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Geology Dynamik, T.

Pertambangan Undana 2009 1

Kebutuhan vital manusia, tak tergantikan


Menjadi komoditi ekonomi yang vital dan strategis
Jumlah

A MAN B A HAYA
Politik

Ekonomi

Taraf Hidup

Sosial

Perekonomian
Geology Dynamik, T. Pertambangan Undana 2009 Tahun 2

1
WAJAH ANAK-
ANAK-ANAK YANG KURANG AIR

WAJAH ANAK-ANAK YANG CUKUP AIR


Geology Dynamik, T. Pertambangan Undana 2009 3

Taraf Hidup

Sosial
Geology Dynamik, T. Pertambangan Undana Perekonomian
2009 4

2
DAERAH Geology
YANG Dynamik,CUKUP AIR
T. Pertambangan Undana 2009 5

KEBERADAAN AIR DI BUMI

Air di
bumi:
Air Laut 1,4 x 109
Km 3
Gunung Es
dan Salju Jumlah air tanah 68 kali lebih banyak
dibandingkan dengan air permukaan

Air Tanah Terlem-


Air babkan
Permukaan Di
di Tanah Atmosfir

97,2% 2,14% 0,61% 0.009% 0.005% 0.001%


Geology Dynamik, T. Pertambangan Undana 2009 6

3
Hydrologic cycle
Siklus hidrogeologi merupakan sirkulasi air di muka
bumi
Proses siklus hidrogeologi meliputi:
Precipitation - Hujan
Evaporation Membentuk awan
Infiltration Meresap masuk ke dalam tanah
Runoff Mengalir di atas tanah
Transpiration Dilepaskan oleh tumbuh-tumbuhan
Evapotranspiration Kombinasi efek evaporation
dan transpiration

Geology Dynamik, T. Pertambangan Undana 2009 7

THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

Figure 16.3
Geology Dynamik, T. Pertambangan Undana 2009 8

4
PERMASALAHAN AIR TANAH

Kondisi aw al /
sumber:
Batugamping
Kapur.
Gambut / Asam
Timah, Nikel, dll
Bacteriologi
Pemakaian berlebih
Pencemaran /
polutan
Intrusi

SUMBERDAYA AIR
Air tanah berasal dari hujan dan air sungai yang masuk ke
dalam tanah, tertampung dan mengalir pada sistem air tanah
dan dapat keluar sebagai mataair, aliran sungai, danau dan
di laut.
Air tanah merupakan salah satu sumberdaya air dan dapat
berperan sebagai cadangan air permukaan.
Pada suatu kondisi hidrogeologi tertentu dapat saja suatu
daerah sama sekali tidak memiliki sumberdaya air
permukaan, misalnya pada daerah alluvial dan daerah
gamping yang tebal dan muka air tanahnya jauh berada di
bawah permukaan tanah.

5
SUMBERDAYA AIR
Tidak akan habis jika dilakukan manajemen pemanfaatan,
pengelolaan, pelestarian dan rehabilitasi

DARATAN

Tidal, arus
BATUAN PANTAI
LAUT

6
BATUAN IMPERMEABEL /
KEDAP AIR

Air tidak masuk kedalam tanah


Terbuang percuma ke laut.
Bisa banj ir, erosi dll.
Memiliki potensi
air permukaan

BATUAN IMPERMEABEL /
KEDAP AIR

Tidak memiliki potensi air


tanah

7
Lebih banyak air masuk
kedalam tanah

Tidak memiliki potensi


air permukaan
BATUAN PERMEABEL

BATUAN IMPERMEABEL

Tidak memiliki potensi


air permukaan

Memiliki potensi
air permukaan

Mataair

8
Mataair

Airtanah

Mataair

Airtanah

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Groundwater: aquifers
What would be the properties
(porosity/permeability) of conglomerate?
High porosity, high permeability

POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY

porous sediment:
< 40% porosity

hard rock:
<1% porosity

porosity: volume proportion made up of voids


permeability: connectedness of voids, dictating capacity
to transmit flow

16
Groundwater: aquifers
What would be the properties (porosity/permeability)
of unfractured granite?
Low porosity, low permeability

Groundwater: aquifers
Can you think of a rock/sediment with high
porosity and low permeability?

17
Groundwater: aquifers
Can you think of a rock/sediment with low
porosity and high permeability?

KARST TOPOGRAPHY

Karst topographytypifies much of


the landscape in Florida and
eastern Kentucky, among others.

Limestone dissolution produces a number of characteristic


landforms, known collectivelyas karst topography.

18
19
Dapat di manfaatkan untuk:
Air bersih
Irigasi
Pow er plant / Energi
Dam

Dam

20
Hasil:
Aliran air yang cepat dan terbuang percuma
Menjadi sumber daya air yang bermanfaat
Sumberdaya air
Perikanan
Rekreasi
Pertanian
Saluran
irigasi

Dam
Turbin
Energi listrik Sungai
Pada batuan impeabel

Dam
Daya Teoritis=
9,8 x nt x ng x Q x H (KW)

H Q

Turbin

21
Misalnya:
Bendungan Tilong:
Beda tinggi dengan Lahan irigasi di Noelbaki = 60 m
Rata-rata Debit = 6 m3/detik
Jika Dibuat turbin dengan efisiensi turbin = 0.9, dan efisiensi
generator = 0.9
maka Daya teoritis yang bisa dimanfaatkan yaitu:

9,8 x nt x ng x Q x H (KW)

9.8 x 0.9 x 0.9 x 6 x 60

= 2.857 KW = 2.8 MW

Yang berarti dapat memenuhi kebutuhan listrik kota Kupang

22
23
24
25
What happens when this well is heavily
pumped?

26
27
28
29
30
31
Sumber Air Bersih di Kota Kupang:
Air Permukaan (Sungai, danau, embung dan waduk)
Air Tanah (Mataair, sumur gali, sumur bor)

32
PERMASALAHAN AIR BERSIH

KEBUTUHAN vs PRODUKSI
Jumlah Penduduk: 256.358 Jiwa Thn
Thn.. 2006
Pertumbuhan Penduduk 1.5%/
1.5%/Thn
Thn
Kebutuhan Air Bersih Standart Kota Besar: 120 ltr
ltr/jiwa/hari
/jiwa/hari
Kebutuhan Boros: 150 ltr
ltr/jiwa/hari
/jiwa/hari
Produksi UPTD dari 9 sumur bor (tidak termasuk sumur
Kantor Walikota
Walikota)) = 59 ltr/dtk (kontinyu
kontinyu))
Jika Dendeng Produksi= 75 Ltr/dtk
Produksi PDAM dari 9 Mataair dan 7 Sumur bor:
Pada saat musim hujan : 332.5 Ltr/dtk.
Ltr/dtk.
Pada saat musim kemarau : 177.5 Ltr/dtk.

33
Ingat :
Masih ada
sumur gali

Ingat :
produksi
sumur UPTD
masih dapat
diperbesar
jika
transmisi
diperbesar

34
POTENSI AIR TANAH
KOTA KUPANG

Luti
TPU Damai

Tabun
Mataair terbesar
M. Air Sagu
Impermeable

TPU Damai

Batugamping Batugamping
Sumur Gali Gua

Batugamping

Impermeable

35
TPU Damai

Batugamping Batugamping
Sumur Gali Gua

Batugamping

Impermeable

TPU Damai

Batugamping Batugamping
Sumur Gali Gua

Batugamping

Impermeable

36
TPU Damai

Batugamping Batugamping
Sumur Gali Gua

Batugamping

Impermeable

TPU Damai

Batugamping Batugamping
Sumur Gali Gua

Batugamping

Impermeable

37
38
What happens when a new well here is heavily
pumped?

39
Flow
direction
can change

SALT WATER INTRUSION

One consequence of
overpumping in
coastal regions is the
encroachment of
saline seawater into
fresh aquifers.

To combat this, many


coastal communities
re-inject wastewater
into coastal aquifers.

40
A FINE note the classic mass
wasting features
SINKHOLE

among the largest US sinkholes:


130 meters long, 100 meters wide, 45 meters deep

41
LAND SUBSODENCE
In areas of long-term overpumping, and
where recharge is slow, subsidence can be
a major problem.

Groundwater takes up pore space in


sediments and rocks, and acts as support.
Withdraw the water and aquifer material
compacts irregularly. When the surface
subsides, construction (buildings, pipe
systems, etc.) may suffer huge damage.

This is equally the case in any area where


material is withdrawn from the ground (oil,
mines, etc.). It can be combatted by
injecting water back into the aquifer as
groundwater is withdrawn.

Siklus hydrology (tidak boleh putus)


Sumber daya air dan sumber daya air tanah
Pemanfaatan potensi air tanah
Pencemaran air tanah
Air tanah dan permasalahan geoteknik (land
subsidende,, stabilitas lereng, terowongan,
subsidende
dewatering pada escavasi
escavasi,, overpumping
overpumping,, wetland,
dll))
dll

42
Distribution of Water
Consumption of this limited source of water increases with
population
In year 1900, people consumed ~141 cubic miles per year
Today we use about 1000 cubic miles of water per year
Consumption doubles every 20 years!

80 countries, with 40% of Earths population, have chronic


water shortage
150 out of 214 largest river systems are shared by two
countries
50 rivers are shared by 3 to 10 countries

Thus, water will be the dominant international issue for


wars in the coming years (e.g.,Tigris & Euphrates).

Distribution of Water

97.2% of Earths water is not potable (ocean water)


2.1% of Earths water is frozen in the polar regions

That leaves only 0.7% in liquid, salt-free, fresh water for


drinking purposes
In streams, river, lake, pond, puddle, soil and rock

The % of Earths water that is in different environments


varies little with time

43
Water on Earths Surface
Each year, more water precipitates (~22,600 mi3) on
land than evaporates (14,000 mi3) from it

The remaining 8600 mi3 is the water which is available


to us, which mostly drains back into ocean
Part of this available water enters streams or lakes and
constitutes the surface water
The rest infiltrates the soil and rock (by gravity), and
becomes stored as groundwater
Groundwater generally remains out of sight, but may
resurface as springs

Global Water Cycle

Cyclic nature
Global movement of water between different
water storage compartments

Global distribution
Abundance
not yet a problem
Distribution in space and over time
is a problem

44
Sources of Earths water
Animation

Hydrologic Cycle
Cyclic movement of water:
From the air to the ground, to streams, to the ocean,
and back to the air

Humans interfere with the cycle by:


ponding water in reservoirs behind dams
removing water from underground faster than it can be
replenished
changing the climate through global warming

The cycle interconnects Earths water, air, soil, rock,


and living things

45
Hydrologic cycle
The hydrologic cycle is a summary of the
circulation of Earths water supply

Processes involved in the hydrologic cycle


Precipitation
Evaporation
Infiltration
Runoff
Transpiration
Availability of surface water is:
Precipitation - Evaporation Infiltration - Surface runoff

Hydrologic Cycle
Even though the distribution of water on Earth is almost
constant with time:
Water molecules continuously shift location on Earth

Water evaporates from the top of the surface waters and land
to become vapor
The vapor is then precipitated back (as rain, snow, etc) to the
surface of land and ocean

The precipitated water partly:


runs off on the surface to form surface waters
infiltrates into the ground to make groundwater
evaporates back into the atmosphere

46
The Hydrologic Cycle
Animation

11_02

47
Global Water Cycle

Waters vertical movement


Upflow: Evaporation, transpiration
Downflow: Precipitation and infiltration

Waters horizontal movement


Surface runoff
Subsurface flow

11_03

48
Global Water Supply

Fresh water of the


Hydrosphere

49
Surface Water (1)

Surface runoff
Drainage network

Drainage basin or watershed

Drainage divide

Stream order and size of drainage basin

11_05

50
Surface Water (2)

Sediment yield in surface runoff


Geological factors: Type/structure of soils & rocks

Topographic factors: Relief and slope gradient

Climatic factors: Type, intensity, duration, and


distribution of precipitation

Vegetation factors: Type, density, size, & distribution

Land-use practice factors

Groundwater (1)

Groundwater (GW) profile


Vadose zone (unsaturated zone)

Zone of saturation

Water table: The boundary of the above two zones

Perched water table: Local water table above a


regional water table

51
11_08

Zone of saturation

52
Zone or Aeration vs.
Saturation

Groundwater Movement (2)

Porosity: Percentage of void (empty) space in


sediment or rock to store water

Permeability: Measuring the interconnection of


pores in a rock material

53
Porosit
y

Effective
Porosity

The percentage
of
interconnected
pores

Contributes to
permeability

54
Groundwater Movement (1)

Hydraulic gradient: The gradient of water table,


generally following the topographic gradient

Hydraulic conductivity: Ability of rock materials to


allow water to move through (m3/day/m2)

55
Hydraulic Gradient

56
Hydraulic gradient

Pressure drives groundwater

57
Rates of Groundwater
Flow

Groundwater flow velocity

58
Groundwater Flow Paths

Water table varies with season

59
Groundwater (2)

Aquifer: A unit capable of supplying water at an


economically useful rate

Aquitard: A layer or unit restricting and retarding


GW flow

Confined aquifer: Aquifer with an overlying


aquitard layer

Groundwater (3)

Unconfined aquifer: No confining layer above it or


water table as its upper surface

Perched aquifer: Local zone of saturation above a


regional water table

60
11_09

Aquitard

61
Example of
unconfined
aquifer:

High Plains
aquifer

Dakota confined aquifer

62
Floridan Confined Aquifer

Groundwater (5)

GW recharge and discharge


Re charge zone:Area where water infiltrates
downward from surface to GW

Discharge zone:Area where water is removed from


an aquifer, such as spring, well, river, etc.

63
Recharge vs. Discharge

Successful
and
unsuccessful
wells

64
Groundwater (6)

GW pressure surface: Generally declining from


source along the flow

Artesian well: Water self-rising above the land


surface in a confined aquifer

Cone of depression: Drawdown cone of GW in a


well

11_10b

65
Potentiometric Surface

Potentiometric surface

66
11_10a

Artesian Well

67
Pumping lowers the water table

11_12

68
Formation of a cone of
depression in the water
table

Change in water table

69
Excessive Pumping

High rate of pumping creates bigger cone


of depression

70
One pump can dry up another

Groundwater Use and Supply (1)


Available GW estimated above the total flow of the
M ississippi duringthe last 200 years

GW as primary drinking water source for ~50%


of the U.S. population

GW overdraft problems (extraction rate


exceeding recharging rate) in many parts of the
country, particularly some states in the Great Plains
region

Estimated 5% of GW depleted, but water level


declined more than 15 m (20 ft) in some areas

71
Interactions between surface and ground
waters (SW & GW)
Overdraft of GW:
Leads to lower water levels of streams, lakes, reservoirs, etc.

Overuse of SW:Yields lower discharge rates of GW

Effluent (Gaining) stream (in GW discharge zone):


Tends to be Perennial (i.e., flow all year)

Influent (Losing) stream (in GW recharge zone above the


water table):
Are often above the water table, and flow in direct
response to precipitation
May be intermittent or ephemeral (flow part of the year)
Special linkage area:
Sinkholes and cavern systems in the karst terrains

11_09

72
Gaining and losing streams

Groundwater Use and Supply (2)

Figure 11.13

73
Water Use (1)
Offstream use: Removal or diversion from its SW or GW
sources temporarily
e.g., water for irrigation, thermoelectric, industrial use

Consumptive use:Type of offstream use of water without


water returning to the SW or GW
e.g., water incorporated into crops/products;
transpiration and human use

Instream use: Water is not withdrawn from its source


e.g., water for navigation, hydroelectric power
generation, fish and wildlife habitat, recreational uses

Water Use in Major Urban Areas

Over withdrawal of groundwater

Overuse of local surface water

Threats of local urban landfill to the water


supply, e.g., Long Island, NY

Water import issues and problems: What is


distance to transport? How much water
available? From where? Conflicts with other
areas, litigations, and long-range planning

74
Trends in Water Use (1)

Based on the data from 1950


1950 1995
SW use far greater than GW use

The rate of water use decreased and leveled


off since 1980

Irrigation and thermoelectric are major fresh


consumptive water use

Less fresh water use since 1980 due to new


tech and water recycling

Trends in Water Use (2)

Figure 11.20a

75
Trends in Water Use (3)

Figure 11.20b

Water Conservation

Engineering technology and structure (canals):


Regulating irrigation and reducing evaporation

Better technologies in power plants and other


industries: Less use of water due to improved
efficiency

Increased water reuse and recycling

76
Water Management (1)

Ne eds for water management


Increasing demand for water use (population
and economic development)

Water supply problems in semiarid and arid


regions

Water supply problems in mega cities of


humid regions

Water traded as a commodity: Capital,


market, and regulations?

Withdrawal creates subsidence

77
Subsidence

Subsidence
in San
Juaquin
Valley

Animation

78
79
Over-
withdrawal of
groundwater

Leaning Pisa
Tower

Water Management (2)


New philosophy of water management based on
geologic, geographic, climatic, economic, social
and political factors
Philosophy from Luna Leopold a leader in study
of rivers and water resources

Strategies
More SW use in wet years, more GW use in dry
years

Reuse and recycle water on a regular basis as well


as emergencies

80
Management of the Colorado River (1)
Water appropriation to 7 states and Mexico

Local needs vs. regional needs (Colorado


River compact of 1922)

The U.S. vs. Mexico (Treaty w/ Mexico in


1944)

Human use vs. needs of lands (1974 Salinity


ControlAct)

12_T01

81
12_T02

12_T03

82
Management of the Colorado River (2)

Dam construction

Impact on flood frequency

Impact on sediment distribution, particularly


downstream

Impact on wildlife habitats

Controlled and planned floods

Water and Ecosystems

General tendency: Increased human use of water,


increased degradation of natural ecosystem

Overall reconciliation between multiple water uses


Dam construction and associated impact on
environment

Reconciling the uses of water: Agriculture,


industry, beach and sand bar ecosystem,
recreation

83
Applied and Critical Thinking Topics

In your area, which type of water source


(SW or GW) is more important? Why?

If we change the ways we use water, what would be


the impact on the global water cycle?

Is the global hydrologic cycle a closed system or an


open system?

Artificially recharging
groundwater

84
Spring

Springs

85
Oasis

Oasis

86
Distribution of Water

97.2% of Earths water is not potable (ocean water)


2.1% of Earths water is frozen in polar regions

That leaves only 0.7% in liquid, salt-free, fresh water for


drinking purposes
In streams, river, lake, pond, puddle, and in soil and rock

The % of Earths water that is in different environments


varies little with time

Sources of Earths water


Animation

87
Distribution of Water
Consumption of this limited source of water increases with
population
In year 1900, people consumed ~141 cubic miles per year
Today we use about 1000 cubic miles of water per year
Consumption doubles every 20 years.

80 countries, with 40% of Earths population, have chronic


water shortage
150 out of 214 largest river systems are shared by two
countries
50 rivers are shared by 3 to 10 countries

Thus, water will be the dominant international issue for


wars in the coming years

Water on Earths Surface


Each year, more water precipitates (~22,600 mi3) on land than
evaporate (14,000 mi3) from it

The remaining 8600 mi3 is the water which is available to us,


which drains back into ocean
Part of this available water enters streams or lakes and
constitute the surface water
The rest infiltrate the soil and rock (by gravity), and become
stored as groundwater
Groundwater generally remains out of sight, but may
resurface as springs

Availability of surface water is:


precipitation - evaporation - surface runoff - infiltration

88
12_T01

12_T02

89
12_T03

Global Water Cycle

Cyclic nature
Global movement of water between different
water storage compartments

Global distribution
Abundance not a problem
Distribution in space and over time a
problem

90
Hydrologic Cycle
Cyclic movement of water:
From the air to the ground, to streams, to the ocean,
and back to the air

Humans interfere with the cycle by:


ponding water in reservoirs behind dams
removing water from underground faster than it can be
replenished
changing the climate through global warming

The cycle interconnects Earths water, air, soil, rock,


and living things

Hydrologic cycle
The hydrologic cycle is a summary of the
circulation of Earths water supply

Processes involved in the hydrologic cycle


Precipitation
Evaporation
Infiltration
Runoff
Transpiration

91
The Hydrologic Cycle
Animation

Global Water Cycle

Waters vertical movement


Upflow: Evaporation, transpiration
Downflow: Precipitation and infiltration

Waters horizontal movement


Surface runoff
Subsurface flow

92
11_03

Hydrologic Cycle
Even though the distribution of water on Earth is almost
constant with time:
Water molecules continuously shift location on Earth

Water evaporates from the top of the surface waters and land
to become vapor
The vapor is then precipitated back (rain, snow, etc) to the
surface of land and ocean

The precipitated water partly:


runs off on the surface to form surface waters
infiltrates into the ground to make groundwater
evaporates back into the atmosphere

93
Global Water Supply

Fresh water of the


Hydrosphere

94
Surface Water (1)

Surface runoff
Drainage network

Drainage basin or watershed

Drainage divide

Stream order and size of drainage basin

11_05

95
Surface Water (2)

Sediment yield in surface runoff


Geological factors: Type/structure of soils & rocks

Topographic factors: Relief and slope gradient

Climatic factors: Type, intensity, duration, and


distribution of precipitation

Vegetation factors: Type, density, size, & distribution

Land-use practice factors

Groundwater (1)

Groundwater (GW) profile


Vadose zone (unsaturated zone)

Zone of saturation

Water table: The boundary of the above two zones

Perched water table: Local water table above a


regional water table

96
Groundwater Movement (2)

Porosity: Percentage of void (empty) space in


sediment or rock to store water

Permeability: Measuring the interconnection of


pores in a rock material

97
Groundwater Movement (1)

Hydraulic gradient: The gradient of water table,


generally following the topographic gradient

Hydraulic conductivity: Ability of rock materials to


allow water to move through (m3/day/m2)

Groundwater (2)

Aquifer: A unit capable of supplying water at an


economically useful rate

Aquitard: A layer or unit restricting and retarding


GW flow

Confined aquifer: Aquifer with an overlying


aquitard layer

98
Groundwater (3)

Unconfined aquifer: No confining layer above it or


water table as its upper surface

Perched aquifer: Local zone of saturation above a


regional water table

Groundwater (5)

GW recharge and discharge


Re charge zone:Area where water infiltrates
downward from surface to GW

Discharge zone:Area where water is removed from


an aquifer, such as spring, well, river, etc.

99
Groundwater (6)

GW pressure surface: Generally declining from


source along the flow

Artesian well: Water self-rising above the land


surface in a confined aquifer

Cone of depression: Drawdown cone of GW in a


well

Groundwater Use and Supply (1)


Available GW estimated above the total flow of the
M ississippi duringthe last 200 years

GW as primary drinking water source for ~50%


of the U.S. population

GW overdraft problems (extraction rate


exceeding recharging rate) in many parts of the
country, particularly some states in the Great Plains
region

Estimated 5% of GW depleted, but water level


declined more than 15 m (20 ft) in some areas

100
Interactions between surface and ground
waters (SW &GW)
Overdraft of GW:
Leads to lower water levels of streams, lakes, reservoirs, etc.

Overuse of SW:Yields lower discharge rates of GW

Effluent (Gaining) stream (in GW discharge zone):


Tends to be Perennial (i.e., flow all year)

Influent (Losing) stream (in GW recharge zone above the


water table):
Are often above the water table, and flow in direct
response to precipitation
May be intermittent or ephemeral (flow part of the year)
Special linkage area:
Sinkholes and cavern systems in the karst terrains

Water Use (1)


Offstream use: Removal or diversion from its SW or GW
sources temporarily
e.g., water for irrigation, thermoelectric, industrial use

Consumptive use:Type of offstream use of water without


water returning to the SW or GW
e.g., water incorporated into crops/products;
transpiration and human use

Instream use: Water is not withdrawn from its source


e.g., water for navigation, hydroelectric power
generation, fish and wildlife habitat, recreational uses

101
Water Use in Major Urban Areas

Over withdrawal of groundwater

Overuse of local surface water

Threats of local urban landfill to the water


supply, e.g., Long Island, NY

Water import issues and problems: What is


distance to transport? How much water
available? From where? Conflicts with other
areas, litigations, and long-range planning

Trends in Water Use (1)

Based on the data from 1950


1950 1995
SW use far greater than GW use

The rate of water use decreased and leveled


off since 1980

Irrigation and thermoelectric are major fresh


consumptive water use

Less fresh water use since 1980 due to new


tech and water recycling

102
Water Conservation

Engineering technology and structure (canals):


Regulating irrigation and reducing evaporation

Better technologies in power plants and other


industries: Less use of water due to improved
efficiency

Increased water reuse and recycling

Water Management (1)

Ne eds for water management


Increasing demand for water use (population
and economic development)

Water supply problems in semiarid and arid


regions

Water supply problems in mega cities of


humid regions

Water traded as a commodity: Capital,


market, and regulations?

103
Water Management (2)

New philosophy of water


management based on geologic,
geographic, climatic, economic,
social and polotical factors
Philosophy from Luna
Leopold a leader in study of
rivers and water resources

Strategies
More SW use in wet
years, more GW use in dry
years

Water Management (2)


New philosophy of water management based on
geologic, geographic, climatic, economic, social
and polotical factors
Philosophy from Luna Leopold a leader in study
of rivers and water resources

Strategies
More SW use in wet years, more GW use in dry
years

Reuse and recycle water regular basis as well as
emergencies

104
Management of the Colorado River (1)
Water appropriation to 7 states and Mexico

Local needs vs. regional needs (Colorado


River compact of 1922)

The U.S. vs. Mexico (Treaty w/ Mexico in


1944)

Human use vs. needs of lands (1974 Salinity


ControlAct)

Management of the Colorado River (2)

Dam construction

Impact on flood frequency

Impact on sediment distribution,


particularly downstream

Impact on wildlife habitats

Controlled and planned floods

105
Water and Ecosystems

General tendency: Increased human use of water,


increased degradation of natural ecosystem

Overall reconciliation between multiple water uses


Dam construction and associated impact on
environment

Reconciling the uses of water: Agriculture,


industry, beach and sand bar ecosystem,
recreation

Applied and Critical Thinking Topics

In your area, which type of water source


(SW or GW) is more important? Why?

If we change the ways we use water, what would be


the impact on the global water cycle?

Is the global hydrologic cycle a closed system or an


open system?

106
12_T01

107
Groundwater contamination

Sources of contamination

108
Common Pollutants (1)

Pollutant: Any substance that, in excess, is known to


be harmful to desirable living organisms

Oxygen-demanding waste (common organic waste)

Pathogenic waste (pathogenic microbes)

Nutrients
Petroleum (oil)
Toxic waste (chemicals, heavy metals, radioactive
waste)
Sediment
Thermal plumes

Oxygen-demanding waste

Dead organic matter decomposed and consumed by


aerobic bacteria, which need oxygen to live

BOD (Biochemical Oxygen De mand) is the amount


of oxygen used for bacterial decomposition

High BOD, associated with a high level of decaying


organic matter in water, reduces O for other healthy
organisms

Sources of oxygen-demanding waste:


Natural processes, agricultural applications (33%),
urban sewage, and runoff

109
12_01 S everal thousand factory-style hog farms in NC

12_02 Ruptured hog waste lagoon in Pitt County NC as a result


of Hurricane Flyod

110
Pathogenic microbes
(need microscope to see them)
Fecal coliform bacteria
Harmful risks (diseases and death ) of E. coli
which leads to disease and death in humans
Billions exposed to waterborne diseases,
especially in poor countries
Outbreaks do occur in developed countries, e.g.,
400,000 cases in Milwaukee WI, in 1993 of
cryptosporidiosis (parisitic micro-organism)

Epidemic risks of waterborne diseases during


natural disasters (earthquake, flood, hurricane)

Nutrients
Two important nutrients: N, P, from fertilizers,
detergent, and sewage-treatment products

Major problems caused by high concentrations of


nutrients: Cultural eutrophication (well-fed by
nutrient) - which leads to growth of algae bloom,
triggering biological oxygen demand (BOD) problem
The algae covering the surface of water, block
sunlight to plant below and consuming oxygen, killing
the underlying plants.
Algae kill coral in tropical areas

Major sources for nutrients: Fertilizer, feedlots,


and discharge from wastewater treatment plant

111
12_04a Algae contaminated beaches in Hawaii (brown line along the beach!).
They rot and stench! Ocean front condominium on the island Maui.

12_04b Algae pileup on the beach, Maui

112
12_04c Condos have small wastewater-treatment plant providing
primary and secondary treatment, which do not remove P and N
that encourage growth of marine algae

12_05
Cultural eutrophication - Dead zone in Gulf of Mexico, S ummer
(July) 2001 with bottom water < 2 mg/l dissolved oxygen, killing
shell fish and crabs where blooms of algae occur. This is caused
by the Mississippi bringing agricultural N from fertilizer.

113
Oil

Major problems: Polluted water, ecosystem


damage, interrupted socioeconomic conditions of a
community

Major sources: Oil spills from tankers and


pipelines, on- or offshore oil production, war (e.g.,
Persian Gulf War; 1989 Exxon Valdez)

Toxic Waste

Hazardous chemicals, synthetic organic or inorganic


compounds toxic to living things

Serious pollution problems occur when these are


introduced accidentally into surface/subsurface waters
e.g., Love Canal, MTBE (methyl tertbutal ether; an
oxygen additive to gasoline; leaked from gas stations to
GW & SW)

Groundwater with MTBE smells like fresh paint and is


nauseating to some people. It may be carcinogenic!

114
12_07
Diagram showing
the movement of
MTBE, a gasoline
additive, and other
volatile hydrologic
compounds in the
hydrologic cycle of
an urban
environment

Toxic Waste
Heavy Metals: Pb, Hg, Zn, Cd often deposited at the
bottom of stream channels
If deposited in floodplains will be incorporated into
plants, crops and animals
Examples:
Mercury contamination of aquatic ecosystems; sourced:
from volcanoes and erosion of natural mercury deposits
Burning coal, incinerating waste, processing metals
Lead to e.g., lead or mercury contamination

Radioactive materials

115
Toxic waste

12_08 Input and changes of mercury in the aquatic ecosystem

116
Yucca Mountain Nuclear
Repository

Sediment pollution

Sand and smaller particles

Polluted streams, lakes, reservoirs, even ocean water

Major sources: Soil erosion, dust storms, floods, and


mudflows

Greatest pollutant by volume

117
12_11 Examples of water pollution causing health hazards. (a)
Ditch carries sewage and toxic waste to the Rio Grande in Mexico.
(b) S ediment, overflowed from nearby stream, being removed by
heavy equipment after the 1995 flood in Goleta CA deposited it in a
car dealership.

Thermal Pollution

Artificial heating of waters, primarily by hot-water


emission from industrial operations and power plants.
Major sources: Hot-water discharge from
industrial operations, power plants, abnormal
ocean currents

Heated water causes several problems:


Heated water contains less O than cold water
leads to adverse changes to the habitats of
organisms
favors growth rate of undesirable organisms

118
Surface Water Pollution and Treatment (1)

Point sources of pollution


Point sources are discrete, confined, and more
readily identifiable

Common sources: Landfills, discharge from


wastewater treatment plants, discharge from
industries, power plants, storm water runoff, etc.

Identify sources, on-site treatment and


mitigation, prevention

Contamination by septic tanks

119
Reversal of flow by
pumping

Surface Water Pollution and Treatment (2)

Nonpoint sources of pollution


Nonpoint sources are diffused, intermittent,
and hard to specifically identify

Causes of non-point pollutions often regional,


cumulative and compound

120
Surface Water Pollution and Treatment (3)

Non-point sources of pollution (continued)

Multiple factors: Land-use, climatic, hydrologic,


topographic, geologic

Pollution reduction needs comprehensive and


regional studies

Reservoir
contaminatio
n
San Juaquin
Valley CA

121
Groundwater Pollution and Treatment (1)

Why care about ground water pollution?


Most abundant freshwater source
Growing dependency on GW
~ 50% of people in U.S. depend on GW for drinking
water
Triggers other environmental problems, subsidence,
saltwater intrusion, etc.

Groundwater Pollution and Treatment (2)

GW pollution hazard impact depends on:


Amount of contaminant discharged
Chemical concentration or toxicity
Degree and duration of exposure of people or
other organisms to the pollution

122
Groundwater Pollution and Treatment (3)

GW pollution vs. SW pollution


Residence time difference
Environmental conditions: Inflow, flow rate,
Dissolved oxygen, sunlight
Harder to track pollution sources
More difficult and expensive to clean up
May pose long-term risks

Groundwater Pollution and Treatment (4)

Saltwater intrusion
More than half of the worlds population lives in or
near the coastal zones
GW pollution from saltwater intrusion is not a
local isolated problem
Causes major water supply problems in NY, FL, CA
Case History: Long Island

123
Groundwater Pollution and Treatment (5)

Saltwater intrusion mechanism


Water table is inclined oceanward
Wedge of saltwater is inclined land ward
Overpumping of GW
Severe drawdown of GW causes saltwater
ascension

11_01ab

124
12_13ab
S altwater Intrusion

(a) Natural
environment

(b) A well with both


a cone of depression
and a cone of
ascension
If pumping is
intensive, the cone of
ascension may be
drawn upward
delivering saltwater
to the well

Salt water Intrusion in


Florida

125
Salt water intrusion by excessive
pumping

GW Treatment (1)

Pretreatment studies
Identify contaminants and their characteristics
of transport behavior
Identify the characteristics of aquifer geology
(factors controlling GW flowphysical
dimensions, structure)
Determine the hydrologic characteristics of
polluted aquifer(s)flow direction, flow rates,
discharge and recharge conditions
Select possible treatment strategies and methods

126
Contamination

Movement of a contamination

127
Comtamination movement

GW Treatment (2)

128
Decontamination by pumping

Water Quality Standards

MCLsMaximum Contaminant Levels

Permissible limits for 83 contaminants

MCLGsMaximum Contaminant Level Goals

The maximum level at which no adverse health


effects from a lifelong exposure

SMCLsNonenforceable limits for contaminants


that affects aesthetic qualities in drinking water

129
Waste Water Treatment

Law: Used waste water must be treated

Break the potential vicious cycle of waste water


entering the general water cycle

Tier treatment and reuse system


Septic systemrural residential areas
Water treatment plant for towns and urban cities
Innovated ways for recycling and reclaiming
waste water
New technologies for innovative waste water
treatment

130
12_12
River basin studied
to monitor and
describe water
quality. Delaware
River Basin with
physiographic
provinces

12_14ab
S eptic tank
sewage
disposal
system for a
home
(a) plan
(map) view;

(b) cross
section

131
12_15
Activate sludge sewage treatment with or without advanced
treatment

12_16
Wastewater
renovation
and
conservation
cycle

132
12_B
Boston
harbor and
Massachus
etts Bay
showing
old sewage
outfalls
(red
squares)
and new
outfall
(green
rectangle)
15 km
offshore.

Applied and Critical Thinking Topics

What can individual citizens do to reduce GW


pollutants?

Does surface water contamination automatically


trigger GW pollution of a given location?

What are the major threats to your community water


supplies?

What current water laws and legislation are you


familiar with? Are there any problems with them?

133
Critical Thinking Answers:

1. A student addressing this assignment will need to examine land uses in the
area and identify the pollution sources. Ideas regarding reduction of pollution
from those sources should address environmental impacts of the pollution,
the costs and benefits involved with reduction, and the willingness of the
public, community leaders, and business owners to address pollution
reduction.
2. An answer to this question will depend largely on local conditions and
wastewater treatment processes. If there is a geologically and biologically
suitable area for wastewater renovation and recovery,a likely use for renovated
wastewater, money available for such a project, and some limitation on water
resources that would make water recoverybeneficial, the concept might be
useful. Use of biological systems would also depend on the situation and the
contaminants of concern
3. A student addressing this question will need to consider the sources of
their perceptions regarding their drinking water. An informed answer
requires knowledge of the watersupply source, possible natural and human
threats to water quality at that source, the quality of the water delivery
system, and otherfactors.

The Hydrologic Cycle

134
Surface Water

Streams and rivers


diversion by gravity flow or pumping
often low flows when irrigation water is needed
most
Lakes, ponds, reservoirs
gravity flow or pumping
source of water need for replenishing

Average Annual Precipitation in Oklahoma

135
Annual Evaporation from Free Water Surfaces

Average Annual Runoff from Watersheds


(acre--inches of runoff/acre of watershed)
(acre

USGS, 1975

136
Hydrologic Considerations
Panhandle Calculation (Guymon, OK)
Rainfall: 18 in/year
Evaporation: 63 in/year
Runoff: 0.3 acre-inch/acre
Loss: 63-18= 45 acre-in per acre of lake
Gain: 0.3 acre-in per acre of watershed
Need: 45/0.3 = 150 acres of watershed per
acre of lake (just to offset evaporation loss)

Wastewater Sources

Agricultural and municipal wastewater are


frequently used for crop and turf irrigation
99+% of pathogens destroyed within 6 hours of
exposureto oxygen and sunlight
Wastewater irrigation in public spaces (golf
courses) require tertiary treatment of water and
labeling of sprinklers/valves (red cover with
Non--Potable in English & Spanish)
Non

137
Ground Water Storage

Underground lakes & rivers? No!


Pore spaces between individual particles
(sand and gravel)
Fractures in hard rock
Porous sandstone
Solution channels or caverns in limestone or
gypsum (nearly underground rivers)

Ground Water Movement

Movement rate is typically tenths of a foot


per day up to a few feet per day
Rate is dependent on:
the size and number of openings
(pore spaces, fractures, solution channels)
the amount of water pressure created by
differences in water levels

138
Ground Water Terminology
Porosity: percentage of a geologic formation
that consists of open spaces (same as soil
porosity)
Specific yield: percentage of a formation that is
occupied by water which will drain out by
gravity
Specific retention: percentage of the formation
that is occupied by water which is retained
against gravity
Specific retention + Specific yield = Porosity
Permeability: property of formations indicating
how rapidly water will be transmitted (high in
sands and gravels; low in clays)

Ground Water Terminology 2

Saturated zones: portions of a soil profile or


geologic formation where all spaces or voids
are filled with water (no air is present)
Unsaturated zones: soil and geologic
materials located between the land surface
and the saturated zone (spaces or voids are
filled with combination of air/water)
Water table: level in a formation below which
all spaces or voids are filled with water (top of
the saturated zone)

139
Ground Water Terminology 3

Aquifer: saturated formation that will yield


usable quantities of water to a well or spring
Unconfined aquifer (water table aquifer):
aquifer whose upper water surface is the water
table (no layers restricting water movement
into the saturated zone from above)
Confined aquifer (artesian aquifer): aquifer in
which the water is confined under pressure
between low-
low-permeability materials (aquitards)

Confined and Unconfined Aquifers

140
Well Drilling

Dug wells: dug by hand or backhoe equipment


Driven Wells: sand point wells are driven with a
sledge hammer or post driver
Dug & Driven wells are shallow, low yielding wells
Professionally Drilled Wells
Cable
Cable--tool percussion wells: a heavy bit is
repeatedly lifted and dropped to loosen and
break--up formation
break
particles are periodically removed with a bailer
effective for formations containing rocks and boulders
generally for wells 12 inches in diameter or less

Well Drilling 2
Rotary: rotating bit connected to a hollow drill
stem through which drilling fluid is pumped
Drilling fluid serves several purposes
Cools & lubricates the drill bit
Removes drill cuttings
Different rotary versions:
Direct rotary: fluid down stem, up the borehole
Reverse rotary: fluid down borehole, up drill stem
Air rotary: compressed air is the drilling fluid

141
Well Components
Bore hole: cylindrical shaped opening created
by the drilling operation
Casing: round pipe (usually steel) that protects
the bore hole from collapse and houses the
pump
Screen (intake section): manufactured screens
are best, but other types of perforations are
sometimes used (torch slots, saw cuts, etc.)
Gravel pack (optional): material with greater
permeability placed around intake section

Well Hydraulics Terminology


Static water level: water level in a well when the
pump is not operating (is idle for several days)
Pumping water level: water level in a well when
the pump is operating at some flow rate
Drawdown: difference between water levels in a
well under non-
non-pumping and pumping conditions
Cone of depression: drop in ground water levels
around a well or group of wells in response to
ground water withdrawal [aquifer volume that is
affected by pumped well(s)]
Lift: vertical distance from the water level in a well
during pumping to some delivery point

142
Well Hydraulics Terminology

Well Yield
Influencing factors
aquifer characteristics
strainer characteristics (screen, gravel pack, etc.)
well penetration depth into the aquifer
well diameter (doubling d results in about a 10%
increase in Q)
Yield [Q] and drawdown [H-
[H-h]
Interrelated (Q increases as [H-
[H-h] increases)
Case of diminishing returns (maximum practical Q
occurs when [H-
[H-h] = 0.88H)

143
Test Holes
Is a well feasible?
Where should it be located?
Usually rotary drilled; about 4-
4-inch diameter
Things you can learn:
depth to static water level
type and thickness of water-
water-bearing formations
best methods for drilling and developing the well
recommended gravel pack, screen size, etc.

Characteristics of Aquifer Materials

144
Hydraulic Conductivity of Aquifer Materials

Radius of Influence in Aquifer Materials

145
146
Gravel Pack

Gravel pack (envelope): coarse particles


placed between the aquifer material and the
well screen
Material should be rounded, silica gravel
Gravel pack purposes:
keep fine sand from entering the well
increase permeability around the screen
allow larger openings in the screen

Well Screens
Screen types
Home
Home--made: torch cuts; mill/sawed slots (not good)
Manufactured: shutter/louver type, continuous slot (V-
(V-
shaped or round wire)
Length: depends on aquifer formations
Lower 1/3 of unconfined aquifer depth
80
80--90% of confined aquifer thickness
Slot width: size to exclude 90% of gravel pack or
aquifer material (if the well is gravel packed)
Diameter: depends on well size; also entrance
velocity considerations
Type of material: strength, corrosion,
incrustation factors

147
Torch--cut slots in a steel casing
Torch
Torch--cut slots normally result in about 10%
Torch
open area for water flow.

Manufactured Well Screens


S tainless Steel Galvanized S teel

Large S creen Opening S mall S creen Opening

Water Flow Direction

Triangular X-
X-section Round X-
X-section

148
ScreenSizes and Materials

8-inch
Galvanized S teel

6-inch
Bronze

4-inch
S tainless Steel

Agri-Screen
16--inch Diameter Carbon Steel Johnson Agri-
16

149
Well Development
Purposes:
Remove skin resulting from drilling mud
Increase permeability around the well
Stabilize formation to minimize sand pumping
Methods:
Bailing (with drillers bailer)
Intermittent pumping (rapid pump on/off cycles)
Surging (with surge block {piston})
Jetting (high pressure water streams)
Others
Others-- surfactants, dry ice, etc.

Test Pumping

Purposes:
determine well performance
help in pump selection
Procedures:
Pump at constant rate for period of time; measure Q
and drawdown
Step tests (different flow rates)
Start at 10% of est. max. yield; measure Q & drawdown
Increase flow rate; repeat Q & drawdown measurements

150
Well Yield vs. Drawdown
300
600 gpm/60 ft = 10 gpm/ft
250

60 ft
W a ter Le ve l, (f t)

200

150

100

50
W a ter Le ve l

0
0 10 0 2 00 30 0 400 500 600
Flow Rate, (gpm)

Irrigation Water Quality

Sediment: suspended sand, silt and clay


Total salinity: dissolved mineral salts
Sodicity: sodium content of dissolved minerals
Toxic minerals: boron, chlorides, etc.

151
Sediment

Sediment: suspended sand, silt and clay


Effects:
emitter clogging
nozzle wear and clogging
capacity of canals, reservoirs, pipelines reduced
Control:
large particles-
particles- sediment basins, cyclonic separators
small particles-
particles- filters, flocculation/filtration

Salinity

Concentration of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)


Units: milligrams/liter (mg/L) or parts per million (ppm)
1mg/l = 1 ppm
Electrical Conductivity (EC)
Units: deciSiemens per meter (dS/m)
1 dS/m = 1 millimho/cm = 1000 micromhos/cm
Approximate relationship: TDS = 640 (EC)
where TDS is in mg/L and EC is in dS/m
Commonly measure ECe
(EC of the extract taken from a saturated soil)

152
Causes of Salinity

All soils and irrigation waters contain salt


ET tends to increase salt concentrations
In humid regions, rainfall provides dilution
and flushing below the root zone
In arid regions, salts tend to concentrate
much more over time, especially at the soil
surface

153
Salinity Effects

Reduced water availability to plants


(osmotic effect)
T = M+G+O

More difficult for roots to extract water from


the soil because increased osmotic potential
raises total water potential the plant must
generate to extract water from the soil

Salinity and Soil


Water Potential

S alt Concentrations
0.1% = 1000 mg/l
0.2% = 2000 mg/l
0.3% = 3000 mg/l
0.4% = 4000 mg/l

154
Salinity Effects: Part 2

Yield impacts depend on the soil salinity level and


the crop's sensitivity to it
Yr = 100 for ECe < T
Yr = 100 - S (ECe - T) for ECe > T (Eq. 6.4)
Yr= relative yield, (%)
T= threshold salinity where yield is first reduced,
(dS/m)
S= slope of yield-
yield-salinity relationship, (%/dS/m)
Minimum value for Yr is 0

Threshold, T, and Slope, S, Salinity Values

1 dS/m

155
Irrigation Water Quality
Turf
Speci es T hreshold Slope Rating
(dS/ m) ( %/dS/m)
Bent - - MS
B ermuda 6.9 6 .4 T
Fescue 3.9 5 .3 MT
Ryegrass 5.6 7 .6 MT

156
Sodicity

Sodicity: sodium level in water or soil,


particularly in relation to the levels of calcium
and magnesium
Effects:
Clay particles swell and aggregates disperse (soil
structure)
Reduced infiltration and percolation
Poor tilth and aeration
Slick spots (Black alkali soils)
(when calcium and magnesium dominate, soil
structure is much better)

157
Sodicity Measurement

Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR)

CNa
SAR
CCa CMg
C's have units of moles of charge per
cubic meter (meq/L valence)

Potential for infiltration problems due to high Na+ water.

158
Potential for infiltration problems due to high Na+ water.

EC = 0.40 mmho/cm
S AR = 8.2

159
Mineral Toxicity

Plant damage resulting from the uptake


and accumulation of certain ions
Examples: boron, chloride, sodium
Evidence of toxicity usually appears as
burning on margins of mature leaves
Generally not a problem with most
irrigation waters

Leaching

Leaching: Addition of excess water which will


wash accumulated salts below the root zone
Occurs naturally in humid regions due to heavy
rainfall
Artificial leaching in arid regions through over-
over-
irrigation
Either method requires good drainage

160
Salt and Water Balance in the Root Zone
Irrigation Evaporation Rainfall
(Water + Salt) (Water Only)

Salt Residue Left by Evaporating Water (High ECe)

Crop Root Zone

Drainage
(Water + Salt)

Leaching Fraction, L

L = Dd/Di = Ci /Cd = ECi /ECd


L = Leaching fraction
D = Water depth
C = Water mineral concentration (TDS)
EC = Water electrical conductivity
i= Irrigation water (consistent units: in/in,
d= Drainage water ppm/ppm, dS/m/
dS/m/dS/m)

161
Leaching Requirement, Lr

Lr = Leaching requirement
(i.e., the leaching fraction required
required))
There are simple models which estimate the
amount of leaching required to maintain an
acceptable level of soil salinity, based on a
linear distribution of accumulated salts in the
root zone.

162
Leaching Requirement as a function of ECi and T

163
Lr when ECi = 2.40 dS/m and T = 2.5 dS/m

Lr = 0.17

Reclamation of Saline Soils

Salinity
Natural leaching with rainfall
Artificial leaching with excess irrigation
Good drainage through root zone required
Sodicity
Addition of soil amendments (Calcium)
Reclamation should be done whenever salt
levels reach an economic threshold (Crop
yield is significantly affected)

164