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Dasar pengemasan pangan

Kuliah ITP
Pengemasan pangan
Modul ini akan memberikan gambaran mengenai pengemasan
pangan hampir semua pangan dikemas.
Jenis dan mutu pengemas tergantung kepada:
Jenis produk
Umur simpan
Biaya
Segmen pasar: kaya /miskin, industri /rumah tangga
Fungsi pengemas
Modul ini akan memberikan overview tentang pengemasan pangan
dan jenis pengemas yang saat ini ada serta fungsi pengemas.
Sekali-sekali, pelajarilah bermacam jenis pengemas yang ada di
supermarket. Belilah beberapa produk dan pelajarilah di rumah
Jawablah pertanyaan : Mengapa jenis pengemas itu yang dipakai?
Ini akan menambah ketertarikan anda
Definisi pengemasan pangan
Australian Institute of Packaging
Packaging is 'The preparation of goods for shipment and marketing'
Pengemasan adalah penyiapan produk untuk pengiriman dan
pemasaran
Robertson, G. 'An Introduction to Packaging for Food
Technologists'
'Packaging is the protection of foods by means of containers
designed to prevent damage to the foods by outside influence.
Pengemasan adalah perlindungan terhadap makanan dlam arti
wadah yang didesain untuk mencegah kerusakan karena pengaruh
luar
Mason, R.L.
'Packaging is the Protection of Foods from Outside Influence and
the Preparation of these Foods for Shipment and Marketing'
Pengemasan adalah perlindungan terhadap makanan dari pengaruh
luar dan penyiapan produk untuk pengiriman dan pemasaran
Nilai penting pengemasan (Australia)
Pengemasan makanan penting karena:
Nilai industri $7.5 milyar
Pekerja 65 000 orang
Industri meliputi industri konverter, industri bahan mentah, yang
mampu pula memproduksi pengemas untuk non makanan
66% dari kemasan yang beredar adalah kemasan makanan
Pengguna utama kemasan makanan:
Bir14%
Softdrinks10%
SUSU 9%
Buah dan sayur 7.5%
Aneka daging 4.5%
roti 3.5%
Hampir semua makanan dikemas
Fungsi pengemasan
Mengawetkan : kotak kemasan jus
Melindungi : karton wadah telur
Wadah : wadah cemplon
Kenyamanan pengguna : teh celup
Sarana komunikasi : label
Mempermudah penanganan : karton wadah
susu, kaleng
Coba cari contoh yang lain!
1. Fungsi pengawetan
Pengemasan : komponen utama
pengawetan makanan
Proses seperti pemanasan, pembekuan,
dll takkan mampu mempertahankan sifat
makanan tanpa pengemasan yang baik
dan efektif
Pengemasan dapat dilakukan sebelum,
saat dan atau setelah proses selesai
Jadi Preserve = Process + Package
Preservation
2. Fungsi Pelindung
2.1. Kerusakan fisik menyebabkan hilangnya produk dan
mengurangi umur simpan
2.2. Kontaminasi menyebabkan timbulnya racun dan
membawa resiko terhadap kesehatan
2.3. Perpindahan air menyebabkan hilangnya mutu produk
dan meningkatnya masalah mikroorganisme
2.4. Perubahan kimia mempengaruhi mutu dan masa
simpan
2.1 Kerusakan fisik menyebabkan hilangnya produk
dan mengurangi umur simpan

60 juta butir telur rusak di China tahun 2006 karena


kurang baiknya pengemasan
Buah dan sayur rusak (mungkin hanya terbentur
berubah warna) selama transportasi
In Japan, apples are sold in individual boxes to prevent
damage
Kaleng yang rusak menyebabkan kebocoran pada seam
Transport is a major cause of physical damage due to:
Compression (tekanan)
Vibration (getaran)
Impact (benturan)
2.2 Kontaminasi menyebabkan timbulnya racun dan
membawa resiko terhadap kesehatan

Tanah, debu, serangga, tikus adalah


sumbernya
Microorganisms cause spoilage and illness
'Pilfer Evident' closures were developed to
indicate tampering
Pengemas/seal yang tamper evident bisa
menjadi indikator tamper (perubahan yang
tidak dikehendaki)
Tamper evident
Tamper-evident describes a device or process
that makes unauthorized access to the
protected object easily detected.
Seals, markings or other techniques may be
tamper indicating.
Tamper-evident design is perhaps most visible in the area of product packaging and labelling,
where it can be vital to know that the product has not been altered since it left the
manufacturer.
Cans of baby-food were among the first high-profile cases, where manufacturers were
blackmailed by persons claiming to have added various poisons to baby-food, and replaced
them on supermarket shelves. The amount of stock which needed to be destroyed (because
it was impossible to tell if a given item had been tampered with) and the threat of public fear,
meant that tamper-evident design principles had the potential to save a lot of money in
future.
Jars of food items soon started appearing with metal bubble-top lids commonly known as a
"safety button" which popped out if the jar had ever been opened, and stayed flat if the jar
was in pristine condition. Customers were advised to never buy a product with a popped lid.
(These lids would also pop out if the jar was contaminated by gas-producing bacteria, which
was an additional safety feature). Presumably the seal was achieved by packaging the jars in a
low-pressure atmosphere, although companies were reluctant to divulge details. Soon after,
the BBC demonstrated that such tamper-resistant jars could indeed be reclosed with their
seals intact, and this spurred more robust designs.
Newer jars of food tend to come with a plastic wrap around the edge of
the lid, which is removed when opening, although the springy-cap designs
are still in common use.
The Tylenol Crisis of 1982 involved over-the-counter medications. Due to
FDA regulations, many manufacturers of food and medicine (as well as
other products) now use induction sealing and other special means to
help provide evidence of tampering. Break-away components which
cannot be reattached are useful. Custom seals, tapes, labels, RFID tags,
etc. are sometimes added.
Packaging that tears open raggedly or otherwise cannot be resealed is
sometimes used to help indicate tampering.
Often multiple layers or redundant indicators are used because no single
layer or device is "tamper-proof". Consider unique custom indicators
(change regularly because these are subject to counterfeiting).
End-users and consumers need to be educated to watch for signs of
tampering, both at the primary means of entrance and at secondary or
"back door" locations on a package
2.3 Perpindahan air menyebabkan hilangnya
mutu produk dan meningkatnya masalah
mikroorganisme
2.4. Perubahan kimia mempengaruhi mutu
dan masa simpan

Oxidation (rancidity) atau ketengikan disebabkan


terpaparnya produk oleh:
H2O
Cahaya
O2
Temperatur
Hilangnya volatile flavours melalui pengemas
akan mengurangi kualitas
Off-flavours dan pencemar yang mampu
melewati pengemas akan merusak produk
3. Sebagai wadah
Kemasan didesain untuk memberikan batas
fisik yang menunjukkan jumlah/isi produk
Makanan terkemas (mestinya) menunjukkan
volume atau berat produk
Hati2, Over packaging menyebabkan pemborosan
dan sampah yang lebih banyak
Ingat, kemasan juga bisa menipu! Kelihatannya
masih bagus padahal tidak
4. Kenyamanan pengguna
Masyarakat menghendaki kemasan yang
memudahkan mereka menyiapkan dan
menyantap makanan lebih cepat dan nyaman,
misal:
Kemasan yang bisa dioven
Aerosol untuk
mengeluarkan krim,
topping
Portion packs (teh,
kopi)
Penutup yang mudah
dibuka
5. Sarana komunikasi
Memberi info kepada konsumen
Ada yang wajib ada yang murni untuk marketing
Info di kemasan:
Identitas produk
Nama dan alamat pabrik
Kuantitas : berat atau ukuran
Harga (per unit atau per
satuan berat) : di beberapa
negara wajib
Ingredients (bahan)
Informasi nilai gizi
Kedaluwarsa
Label asal negara
Dll (klaim, peringatan, cara
penggunaan dll)
Contoh
Ambil satu
kemasan makanan,
amati!
6. Kemudahan penanganan
Penanganan saat transportasi, display dan
penanganan oleh konsumen
Kemasan harus memastikan kualitas produk
bertahan sampai di tangan konsumen
Hal2 yang terkait dengan fungsi ini misal adalah
penggunaan:
Wadah karton
Shrink wrapping
Palet
Container untuk bulk transport
Hal2 yang wajib diingat dan
diperhatikan
Kemasan bisa menipu (buruk terlihat bagus
atau bagus terlihat buruk)
Over packaging: menggunaakan kemasan
yang berlebihan baik ukuran maupun jenis
Isu lingkungan: CFC (utk aerosol), plastik,
daur ulang dan penggunaan kembali
kemasan
Biaya kemasan bisa sangat mahal
Interaksi kemasan dengan makanan
Interaksi kemasan dan makanan
Korosi kaleng tinplate : meningkatkan kadar
logam menyebabkan kerusakan warna
Migrasi monomer plastik pada makanan
Tingkatan pengemas
Bahan Pengemas

Logam : kaleng tinplate,


kaleng alumunium, wadah
Al yang lain, baki Al, Al foil
Kaca: gelas, jar, botol
Kertas: kertas, karton, kardus, tetrapak
(kombinasi karton, plastik dan Al)
Layer pada tetrapak
Plastik : fleksibel (kantong dan laminate) dan
semi rigid (botol, jar atau baki)
Kaca
Advantages
Transparent .. allows the product to be seen which assists in marketing attractive products
Inert ..glass is completely inert to all food components so there is no chance of product tainting
from contact with glass or container breakdown
Strong .. will resist puncture damage
Resealable .. glass closure enable the package to be resealed to protect the contents
Reusable ..glass bottles (beer and milk) can be washed and reused several times. However, this is
largely been replaced by recycling as washing is too expensive.
Recyclable .. 30% of raw materials for glass manufacture is recycled glass or cullet.
http://www.gpi.org/recycling/
Retortable .. can be thermally processed as long as it is done under water.
Easy to open .. in principle this is true but can be difficult with some closures
Raw materials
abundant.. there's plenty of sand
cheap. there's plenty of sand
Kaca
Disadvantages
Easily broken .. this is a major disadvantage for glass especially with the trend to reduce weight to
keep it cost competitive with the alternate light weight materials such as aluminium and plastic.
Manufacturing costs high ..sand is cheap but melting it at 1500oC is very expensive.
Heavy .. even light weight glass is heavy so transport costs are high and glass plants are not found
outside capital cities so it usually must be transported long distances. For example the original glass
Coke Bottle contained 185mL and weighed 366g while the new glass Coke Bottle contains 300mL
and weighs only 220g.
Transparent ..while an advantage, it also allows light to enter and increase the incidence of
oxidation (rancidity) which is why the glass milk bottle lost out to plastic and paperboard.
Thermal shock ..glass does not have good resistance to thermal shock unless treated so breakage is
a problem if heated and cooled rapidly
Not biodegradable ..it is inert so it never biodegrades
Shape Limitations.. the glass making process is continuous so changing moulds for different shapes
is not economical unless large volumes are produced such as beer bottles. That is why small
manufacturers only have access to "generic shapes" eg juice bottles.
Must process under water to minimise thermal shock and breakage.
Plastik
Permeability to H20, O2, N2, CO2, Volatiles
Dimensional stability as affected by temperature and RH
Temperature range for use (freeze/boil) for cook /chill products
Ability to seal. Some plastics cannot be heat sealed (eg nylon) so this
makes them unsuitable for form-fill-seal applications unless the film is
laminated to something that does such as PE.
Resistance to migration of fats and oils. PVC is very good for this.
Wet and dry strength. Some plastics change properties if wet
Tear, puncture and crease resistance. Nylon and PET are very strong
plastics but LDPE is not. Try to tear up a pair of "Nylon" stockings
compared to a common plastic bag?
Reaction to UV radiation. Some plastics decompose if exposed to UV
radiation. PVC is a good example unless it is stabilised. That's why cheap
plastic buckets crack if left outside.
Plastik
Free from odours and flavours. Tainting from plastic odours is a problem. Just think of the smell in
a new car (PVC) and think what this would do to a food?
Appearance and feel (clarity) varies between plastics. PET is clear like glass while HDPE is opaque.
Printability of plastics varies from impossible to easy.
Cost varies dramatically depending on properties. The cheaper the plastic the less positive
properties. LDPE is the cheapest plastic but has little barrier against migration of water vapour or
oxygen but it heat seal well. PET and Nylon have excellent barrier properties but are expensive and
don't heat seal. Laminate two of these and you have a cheaper plastic with good barrier properties.
Recyclability of plastics is increasing but most cannot be reused for food contact because all the
fillers and additives may be exposed. Most get recycled into carpet and other plastic furniture. New
processes are being developed to make recycled food grade plastics.
Toxicity of plastics is an issue. Vinyl chloride from which PVC is made is a carcinogen. It was banned
in the US for many years until residue levels were considered safe. FSANZ has limits on residual
monomer units for plastics.
Kertas
Paper Advantages
Many types and grades
Can be coated, and laminated to other papers, plastics and foil
Opaque which prevents light penetration and reduces oxidative changes
Light weight so transport costs are low
Transported as rolls or flat blanks which can be formed in packages on site
Good temperature stability
Recyclable see
http://www.tappi.org/paperu/all_about_paper/earth_answers/Recycle1.htm
Cheap to produce so make an ideal substrate to laminate more expensive
materials that have improved barrier properties
Many uses from simple paper bags to complex materials such as those used in
aseptic packaging that have up to seven laminated layers.
Easily printed with high quality graphics
Kertas
Paper Disadvantages
Lacks strength and can be easily torn and
punctured
Lacks rigidity
High permeability to moisture, gases, odours
and vapours
Pollution problems in manufacture due to
large volumes of water used and chemicals.
Alumunium
Advantages
Safe
Easy to fabricate - soft
Light weight/steel/glass
Good appearance/graphics
Corrosion resistant (except H+)
Recyclable (> 60%)
Does not stain
Many uses
Excellent barrier properties (O2, H2O, CO2)
Disadvantages
Lacks strength
Cannot solder or weld (therefore need new equipment)
Bleaches some products
Must lacquer or laminate
Biaya transportasi kaleng kosong sangat mahal