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1 3D GEOMETRY Mahesh Tutorial Science

1) If , , are angle made by a line with positive directions of x , y and z


axes respectively show that
i) sin2 + sin2 + sin2 = 2

+ cos 2
ii) cos2 2 + cos2 2 = + 1 = 0

Solution:-
i) are angle made by a line with positive directions of x, y, z, axes.
L.H.S. = sin2 + sin2 + sin2
sin2 + cos2 = 1)
= 1cos2 + 1 cos2 + 1 cos2 (
= 3 (cos2 + cos2 + cos2 )
cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1)
= 3 1 (
= 2
= R.H.S.

3D-Geometry
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ii) L.H.S. = cos 2 + cos 2 + cos 2 + 1


= 2cos2 1 + 2cos2 1 + 2cos2 1+1
cos 2 = 2 cos2 1)
(
= 2 (cos2 + cos2 + cos2 ) 2
= 2(1) 2
cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1 )
= (
= 0

3D-Geometry
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2) A line lies in the yz plane and makes an angle 30 with y axis find its
inclination with z axis .And hences find its d.c.s
Solution:-
Since the lines lies in yz plane, it is perpendicular to x axis. If , , are
direction angels of the line , then = 90 given = 30 to find .

cos = 0, cos =
3
2
Now cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1
2
3
0 + 2 + cos2 = 1

3 1
cos2 = 1 =
4 4
1
cos =
2
= 60 or 120 i.e. the line is inclined at 60 or 120 with z axis.

3D-Geometry
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3) If = and = find where are angles made by the line with the
4
positive directions of X, Y and Z axes respectively.
Solution:-
Let , , Respectively be the angles made the line. With the positive
direction of x, y, and z axes Now,

= , = .(i)
4
Now, cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1

cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1
4
1 2
2cos +
2
= 1
2
1
2cos2 + = 1
2
1
2cos2 =
2

3D-Geometry
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1
cos2 =
4
1
cos2 =
2
1 1
cos = or cos =
2 2

2
= or =
3 3

3D-Geometry
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4) Find d.c.s of a line which is equally inclined to co-ordinate axes


Solution:-
Let , , be the directed angles of the line with co-ordinate axes Given
==
But cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1
1 1
cos2 = , cos2 =
3 3
1
cos = cos = cos =
3
The d.c.s. of the lines

1 , 1 , 1 or 1 , 1 , 1
3 3 3 3 3 3

3D-Geometry
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5) Show that no line in space can make angles of & with x and y - axes
6 4
Solution:-
If , , are the directed angles of the line

then = , =
6 4
But cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1

cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1
6 4
2 2
3 1 3 1
+ + cos2 = 1 + + cos2 = 1
2 2 4 2
5 5 1
+ cos2 = 1 cos2 = 1 =
4 4 4
cos2 < 0

No line can make angles and with x and y axis.
6 4
3D-Geometry
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6) Find the direction cosines of line Op if P(4, 3, 2) and O is origin

Solution:-
OP = 4i + 3j + 2k
OP = 16 + 9 + 4 = 29 D.r.s are 4, 3, 2

D.c.s. of OP are 4 , 3 , 2
29 29 29

3D-Geometry
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7) Find angle between AB & CD if A(2 , 2 ,5 ) ,B ( -1,5,5) C( -2,-4,1) , D(1, - 1,1)

Solution:-
The direction ratios of AB are 3, -3, 0 i.e. 1, -1, 0. The direction ratios of CD
are 3, 3, 0 i.e. 1, 1, 0.
Let be the angle between AB and CD.
a 1 a 2 + b 1 b 2 + c1 c2
cos =
a 21 + b 21 + c 21 a 22 + b 22 + c 22
1(1) + (1)(1) + (0) (0)
=
1 + 1 + 0 . 1 + 1 + 0
11+0
= = 0 =0 = 90
2
2 . 2
i.e. lines AB and CD are perpendicular.

3D-Geometry
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8) Find k if ABC is right angle at B , where A = (5,6,4), B (5,6,4) B = (4,4 ,1),


C (8,2,k)
Solution-:
A (5,6,4) B (4,4,1) C (8,2, K)
ABC is right angled at B
AB2 + BC2 = AC2 . (i)
AB2 = 1 + 4 + 9 = 14
BC2 = 16 + 4 + (K 1)2
= 20 + K 2 2K + 1 = 21 + K 2 2K
AC2 = 9 + 16 + (K 4)2 = 25 + 16 + K 2 8K From (i)
= 14 + 21 + K 2 2K = 41 + K2 8K
6K = 6
K=1

3D-Geometry
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9) Find k if the line with d.r.s k , -6,-2 and k -1 , k, 4 are perpendicular

Solution:-
Since lines perpendiculars.
a 1 a 2 + b 1 b 2 + c1 c2 = 0
K (K 1) 6 (K) 8 = 0
K2 K 6 K 8 = 0
K2 7K 8 = 0
(K 8) (K + 1) = 0 either K 8 = 0 or K + 1 = 0
K = 8 or K = 1

3D-Geometry
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10) The direction cosines of two lines are determined by the relation

l 5m + 3n = 0 and 712 + 5 m2 3n2 = 0 , find them

Solution:-
l 5m + 3n = 0
l = 5m 3n
7l2 + 5m2 3n2 = 0
7(5m 3n)2 + 5m2 3n2 = 0

175m2 210mn + 63n2 + 5m2 3n2 = 0


180m2 210mn + 60n2 = 0
Dividing throughout by 30, we get
6m2 7mn + 2n2 = 0
6m2 4mn 3mn + 2n2 = 0

3D-Geometry
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2m (3m 2n) n (3m 2n)

(2m n) (3m 2n) = 0

n
m = or 3m = 2n
2
n
i. when m =
2
n n
l = 5 3n =
2 2
n n
Direction ratios l, m, n i.e. , , n
2 2
i.e. 1, 1, 2
1 , 1 , 2
Direction cosines are
6 6 6

3D-Geometry
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ii. 2n
when m =
3
l = 5m 3n = 10n 3n = n
3 3
n 2n
Direction ratios l, m, n i.e. , ,n
3 3
i.e. 1, 1, 2

1 2 3
Direction cosines are , ,
1 + 4 + 9 14 14

i.e. 1 2 3
, ,
14 14 14

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1
11) Show that the angle between any two diagonals of a cube is cos-1
3
Solution:-
Let a be the length of an edge of the cube with one vertex at the origin.
The diagonals of the cube are OP, AR, BS and CQ.
Consider the diagonals OP and AR
The direction ratios of OP and AR are
a 0, a 0, a 0, and 0 a, a 0, a 0
i.e. a, a, a and a, a, a respectively.
Let be the angle between OP and AR , then

a a + a a + a a
=
cos
a2 + a2 + a2 . (a2) + a2 + a2

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a2 Z
=
cos
3a2 C (0,0,a) R (0,a,a)

1
=
cos S P
3
(a,0,a) (a,a,a)
1
= cos1 O (0,0,0) B (0,a,0)
3
Y

A (a,0,0) Q (a,a,0)

3D-Geometry
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12) A line make angle , , , with four diagonal of acute prove that cos-2 +
4
cos2 + cos2 + cos2 =
3
Solution:-
F
E

C
G B
D

O A

Let OABC FEDG be a cube of edge one unit such that vertex O is at the
origin and edges OA, OC, OG along the co-ordinate axes.

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O (0,0,0), O (0,0,0), B (1,1,0),

G (0,0,1), A (1,0,0), C (0,1,0),

D (1,0,1), F (0,1,1)

Direction ratios of
diagonal OE are 1, 1, 1.
diagonal BG are 1, 1, 1.
diagonal CD are 1, 1, 1.
diagonal AF are 1, 1, 1.

Let the line which makes angles , , and with the diagonals of the cube
has direction ratios x, y, z.

cos2 + cos2 + cos2 + cos2

3D-Geometry
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x(1) + y(1) + z(1) 2 x(1) + y(1) + z(1) 2


= +
x 2 + y 2 + z2 . 3 x2 + y2 + z2 . 3

x(1) + y(1) + z(1) 2 x(1) + y + z 2


+ +
x2 + y2 + z2 . 3 x 2 + y 2 + z2 . 3

(x + y + z)2 + (x + y z)2 + (x y + z)2 + (x + y + z)2


=
3(x2 + y2 + z2)

(x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2xz) + (x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy 2xz 2yz)

(x2 + y2 + z2 2xy 2yz + 2zx) + (x2 + y2 + z2 2xy 2xz 2yz)

3(x2 + y2 + z2)

3D-Geometry
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4(x2 + y2 + z2)
=
3(x2 + y2 + z2)

4
cos2 + cos2 + cos2 + cos2 =
3

3D-Geometry
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13) A line passing thought origin make angle 1 2 3 with the plane XOY,
YOZ and ZOX respectively, then prove that cos2 1 + cos2 2 + cos2 3 = 2

Ans:- Consider a line L passing through origin Z


making 1 with XOY plane, 2 with L
YOZ plane and 3 with ZOX plane.
P (x, y, z)
Let P (x, y, z) be any point on line L such that z
Y
l (OP) = r
1 Q
l (OP) = x2 + y2 + z2 (by distance O
X
formula)

Draw PQ XY Plane and join OQ.

QOP =

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Q (x, y, 0)

l (OQ) = x2 + y2 (by distance formula)

l (OQ) x2 + y2
cos 1 = = . . . (i)
l (OP)
x2 + y 2 + z2

Similarly, we can prove

y2 + z2
cos 2 = . . . (ii)
x2 + y 2 + z2

z2 + x2
and cos 3 = . . . (iii)
x2 + y2 + z2

3D-Geometry
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From (i), (ii) and (iii), we get

2 2 2
x2 + y2 y2 + z2 z2 + x2
= + +
x2 + y2 + z2 x2 + y2 + z2 x2 + y 2 + z2

x2 + y2 y2 + z2 z2 + x2
= + +
x2 + y2 + z2 x2 + y2 + z2 x2 + y 2 + z2

2 (x2 + y2 + z2)
= = 2
x2 + y2 + z2

cos2 1 + cos2 2 + cos2 3 = 2

3D-Geometry
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14) The direction ratios of AB are 2, 2, 1. If A (4, 1, 5) and l(AB) = 6 units, find
the coordinates of B.

Solution:-
Direction ratios of line AB are 2, 2, 1.
Direction ratios are proportional to 2 , 2
, 2
, such that l(AB) = 6

42 2 + 2 = 6
+ 4

92 = 6

= 2

Direction ratios are 4, 4, 2 or 4, 4, 2.


Let B(x, y, z), A(4, 1, 5)

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x1 4 = 4, y1 1 = 4, z1 5 = 2
x1 = 0, y1 = 5, z1 = 7

B (0, 5, 7)

Or x1 4 = 4, y1 1 = 4, z1 5 = 2

x1 = 8, y1 = 3, z1 = 3

B (8, 3, 3)

3D-Geometry
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15) Find the direction cosines of the sides of the triangle whose vertices are
(3, 5, 4). (1, 1, 2) and (5, 5, 2). What type of triangle is it ?

Solution:-
A (3, 5, 4), B (1, 1, 2), C (5, 5, 2)

A B = b a = 4i 4j + 6k

BC = c b = 4i 6j 4k

CA = a c = 8i + 10j 2k

| A B | = | BC | = 16 + 16 + 36
= 68
It is an isosceles triangle.

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And direction ratios of sides are (2, 2, 3), (2, 3, 2), (4, 5, 1).

Direction cosines of sides are

2 , 2 , 3 , 2 , 3 , 2 , 4 , 5 , 1
17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17

3D-Geometry
GROUP (A) HOME WORK PROBLEMS Hence, the direction ratios of the line are 2,
2, 1 and the direction cosines of the line
are
Q-1) A line makes 450 with X axis, 900 with Y
ax is and 135 0 with Z axis. Find the 2 2 1 2 2 1
, , or , ,
direction cosines of the line. 3 3 3 3 3 3
Ans. A line makes 450 with X-axis, 900 with Y-axis
and 1350 with Z-axis. Q-3) Show that two line with d.r.s 1, 2, 3 and
0
Given : = 45 Find the
2, 1, 0 are perpendicular to each other.
= 900 direchon Ans. Given : let the two lines are AB and CD.
0
= 135 cosines of the Drs (AB) (1, 2, 3) (L1, M1, n1)
line
Drs (CD) (2, 1, 0) (L1, M2, n2)
be the angle with x axis
Consider
be the angle with y axis
= l1 l2 + m1m2 + n1n2
be the angle with z axis
= (1) (2) + (2) (1) + (3) (10)
1 = 2 + 2
cos = cos 450 =
2
= 0
cos = cos 900 = 0
The given lines are perpendicular.
cos = cos 1350 = cos (1800 450)

1 Q-4) A line lies in the YZ plane and makes an


=
2 angle 300 with Y axis, find its inclination
1 1 with Z axis
DCS = , 0,
2 2 Ans. Given : line lies in the YZ plane
= 300
is the angle made by the line with y axis.
= 900
Q-2) A line passes through A (3, 1, 2) and
(As the line dies in YZ plane. Hence it is ar
B (5, 11). Find d.r.s of line AB.
to x axis) and
Ans. Let A (3, 1, 2) and B (5, 11) be the given
r = 600 or 1200
points. Then the direction ratios of the line
AB are 5 3, 11, 1 2 i.e 2, 2, 1 Q-5) Find the angle between lines AB and CD
The direction cosines of the line AB are where A (2, 1, 3) B (1, 1, 2) C (4, 3, 1) and
D (2, 2, 0)
2 ( 2)
, Ans. Given : line AB and CD
2 2 2 2
22 + ( 2) + ( 1) 22 + ( 2) + ( 1)
where,


22
( 1)
2
+ ( 2) + ( 1)
2
A (2, 1, 3)
B (1, 1, 2) } AB

i.e

3D-Geometry

2
3
2
, ,
3
1
3
C (4, 3, 1)
D (2, 2, 0) } CD
Mahesh Tutorials Science 29

8k2 64k + 34 = 0
( )
Drs AB = A B = (1, 2, 1)
2
8k + 64k 34 = 0
Drs (CD ) = C D = (2, 1, 2) 4k2 + 32k 17 = 0
2
a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 4k + 34k 2k 17 = 0
cos = 2 2 2 2 2 2
a +b +c
1 1 1 a +b +c
2 2 2 2k (2k + 17) 1 (2k + 17) = 0

2+2 1 (2k + 17) (2k 1) = 0


=
6. 6 17 1
k = or
2 2
3 1
= =
6. 6 2
Q-7) Find the vector of magnitude 9 which is
1 equally inclined to the coordinate axes.
cos =
2
Ans. let a be the vector which is equally inclined
1 to the co-ordination axes. If , , are the
= cos 1
2 direction angles of the line then = =
c
cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1 gives
=
3
1
3 cos2 = 1 cos2 =
3
Q-6) If angle between the lines with d.r.s is 2,
1
cos =
3
2 k, 1 and 1, 1, 2 is find k.
3
the unit vectors along the vector a are
Ans. Direction ratios of first line are,
a1 = 2, b1 = 2k, c1 = 1 1  1  1 
i + j + k and
direction ratios of second line are, 3 3 3

a2 = 1, b2 = 1, c2 = 2 1  1  1 
i + j + k
3 3 3
The between them =
3
1   
but angle between the lines is given by
i.e
3
(i + j +k )
a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c 2
cos = Now a = 9
a + b12 + c12 a22 + b22 + c 22
2
1

1   
2 (1) + 2k ( 1) +1 ( 2) a = 9
3
(
i + j +k )
cos =
3 2
22 + ( 2k ) +12 12 + ( 1) + ( 2)
2 2

(
i.e a = 3 3 i + j + k )
1 2 2k + 2
=
2 4 + 4k 2 +1 1 +1 + 4
Q-8) If l1, m1, n1 and l2, m2, n2 are the direction
1 4 2k cosines of two lines, then show that the
=
2 5 + 4k 2 6 direction cosines of the line perpendicular
to them are proportional to m1n2 m2n1,
5 + 4k 2 6 = 8 4k n1l2 n2l1, l1m2 l2m1
squaring both the sides we get
Ans. Let l, m, n be the direction cosines of the line
(5 + 4k2)6 = (8 4k)2 perpendicular to each of the given lines,
30 + 24k2 = 64 64k + 16k2 ll1 + mm1 + nn1 = 0 ...(i)
2 2
64 64k = 16k 30 24k = 0 ll2 + mm2 + nn2 = 0 ...(ii)
on solving (i) and (ii),
3D-Geometry
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i.e
l m n
= =
m1 n1 l1 n1 l1 m1 5k +1 k 1 4k + 4 2k 2 4k + 6 k 1
, ,
m2 n 2 l2 n2 l 2 m2 k +1 k +1 k +1

l m 4k 2k + 2 3k + 5
= i.e , ,
m1n 2 m 2n1 n1l 2 l1n 2 k +1 k +1 k +1
and the direction ratios of PQ are
n
= 5 1, 4 4, 4 6 i.e 4, 0, 2
l1m2 m1l2
Since AM is perpendicular to PQ,
Hence the direction cosines of the line
pe rpe n dicu lar to t he g ive n lin e s are 4k 2k + 2 3k + 5
proportional to m1n2 m2n1, n1l2 n2l1, 4 + 0 2 =0
k +1 k +1 k +1
l1m2 l2m1
16k 6k 10 = 0
10k = 10 k=1
Q-9) Show that the vector AB is perpendicular
6 8 10
to CD where A (3, 4, 2), B (1, 1, 2), M , ,
2 2 2
C (0, 3, 2) and D (3, 5, 6). i.e M (3, 4, 5)
Ans. The direction of the line along vector AB are He nce the co-ordination of the foot of
a1 = 1 3 = 2, b1 = 1 4 = 5, perpendicular are (3, 4, 5)
c1 = 2 (2) = 4 Q-11) Find the direction cosines of vector which
The direction ratio of the line along the vector is perpendicular to vectors with direction
CD are ratios 1, 2, 2 and 0, 2, 1.

a2 = 3 0 = 3, b2 = 5 3 = 2, c2 = 6 2 = 4 Ans. Let a, b, c are the direction ratios of the


required vector which is perpendicular to the
a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = (2)(3) + (5)(2) + 4(4)
vector with the direction ratio 1, 2, 2 and 0,
= 6 10 + 16
2, 1
=0
a + 2b + 2c = 0 and 0. a + 2b + c = 0
the line along the vector AB is perpendicular
a b c
to the line along vector CD . = =
2 2 1 2 1 2
Hence, AB is perpendicular to CD 2 1 0 1 0 1

a b c a b c
Q-10) If a line drawn from the point A (1,2,1) is = = = =
2 4 1 0 2 0 2 1 2
perpendicular to the line joining P (1,4,6)
and Q (5, 4, 4), then find the coordinates a b c
= =
2 1 2
of the foot of the perpendicular.
Ans. Let AM be the perpendicular from the point The direction ratios of the required vector are
A(1, 2, 1) to the line PQ where P(1, 4, 6) and (2, 1, 2)
Q(5, 4, 4) The direction cosines of the vector are
let M divides PQ inteunally in the ratio K : 1 2 1
, ,
2 2
5k +1 4k + 4 4k + 6 22 + ( 1) + 22 22 + ( 1) + 22
M , 2, 1
k +1 k +1 k +1
2
The direction ratios of AM are 2
2 + ( 1) + 22
2

2k +1 4k + 4 4k + 6
1, 2, 1
k +1 k +1 k +1
i.e, 2 , 1 , 2
3 3 3
3D-Geometry
Mahesh Tutorials Science 31

Q-12) If the direction ratios of two vectors are Q-13) ABC is a triangle where A (2, 3, 5),
connected by the relations p + q + r = 0 B (1, 3, 2) and C (
, 5, ). If the median
and p2 + q2 r2 = 0, find angle between through A is equally inclined to the axis,
them. then find the values of and
Ans. Given, p + q + r = 0 ...(i) Ans. Let AD be the medion of the ABC through
2 2 2
and p + q r = 0 ...(ii) A. Then D be the midpoint of BC
from (i), P = (q + r) the direction ratio of median AD are
Putting the ralue of P in 1 +2
2, 4 3, 5
eq. 2 we get, 2 2
[(q + r)]2 + q2 r2 = 0 5 +8
i.e , 1,
q2 + 2qr + r2 + q2 r2 = 0 2 2
2q + 2qr = 0 i.e 5, 2, 8
2q (q + r) = 0 the direction cosines of the median AD are
2q = 0 or q + r = 0
5
l =
q=0 or q = r 2 2
( 5) + 22 + ( 8 )
Now, P = (q + r), therefore,
if q = 0, p = (0 + r) = r 2
m = 2 2
P = r and q = 0 ( 5) + 22 + ( 8 )

P r and q = 0 8
= n =
1 1 2 2
( 5) + 22 + ( 8 )
the direction ratio of the first vector are
Now, the median is equally inclined to the
a1 = 1, b1 = 0, c1 = 1
axes.
If q = r, P = (r + r) = 0
If , , r are the direction angles of the median
P = 0 and q = r
then = = r
q r
P = 0 and = cos = cos = cos r
1 1
l=m=n
The direction ratio of the second rector are
a2 = 0, b2 = 1, c2 = 1 5
=
2 2
let be the angle between the vectors then ( 5) + 4 + ( 8)
a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 2
cos = 2 2
2
a12 + b12 + c12 02 +12 + ( 1) ( 5) + 22 + ( 8 )

8
1 ( 0 ) + 0 (1) + ( 1) ( 1) = 2 2
= 2 2 ( 5) + 4 + ( 8)
12 + 02 + ( 1) . 02 +12 + ( 1)
5=2=8
1 1 = 7 and = 10
= =
2. 2 2


cos = cos
3


=
3

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Q-14) Find acute angle between lines having 1


direction ratios 5, 4, 1 and 3, 2, 1 cos = cos 450 = and
2
Ans. Direction ratios of the lines are 5, 4, 1 and
1
3, 2, 1 cos = cos 600 =
2
5 ( 3 ) + 4 ( 2) + ( 1)(1) cos2 + cos2 + cos2
cos =
25 +16 +1 9 + 4 +1
3 1 1
= + +
4 2 4
15 + 8 1
=
42 14 3
= 1
2
84 4
cos = = i.e , , dose not satisfy the identity
14 3 7 3
cos2 + cos2 + cos2 = 1
4
= cos 1
7 3
Q-2) Find the value of for which the points
(6, 1, 2), (8, 7, ) and (5, 2, 4) are collinear.

1 1 1 Ans. Let A (6, 1, 2), B (8, 7, ) and C (5, 2, 4) be


Q-15) Can three numbers , , be d.c.s
3 3 3 the given points

for some line ? Justify. Then direction ratios of line AB are


8 6, 7 (1), 2
1
Ans. l = , i.e 2, 6, 2 and direction ratios of the line
3
AC are 5 6, 2 (1), 4 2
1
m = , i.e 1, 3, 2
3
Since A, B, C are collinear. The direction ratio
1 of AB and AC are in same proportion
n =
3
2 6 2
= =
1 1 1 1 3 2
l2 + m2 + n2 = + + =1
3 3 3
2
2 =
1 1 1 2
, , can be d.c.s of some lines
3 3 3 4 = 2
= 2

BASIC ASSIGNMENTS (BA)


BA 1 Q-3) Find angle between the lines whose
direction cosines l, m, n satisfy equations
Q-1) Show that there is no line in space whose 5l + m + 3n = 0 and 5mn 2nl + 6lm = 0.
direction angles are 300, 450, 600
Ans. Let if possible, the direction angles of a line Ans. Given, 5l + m + 3n = 0 and ...(i)
in space be 300, 450, 600 5mn 2nl + 6lm = 0 ...(ii)
with standard notahone From (i), m = (5l + 3n)
= 300 Putting the value of m in equation (ii), we
0
= 45 get,
= 600 5 (5l + 3n) n 2nl 6l (5l + 3n) = 0
3 25ln 15n2 2nl 30l2 18ln = 0
cos = cos 300 = ,
2 30l2 45ln 15n2 = 0
3D-Geometry
Mahesh Tutorials Science 33

2l2 + 3ln + n2 = 0 the direction ratio of AM are


2 2
2l + 2ln + ln + n = 0 5k +1 4k +1 4k + 6
1, 2, 1
2l ( l + n) + n ( l + n) = 0 k +1 k +1 k +1
(l + n)(2l + n) = 0 5k +1 k 1 4k + 4 2k 2
i.e , ,
l + n = 0 or 2l + n = 0 k +1 k +1
l = n or n = 2l 4k + 6 k 1
Now, m = (5l + 3n), therefore, if l = n, k +1
m = (5n + 3n) = 2n
4k 2k + 2 3k + 5
i.e m ,
m k +1 k +1 k +1
l = =n
2 and the direction ratios of PQ are

l m n 5 1, 4 4, 4 6 i.e 4, 0, 2
= =
1 2 1 since AM is or to PQ
the direction ratios of the first line are 2k + 2
4k 3k + 5
4 to k +1 2 =0
a1 = 1, b1 = 2, c1 = 1 k +1 k +1
If n = 2l, m = (5l 6l) = l 16k 6k 10 = 0
n 10k = 10 k=0
l = m =
2
6 8 10
M , ,
l m n 2 2 2
= =
1 1 2
i.e M (3, 4, 5)
the direction ratios of the second line are Hence , the co-ordinate s of the foot of
a2 = 1, b2 = 1, c2 = 2 perpendicular are (3, 4, 5)
Let be the angle between the lines.
Then
BASIC ASSIGNMENTS (BA)

a1a 2 + b1b2 + c1c 2 BA 2


cos =
a12 + b12 + c12 . a 22 + b22 + c 22
Q-1) Find the direction cosines of the sides of
the triangle whose vertices are (3, 5, 4),
( 1) (1) + 2 (1) +1 ( 2) (1, 1, 2) and (5, 5, 2). What type of
= 2 2
( 1) + 22 +12 . 12 +12 + ( 2) triangle is it ?
Ans. Let ABC be the triangle, where A (3, 5, 4),
1 + 2 2 1 1 B (1, 1, 2) and C (5, 5, 2).
= = =
6. 6 6 6
the direction ratios of side AB are
1 1 3, 1 5, 2 (4), i.e., 4, 4, 6, i.e., 2,2,3
= cos 1
6 the direction cosines of side AB are

2 2
, ,
2 2
Q-4) If a line drawn from the point A (1, 2, 1) is 22 + 22 + ( 3 ) 22 + 22 + ( 3 )
perpendicular to the line joining P (1, 4,
6) and Q (5, 4, 4), then find the coordinates 3
2
of the foot of the perpendicular. 22 + 22 + ( 3 )
Ans. Let M divides PQ internally in thed ratios k:1
i.e.,
2 2 3
5k +1 4k + 4 4k + 6 , ,
M , , 17 17 17
k +1 k +1 k +1
The direction ratios of side BC are
3D-Geometry
34 Mahesh Tutorials Science

5 (1), 5 1, 2 2, i.e., 4, 6, 4 Q-2) Show that the four points (5, 1, 1),
i.e., 2, 3, 2 (1,3, 4), (7, 4, 7) and (1, 6, 10) are the
the direction cosines of side BC are vertices of rhombus.
Ans. Let A = (5, 1, 1), B = (1, 3, 4), C = (7, 4, 7)
2 3 2
, , and D = (1, 6, 10)
22 + 32 + 22 22 + 32 + 22 22 + 32 + 22
d. r. s. of AB are : 1 5, 3 + 1, 4 1
i.e., 2 2 2 i.e. 6, 2, 3
, ,
17 17 17
d.r.s. of CD are : 1 7, 6 + 4, 10 7
The direction ratios of side AC are
i.e. 6, 2, 3
5 3, 5 5, 2 (4), i.e., 8, 10, 2
Thus d.r.s. of AB are same as that of CD
i.e., 4, 5, 1
AB || CD
the direction cosines of side AC are
d.r.s. of AC are 7 5, 4 + 1, 7 1
4 5 i.e. 2, 3, 6
, ,
2 2
4 + 5 + ( 1)
2 2
4 + 5 + ( 1)
2 2
d.r.s. of BD are 1 + 1, 6 + 3, 10 4
i.e. 2, 3, 6 AC || BD
1
2 D C
42 + 52 + ( 1)

i.e.,
4 5 1
, ,
42 42 42
Let be the angle between the side AB and A B
AC. ABDC is a parallelogram.
Then by using the formula, d.c.s. of diagonal AD are 4, 5, 9
cos = |l1l2 + m1m2 + n1n2|, we get, d.c.s of diagonal BC are 8, 1, 3
8 10 3 Sum of products of d.r.s.
cos = + +
17 42 17 42 17 42 = 8 (4) + (1) (5) + (3) (9)

21 = 32 + 5 + 27
=
17 42 = 0
Let be the angle between the sides AB and AD BC
BC. Thus ABCD is a parallelogram in which
diagonals are mutually perpendicular.
4 6 6 4
Then cos = + + =
17 17 17 17 ABCD is a rhombus.

cos = cos =
the triangle is an isosceles triangle. Q-3) If Q be the foot of the perpendicular from
P (2, 4, 3) on the line joining the points A
Hence, the direction cosines of the sides of
(1, 2, 4) and B (3, 4, 5), dind coordinates
2 2 3 of Q.
the triangle are , , ; P (2, 4, 3)
17 17 17
Ans.
2 3 2
, , ;
17 17 17

4 5 1
, , ;
42 42 42
A (1, 2, 4) Q (x, y, z) B (3, 4, 5)
and it is an isosceles triangle.

3D-Geometry
Mahesh Tutorials Science 35

Let Q = (x, y, z) Q-5) If points A (1, 3, ), B (2, 0, 1) and C (4,


d.r.s. of AQ are : x 1, y z, z 4 , 3) are collinear, show that point D (2,
12, 9) is on the same line.
d.r.s. of AB are : 3 1, 4 2, 5 4,
Ans. The direction ratios of line AB are
i.e. 2, 2, 1
2 + 1, 0 3, 1 i.e. 1, 3, 1
Since AQ and AB are segments of the same
line Direction ratios of line AC are
4 + 1, 3, 3 i.e. 3, 3, 3
x 1 y 2 z 4
= = = 1(say) Since A, B, C are collinear.
2 2 1
x = 2t + 1, y = 2t + 2, z = t + 4 AB || AC

Q = (2t + 1, 2t + 2, t + 4) 1 3 1
= =
d.r.s. of PQ are 2t + 1 2, 2t + 2 4, t + 4 3 3 3 3+

i.e. 2t 1, 2t 2, t + 1 1 3 1
i.e. = =
Since PQ AB, 3 3 3 +
(2t 1) 2 + (2t 2) 2 + (t + 1) 1 = 0 Solving, we have, = 6, = 3
4t 2 + 4t 4 + t + 1 = 0 Direction ratios of AB are 1, 3, 2 or 1,3,2
9t 5 = 0 and

5 Direction ratios of AD are 2 + 1, 12 3, 9 3


t = i.e 3,9,6
9
Q = (2t + 1, 2t + 2, t + 4) 1 3 2
Now = =
3 9 6
5 5 5
= 2 +1, 2 + 2, + 4 Hence AB || AD, point A is common.
9 9 9
AB and AD are along the same line.
19 28 41
= , , The point D (2, 12, 9) is on the line containing
9 9 9
A, B and C.

Q-4) A (3, 2, 6), B (1, 4, 5) and C (3, 5, 3) are the


vertices of triangle ABC. Find mABC.
Ans. We know that the direction ratios of the line
segment joining (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) are
x2 x1, y2 y1, z2 z1
Direction ratios of BA are 3 1, 2 4, 6 5
i.e 2, 2, 1
Direction ratios of BC are 3 1, 5 4, 3 5
i.e 2, 1, 2
let mABC = then

2 2 + 2 1 + 1 2
cos =
2 2
22 + ( 2 ) +12 . 22 +12 + ( 2 )

422
cos = =0
9. 9

= 900

3D-Geometry