where
baggage is accepted or delivered by attending Porters.

The Third Level is devoted to Cruise Passenger Parking. More than 1000 spaces are available
on a first come basis. Daily parking is available for vehicles dropping off or picking up
passengers. In the unusual event that the Lot should become filled, there are alternative lots
available in the neighborhood. There has been no instance in recent memory when there has
been insufficient space for any cruise parking customers. The Parking Level is accessed by a
ramp at the south end of the Mid-Level Viaduct.


Midtown Manhattan is defined between 42nd and 59th Streets along Broadway. The
Passenger Ship Terminal is located just five blocks to its west, taking all the Hudson River
Waterfront from 46th to 54th Streets. The Hotels, Theatres, Restaurants and Entertainment
Centers are a short cab ride away.


The Passenger Ship Terminal is reasonably convenient to all three Major Airports that serve
the Metropolitan Area: LaGuardia, Kennedy and Newark International. Taxi cabs are
available for direct service to the Piers. Other shuttle bus service to intermediate mid-town
locations which would entail a shorter cab ride might also be engaged.

The Port Authority Interstate Bus Terminal, Penn Station and Grand Central Station are each
within a short distance by cab

47 | P a g e
BPX Cruise Terminal.

The terminal is not accessed by normal people and not used as a picnic spot.
A rectangular shape in plan and Triple heighted building which is served as a cruise
terminal to the National and International passengers of the world. The terminal is not
accessed continuously by the passenger traffic. The terminal acts as a entry to the state of
maharashtra. The Bombay Port Trust mainly caters to the Cargo traffic.
The entrance is a big 20 m wide road. Opposite to the double storeyed building there is
a parking lot for the buses and taxis. The building ground floor facing the entrance are placed
with the glass panels. The entry to the building is a continuous road. The ground floor of the
building is a open big hall with columns in the centre. The four corners of the building has four
staircase leading to the first floor. The Ground floor hall accompany Tourist information
centre, India Tourism, Customs, Immigration, Shopping Stalls etc at the time when
International cruise comes to dock to the terminal. The first floor has the communication
centre and offices of the terminal the staircase leads to the upper offices. The centre hall is
double heighted for the ambience. The toilets are arranged below the staircase on two sides,
each for male and female. The upper floor has a long balcony for the viewing purpose this is
used to see the ship and also the passengers.
The entrance to the terminal is through the Green Gate. There is the parking for
approximately for 30 -50 buses. This parking place is used for the placing of the goods ( buses
or Bikes, etc) which is used for the export.
The Cruise terminal is also used for the Cargo when no Cruise ship comes. There is a
storage of cargo adjacent to the building where all cargo is kept. The vehicles which is
exported are kept in the parking area.
The kitchen is below one staircase. Snack counter is placed inside the hall in
accommodation with shopping stalls

48 | P a g e
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50 | P a g e

Fixed piers are open to a wide range of construction material, steel, concrete & timber is the most
common and combination of these materials is used.

In constant water level areas a fixed system is an obvious choice, piles may be driven and capped off
610- 914 mm above the surfaces of the beam and dicky being constructed immediately above.



a. Tidal range.
b. The quality of the bed or holding ground.
c. To what extent the site is sheltered.
d. The depth of water.
e. The speed and direction of the expected currents.
f. Wind speeds and wave height.
g. Capital and maintenance costs.


May be aerated or high strength material.

The float is moulded around a collapsible former, or else made in two halves
afterwards joined and sealed.
One good system in the United States is the Bercleve Uniflat Texturing the top
surface gives a cool and non-slip surface.
All services including lighting etc. are supplied.
Cracking and leaking were disadvantages of this material but advances in quality
control have improved reliability.


The generic term includes expanded polystyrene, fiberglass, etc.

None are affected by insects through crustacea adhere to them and are difficult to
remove without the cellular tapes.
Expanded polystyrene can be affected by pitch, tar, petrol, oil and detergents. Where
this is likely it is best to specify glass- reinforced cement coatings.
Formed plastics may be moulded to hold services ducts or galleries, whether these are
lined with plastic conduit depends upon their positions, but care is needed at points of
Uncoated foam may tend to crumble at the surface which, whilst quite harmless and
not affecting buoyancy litters the surface of the water with white particles.
The Construction of jetty iswholly of R.C.C. The land under reclamation is 17,757 SQ.m and is
reclaimed by the soil of the Dredgingand the countour cut and fill and the top soil is covered with
part of garden soil for the

51 | P a g e
Detail of a type of a FENDER Detail of the jetty with water
pipes for surface drainage

Detail of a another Detail of FENDERS in a row

type of a FENDER .

Construction of a Breakwater

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Detail of a Bollard.( This is the iron clip which is attachd to the ships with a thick
rope, In case of any disturbance in the sea it holds the ship to the shore.)

53 | P a g e
No aspects of the development impress the public more than the knowledge that the eventual scheme
will hormonise with the existing environment.


Here the scheme deals almost solely with hard surfaces, changing levels the selection of
materials and skillful manipulation of the spaces between buildings.
The water surface itself offers qualities- choppy, reflective, opaque, transport each capable
of exploitation by a creative designer.
Here the aim is to combine with the buildings equipment, boats, water, roads and car parks,
knitting them together and enhancing them individually.


Considering the hot, humid, climate of Bombay, it seems natural for luxurious planting
wherever possible, to border and even overhand the water.
Inland marines/ harbour spaces and built-in coastal types allow for water beyond the harbour
to be seen through the trees, while in an off-shore marina planting stops behind the
land/water interface to give a hard edged immediately between sheltered and open water.
Planting should look natural than imposed.
Landscaping should not be confined to the most obvious areas of garden and lawn. Car parks
look a lot worse empty than full, when they are unrelieved asphalt, then can with advantage
be reduced in level, surfaced with.
Grass blocks, enlivened with groups of trees, screened with plating or walls.
Using screens and hedges.

a. To relate buildings to the site and to each other and to link external spaces.

b. To demarcate boundaries and areas.

c. To accommodate changes in level and ground monitoring.

d. To shelter from wind, dust, strong and noise.

e. To give privacy, screening and visual barrier and security.

f. To form spaces by enclosing or dividing areas.

g. To direct pedestrian circulation.

h. To channels views to or away from building or objects.

i. To provide contrast in form, texture and colour with building, pavings or water.

54 | P a g e
j. To contrast with or complement sculpture.

With urban sites, buildings often divert the winds natural course, funneling and increasing its force
until intolerable conditions are created. Long, low structures, such as high walls or terraces of
buildings provide sheltered areas with some alleviation on the windward side and 10 times their
height on the leeward site. However, the ends of such structures are particularly turbulent, the wind
reducing towards their center.

If the wind direction is parallel to the structures- funneling may occur.

Solid structures always induce turbulence and openings act like weirs. Screens are sometimes
beneficial in breaking the force at troublesome points.

A decision to use trees however requires allocation of space at the design stage, as they need space

in which to grow.

For quick screening graded earth banks may be used as a start, perhaps by employing dredged
material. Their lees can shelter quick growing hedges, trees and shrubs.



The project will not appreciably change the topography or ground relief features.

The project will not lead to an increase in air pollution emissions.

It will not result in an increase in the rate of use of any natural resources.


It is not established that the project will result in change in the diversity of species of trees,
shrubs, grass, etc.

The project will not result in remove or detrimental of existing fish habitat.


The proposal will not directly or indirectly cause disruption of orderly planned development
but instead will accelerate the planned development.

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The project will after location, distribution and growth rate of population in Goa, especially
in the Panaji area and also after the neighbourhood character.

The project will not divide or disrupt the established community.

The project will affect the property values of Entire Goa, and especially Panaji area. The
project will alter the present patterns of travel and result in alternations to road and rail

The project will support large commercial development at Panaji.


The land to water area in each case remains equivalent and constant but shapes and relationships
In fact in such design problems,
The geography determines the engineering
The engineering determines the profile
The layout determines the architecture.

The environment of the coast is harsh and water transportation facilities must be designed to
withstand the various destructive biological, physical , chemical and mechanical actions which is
inherent to the environment.


It is approximate movement of air-masses across the earths surface. Winds result from changes in
temperature of atmosphere and corresponding changes in air density. Wind exerts a pressure on
objects in its path which depends on wind velocity.
Should be remembered that loading equipment will not generally be used when winds exerts about
15 mile/hr and ships will not usually remain along side a wharf during a severe storm.


Winds contribute to the formation of waves. When a wind moves across a body of water it exerts a
tangential force on the water surface which results in the formation of small ripples. These
irregularities seem to produce changes in air stress above the water .

Pressure differentials are caused which make the water undulate. As wind continues, this process is
repeated as waves grow.

56 | P a g e

Waves when approach the shore at an oblique angle, the portion of the wave nearest to shore slows
down with the result that the wave swings around and becomes parallel to the shore. At the same
time, wave lengths decrease as wave period remain constant.


Three types of harbours:

a) Offshore type has minimum land take

Minimum dredging
Expensive in deep waters
Vulnerable to weather, currents
Navigational hazard


This type is good for cut and fill economies however it may pose a navigational hazard.

Good for cut and fill economies however it may pose a navigational hazard.


Gives a maximum sense of enclosures and minimum interface with shorelines. Here
disadvantages may be distance from water.

NOTE: The land and water area in each case remains equivalent and constant through shapes
and relationship may vary as land wraps around the water.

The minimum harbour area is the space required for berthing ramps plus the turning basis in
front of them.


Requirement of protection of artificial and semi natural harbours. They are constructions of
linear nature with water on either side. Except for floating types they rise from the bed of sea and
are visible above surface at all times. Jetties, Wharves, Piers may cut as breakwater but not all
break water are jetties.


GANTRIES: These are fixed frameworks supporting one or two overhead trolleys-rails, the craft
being cradled and hoisted in slings suspended from them. The simplest type straddle a docking

57 | P a g e

The selection of most suitable arrangement will depend principally upon the direction of
maximum waves and its effectiveness in quitting the harbour may be checked by model tests.



For example Sanford, Florida where at certain times, large quantities of weeks pour in through
the entrance.


Due to wrong positioning in respect of the direction of approach of damaging weather is not

It is better to ward off the attacking wave than to attempt resistance by strength alone.


An optimum position is chosen in relation to know currents, drifting and bed material than
sanitation and erosion or both can be a real problem not only at the marine site but at a
considerable distance from it.


If it is too narrow it gives a funelling effect, if it is too much wild it gives insufficient protection
from greasy seas.


Three main categories of piles:

1) Those supporting structure such as jetties, fixed moorings, gentries or hoists ( complex
structures, supporting piles and buildings).

2) Those restraining floaty moorings (simple free standing columns).

3) Those supporting perimeter bulk heads or quays (sheet piles).

The three principle materials are timber, concrete and steel selecting a suitable type. Many piles
are combinations of materials, particularly R.C.C. which will display good and bad qualities of
both the materials.

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Piles may be round, square or octagonal and in length straight or tapered.

Hollow piles are generally filled in with concrete or R.C.C. core.

The strength of piles varies according to whether there is a variable tidal range or is a locked
water area, where the relationship between the water levels and waterways is constant.


All the materials used are exposed to high winds and damp ground conditions, hence the
materials to be avoided are:

a) Untreated timber
b) Rendering
c) Unpointed brickwork
d) Light weight metals for roofs
e) Tile hanging
f) Large paves of glass


General: Dredging is defined as excavating underwater. This excavation is carried out to

increase the depth of waterway, to provide sufficient draft for ships in harbours, entrances to
docks, etc. Action of waves and tides tend to deposit sand and silt within maritime enclosures
and navigable rivers. During ebb tides, certain amount of scouring takes place, but still a large
deposit remains uncleared reducing the navigable depths.

Dredge or Dredger is the name applied to the equipment which carries out this deepening or
dredging work.

Thus, a dredge is an earth-moving machine which is designed to increase the depth of water
by removing the bed material of water surface.

The dredging may either be capital dredging or maintenance dredging. In capital dredging,
the required depth of water at a particular place is obtained and it is then maintained regularly to
have a convenient harbour. Thus, capital dredging indicates initial removal of material and the
material removed by be anything from rock to silt. In case of maintenance dredging, the depth of
water is maintained by carrying out dredging operations periodically and it is quite clear that the
material obtained during maintenance dredging will be in the form of fresh deposits such as sand
and silt only.

It may be noted that maintenance dredging is one of the important activity at all the harbours
and there is no harbour worth the name where maintenance dredging is not required. It may be
noted that ports have been shifted in the past simply because the harbour or the entrance to it got

59 | P a g e
silted up. Similarly, many harbours have been abandoned because of difficulties involving the
overcoming of silting of harbour or for providing more depth of water to ships of big size.

Disposal of the dredged material: Dredged material is mainly disposed off in the following ways:
1. Conveyed out to sea and deposited far from the site of accumulation.
2. Conveyed and deposited in the swampy areas inland or adjacent to the shore for
reclamation of land.
In respect of the above, State laws are established as to the disposal of the dredged material
and have to be followed.

Types of dredging devices: The following are some of the modern types of mechanical dredges
used in modern marine engineering practice:
1. Dipper dredge.
2. Grapple dredge
3. Continuous bucket elevator or ladder dredge.
4. Hydraulic or suction dredge.
A brief description of the working of these dredges will not be given.

(1) Dipper Dredge: It consists floating vessel strongly constructed, carrying an inclined
frame A in the bow to hold the boom B by guy wires. Through the middle of the wires boom runs a
dipper stick, worked by a rack and pinion arrangement and to the end of which is rigidly attached the
dipper bucket K, with a flap. A hoist cable is fixed to the bucket, to move it up or down. The vessel
is fixed to the bed in position by means of three stakes during the dredging operations. The boom B
could swing horizontally at the bow.

Operation: The hoist cable is released, to enable the bucket to reach the bed when a
crowding force is applied to the stick, through the rack and pinion forcing the teeth of the bucket to
bite into the soil. The hoist cable is slowly pulled resulting in a cut being made in the bed. The
hoisting is continued and the bucket is hauled out of the water, the boom B is swung round to deposit
the material in the bucket, into any scow alongside or on to any predetermined place, by opening the
flap. The boom is swung back and the dipper is lowered, in preparation for the next cut.

Advantages of dipper dredge:

(1) Easy manoeuvrebility and hence, suitable for use in confined space around docks and
narrow channels.
(2) Very powerful and capable of excavating in hard soil, for removal of boulders, and
breaking up of heavy objects like old piles, cribs, etc. This type of dredge can dig in
depts. Of 15 m of water and the dipper capacity varies from 1 to 4 m3 normally.
These types of dredges of heavy capacities of about 12 m3 are in use in the Panama
(2) Grapple dredge: It consists of a substantial hull, to the front of which are fixed a frame
and a boom B. The frame is guyed back, by back legs. A grab bucket K is suspended by two cable
lines H, H called the opening and closing lines. The boom is fixed at the required elevation by means
of a guy wire and arranged to rotate through a horizontal angle on a pivot at the lower end. The

60 | P a g e
bucket hoisting pass over two main sheaves fixed to the upper end of the boom. The dredge is
moored by the help of stakes fixed fore and aft.

Operation: After positioning the dredge, a scow is brought alongside and tied fast to it, on
the right side. The bucket is lowered to the bottom, where it bites the bed and fills itself. Then
tension is put on the closing cable, which closes the bucket, hoists the load and swings the boom
horizontally to the right. When the boom reaches over to the scow, the tensions in the cables are
reversed, and this results in opening and discharging of the bucket and the boom swings back to the
digging position as before.

The hull is generally 30m to 60m long and 15m across, the boom being 15m long. The
capacity of the grab bucket ranges from 8 to 23 m3.

This dredge is very efficient and suitable for dredging materials, like sand, clay or mud, but
not good for hard diggings. The bed dredged by a grab seldom be even and will exhibit pits and high

(3) Continuous bucket elevator or ladder dredge: It consists of an endless chain of

buckets, mounted and running round a ladder L, formed in the middle of the bow of a floating
vessel. The ladder could be lowered or raised by the line N. The chain of buckets is operated,
manually or mechanically by a big wheel E. The buckets are provided with a pronged cutting edges.

Operation: Each bucket cuts and brings up material to the top of the ladder as the chain
moves round , where each bucket inverts on descent and discharges it contents into special holds H,
H. The vessel moves forward on completion of work at each section.

The size of these vessels is about 60m in length and 15m in width, having a draft of about
2.50m to 3m. These can be used for digging depths of 9m to 12m. The average digging capacity of
such a vessel is about 6000 to 7650 m3 per day. These dredge is very suitable for handling coarse
gravel or sand, hard clays and even soft or broken stone, at fairly good depths and beyond the reach
of a dipper. The bed dredged is the least disturbed.

(4) Hydraulic or suction dredge: It consists of a suction pipe, carrying at the lower end a
cutter of some sort and having a universal joint at top. This pipe is supported on a ladder and held in
position by an A frame mounted on the bow of the dredging vessel. The suction pipe is connected to
a centrifugal pump located amidships having a long flexible delivery pipe discharging into hopper
barges alongside the vessel itself or on to specially selected spot on shore, needing reclaiming or

Operation: The hull V carries the suction pipe on a ladder in the bow and the pumping
machinery P is housed in the middle of the ship with its delivery pipe D discharging into hopper
barges floating behind the dredging vessel is moored by anchors.

The cutter rotates cuts and loosens the soil for quick and easy suction by the pump. The cut
up material is well churned in the operation and mixed with water to facilitate suction.

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Sea going dredges of this type have a size varying from 45 m to 140 m in length and 9 m to
30 m in width. The digging depths vary from 4.50 m to 15 m. The machinery is operated either by
steam power or electric power. The pump is a special type of centrifugal pump capable of handling
heavy particles of dirt and rock brought out in dredging.

This type of dredge is very effective in beds of sand, silt, mud and clay in open water and is
an excellent machine to clear sand bars. If big boulders or tree stumps are met with, they will have to
be lifted out before putting the cutter to work. Gravel and soft rocks are easily reduced by the cutter.

62 | P a g e

Accounts and record keeping 30

Priming 30
Cash Flow Analysis 30
Salary Administration 25
Insurance Taxation 25
Announcement Room 20
Video Monitor Rooms 30
Conference Rooms 200

Head\Chief 30
Ship arrival and Departure Lounge with corridor 1700
Public Concourse 2000
Ticket Counters with queue-up area 350
Information Counters, with book offices 50
Tourist Information Centre 50
Child care centre 100
Postal services 80
Communication centre 100
Baggage lost and found 70
Trolley rooms 70
Baggage handling(including all back office work
for Arrival Passengers 200
Baggage handling(including all back office work
for Departure Passengers 500
Duty free shop for Arrival 15 x 7 105
Duty free shop for Departure 15 x 11 165
Bank Extension Counter for Arrival 125
Bank Extension Counter for Departure 125
Rent-a-car counter 25
Basic Kiosks 150
First-aid Rooms for ( Departure & Arrival) 160
Shop for Impulse buying (55 nos) 1000
Fast Food centre with viewing deck 500
Restaurant with kitchen 500
Ship baggage check in handling 400

For maintenance 30
Stores 150
Office administration 60
Office planning & forecasting 30

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Supply inventory 20
Public relations 40


Bus lounge with parking for buses 3500

Taxi park area 1000
Taxi and auto waiting lounge 800
Staff parking 1500


Terminal Manager 60
Secretary and staff 30
Waiting 150
Duty officers (1 nos) 30
Security chief 30
3 nos. technical chief 70
Staff for each 60
Maintenance Officer 25
Staff/ Officer Office 30
Life Guard 60
Fire fighting Office with parking for fire engines 360
Vehicular check in with book offices 80
Sub-Station 60
AC Plant Rooms 60


Staff lockers male and females with toilets 100

Staff restrooms 80
Staff Canteen 80
Control Tower 250
Viewing Gallery 60
Local Guard office 50
Security Staff 25 x 4 100
Store 80
Craft companies offices 120


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THE selection of appropriate type of berthing facilities is governed by following factors:

Tidal variation
Formation of water waybed
Hydraulic characteristics of waterway
Meteorologic characteristic
Craft characteristic and dimensions
Soil condition

2.0 FUNCTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS: (determined from a study of marine sites in



This is a problem in itself between convenience and security. Hence, the number of unit
should be restricted to a minimum, as each required supervision of some kind.

It should be also kept in mind that people want short and easy access to vessel etc.Circulation
within the marina/harbour A visually separation of vehicle types must take place before
entering the site by clearly signing.
The separate entrances of visitors, service vehicles.


It may be advantageous to have more than one car park it may help reduced the impact of
these boring pieces.


This is a small surface area, clear of all obstruction generally its position is between the boat
store and the tractor (if any) in the landward direction and the boat handling and the barge on
mooring side. This must be easily reached from the access road. It is required to serve the
slipway, haul out areas and will continue uninterrupted until ended by bulkhead wall.

Surface must be well drained, non-slip and self cleaning concrete ridged with board tamping,
proprietory paving slabs, or between are good materials. Sand, gravel, glass or established
earth are not. If a fairly dark material is used this colour and tenure will control sharply with
the smoother white surface of bulkhead wall capping. This looks good, avoids glare and

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clearly shows the water edge. The size of shape of area are dictated by the need to manover
the craft.


Accessible from the road, Kept back from the water and not visible from the water mooring.
Used to link, repair yard, workshop and sites.
Separate from service entrance to restaurant etc.
Requires a robust subbase a heavy duty non slip surface.
Should be well drained with oil trap gulleys.
Requires screening desk and reception kiosk.


May be positioned on the perimeter of any site and it generally extends or expands away
from the marine.
Should have direct access to main road.
Launching and retrieval may be into the marine itself or into its own bay.


This may be solely for marine or may be combined with boat repairs.
Location should be on the water side to ease handling.
Well lighted under cover area with good dry storage space, small office, staff rooms and
Access through the service transport area.
Delivery vehicles may be checked in through transport office and personnel through
reception office or kiosk.


An ideal layout is one which spares the depth of land area i.e. from public enterprises
through the waters edge, thus allowing the enquiries office to be near the enterprise and shops to be
accessible to water.

The office should include the usual accommodation for the staff, a public space and enquiry
counter, a managers office lavatories and staff.
A display of the area can made an interesting feature.
The information office should be easily accessible with a high standard of
A passenger transport terminal gives a service and a friendly and efficient impression from
the buildings and staff is important.

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The number of sizes are governed by traffic and nearness of outside retailers.
Sometimes, and specifically in this case, shops shall attract trade from outside.
These may be located at entrance, the car park and the residential element if any.
The service transport adjoins this sales area.
Orientation requires thought and shop canopy as protection from sun and rain may be


Any restaurant and shopping buildings requires to be self contained i.e. they
should have there own parking, public and service entrances.
These may have their own stretch of waterfront.
Though secondary in status and peripheral in location, these have a strong
influence, upon marines character of clientle.
There should be easy covered access to offices and also to shopping.
Aspect and orientation are important consideration.
Views across the water may be featured.
These buildings are principal elements in ht and bulk and their relationship with
other components with the site and its surrounding including views from the
offshore require consideration.

The convenience and kitchen are closed related to fulfill the requirements of
Owner and visitor vehicle parkings are separate with separate entrance.
A continuous damp proof membrane over the ground floor and flexible damp
proofing covers with cavity contacts for external walls, clad externally.


These facilities include provision for custom and coast guards. Each requiring a
good view of harbour and approach channel and good communication system as
well as providing their independent services they improve security with their


This is a small office on the harbour side or quay with suitable fixed steps or
floating pier and ramp to boat deck level.


If there are no naturally high features nearby the marinas are suitable locations for

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coast guard station. A tower is virtually obligatory for viewing, although the office or log
room is at quay level. The tower is usually reached from inside the office as outside stairs can
be too exposed in bad weather. The journey to and from the premises must be reasonably
sheltered and safe as well as illuminated at night.


The specific aspects considered are:

Access, circulation and parking of different types of vehicles to adequately serve the facilities
both for present and future.
Range of amenities to be provided for passengers using the facility.
Essential needs (police, customs and fire-fighting)
Storage areas for fuel, maintenance and repair.
Need for land reclamation and its implications on coast
Short-term and long-term needs.
Differentiations between desirable and essential facilities
Differentiation between land and infrastructure provision vis-a-vis building provision.

The above factors influence the cost of facilities considerably. Hence, a very careful
Scrutiny has been made before arriving at the final selection of facilities and layout.
At both ends, parking for at least - cars is necessary considering the commuter nature of the
link. Also lay-byes for about - buses and - taxis are to be provided for picking up passengers.
Integration of facilities in the vicinity is important, at Panaji side, the buildings and roads are
to be set within a landscape which will be an extension of the landscape of the surrounding
new areas. Also, as far as possible, the existing regulation is to be extended to cover new
areas to unify the natural landscape of the area.


It is important that accommodation to cater demand is made. Such a peak occurs

when ships dock at jetty of both alighting and boarding passengers have to be
accommodated. Hence, waiting halls and toilets/refreshment facilities need to cater every person at a
time. At 1 m/person the area should be calculated. In addition to these toilet facilities, ticket office,
small shops, restaurant, tea and refreshment stall are to be provided. The departure hall needs to be
sufficient to disperse the passengers efficiently other requirements will betaxi stand, pick up and set
off points, bus lay-by/bus station and parking areas for cars and vehicles. A parking area for about
70 cars is considered sufficient with a small bus terminus for about 5 buses.


Storage areas, for keeping accessories, records, control room, equipment etc. are
required. Also a workshop cum boat yard with a winch-house is necessary at Panaji
and for minor repairs and maintenance work. The storage area proposed will also cater to
future expansion needs. The workshop facility provides for all types of ships in

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Apart from working space for customs, police and staff issuing tickets and operating the
service, essential residential accommodation need to be provided for security personnel.


The station of a police post are necessary. Ambulance services and first aid are also
needed. This is proposed along with the terminal complex.


It is proposed to provide space to accommodate the future expansion in service of related

maintenance repair and other services at Vasco proposed cruise terminal.


The terminals at Bombay and Goa are linked with existing road network to
At both ends, parking areas for cars, taxis and buses are to be provide parking for at least
100 commuter nature of the link. Also lay byes for about 5 buses and 20 taxis are to be
provided for picking up passengers.


Treatment of waterfront and water ways:

The plan line of land interface varies, departures from a straight edge help to relieve the
tedium of uninterrupted bulkheads. The aim is to achieve an interesting shape with some
recesses and comers, a sense of enclosure without undue interest and at a reasonable cost.
The margin between the waters edge and the building offers scope for imagination by way of
shape, diversity and surface treatment. The heights of buildings should vary to give a degree
of enclosure. The margin area should be handled imaginatively as an element in its own
right, orientation and aspect are important and so are views, both across the harbour and
inland from the level of the water, the quay and any upper stories.

Perimeter walk-way - its continuity - its contribution as a linear precinct with

changing functions- free of vehicles and turned to the face of pedestrians Benefits derived
from the everchanging views that serial vision presents to the viewer.

Area for sun and shade

Wind tunnels have to be avoided

The water front buildings, Cantilevering over water if they are light weight, or
floating these saves on space.

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An open ground floor exposes the hinterland to water.

Piles as tall as poles serve as goals as one proceeds along the piers. The mood created is quite
different from the low flat pontoons and constant water level of a locked harbour.

The form of harbour and the selection of the fixed pier or floatation system will have a
profound effect upon the eventual system of the water area.


From analysis of the catchment area and the likely percentage distribution of the
sizes. The layout of berths maybe designed an account of tide and prevailing wind is

As far as the fishing terminal is concerned the people do not mind its size at present as the
sense of intimacy seems to matter more.


A fixed or moving promontory giving access to moored boats and providing berths for them.


Narrow subsidiary pier.

The means by which a floating pier is attached to a pile.

The buoyancy system of a floating pier.

The upper surface of a pier or walkway.

The protective edge, trim of a pier or walkway.

Means of articulation between fixed and floating systems.

The usual means of access between fixed and floating systems.


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Entire floating system.

General arrangement of berths.

A boat mooring station.

The main root entering or within a harbour.

Distance between a boat and its berth.

The distance between a boat and its berth.

A duct carrying services.

A frame or edge of a pier or walkway.

A pile for mooring to.

A vertical or horizontal mooring rod fixed to a pile or stringer.


Objects to secure boats to their berths.

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The universe consists of positive and

negative electrons. The positive and
negative thus forms a element which in
turns forms nature. Positive and negative
generates nature. In nature every single
particle is (+) or (-). Positive and
Negative charges keeps the world going
and emerging new things.

Earth is taken positive as it is constantly

on stay in relation to water and Sea as a
negative element as it is in a movement
in relation to the land.

The water ( SEA) moves in a specific

movem,ent. This is the movement of a
negative element, When this form is
attached to a positive element it gives a

If it is a 2D line it gives a road ,

movement, passage, two sides of a line.

If it is emerged in 3D form it gives two

different environments. The two sides of
this 3D curve can be felt differently .
The curve if closed from one side gives a
feeling of security, shade if covered by a
roof, a resting place. The other surface
forms a surface of exterior part.

Every building, structure, need a

ventilation , movement of air, movement
of people. Thus the two arrows indicate
the movement.and thus three different
buildings are emerged.




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Typical photos of the terminals various Areas

Cruise ship terminal seating Cruise ship Gangway entrance

Joining of Cruise ship to Terminal building Cruise ship Ticket counter

Through gangway

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The structural system has been conceived in a comprehensive manner and integrated with the
requirements of architectural planning and design and the services system. The structural
arrangement has been planned so as to effect the maximum economy and safety while considering
the worst load combinations arising out of seismic/wind and imposed loading in accordance with the
prevailing codes of practices.

To provide more flexibility of use in office areas, prestanding columns have been reused to
the minimum, resulting in fairly large grids of 7.5 mx 5m & 5m x 15m as shown in the drawing.
This factor, coupled with air conditioning ducting requirements, necessitated special consideration in
the formulation of structural concept of the main frame and in the sizing of beams and slabs.

Subsoil investigation covering standard penetration test and dynamic cone penetration test,
along with the relevant laboratory test of soil and water samples have been carried out. Based on the
soil investigation details pile foundation is proposed for the Terminal building.
The Structural system used is Structural Steel I , L ans [ sections for the columns and
the Roofing pattern. The Structural Steel are encased in the concrete for the better safety from the
corrosion from the sea erosion. The piles used are of concrete . The effective use is Three piles
below 1 column.
The Roofing material is KALZIP

(The product
Kalzip and Kalbau aluminium sheets are available in a wide range of different surfaces and
colours,for roofs and facades. In addition to the conventional robust,

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stucco-embossed aluminium finish, Corus has now extended the design potential of Kalzip
and Kalbau with their introduction of Kalzip AluPlusPatina, which provides yet another
attractive metallic design option with a high-quality appearance.
The pre-weathered profile sheets are made from resistant stucco-embossed aluminium with
additional surface treatment. With this treatment, the aluminium surface loses its natural shine and
significantly reduces diffuse light reflection. Depending on the angle of incidence, the level of sheen
can be reduced by up to 20%. The characteristics of this surface finish are comparable to those of an
aluminium profile sheet which has been weathered over years. The natural ageing process, which the
profile sheets undergo during exposure to weathering, is not hindered and proceeds in the usual
manner. The special treatment creates a smooth, dirt-repelling surface.
The thickness ess are 0.80 mm 0.90 mm& 1.00 mm
The available profile forms are
straight, convex curved, concave curved, tapered, tapered-convex curved,
elliptically curved, hyperbolically curved

The product advantages

A robust surface which is highly resistant to weathering
Significantly reduced light reflection
Pre-weathered surface creates an elegant and matt appearance
Ideal for cladding
High level of inherent stability makes its suitable for large spans
A variety of profile forms are available
Sophisticated detailed solutions and fittings)

Three main categories of piles:

1. Those supporting structures such as jetties, fixed moorings, gantries or hoists (complex
structures, supporting piles and buildings).

2. Those restraining floaty moorings (simple free standing columns).

3. Those supporting perimeter bulk heads or quays (sheet piles).

The three principle materials are concrete and steel selecting a suitable type. Many piles are
combinations of materials, particularly R.C.C. which will display good and bad qualities of both
the materials.

Piles may be round, square or octagonal and in length straight or tapered.

Hollow piles are generally filled in with concrete or R.C.C. core.

The strength of piles varies according to whether there is a variable tidal range or is a locked
water area, where relationship between the water levels and waterways is constant.

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Consulting engineering services (I) ltd.

Dock and Harbour Engineering : Rangawala

Tourism Information : Government of Goa

Proposal of Cruise Terminal at Baina Bay : Consulting engineering services (I)



TRANSPORT : Cdr. R.M. Nair, FIS*


Japan Architecture : JA 24 winter 1996 yearbook

Japan Architecture :JA 23 Autumn 1996

The Maharashtra Times (Article on

Cruise shipping in Mumbai and Coastal
regions of India. :Maharashtra times

Begginers guide to Cruise ships

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