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NONLINEAR STATIC (OR PUSHOVER) ANALYSIS

A pushover analysis is a nonlinear static procedure wherein monotonically


increasing lateral loads are applied tothe structure till a target
displacement is achieved or the structure is unable to resist further
loads.You can conduct a pushover analysis in SAP2000 as follows:

Define the properties of the plastic hinges. A plastic hinge forms when a
section reaches it momentcapacity. While a hinge implies that the
section cannot carry additional moments, it is possible to specifysome
amount of post-yield stiffness. It is advisable to specify some post-yield
stiffness so that suddensystem instability (when a mechanism is formed)
is avoided.

To specify hinge properties, select: DEFINE

SECTION PROP

HINGE PROP

Then select ADD NEW PROPERTY

Select Steel/Concrete or User DefinedIf you have calculated the yield


moments yourself for beam sections, and generated P-M interaction
curves forcolumn sections, you can choose User Defined and input the
hinge properties yourself.To begin with, I suggest using the program
generated properties. Hence, if you select STEEL1.

Enter a Hinge Property Name (to identify the hinge type), example
beam2.

Choose M3 (this is a pure moment hinge)3.

This will bring up a new menu where you can specify the hinge
property4.
Input values for C, D and E so that you get a bilinear curve with a
constant slope; for example:a.

Moment/SF Rotation/SF1.

0.1.1

51.2

10 b.

1.5 25c.

Will generate a hinge with 2% post-yield slope5.

Also check the box IS EXTRAPOLATED6.

Click OK to complete the hinge definitionRepeat the above steps for


COLUMN hinges but this time you will select a P-M3 hinge and accept
thedefault properties. You cannot specify moment rotation properties for
columns, since they are dependent on theaxial loads. NOTE: When
you are back in the menu item titled Define Frame Hinge
Properties you can check the boxthat states Show Generated
Props This will enable you to come back to this menu (after assigning
hinges toelements) to actually check the assigned properties. Next, you
need to ASSIGN these hinge properties to the elements.

Select all the beam elements

Select ASSIGN

FRAME

HINGES

From the drop-down menu select beam (defined in Step 1), choose
Relative Distance as 0 andAdd

then change relative distance to 1 and Add again. Now you should
see the beam hinge property defined at 2 relative distances (0
and 1). This means you are assigning the beam hinge definedin
Steps 1 6 to the 2 ends of the beam.

Click OK you should see the hinges assigned to the beam

Repeat the above process to assign the column hinges

A pushover analysis is associated with a load pattern. In this case, use


the same later load pattern that was usedfor the seismic design.It is
necessary to apply dead and live loads before doing a pushover
analysis. Since the pushover procedure isnonlinear, it is necessary to
setup a new load case for dead and live which is also nonlinear.Start by
defining a new D+L case

DEFINE

LOAD CASES

ADD NEW LOAD CASE

Specify a new load case (example D&L)

Select the correct Load Names and Scale Factors (example 1.2 D + 0.5 L)

Check the option for Nonlinear analysis

Click OKThe following steps outline the definition of a pushover analysis


case:

DEFINE

LOAD CASES

ADD NEW LOAD CASE

Specify a Load Case Name

Check box Continue from State at End of Nonlinear Case and pick D&L
(defined in previous step)

Click the box Nonlinear

Choose the correct Load Pattern (in this case, you will select the Lateral
Load Case)

Specify a small scale factor (<1.0), since we want the load to be applied
in small steps

Under Other Parameters


o

Click Modify/Show for Load Application and choose Displacement


Control andConjugate Displacement (Note that SAP will automatically
select a node and displacement this is usually a reasonable estimate, so
you dont need to change it)
o

Click Modify/Show for Results Saved and select Multiple States


o

Click Modify/Show for Nonlinear Parameters and selected Apply


Local RedistributionRun the analysisReview results by first checking
the pushover curve (DISPLAY

Show Static Pushover Curve)If the pushover curve is linear, then none of
the members have yielded under the specified lateral load. If youused
the full lateral load as the load pattern for the pushover, this is unlikely
something else is wrong and youneed to check your hinge specifications
again. To make sure that the nonlinear analysis parameters arecorrectly
specified, try running it again by scaling the lateral load with a factor
greater than 1.0.If the pushover curve shows a sudden drop with limited
inelastic behavior, you probably need to reduce thescale factor for the
lateral load.Once you are satisfied with the pushover curve, you can
examine the detailed results in the usual manner byviewing results step
by step graphically or by outputting the results into a Table (all options are
in theDISPLAY menu)