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Chapter4TheCarbohydrates:Sugars,Starches,andFibers

LearningObjectives

AftercompletingChapter4,thestudentwillbeableto:

1. Classifycarbohydratesasmono,diorpolysaccharides.
2. Explainthetwomajortypesofdietaryfibersandtheirusesinthebody.
3. Tracethedigestionandabsorptionofcarbohydrates.
4. Listtheenzymesusedinthedigestionofcarbohydrates.
5. Describelactoseintolerancesymptoms,prevalenceandtreatment.
6. Listthemajorusesofglucoseinthebody.
7. Discussthehormonesusedbythebodytomaintainnormalbloodglucoseconcentration.
8. Listthemajortypesofdiabetes.
9. Explainglycemicloadandtheprosandconsofitsuseinmealplanning.
10. Identifythemajorsourcesofaddedsugarsinthediet.
11. Describetheeffectofaddedsugarsondentalhealth.
12. Identifythehealthbenefitsofadietrichinstarchandfiber.
13. IdentifytheDailyValueandDRIforfiberandmethodstoincreasefiberinthediet.
14. Listthecommonalternativestosugarinthediet.

I. TheChemistsViewofCarbohydrates
Carbohydratesaremadeofcarbon,hydrogenandoxygenatoms.Theseatomsformchemicalbondsthat
followthelawsofnature.

II. TheSimpleCarbohydrates
Thesixsimplecarbohydratesincludethemonosaccharides(glucose,fructoseandgalactose)andthe
disaccharides(sucrose,maltoseandlactose).Monosaccharidesaresimilarinnumbersandkindsofatomsbut
differintheirarrangementandsweetness.Disaccharidesareformedbycondensationreactionsandare
brokendownbyhydrolysisreactions.

A. Monosaccharridesaresinglesugars(mostarehexoses).
1. Glucoseservesastheessentialenergysource,andiscommonlyknownasbloodsugarordextrose.
2. Fructoseisthesweetest,occursnaturallyinhoneyandfruits,andisaddedtomanyfoodsintheform
ofhighfructosecornsyrup.
3. Galactoserarelyoccursnaturallyasasinglesugar.
B. Disaccharidesarepairsofmonosaccharides,oneofwhichisalwaysglucose
1. Condensationreactionslinkmonosaccharidestogether.
2. Hydrolysisreactionssplitmoleculesandcommonlyoccurduringdigestion.
3. Maltoseconsistsoftwoglucoseunits.Itisproducedduringthegerminationofseedsand
fermentation.
4. Sucroseisfructoseandglucosecombined.Itisrefinedfromsugarcaneandsugarbeets,tastessweet,
andisreadilyavailable.
5. Lactoseisgalactoseandglucosecombined.Itisfoundinmilkandmilkproducts.

III. TheComplexCarbohydratesarefew(oligosaccharides)ormany(polysaccharides)glucoseunitsbound/linked
togetherinstraightorbranchedchains.

A. Glycogen
1. Storageformofglucoseinthebody
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2. Providesarapidreleaseofenergywhenneeded
B. Starches
1. Storageformofglucoseinplants
2. Foundingrains,tubers,andlegumes
C. Dietaryfibersprovidestructureinplants,areverydiverse,andcannotbebrokendownbyhuman
enzymes.
1. Solublefibersareviscousandcanbedigestedbyintestinalbacteria(thispropertyisalsoknownas
fermentability).Thesefibersarefoundinfruitsandvegetables.
2. Insolublefibersarenonviscousandarenotdigestedbyintestinalbacteria.Thesefibersarefoundin
grainsandvegetables.
3. FiberSources
a. Dietaryfibersarefoundinplantfoods.
b. Functionalfibersarehealthbenefitingfibersthatareaddedtofoodsorsupplements.
c. Totalfiberconsidersbothdietaryandfunctionalfibers.
4. Resistantstarchesescapedigestionandarefoundinlegumes,rawpotatoesandunripebananas.
5. Phyticacidorphytatehasacloseassociationwithfiberandbindssomeminerals.

IV. DigestionandAbsorptionofCarbohydrates
Thebodybreaksdownstarchesandsugarstoshortglucosechainscalleddextrins.Theyarethenbrokendown
intomonosaccharidesandtheglucoseisusedforenergy.Fiberslowsglucoseabsorptionandregulatesthe
passageoffoodthroughtheGItract.

A. CarbohydrateDigestion
1. Inthemouth,thesalivaryenzymeamylasebeginstohydrolyzestarchintoshortpolysaccharidesand
maltose.
2. Inthestomach,acidcontinuestohydrolyzestarchwhilefiberdelaysgastricemptyingandprovidesa
feelingoffullness(satiety).
3. Inthesmallintestine,pancreaticamylaseamongotherenzymes(maltase,sucrase,andlactase)
hydrolyzesstarchestodisaccharidesandmonosaccharides.
4. Inthelargeintestine,fibersremainandattractwater,softenstoolsandferment.
B. CarbohydrateAbsorption
1. Primarilytakesplaceinthesmallintestine
2. Glucoseandgalactoseareabsorbedbyactivetransport.
3. Fructoseisabsorbedbyfacilitateddiffusion.
C. LactoseIntolerance
1. Symptomsincludebloating,abdominaldiscomfort,anddiarrhea.
2. Causesincludelactasedeficiencyduetoanaturaldecreasethatoccurswithagingordamaged
intestinalvilli.
3. Prevalence
a. LowestinScandinaviansandnorthernEuropeans
b. HighestinSoutheastAsiansandnativeNorthAmericans
4. DietaryChanges
a. Increaseconsumptionofmilkproductsgradually.
b. Mixdairywithotherfoods.
c. Spreaddairyintakethroughouttheday.
d. Useofacidophilusmilk,yogurt,andkefir(fermentedproducts)
e. Useofenzymes
f. Individualizationofdiets
g. Mustbecarefulthatvitaminandmineraldeficienciesdonotdevelop

V. GlucoseintheBody
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Throughthestudyofsugars,knownasglycobiology,researchersareuncoveringmanyrolesthatglucosehas
inthebody.Theseincludeglucosesinteractionwithprotein,lipid,andcancercells.

A. APreviewofCarbohydrateMetabolism
1. Thebodystoresglucoseasglycogeninliverandmusclecells.
2. Thebodyusesglucoseforenergyifglycogenstoresareavailable.
3. Ifglycogenstoresaredepleted,thebodymakesglucosefromprotein.
a. Gluconeogenesisistheconversionofproteintoglucose.
b. Proteinsparingactionishavingadequatecarbohydrateinthediettopreventthebreakdownof
proteinforenergy.
4. Makingketonebodiesfromfatfragments
a. Theaccumulationofketonebodiesinthebloodiscalledketosis.
b. Ketosisupsetstheacidbasebalanceinthebody.
5. Thebodycanuseglucosetomakebodyfatwhencarbohydratesareconsumedexcessively.
B. TheConstancyofBloodGlucose
1. MaintainingGlucoseHomeostasis
a. Lowbloodglucosemaycausedizzinessandweakness.
b. Highbloodglucosemaycausefatigue.
c. Extremefluctuationscanbefatal.
2. TheRegulatingHormones
a. Insulinmovesglucoseintothecellsandhelpstolowerbloodsugarlevels.
b. Glucagonbringsglucoseoutofstorageandraisesbloodsugarlevels.
c. Epinephrineactsquicklytobringglucoseoutofstorageduringtimesofstress.
3. Balanceglucosewithinthenormalrangebyeatingbalancedmealsregularlywithadequatecomplex
carbohydrates.
4. Bloodglucosecanfalloutsidethenormalrangewithhypoglycemiaordiabetes.
5. Diabetes
a. Type1diabetesisthelesscommontypewithnoinsulinproducedbythebody.
b. Type2diabetesisthemorecommontypewherefatcellsresistinsulin.
c. Prediabetesisbloodglucosethatishigherthannormalbutbelowthediagnosisofdiabetes.
6. Hypoglycemiaislowbloodglucoseandcanoftenbecontrolledbydietarychanges.
7. Glycemicresponseishowquicklythebloodglucoserisesandelicitsaninsulinresponse.
a. Glycemicindexclassifiesfoodsaccordingtotheirpotentialforraisingbloodglucose.
b. Glycemicloadreferstoafoodsglycemicindexandtheamountofcarbohydratethefood
contains.
c. Thebenefitoftheglycemicindexiscontroversial.

VI. HealthEffectsandRecommendedIntakesofSugars
Sugarposesnomajorhealthproblemexceptdentalcaries.Excessiveintakesmaydisplacenutrientsand
contributetoobesity.Consumingfoodswithaddedsugarsshouldbelimited.Naturallyoccurringsugarsfrom
fruits,vegetablesandmilkareacceptablesources.

A. HealthEffectsofSugarsFoodswithaddedsugarshavesugarslistedasafirstingredient.Sugarsmay
includebrownsugar,confectionerssugar,cornsweeteners,cornsyrup,dextrose,granulatedsugar,
highfructosecornsyrup,honey,invertsugar,levulose,maplesugar,molasses,rawsugar,turbinado
sugarandwhitesugar.
1. Nutrientdeficienciesmaydevelopfromtheintakeofemptykcalories.
a. Justbecauseasubstanceisnaturaldoesnotmeanitisnutritious.(Example:honey)
2. Dentalcariesmaybecausedbybacteriaresidingindentalplaqueandthelengthoftimesugarshave
contactwiththeteeth.

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B. ControversiesSurroundingSugars
1. Excessivesugarintakecancontributetothedevelopmentofbodyfat.
2. Sugarmaybeabletoalterbloodlipidlevelsandcontributetoheartdiseaseinsome.
3. Thereisnoscientificevidencethatsugarcausesmisbehaviorinchildrenandcriminalbehaviorin
adults.
4. Thereisatheorythatsugarincreasesserotoninlevels,whichcanleadtocravingsandaddictions.
C. RecommendedIntakesofSugars
1. TheUSDAFoodGuidestatesthataddedsugarscanbeincludedinthedietaspartofdiscretionary
kcalories.
2. DietaryGuidelinesstatetolimitintakeoffoodsandbeveragesthatarehighinaddedsugars.
3. DRIsuggestaddedsugarsshouldcontributenomorethan25%ofadaystotalenergyintake.

VII. HealthEffectsandRecommendedIntakesofStarchandFibers
Adietrichincomplexcarbohydratemayhelptocontrolbodyweightandpreventheartdisease,cancer,
diabetesandGIdisorders.Itisrecommendedthatpeopleconsume4565%ofthedailytotalenergyintake
fromcarbohydrate.

A. HealthEffectsofStarchandFibers
1. Maybesomeprotectionfromheartdiseaseandstroke
a. Solublefibersbindwithbileandtherebylowerbloodcholesterollevels.
b. Fibermayalsodisplacefatinthediet.
2. Reducetheriskoftype2diabetesbydecreasingglucoseabsorption
3. EnhancethehealthoftheGItractwhichcanthenblocktheabsorptionofunwantedparticles
4. Mayprotectagainstcoloncancerbyremovingpotentialcancercausingagentsfromthebody
5. Promoteweightcontrolbecausecomplexcarbohydratesprovidelessfatandaddedsugar.
6. Harmfuleffectsofexcessivefiberintake
a. Displacesenergyandnutrientdensefoods
b. Abdominaldiscomfortanddistention
c. Mayinterferewithnutrientabsorption
B. RecommendedIntakesofStarchandFibers
1. RDAforcarbohydrateis130gperday,or4565%ofenergyintake.
2. DailyValuesis300gramsperday.
3. DietaryGuidelinesencourageavarietyofwholegrains,vegetables,fruitsandlegumesdaily.
4. HealthyPeople2010recommendssixservingsofgrainsandfiveservingsoffruitsandvegetables.
5. Fiber
a. FDArecommends25gramsfora2,000kcaloriediet.
b. DRIat14gper1000kcalorieintake(28gramsfora2,000kcaloriediet)
c. AmericanDieteticAssociationrecommends2035gperday.
d. WorldHealthOrganizationsuggestsnomorethan40gperday.
C. FromGuidelinestoGroceries
1. Grainsencouragewholegrains
2. Vegetablesstarchyandnonstarchyvegetablesdifferincarbohydratecontent
3. Fruitsvaryinwater,fiberandsugarcontent
4. MilksandMilkProductscontaincarbohydrate;cheeseislow
5. MeatandMeatAlternatesmeatsarelowbutnutsandlegumeshavesomecarbohydrate
6. Foodlabelslistgramsofcarbohydrate,fiberandsugar;starchgramscanbecalculated.

VIII.Highlight:AlternativestoSugar
Peoplemayfinditpleasingtoreplacesugarwithartificialsweetenersorsugarreplacers.Thismayhelpto
controlkcaloriesandlimitsugar.

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A. ArtificialSweeteners(alsocallednonnutritivesweeteners)
1. Saccharin
a. Usedprimarilyinsoftdrinksandasatabletopsweetener
b. Rapidlyexcretedintheurine
c. Doesnotaccumulateinthebody
d. Hasbeenremovedfromlistofcancercausingsubstances
2. Aspartame
a. Generalpurposesweetener
b. WarningaboutphenylalanineforthosewithPKU
c. Controversialfindingthataspartamemayhavecausedcancerinrats
d. Excessiveintakeshouldbeavoidedbythosewithepilepsy.
3. AcesulfameK(acesulfamepotassium)
a. Researchconfirmssafety
4. Sucralose
a. Madefromsugar
b. Passesthroughdigestivetract
5. Neotame
a. Mostrecentonthemarket
b. Verysweet
c. Phenylalaninenotanissue
6. Tagatose
a. Usedforfoodsandbeverages
b. Provideslesskcaloriesthansugar
c. Highdosescancauseflatulenceandloosestools.
7. AlitameandCyclamate
a. PendingFDAapproval
b. Approvedinothercountries
8. AcceptableDailyIntake(ADI)isthelevelofconsumption,maintainedeverydayandstillsafebya
widemargin.Moderationandvarietyarestillrecommended.
9. ArtificialSweetenersandWeightControl
a. Muchresearchstillbeingdone
b. Usingartificialsweetenerswillnotautomaticallyreduceenergyintake.
B. SteviaAnHerbalAlternative
1. Lacksresearch
2. Classifiedasadietarysupplement
3. NotrequiredtohavetestingandFDAapproval
C. SugarReplacers
1. Alsocallednutritivesweeteners,sugaralcohols,andpolyols
2. Maltitol,mannitol,sorbitol,xylitol,isomalt,andlactitol
3. Absorbedmoreslowlyandmetabolizeddifferentlyinthebody
4. Lowglycemicresponse
5. SideeffectsincludeGIdiscomfort

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Q&AsforDiscussion

1. Whichcarbohydratesaredescribedassimpleandwhicharecomplex?
Simplemonosaccharides(glucose,fructose,galactose),disaccharides(sucrose,lactose,maltose).Complex
glycogenandstarch.

2. Describethestructureofamonosaccharideandnamethethreemonosaccharidesimportantinnutrition.
Namethethreedisaccharidescommonlyfoundinfoodsandtheircomponentmonosaccharides.Inwhat
foodsarethesesugarsfound?
Amonosaccharideisacarbohydratewithageneralstructureofaringcomposedofcarbon,hydrogenand
oxygenatoms.Monosaccharidesimportantinnutritionareglucose,fructose,andgalactose;disac.0charides
importantinnutritionaresucrose(fructose+glucose),lactose(galactose+glucose),andmaltose(2glucoses).
Nearlyallplantfoodscontainglucose,andmostplants(especiallyfruitsandsaps)containfructose.Galactose
isnotfoundassuchinfoods.Sucroseoccursinmanyfruitsandsomevegetablesandgrains.Lactoseisfound
inmilk,andmaltoseisfoundinseeds.

3. Whathappensinacondensationreaction?Inahydrolysisreaction?
Condensationcombinestworeactantstoyieldoneproductwiththeremovalofwater;hydrolysissplitsone
reactantintotwoproductswiththeadditionofwater.

4. Describethestructureofpolysaccharidesandnametheonesimportantinnutrition.Howarestarchand
glycogensimilarandhowdotheydiffer?Howdothefibersdifferfromtheotherpolysaccharides?
Polysaccharidesarecomposedofmanymonosaccharidesstrungtogether.Importantinnutritionare:
glycogen,starchandthefibers.Starchandglycogenaresimilarinthattheyarebothcomposedofglucose;
theydifferinthewaytheirglucoseunitsarelinkedtogether.Glycogenconsistsofmanyglucosemolecules
linkedtogetherinhighlybranchedchains,whilestarchconsistsofmanyglucosemoleculeslinkedsidebyside.
Fibersaredifferentinthatthebondsbetweentheirmonosaccharidescannotbebrokenbyhumanenzymes.

5. Describecarbohydratedigestionandabsorption.Whatroledoesfiberplayintheprocess?
Salivaryamylaseenzymesinthemouthpartiallybreakdownsomeofthestarchbeforeitreachesthe
intestine,pancreaticenzymesdigestthestarchtodisaccharidesinsmallintestine,disaccharidaseenzymeson
surfaceofintestinalwallcellssplitdisaccharidestomonosaccharides,monosaccharidesentercapillary,
capillarydeliversmonosaccharidestoliver,liverconvertsgalactoseandfructosetoglucose.Inthemouth,
fiberslowstheprocessofeatingandstimulatestheflowofsaliva;inthestomach,fiberdelaysgastric
emptying;inthesmallintestine,itdelaysabsorptionofcarbohydratesandfats,andcanbindwithminerals;in
thelargeintestine,itattractswaterthatsoftensthestools.

6. Whatarethepossiblefatesofglucoseinthebody?Whatistheproteinsparingactionofcarbohydrate?
Itcanbestoredasglycogen;itcanbeusedforenergy;itcanbeconvertedtofat,whencarbohydrateis
available.Glucosecanbeusedforenergy,leavingproteinavailableforitsspecialfunctions.

7. Howdoesthebodymaintainbloodglucoseconcentrations?Whathappenswhenbloodglucoserisestoo
highorfallstoolow?
Hormonesaresecretedinresponsetofluctuationsinbloodglucose.Whenbloodglucoseistoohigh,the
pancreasreleasesinsulin,resultinginthestorageofglucoseinthecells;whenbloodglucoseistoolow,the
pancreasreleasesglucagon,resultinginthereleaseofglucoseintotheblood.

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8. Whatarethehealtheffectsofsugars?Whatarethedietaryrecommendationsregardingconcentratedsugar
intakes?
Excesssugarcancausemalnutritionifsugardisplacesneedednutrientsfromthediet.Itcancontributetoobesity.
Excesssugarcancontributetoelevatedbloodlipids,anditcancausedentalcaries.TheDRIrecommendthatnomore
than25%ofkcalintakeshouldcomefromaddedsugars,whereastheWorldHealthOrganizationsuggeststheyshould
notexceed10%ofkcalintake.

9. Whatarethehealtheffectsofstarchesandfibers?Whatarethedietaryrecommendationsregardingthesecomplex
carbohydrates?
Theyprotectagainstheartdisease,coloncancer,anddiabetes,assistinweightcontrol,improvelargeintestine
functionandhealth,lowerbloodcholesterollevels,andslowtherateofglucoseabsorption.45to65%oftotal
kcaloriesshouldcomefromcarbohydrate;mostlyfromstarch,somefromfruits,vegetables,andmilk.TheDRI
recommendationforfiberis14gramsoffiberper1000kcaloriesconsumed.

10. Whatfoodsprovidestarchesandfibers?
Fruits,vegetables,legumes,wholegrainbreadsandcereals.

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Worksheet:CheckYourCarbohydrateChoices

Mostoftheenergywereceivefromfoodscomesfromcarbohydrates.Healthychoicesprovidecomplex
carbohydratesornaturallyoccurringsimplecarbohydrates,richinwatersolublevitaminsanddietaryfiber.Adiet
thatisconsistentlylowindietaryfiberandhighinaddedsugarcanleadtohealthproblems.Lookatthese
examplesofrelatedfoodsandidentifywhicharemostsimilartoyourfoodchoices.

Highinfiber/ Intermediate Lowinfiber/


lowinaddedsugar highinaddedsugar
Applewithpeel Applesauce,sweetened Fruitdrink,10%applejuice

Brownrice Creamofricecereal Ricecrispytreat

Pumpernickelbread Bagel,plain Danishpastry

Bakedsweetpotato Candiedsweetpotatocasserole Sweetpotatopie

Cornonthecob Creamedcorn Frostedcornflakes

Oatmeal Granola Granolabreakfastbar

1. Doyouselectwholegrainproductsandfreshfruitsandvegetablesregularly?

2. Doyouchoosefoodsthatincreaseyourintakeoffiberandlimityourintakeofsugars?

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Worksheet:Chapter4CrosswordPuzzle

6 7

10



Across Down
2. anoldernameforglucose 1. amonosaccharide;sometimesknownasfruitsugar
7. themonosaccharidesimportantinnutrition;they orlevulose
havetheformulaC6H12O6 3. amonosaccharide;sometimesknownasblood
8. ananimalpolysaccharidecomposedofglucose;itis sugarordextrose
madeandstoredintheliverandmusclesasa 4. adisaccharidecomposedofglucoseandfructose;
storageformofglucose commonlyknownastablesugar,beetsugar,or
9. acarbohydrateofthegeneralformulaCnH2nOnthat canesugar
consistsofasinglering 5. adisaccharidecomposedofglucoseandgalactose;
10.anoldernameforfructose commonlyknownasmilksugar

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Handout:CharacteristicsofFiber

Dietaryfibersareclassifiedaccordingtoanumberofcharacteristics,includingtheirsolubilityin
waterandwhethertheyareapolysaccharide.Thesedifferencesinfluencetheirphysiological
effectonthebody.

WaterSoluble WaterInsoluble
Polysaccharides Gums Cellulose
Hemicellulosea Hemicellulosea
Mucilages
Pectins

Nonpolysaccharides Lignins

FoodSources Fruits Vegetables
Oats Wheat
Barley Grains
Legumes

HealthEffects Lowerbloodcholesterol Softenedstools
Lowerrateofglucose Accelerationofintestinal
absorption transittime

a
Somehemicellulosesarewatersolubleandothersarewaterinsoluble.

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Handout:Fibers

Eachofthefibershasadifferentstructure.Mostcontainmonosaccharides,butdifferinthetypesthey
containandinthebondsthatlinkthemonosaccharidestoeachother.Thesedifferencesproduce
diversehealtheffectsasexplainedinthetext.

Cellulose
Celluloseistheprimaryconstituentofplantcellwallsandthereforeoccursnaturallyinallvegetables,
fruits,andlegumes.Cellulosecanalsobeextractedfromwoodpulporcottonandaddedtofoodsasan
anticaking,thickening,andtexturizingagentduringprocessing.

Likestarch,celluloseiscomposedofglucosemoleculesconnectedinlongchains.Unlikestarch,
however,thechainsdonotbranch,andthebondslinkingtheglucosemoleculestogethercannotbe
brokenbyhumanenzymes.

Hemicelluloses
Thehemicellulosesarethemainconstituentofcerealfibers.Theyarecomposedofvarious
monosaccharidebackboneswithbranchingsidechainsofmonosaccharides.a

Pectins
Allpectinsconsistofabackboneofonetypeofmonosaccharide;someareunbranched,whereasothers
havesidechainsofvariousmonosaccharides.bCommonlyfoundinvegetablesandfruits(especially
citrusfruitsandapples),pectinsmaybeisolatedandusedbythefoodindustrytothickenjelly,keep
saladdressingsfromseparating,andotherwisecontroltextureandconsistency.Pectinscanperform
thesefunctionsbecausetheyreadilyformgelsinwater.

GumsandMucilages
Whencut,aplantsecretesgumsfromthesiteoftheinjury.Liketheotherfibers,gumsarecomposedof
variousmonosaccharidesandtheirderivatives.Gumssuchasguargumandgumarabicareusedas
additivesbythefoodindustrytothickenprocessedfoods.Mucilagesaresimilartogumsinstructure;
theyincludepsylliumandcarrageenan,whichareaddedtofoodsasstabilizers.

Lignin
Thisnonpolysaccharidefiberhasathreedimensionalstructurethatgivesitstrength.cBecauseofits
toughness,fewofthefoodsthatpeopleeatcontainmuchlignin.Itoccursinthewoodypartsof
vegetablessuchascarrotsandthesmallseedsoffruitssuchasstrawberries.

a
Inhemicelluloses,themostcommonbackbonemonosaccharidesarexylose,mannose,andgalactose;the
commonsidechainsarearabinose,glucuronicacid,andgalactose(seeAppendixCforstructures).
b
Inpectins,thebackboneisusuallymadeofgalacturonicacidunits.
c
Ligninsarepolymersofseveraldozenmoleculesofphenol(analcohol),withstronginternalbondsthatmake
themimpervioustodigestiveenzymes.

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