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# ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT WORK 2017

## Worksheet 1 : Lets Coordinate!

PART 1.1
A simple equation of y = f(x) can be
expressed beautifully as a graph on the Cartesian
plane. This awesome representation was made
possible by a French mathematician Ren Descartes
also known as Cartesius. Ren Descartes was born
into a well educated upper-class family on March 31,
1596 in the French village of La Haye en Touraine.
The village is now called Descartes, IndreetLoire in
his honor.
Ren Descartes has been dubbed the "Father of
Modern Philosophy", but he was also one of the Toy
figures in the

Scientific Revolution of the 17th Century, and is sometimes considered the first
of the modern school of mathematics. As a young man, he found employment
for a time as a soldier (essentially as
a mercenary in the pay of various forces, both Catholic and Protestant) Bu , after a series
of dreams or visions,

n, who sparked his interest in mathematics and the New Physics, he concluded that his
real path in life was the pursuit
of true wisdom and science.

Back in France, the young Descartes soon came to the conclusion that the
Toy to philosophy, with all its uncertainties and ambiguity, was to build it on the
indisputable facts of mathematics. To pursue his rather heretical ideas further, th
ugh, he moved from the restrictions of Catholic France to the more liberal
environment of the Netherlands, where he spent most of his adult life, and where
he worked on his dream of merging algebra and geometry.

## In 1637, he published his ground-breaking philosophical and mathematical

treatise "Discours de la mthode" (the Discourse on Method), and one of its
appendices in particular, "La
Gomtrie", is now considered landmark in the history of mathematics. Following
on from early movements towar s the use of symbolic expressions in mathematics
by Diophantus, Al-Khwarizmi and Franois Vite, "La Gomtrie" introduced what
has become known as the standard algebraic notation, using lowercase a, b and c
for known quantities and x, y and z for unknown quantities. It was perhaps the first

book to look like a modern mathematics textbook, full of a's and b's, x2's, etc.
It was in "La Gomtrie" that Descartes first proposed that each point in
two dimensions can be described by two numbers on a plane, one giving the
points horizontal location and the other the vertical location, which have come
to be known as Cartesian coordinates. He used perpendicular lines (or axes),
crossing at a point called the origin, to measure the horizontal (x) and vertical (y)
locations, both positive and negative, thus effectively dividing the plane up into

## Any equation can be represented on the plane by plotting on it the

solution set of the equation. For example, the simple equation y = x yields a
straight line linking together the points (0,0), (1,1), (2,2), (3,3), etc. The equation
y = 2x yields a straight line linking together the points (0,0), (1,2), (2,4), (3,6),
etc. More complex equations involving x2, x3, etc, plot various types of curves on
the plane.

## As a point moves along a curve, then, its coordinates change, but an

equation can be written to describe the change in the value of the coordinates at
any point in the figure. Using this novel approach, it soon became clear that an
equation like x2 + y2 = 4, for example, describes a circle; y2 - 16x a curve called
a parabola; x2a2 + y2b2 = 1 an ellipse; x2a2 - y2b2 = 1 a hyperbola; etc.

## Descartes ground-breaking work, usually referred to as analytic geometry

or Cartesian
geometry, had the effect of allowing the conversion of geometry into algebra (and vice
versa). Thus, a pair of

graphically (at the intersection of two lines). It allowed the development of Newt ns and
Leibnizs subsequent
discoveries of calculus. It also unlocked the possibility of navigating
geometries of higher dimensions, impossible to physically visualize - a con ept
which was to become central to modern technology and physics - thus
transforming math matics forever.

Although analytic geometry was far and away Descartes most important
contribution to mathematics, he also: developed a rule of signs technique for
determining the number of positive or negative real roots of a polynomial;
"invented" (or at least popularized) the superscript notation for showing powers
or exponents (e.g. 24 to show 2 x 2 x 2 x 2); and re-discovered Thabit ibn Qurra's
general formula for a icable numbers, as well as the amicable pair 9,363,584
and 9,437,056 (which had also been discovered by another Islamic
mathematician, Yazdi, almost a century earlier).

## For ll his importance in the development of modern mathematics, though,

Descartes is perhaps best known today as philosopher who espoused rationalism
and dualism. His philosophy consisted of a method of doubting everything, then
rebuilding knowledge from the ground, and he is particularly known for the often-
quoted statement Cogito ergo sum(I think, therefore I am).
He also had an influential rle in the development of modern physics, a
rle which has been, until quite recently, generally under-appreciated and under-
investigated. He provided the first distinctly modern formulation of laws of
optics and the study of the reflection and refraction of light, and constructed
what would become the most popular theory of planetary motion of the late 17th
Century. His commitment to the scientific method was met with strident
opposition by the church officials of the day.

His revolutionary ideas made him a centre of controversy in his day, and
he died in 1650 far from home in Stockholm, Sweden. 13 years later, his works
were placed on the Catholic Church's "Index of Prohibited Books".
PART 1.2

## Name of the game : Lock The Grid

Concept : Coordinate Geometry

Number of players : 2

Items required
a) A4 Paper
b) 2 dice with different color (ie. White and Red)
c) 2 Marker Pen (Red and Blue)

Gameplay :
1. Draw or print the grids as follows on A4 paper

## dinateswhile red dice denotes y coordinates)

3. If playe A get 2 for the white dice and 5 fo red dice, thus the
coordinate will be (2,5). Player A have to mark X on the A4 paper
according to the coordinate.
4. Next pl yer B will throw the dices.

## 5. If player B get the (3,4) coordinates, player B need to mark on the A4

paper according to the coordinate
6. If any one of the player able to form 3 points horizontally or vertically,
the player will get 1 score.

## Player A received 1 points for

joining 3 coordinates
together vertically

## Player B received 1 poin s for

joining 3 coordinates
together vertically

7. Players who score the highest points will be declared as the winner
Worksheet 2 : Lets get into
shape!

a) SET SET
1 2

## Triangle Coordinates of Triangle Coordinates of

vertices vertices
A (0 , 1) (2 , 0) (2 , 2) P (5 , 0) (5 , 2) (7 , 1)
B (0 , 3) (2 , 2) ( 2 , 4) Q (5 , 2) (5 , 4) (7 , 3)
C (0 , 5) (2 , 4) (2 , 6) R (5 , 4) (5 , 6) (7 , 5)
D (0 , 7) (2 , 6) (2 , 8) S (5 , 6) (5 , 8) (7 , 7)
E (0 , 9) (2 , 8) (2 , 10) T (5 , 8) (5 , (7 , 9)
10)
F (0 , 11) (2 , (2 , 12) U (5 , 10) (5 , (7 , 11)
10) 12)

## b) Answer on the next page

c) Print out/draw the model (preferably using thick paper 200gsm and above
color/glossy paper),
fold and glue (use UHU glue) the papers to form quartz. Decorate and be
creative to get high
marks. Submit to your teacher together with this project work..
)
Height = 2 unit , Width = 2 units
Area, x 2 x 2 = 2 unit2
Number of triangle = 12
Total surface ar of triangle 12 x 2 unit2 = 24 unit2
Height = 2 unit , Width = 3 units

2
Area, 2 x 3 = 6 uni
Number of rectangle = 6
Total surface area of rectangle 6 x 6 unit2 = 36
unit2
Total surface area of the model = 36 unit2 + 24 unit2 = 60 unit2
Worksheet 3 : Enjoy The Journey!
Derive The Formula

PQ (x2 x 1 )2 ( y 2 y 1 )2
Use The Formula
1. Town A To Town B

A B
A (-7 , -8) , B(5 , 8)

AB (5 ( 7))2 (8 ( 8))2
AB 20 km

Town B To Town C

B J C
a) B(5 , 8) , J(2 , 4)
c
b)J(2 , 4) , C(11 , -8)

JC (112) 2 ( 8 4) 2

JC 15 km

Town B To C ; 15 km + 5 km = 20 km

Town C To Town A

C J A
CJ 15 km
JA 20 km 5 km
JA 15 km
Town C To A ; 15 km + 15 km = 30
km

B) J (2 , 4) , A (-7 , -8)

Total Journey ; 20 km + 20 km + 30 km =
70 km
2. If the new road is from A - C

Journey from A B J C A
C(11 , -8) , A(-7 , -8)

CA ( 7 11) 2 ( 8 ( 8)) 2

CA 18 km

Total distance ; 20 km + 5 km + 15 km + 18 km
= 58 km

## If the new road is from B - C

Journey from A B C J

A B(5 , 8) , C(11 , -8)

## Total Distance ; 20 km + 17.1 km + 15 km + 15

km = 67.1 km
Ali should prefer using the roads connecting Town A To C. This is
because if Ali use this route, the total distance will be 58km compared
to Town B To C with the distance of 67.1 km.

## Derive The Formula :

Coordinate X = mx nx ,my ny
2 1 2 1
m n m n
x x ,y y
Midpoint of 2 1 2 1

PQ = 2 2

Use The
Formula :
30
1. Translation from B
to C is 10
Using the same translation for A,

(20 , 20)

2.

a)

## 1(35) 3(5) , 1(40) 3(30)

Coordinate for New Tree =
1 3 1 3
Coordinate for New Tree = (12.5 , 32.5)

Distance from A To B
A (-10 , 10) , B(5 , 30) nd Distance = 10
b)
AB (5 10)2 (30 10)2
AB 25km

## Let s y the new tree is labelled as P, the ration of P to

B is 1 : 4
1(5) 4( 10) ,1(30) 4(10)
Coordinate for Tree 1 4 14
P=

## Derive The Formula :

Area of triangle 2 3 1

ABC = 1
1 | |=
1
|( 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1) ( 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1)|
2

1 2 3 1

Area of
ABCD
A
|( + + +) ( + + + )|

1 2 3 4 1

|1 1 |=
2

=
2 3 4

2 1 1

1 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 4 1

## Conditio 1.All the point should be in different

n: coordinates
2.All the point should not straight line
be in (collinear)
2
3. The area will be 0 unit if any 2 coordinate falls on the
same lines
Use The
Formula :
1. Area
=1 |0
2 8 10 0
|
2 10 6 0 2

1
= 2 |(0 + 12 + 0 + 20) - (4 + 80 + 60 + 0)|

= 56 unit2

## Area for every piece of land ; 56 unit2 / 4 = 14 unit2

2
.

ABCX is a
rhombus.
2
Translatation from A To B is
6 2
Thus, translation of 6
Coordinate X is

Coordinate x is (4 , 4)

Worksheet 6 : Close
encounter!
Derive The
Formula :

= x 2x
1
2. a) Gradient 1 and m2 will be same if both lines
are parallel
b) If the lines are perpendicular, the product of bo h
Use The
Formula :
Gradient of Police Station and Fire 5 ( 1) 6 3
Station ;
4 4 8 4
Let say the location is (x
,y)
18 y 4
12 x 3
4x 3y6 ------------------1
station = 4
2 y
3
3 x 4
3x 4 y1 ------------------2
x 1 4 y ------------------
-3
3
Substitute equation 3 into 1
1 4 y 3y6
4
3
y = 0.56

equation 1
4x 3(0.56) 6
x = -1.08

## The shortest coordinate is (-

1.08 , 0.56) Distance from (12,
18) and (-1.08 , 0.56)

## (12 ( 1.08))2 (18 0.56)2 21.8

km
Speed = 80km/j
60 min
Time take per 1 =0.75
km ; 80km min
Total time taken is ; 21.8km x 0.75 min = 16.35 minit

## Worksheet 7 : Nursery Fun!

State The
Formula :
1. y = (Gradient)x + y-intercept

## 2. Coordinate (x1,y1) and Gradient , m

y y1 = m (x x1)

y2 y
m 1

= x x
2
1
substitute in y y1 = (x x1)

m = - y-intercept / x-intercept
Substitute and y-intercept in the
formula y = mx + y-intercept
Use The Formula :
1. y = mx + c
i) Equation of AB
5 1 (0) c
2
c 5
y 1 x 5
2
ii) Equation of
BC
41(7) c
c 11
yx 11
iii) Equation of
CD
m 4 2 2
76
2 2(6) c
c10
y 2x 10
iv) Equation
of DE

m 2 0 2
63 3
0 2 (3) c
3
c2
y 2x 2
3
v) Equation of
EA
m 5 0 5
0 3 3
0 5 (3)
3
c5
y 5x 5
3
2. Coordinate B (x , y)
y 4 1
y 5 1 x 7
x 0 2 y x 11
2y x 10 1 y 11 x2

Substitute equation 2
into 1
2(11 x) x 10
x 4
y 11 (4)
y 7
Coordinate B is (4 ,
7)
Area
Method 1

1 4 7 6 3
Area = |0 0|
5 7 4 2 0 5

1
= 2 |(0 + 16 + 14 + 0 + 15) - (20 + 49 + 24 + 6 + 0)|

= 27 m2

Area Method 2

Area of P Area of Q
4 7
1
x 5 dx x 11 dx
4
0 2
x2 x2 7
4

5x 2 11x
4
0 4
= 24 m2 = 16.5 m2
Total Area (Including non-shaded region) ; 24 + 16.5 =
40.5 m2

3
5
x 5 dx
0 3
3
5x 2
5x
6 0

= 7.5
m2
6
2
x 2 dx
3 3
x 2 6

3 2x
3

=3
m2
7

2x 10 dx
6
x 2 7
10x
6
=3
m2
40.5 m2 7.5 m2 3 m2 3 m2 = 27 m2

Worksheet 8 : Money-minded!

## 1. Method 1 Calculating the intersection point

The shortest distance will be that p rp ndicular to the
the roa highway
Gradient of Village P and Q is
2xm=
-1
m = -1/2
Equation of the highway = y ------------
= 2x + 1 1
Straight line equation of Vill ge P (4, -1)

y 1 x 1-----------2
2
Substitute 2 into 1

2x 1 1x 1
2
x=0

y=
2(0)+1
y=1
Road junction of Village P is (0 ,
1)

## Straight line equation of Village

Q (8, 7)
1
y x 11 ----------
2 -3

Substitute 3 into 1
2x 1 1x 11
2
x=4

y=
2(4)+1
y=9

## Method 2 Plot using Microsoft Excel

12
11 y = 2x +
10 1
9
8
7 y = -0.5x +
6 11
5
4
3
2
1 y = -0.5x
+1
0
-3 -2 -1 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
-2
-3
-4

Based on the graph plotted using Microsoft Excel, the intersection point
between the highway and the village road will he shortest distance which
is (0 , 1) for Village P and (4 , 9) for Village Q