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CrudeDistillation

Chapter4

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
Updated:August19,2015
Gases

Polymer- Sulfur
ization Plant
Sulfur

LPG
Sat Gas
Gas Plant

Butanes Fuel Gas


Alkyl
Feed LPG
Alkylation

Gas Polymerization
Separation & Naphtha
Stabilizer Isom-
erization
Light Naphtha
Alkylate
Aviation
Isomerate
Gasoline
Automotive
Gasoline
Reformate
Naphtha Solvents
Heavy Naphtha
Hydro-
Naphtha Reforming
treating Naphtha
Atmospheric
Distillation

Jet Fuels
Kerosene
Crude
Desalter Kerosene
Oil
Distillate Cat Solvents
AGO Hydro- Naphtha Distillate
cracking Treating &
Hydro-
Blending
Heating Oils
treating
Gas Oil Fluidized
Cat Diesel
LVGO Hydro- Catalytic
treating Cracking Distillates
Vacuum
Distillation
Fuel Oil
HVGO
Cycle Oils
Residual
Fuel Oils
DAO
Solvent
Deasphalting SDA
Coker Asphalts
Bottoms
Naphtha Naphtha

Visbreaking Heavy Distillates


Fuel Oil
Coker Bottoms
Vacuum Gas
Lube Oil Lubricant
Residuum Oil
Solvent Greases
Dewaxing
Waxes
Waxes
Coking Light Coker
Gas Oil

Coke

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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U.S.RefineryImplementation

EIA,Jan.1,2015database,publishedJune2015
http://www.eia.gov/petroleum/refinerycapacity/

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu Page3


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Topics
CrudeStills
Historicallytheoldestrefiningprocess
Onlythefirststepincrudeoilprocessing
Purpose
Torecoverlightmaterials
Fractionateintosharplightfractions
Configuration Maybeasmanyasthreecolumnsinseries
CrudeStabilizer/Preflash Column
ReducetrafficintheAtmosphericColumn
AtmosphericColumn
VacuumColumn
Reducedpressuretokeeptemperaturesbelow650F

ProductYieldCurves CutPoint,Overlap,&Tails

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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Updated:August19,2015
Atmospheric&VacuumTowerComplex

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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Updated:August19,2015
Atmospheric&VacuumTowerComplex

KochGlitsch BulletinKGSS1,Rev.32010,
http://www.kochglitsch.com/Document%20Library/KGSS.pdf

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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AtmosphericColumnw/oPreflash

Basedonfigurefrom
RefiningOverview PetroleumProcesses&Products,
byFreemanSelf,EdEkholm,&KeithBowers,AIChE CDROM,2000

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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Updated:August19,2015
AtmosphericColumnwithPreflash

Increasingdistillateproductionatleastcapitalcost,Musumeci,Stupin,Olson,&Wendler,PTQ,Q22015

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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Updated:August19,2015
FeedPreheatTrain&Desalter
FeedPreheatTrain Desalter
Initialheatexchangewithstreamsfrom Temperaturecarefullyselected donotlet
withinthetower watervaporize
Heatrecoveryimportanttodistillation Lightercrudes(>40API)@250F
economics!
Heaviercrudes(<30API)@300F
o Firstabsorbpartoftheoverhead
condensationload Allcrudescontainsalts(NaCl,MgCl,)
o Exchangewithoneormoreofthe Saltpresentintheemulsifiedwater
liquidsidesstreams,beginningwith
thetop(coldest)sidestream Treatedinthefieldwithheat&chemicalsto
breakoilwateremulsions.
Requireflexibility
Saltcancausedamagetoequipment
o Changesincrudeslate
o Scaleinheatexchangers
o Temperatureatdesalter
o HCl formationcanleadtocorrosion
o Limitsontwophaseflowthrough
network o Metalscanpoisonrefinerycatalysts
Finalheatinginadirectfiredheater Removesalts&dissolvedmetals&dirt
Heatenoughtovaporizelightportions Oilmixedwithfreshwashwater&demulsifiers.
ofthecrudebuttemperaturekeptlow
tominimizethermalcracking Separationinelectrostaticsettlingdrum
o Inlettypically550F Washwaterupto10%ofcrudecharge
o Outlet600to750F. ~90%ofthewatercanberecovered
Heaviercrudescannotbeheated
tothehighertemperatures Effluentwatertreatedforbenzene

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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Updated:August19,2015
CrudeElectrostaticDesalting

DrawingbyMiltonBeychok
http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/File:Desalter_Diagram.png

BFDsfrom:
RefiningOverview PetroleumProcesses&Products,
byFreemanSelf,EdEkholm,&KeithBowers,AIChE CDROM,2000

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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Updated:August19,2015
ExampleCrudePreheatTrains

Ref:ImproveenergyefficiencyviaHeatIntegration
Rossiter,ChemicalEngineeringProgress,December2010

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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DirectFiredHeater

Ref:Usefultipsforfiredheateroptimisation
Bishop&Hamilton,PetroleumTechnologyQuarterly,Q22012

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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AtmosphericDistillationSummary
Condenser Pumparounds
PartialcondenserifnoStabilizer Movecoolingdowncolumn.
Column.
Liquidreturnedabovedrawtray
TotalcondenserifStabilizerColumnto
removelightends. Sidedraws
butnoreboiler. Sidestrippers
Feedpreheatexchangertrain Cleanupsideproducts

Alloftheheattodrivethecolumn Strippingsteam
comesfromthehotfeed.
Reducehydrocarbonpartialpressure
Asmuchas50%oftheincoming
Condensed&removedasasecond
crudemaybeflashed.
liquidphase.
Overflash
Conditionssetsoitdoesnt
o Extraamountofmaterialvaporizedto condensewithinthecolumn can
ensurerefluxbetweenflashzone& leadtofoaming
lowestsidedraw
o Typically2vol%offeed
Mustbetreatedassourwater

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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AtmosphericDistillationSummary
WashZone SideDraws&Strippers
Coupletraysbetweenflashzone&gasoil Sidestrippersremovelightcomponenttail
draw. &returntomaincolumn
Refluxtowashresins&otherheavymaterials Steamstripperstraditional
thatmaycontaminatetheproducts. Reboiled strippersreduceassociatedsour
Condenser water&mayreducesteamusage

Typically0.5to20psig. Trays&PressureProfile
Balancingact Typically32traysintower
Lowpressuresreducecompressionon 0.1psipertrayfordesign&targetfor
overheadsystem operation
Highpressuresdecreasevaporizationbut Mayfindashighas0.2psipertray,but
increaseflashzonetemperatures&furnace probablyflooding!
duty;affectsyields
Condenser&accumulator
Pumparounds 3to10psiacrosscondenser
Reducesoverheadcondenserload&achieves Liquidstaticheadinaccumulator
moreuniformtowerloadings
Typically6to16psiacrossentirecolumn.
Providesliquidrefluxbelowliquiddraws

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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VacuumDistillation

RefiningOverview PetroleumProcesses&Products, Considerpracticalconditionsforvacuumunitmodeling


byFreemanSelf,EdEkholm,&KeithBowers,AIChE CDROM,2000 R.Yahyaabadi,HydrocarbonProcessing,March2009

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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VacuumDistillationSummary
ColumnConfiguration Feed
Vacuumconditionstokeepoperating Atmosphericresiduum
temperatureslow
Largediametercolumn Allvaporcomesfromtheheatedfeed
Verylowdensitygases Undervacuum(0.4psi)
Condenseronlyforwatervapor Separatehigherboilingmaterialsatlower
Liquidrefluxfrompumparounds temperatures
Noreboiler Minimizethermalcracking
Strippingsteammaybeused Products
Neededfordeepcuts(1100F)
Mayhavemultiplegasoils
Commonproblem cokinginfired
heater&washzone UsuallyrecombineddownstreamtoFCCU
Firedheater highlinearvelocitiesto afterhydrotreating
minimizecokeformation
Vacuumresid
Washzone sufficientwashoilflowto
keepthemiddleofthepackedbedwet Blended asphalt,heavyfueloil
Furtherprocessing thermal,solvent
o Dependsonproducts&typesofcrude

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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VacuumDistillationSummary
DrySystem SteamEjectors&VacuumPumps
1050F+cuttemperature&nostripping Vacuummaintainedontoweroverhead
steam
Steamsystemsconsideredmorereliable
Smallertowerdiameters
Wastesteamissour&mustbetreated
Reducedsourwaterproduction
Combinationssystems Laststeam
Pressureprofile stagereplacedwithavacuumpump
Flashzone:2025mmHgabs&750to
770F.
Topoftower:10mmHgabs
DeepCutSystem
1100F+cuttemperature&stripping
steam
Steamreduceshydrocarbonpartial
pressures
Pressureprofile
Flashzone:30mmHgabs
HCpartialpressure1015mmHgabs
Topoftower:15mmHgabs
Drawingfromhttp://www.enotes.com/topic/Injector

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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Updated:August19,2015
TypicalCutPointDefinitions

Cut TBPIBP(oF) TBPEP(oF)


LightNaphtha
80to90 180to220
(LSRGasoline)
HeavyNaphtha 180to220 330to380
MiddleDistillate
330to380 420to520
(Kerosene)
AGO
420to520 650
(AtmGasOil)
LVGO
650 800
(LightVacGasOil)
HVGO
800 950to1100
(HeavyVacGasOil)
VacuumResid 950to1100

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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Updated:August19,2015
ProductYieldCurves CutPoint,Overlap,&Tails
Industrialdistillationcolumnsdonotprovideperfectlysharpseparations
Initialcalculationsusingcrudeoilassaysassumethatallmaterialsatacertainboilingpoint
goestooneproductoranother
Imperfectseparationsresultinlightends&heavyendstailsinadjacentproducts
Presenceoftailscomplicatethedefinitionofcutpoint
Analysis
Scaledistillationcurvestorepresentthevolumeremoved
CutpointtemperaturerepresentsthefeedsTBPcorrespondingthecumulativevolume
removed
Tailrepresentsthelightfractionsamountabovethecutpoint&theheavyfractions
amountbelowthecutpoint
Overlaprepresentstherangebetweenlightfractionsendpoint&theheavyfractionsinitial
point
Endpointmayberepresentedby99%
Initialpointmayberepresentedby1%

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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Updated:August19,2015
Example AtmosphericTowerProducts

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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Updated:August19,2015
ScaletoFractionofCrudeCharge

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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CutPoint,Overlap,&Tails

Ref:R.N.Watkins,PetroleumRefineryDistillation,2nd ed.,1979

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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CutPoints&OverlapsforExample

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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BoilingPointRangesforExample

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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Summary
Reportedrefinerycapacitytiedtochargetocrudedistillationcomplex
IncreasecapacitywithPreflashcolumn
Complexcolumnconfigurations
Noreboilers,heatfromfeedfurnaces
Reuseheatviaheatexchangebetweenfeed&internalcolumnstreams
Sidedraws,pumparounds,sidestrippers
Pumparounds required toensureliquidrefluxwithinthecolumn
Strippingsteam
3phasecondensers
Condensedwaterwillhavehydrocarbons&dissolvedacidgases
Preheattrainrecyclesheat
Products&internalstreamsheatthefeed
Feedcoolstheinternalstreams&products
Vacuumcolumntoincreasetheeffectivecutpoints
Vacuumcolumnslargediametertokeepvaporvelocitieslow
Vacuumgasoilsrecombined onlyseparatedforoperatingconsiderations
Pressuredropsareimportant,especially inthevacuumcolumn
Steamstrippingaidsinseparationwithoutcracking
Metalsareundesirable.Canremovesome metalsviadesalters.

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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SupplementalSlides
Crudedistillationunitcosts
Crudedistillationtechnologyproviders
Typicaldistillationcolumnconfiguration
Fractionationcolumns&trays
Fractionationtraytypes
Trays&packing
Typicaltrayefficiencies
Vacuumtowertransferlines

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CrudeDistillationUnitCosts

Atmosphericcolumnincludes
Sidecutswithstrippers
Allbatterylimitsprocessfacilities
Heatexchangetocoolproductsto
ambienttemperature
Centralcontrolsystem

PetroleumRefiningTechnology&Economics,5th ed.
Gary,Handwerk,&Kaiser
CRCPress,2007

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu Page31


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CrudeDistillationUnitCosts

Vacuumcolumnincludes
Facilitiesforsinglevacuumgasoil
3stagevacuumjetsystemat30
40mmHg
HeatexchangetocoolVGOto
ambienttemperature

PetroleumRefiningTechnology&Economics,5th ed.
Gary,Handwerk,&Kaiser
CRCPress,2007

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu Page32


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CrudeDistillationTechnologies

Provider Features
Foster Wheeler Complex of atmospheric & vacuum distilation for
Shell Global Solutions initial separation of crude oil. May include preflash
TECHNIP column.
Uhde GmbH Vaccum distillation

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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TypicalDistillationColumn
Topofcolumn condensertoremoveheat
Providesliquidrefluxthroughtopofcolumn
Partialcondensermayhavevaporbutnoliquiddistallate product
Coldesttemperature coolingmediamustbeevencolder
Lowestpressure
Topsectionstripsheavycomponentsfromtherisingvapors
Feed
Vapor,liquid,orintermediatequality
Introducedinvaporspacebetweentrays
Internals
Traystocontactrisingvaporswithfallingliquids
Pressuredropacrosstrays overcomestaticheadofliquidontray,
Bottomofcolumn reboiler toaddheat
Providesvaportrafficinbottomofcolumn
Highesttemperature heatingmediamustbeevenhotter
Highestpressure
Bottomsectionstripslightcomponentsfromthefallingliquid
DrawingbyHenryPadleckas &modifed byMiltonBeychok:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Continuous_Binary_Fractional_Distillation.PNG

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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FractionationColumns&Trays

DrawingsbyHenryPadleckas
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fractionating_column

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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FractionationTrayTypes

http://www.termoconsult.com/empresas/acs/fractionation_trays.htm

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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Trays&Packing

http://www.ec21.com/product-details/Tower-Internals--3942077.html

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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TypicalOverallEfficiencies
Typical TypicalNo.of Drickamer&
TypicalNo.of
ColumnService Overall Theoretical Viscosity Maxwell Bradfordin
ActualTrays
Efficiency Trays Ludwig
SimpleAbsorber/Stripper 2030 2030 MolalAve
AveViscosityof
SteamSideStripper 57 2 cP
liquidonplates
Viscosityof RulesofThumbforChemicalEngineers,4thed.
Feed
ReboiledSideStripper 710 34 CarlBranan,GulfProfessionalPublishing,2005
ReboiledAbsorber 2040 4050 0.05 98
0.10 104 79
Deethanizer 2535 6575
0.15 86 70
Depropanizer 3540 7080
0.20 76 60
Debutanizer 3845 8590
0.30 63 50
AlkyDeiC4(reflux) 7590 8590 0.40 56 42
AlkyDeiC4(noreflux) 5570 5565 0.50 50 36
NaphthaSplitter 2535 7075 0.60 46 31
C2Splitter 110130 95100 0.70 43 27
C3Splitter 200250 95100 0.80 40 23
C4Splitter 7080 8590 0.90 38 19
AmineContactor 2024 45 1.00 36 17 EngineeringDataBook,12thed.
AmineStripper 2024 4555 912 1.50 30 7 GasProcessorsAssociation,2004
CrudeDistillation 3550 5060 2030 1.70 28 5
StrippingZone 57 30 2
st
FlashZone1 draw 37 30 12
st nd
1 Draw2 Draw 710 4550 35
2ndDraw3rdDraw 710 5055 35
TopDrawReflux 1012 6070 68
VacuumColumn(G.O.Operation)
Stripping 24 1
FlashZoneHGODraw 23 12
HGOSection 35 2
LGOSection 35 2
FCCMainFractionator 2435 5060 1317
QuenchZone 57 2
QuenchHGODraw 35 23
HGOLCGO 68 35
LCGOTop 710 57

RefineryProcessModeling
GeraldKaes,AthensPrintingCompany,2000,pg.32

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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VacuumTowerTransferLines
Masstransfereffectsinthetransferlinecomplicatetheeffectsatthebottomof
theVacuumTower

Mythofhighcutpoint indryvacuumunits,S.Golden,T.Barletta,&S.White,PTQ,Q22014

JohnJechura jjechura@mines.edu
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