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How to make gunpowder in Sponsored Links

the wild (all it takes is


charcoal, sulfur, and
potassium nitrate)
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In a survival situation, primitive tools will get you by but for maximum Search Search
survivability, you need mechanical weapons and explosives and
nothing beats the time-tested combustive mixture gunpowder.
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Gunpowder is the earliest known chemical explosive. It burns fast ( ash
fast) and if placed inside a sealed container or shell, will create a quick
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burst of explosiveenergy. The uses for gunpowder vary widely. Entries RSS
Gunpowder can be used to create bullets (or reload used bullets), Comments RSS
explosive devices, rescue signals (e.g. reworks), ignition trails, and WordPress.org
more.

What is gunpowder?
What is gunpowder? Stay in touch Subscribe

Gunpowder consists of charcoal, sulfur, and potassium nitrate(commonly


known as saltpeter). Charcoal and sulfur act as the fuels while saltpeter is
the oxidizer (more on oxidation below).
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Charcoal and its purpose in gunpowder
Wildernes
Of the three components, charcoal is the easiest to obtain in the wild. 147likes
For the purpose of gunpowder, it provides a weak form of carbon (more
accurately, carbon plus cellulose or unburnt wood) and other fuel for the
reaction. Its purpose in gunpowder is to burn, pure and simple, and burn LikePage

fast.

To create charcoal, any soft wood Sponsored Links

will su ce but willow is the wood


of choice (hard wood contains too
much ash). Other woods that
convert easily to quality charcoal
include grapevine, Hazelwood,
elder, laurel, chinaberry,
cottonwood, redwood, western cedar, and pine cones.

In a pinch however, any substance that burns can be used instead of Get paid for doing
charcoal including sugar or powdered metals such as aluminum or zinc. what you love

Sulfur and its purpose in gunpowder


Sulfur serves to lower the temperature needed to ignite the gunpowder
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and thus, increases the rate of combustion. It serves a dual purpose your blog
acting somewhat as a cross between an ignition source and a fuel for the with
burn. Adsense

Sulfur is fairly common in nature and can be dug from volcanic ground
or obtained from your local garden store (sulfur, which degrades to
sulfuric acid, is commonly used by gardeners to correct alkaline soil).
Sulfur was regularly mined in caves during the Civil War and today is
LEARN MORE
mined extensively in Chile (called Chile Saltpeter). It is also found and
mined in Texas and Louisiana.

Potassium nitrate (saltpeter or niter) and Survival Topics


its purpose in gunpowder
Food, Water, Shelter
Unlike charcoal and sulfur, Food
Food Overview
potassium nitrate is typically
Farming
manufactured (although it can be
Food Preparation
found naturally in bat guano) and Edible Wild Plants
thus, is the more di cult of the Animal Food

three substances to come by. Water


In gunpowder, saltpeter supplies Water Overview

Water Procurement
oxygen for the reaction. Charcoal
Shelters
typically burns slow because of the
Firecraft
limited amount of oxygen reaching
Environment
the surface area of the wood. Survival Dangers
Grinding charcoal to a powder Poisonous Plants

increases the surface area while Poisonous Animals

Other Dangerous Animals


saltpeter acts as the oxidizer,
Hostile Areas
supplying a massive quantity of oxygen needed to rapidly burn the
Navigation
mixture. Signaling
Movement
Ammonium nitrate can also be used in place of potassium nitrate but it Weather

tends to produce a concussive-type explosion that shatters bullets, gun Desert Survival
Tropic Survival
barrels, rocks, and anything else near the explosion. Of course, in some
Cold Weather Survival
instances this may be the type of reaction you desire. The explosives
Water Survival
that brought down the World Trade Centers in New York City and the Urban Survival
Federal Building in Oklahoma City both used ammonium nitrate as the Hostile Areas

oxidant. Supplies
Product Reviews
Uses for Plants
Potassium nitrate (saltpeter or niter) can be found in nature. A
Survival Kits
saltpeter expert explained how it was mined in the 1800s:
Weapons in the Wild
Tools in the wild
Beforethe187Os,cavesweretheprimary Misc supplies
sourceofnitrateusedinthemanufactureof Skills
gunpowder.Saltpeterminingwasoneofthe First Aid
General Health
firstmajorindustriesofthenewfrontier,and
Combat and Self Defense
oneoftheprincipleobjectivesofexploringnew Tracking and Signs
territorywastofindsaltpetercaves.Caves General Repair
Knots and Rope
wereminedbyindividualsandalso
Climbing
commerciallyfornationaldefensepurposes
duringtheRevolutionaryWar,theWarof
50%
1812,andtheCivilWar.Cavedirtwastested
foritsnitratepotentialbythefollowing
procedure:Afootprintormarkwasmadein
thedirtandleftfortwentyfourhours.Ifthe
printwasscarcelyvisiblebythenextday,then
thedirtwasdeemedhighinniter.
Rp.14.959/bulan

Mix charcoal, sulfur, and potassium


nitrate together and you get
gunpowder
Tweets
Commercially manufactured gunpowder granules are often coated with
graphite which prevents any buildup of electrostatic charge and reduces Tweetsby
the likelihood of an accidental ignition by static electricity. Other than @WildernessArena

that, gunpowder is nothing more than powdered charcoal, sulfur, and


WildernessArena
potassium nitrate mixed inthe correct ratio. @WildernessArena
Theultimateguidetosplicesand
Theultimateguidetosplicesand
By weight, the ideal ratio of substances would be 75% potassium nitrate whippings(usedtospliceropes
(saltpeter), 15% softwood charcoal, and 10% sulfur. This ratio can di er together)
wildernessarena.com/skills/knots
depending upon what the gunpowder will be used for. For instance, a
blasting powder (used to pulverize rock) is typically a 70/14/16 ratio
Theultimateg
(nitrate/charcoal/sulfur). Similarly, other substances may be substituted
Itisnotuncom
for any of the three primary components to produce a similar reaction. wildernessare
In these cases, the ratio may again di er from the norm. As an example,
sodium nitrate may be substituted for potassium nitrate and used in a 13Apr

40/30/30 mixture.
WildernessArena
@WildernessArena
CAUTION: The dangers of gunpowder Preparinganemergencysurvival
kitsuppliesneededforthe
ultimatebugoutbag
Its important to understand that the individual components of
wildernessarena.com/supplies/sur
gunpowder can be dangerous on their own and become especially vi

volatile when mixed together. In fact, gunpowder can be triggered by


Preparingan
something as seemingly insigni cant as static electricity. You must work Theenvironm
slowly and carefully (and be willing to accept the risk that you could be wildernessare

blown to pieces in the blink of an eye).


13Apr

Also, dangerous chemicals can be


WildernessArena
released when mixing the @WildernessArena
substances together. For instance, Howtoprotectagainstgas
(chemical)andviral(biological)
the cold pack gunpowder recipe
attacksrespiratorsarekeyto
discussed below may release toxic survival
ammonia gas during the mixing wildernessarena.com/dangers/ho
stil
process. Thus, it is practical to use
some sort of fume hood or
perform the reaction outdoors (with proper protection).

Finally, without the manufacturing controls found in modern-day


gunpowder factories, the resulting gunpowder can vary widely in its
properties and burn time. Homemade gunpowder can easily turn your
muzzle loader gun into a grenade depending on the ratio of the mix and
quality (or lack thereof) of materials used. 04Apr

How to make gunpowder in the wild


WildernessArena
@WildernessArena
Rattanpalmuseforfood,water,

You gotta have saltpeter andtoolconstruction


wildernessarena.com/foodwater
she
There are various ways to make gunpowder in the wild including the
original, old-fashioned method which takes advantage ofmanure and
urine chemical reactions. There are alsonew hacks that use easily-
available materials to create a gunpowder mixture. In most cases, when
making gunpowder, the key is to nd a method to produce potassium
nitrate, the component that is the most di cult to nd in the wild. Both
charcoal and sulfur are typically easier to come by.

23Mar

How to mix components to make


How to mix components to make WildernessArena

gunpowder @WildernessArena

Howtosurviveamasspublic
shootingtipsforavoidingthe
Once the potassium nitrate (saltpeter) is obtained using one of the shooter'ssightsandgettingout
alive
methods below, grind each component (saltpeter, charcoal, sulfur) with a
wildernessarena.com/urban
stone or pestle to a ne powder. Do not grind all the ingredients survival
together or they will likely explode, but rather, grind each individual
component separately and carefully mix each together once each
individual component has been ground separately to a powder. Once
the materials are thoroughly combined, the resulting mixture is
gunpowder.

Making gunpowder with pee (urine) and


poop (feces) 23Mar

Once charcoal and sulfur are


obtained, potassium nitrate can be Sponsored Links
created via a reaction between
60%
manure and urine. In the methods
discussed below, the resulting
saltpeter will appear as a crusty,
white substance. You may notice
this material on the ground near
stables or cattle holding pens where it formed naturally as cattle manure
and urine mixed to trigger the chemical reaction.
Rp.12.664/bulan

The French method of creating potassium nitrate

The French method of creating gunpowder is simple but time


consuming. Manure is mixed with ashes, straw, and urine. The mixture is Other Interesting Stu

tended (stirred periodically) for several months. Once the saltpeter


Geek Slop!
crystals form in the mixture, the solution is ltered through more ashes
using water (i.e. mix the solution with water and poor through ashes to Visit Geek Slop for bite-sized
chunks of science and
collect the saltpeter on the surface of the ashes). Then the saltpeter is technology news and interesting
mixed with charcoal and sulfur in the traditional 75/15/10 ratio (see articles catered to geeks and
other superhero types.
above).
Funny Grins!
The Swiss method of making potassium nitrate Life's short - make fun of it! For
side-splitting humor, check out
The Swiss method of manufacturing saltpeter begins with the Funny Grins' huge cache of
funny jokes, zany videos, and
construction of a stable a stable built upon a bed of sand. Manure is
outrageous pictures. .
cleaned from the stable while urine naturally lters through the sand
bed. As saltpeter begins to accumulate in the sand, it can be removed Bible Blender!

and isolated by ltering through ash and water (i.e. wet the saltpeter and Check out Bible Blender for bible
pour through ash to isolate the saltpeter). study blended with science,
history, technology, and your
analysis.
As noted above, this method of making the hard-to- nd saltpeter occurs
Reeko's Mad Scientist Lab
naturally in many stables. The potassium nitrate (saltpeter) is the white,
Interesting science news, crazy
crusty material often seen around trodden parts of a stable or cattle science fair experiments, fun
brain games and more cool
pen. science stu for kids, parents,
teachers at Reeko's Mad
Scientist Lab .
Backwoods method of creating potassium nitrate
Mortal Journey
The backwoods method is more of a manual process than the French
How did we get here? At mortal
and Swiss methods. Begin with a large metal drum with a valve located
journey, check out the footprints
near the bottom of the drum (most drums are constructed like this). of our past - interesting stories
and news about past and
Place a screen on the bottom of the barrel. The screen will act as a lter
current trends and fads.
for larger particles.
Altered Dimensions

Place manure in the drum and add urine. Add water to the mixture and Visit Altered Dimensions for the
mix thoroughly. Continue adding water and pee as the solution reacts. best esoteric and paranormal
stories and news.
After several months of reaction time, drain the solution from the valve
and spread the mixture onto shallow trays and allow to dry. Saltpeter
crystals will appear on the surface which can be mixed with charcoal and
sulfur in the traditional 75/15/10 ratio.

Making gunpowder with tree stump


remover
Common tree stump remover is almost always pure saltpeter. Begin by
grinding charcoal (grilling charcoal works ne) and sulfur to a ne
powder. Then grind the tree stump remover into a ne powder. Finally,
gently mix the saltpeter, charcoal, and sulfur together in a 75/15/10 ratio
(nitrate/charcoal/sulfur).

Making gunpowder with salt, sugar, and


a cold pack
With this method, we can obtain
saltpeter from a cold pack and
substitute sugar and lite salt
(sodium-free salt) for the traditional
combustible charcoal and sulfur
components. First, make sure the
cold pack lists ammonium nitrate
as the crystal substance (some cold
packs use urea). Cut the top o the cold pack and drain the water from
the pack. What remains are the ammonium nitrate crystals which are
used to activate the cold pack.

Mix about 40 grams of ammonium nitrate crystals with 100 ml water and
stir until the ammonium nitrate crystals are completely dissolved (the
solution will appear cloudy). Place 40 grams of sodium free salt (aka salt
substitute) into a container. Pour the ammonium nitrate solution into
the container using a co ee lter to lter our any remaining solids. Heat
the solution, but not to the point of boiling, and stir until it becomes
clear with no noticeable particles remaining. Place the mixture in a
freezer for 1 hours.

Crystals will form in the bottom of the mixture. The crystals are our
potassium nitrate (saltpeter) component.

Drain o the liquid leaving the saltpeter crystals and allow the crystals to
dry completely. In a non-metal container (yes, it is possible for saltpeter
to ignite on its own), grind the saltpeter crystals into a ne powder. Mix
one-part saltpeter with one-part powdered sugar (or normal sugar
ground to a powder) to create the nal gunpowder product.

Additional information
More details on the creation of gunpowders hardest-to-come-by
component, potassium nitrate (niter or saltpeter) can be gleaned from
the two patents below.

Gunpowder infographic

Patent CN 103771461B Double


decomposition method for preparing
potassium nitrate
ABSTRACT translated from Chinese
Preparation of the metathesis process of the present invention is based
on potassium nitrate and potassium nitrate as raw materials, involving
the technical eld of inorganic chemical. The process liquor recycling,
because the raw material potassium chloride into the impurities, the
presence of the mother liquor impurities accumulate and deal with the
problem solved in no long cycle, the present invention is to set up a
production plant near Split purify production line, which set o In
addition to the sodium magnesium unit, 1 to 30% by the total circulation
amount of the mother liquor is introduced into the production line for
removal of impurities processing, impurity mainly composed of a water-
soluble sodium, magnesium, magnesium chloride as a salting-out agent
to salt removal to bicarbonate removal of magnesium ammonium
precipitating agent, the solution temperature 10 ~ 90 , liquor return
after dedoping treatment liquor circulation system.

[0001] The present invention relates to the technical eld of inorganic


chemicals, it is a preparation of potassium nitrate decomposition
method complex.

Background technique

[0002] potassium nitrate with a wide range of uses in industry and


agriculture. In industry, for the manufacture of reworks, gunpowder,
matches, drugs, used as a catalyst, ceramic glaze medicine, glass
clarifying agent, in recent years with the development of regenerative
solar energy utilization, potassium nitrate as a raw material for high-
temperature molten salt, demand the amount of the increase. In
agriculture, it is e cient nitrogen and potassium fertilizer, high chlorine-
free potash, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, potassium nitrate in
three, high grade potassium nitrate, fertilizer fast, no residue, fertilizer
for all crops; With the development of drip irrigation in arid regions of
water-soluble fertilizer, potassium nitrate as the main raw material for
water-soluble fertilizer, the demand is increasing.

[0003] (I) Chinese patents Publication No. CN100398443C (authorized


announcement July 2, 2008), discloses a potassium chloride and
ammonium nitrate as raw materials prepared by metathesis potassium
nitrate and ammonium chloride invention. The method uses liquor
circulating process. Potassium chloride starting material used in this
process typically contain I~5% of soluble sodium, magnesium and other
impurities, using continuous production apparatus as potassium
chloride, sodium, magnesium and other impurities into the continuous
system means a solution in which a portion of product into the zone a
solution system, part of the accumulation in the solution. With the
increase of the cumulative amount of impurities in the mother liquor,
impurities out of sync from the product increases, and nally reach
equilibrium. The equilibrium concentration of impurities in the mother
liquor and the number of products with the raw materials into the
impurity band varies, the cumulative amount of impurities in the
production unit can reach 15% or higher. With the gradual increase of
the cumulative amount of impurities in the mother liquor, the product of
impurities gradually increase, which a ects the quality of products,
which leads to the gradual decline in product yield and energy
consumption gradually increased. De ciencies over patented technology
that, for the presence of impurities in the mother liquor in the long-term
accumulation cycle issues, as disclosed herein, no potassium nitrate
plant circulating liquor impurity removal technology.

[0004] (2) liquor treatment of potassium nitrate production process one


solvent extraction separation of
nitric acid and hydrochloric acid
(Dufang Lin, Gong Yu Zhen
Shandong Chemical Industry, 1997
Stage I), discloses a method for
producing potassium nitrate, using
tributyl phosphate as the
extractant, kerosene as a diluent, can be e ectively extracted from the
mother liquor of nitric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid to achieve
the purpose of complete separation of nitric acid can be completely
recycled materials, the downside is seen as potassium nitrate present
invention disclosed production means for circulating liquor impurity
removal technology.

[0005] (3) direct method to optimize the production of potassium nitrate


liquor using a Subsidiary (Wang Yan language, Van Xiushan etc.
nationwide network of classi ed papers compound fertilizer [study
based development] 2010 Section 2 (2010.4.29)), discloses a method for
producing potassium nitrate, potassium nitrate and potassium nitrate
from the reaction process will produce a lot of mother liquor, the mother
liquor present a series of problems approach. In order to further
optimize the use of the mother liquor, we conducted experiments to
research liquor extracted rare earth phosphate, and then take a higher
economic value of the rare earth phosphate and magnesium-containing
compound with a slow-release NPK and ammonium bicarbonate and
made stepwise traitor, the downside is seen as disclosed herein
potassium nitrate plant circulating liquor impurity removal technology.

[0006] (4) Preparation of potassium nitrate conversion of new


technology (Zhang Gang. Chemical Engineering Design, 2009,19 (5)),
discloses a method for producing potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate and
potassium chloride production metathesis potassium nitrate process,
noting that the mother liquor impurity accumulation and processing,
presented to the mother liquor should be regularly treated to remove
impurities, to ensure product quality standards and production of
normal operation, proposed liquor major impurity is sodium nitrite,
sodium and magnesium chloride, the solution Ammonium nitrate
solution is added to remove the sodium nitrite, sodium sulfate was
added to remove barium chloride, magnesium chloride, potassium
carbonate was removed, the downside is seen as potassium nitrate plant
circulating liquor impurity removal of the disclosed technology.

[0007] (5) Chinese Patent Publication No. CN1113886A (Publication date


December 27, 1995), discloses a method for producing potassium nitrate
liquor recycling process, circulating liquor containing sodium nitrate and
potassium chloride to give a solid role chlorination sodium and
potassium nitrate liquor, cooling potassium nitrate product was
separated mother liquor into sodium chloride, ammonium nitrate,
ammonium chloride by-product and recycling of mother liquor obtained
containing sodium nitrate, the downside is seen as disclosed herein
potassium nitrate production means for circulating liquor impurity
removal technology.

[0008] (6) Chinese Patent Publication No. CN1371864A (Publication date


October 2, 2002), discloses a method for producing potassium nitrate
liquor recycling process, the potassium salt lake resources, mining and
natural sodium saltpeter and potassium nitrate mixed liquor, adjusting
potassium, nitrate and water mass ratio, the mixed material converted
heat to dissolve to form a slurry of solid-liquid mixing, hot melt saturated
supernatant was isolated, cooled to room temperature and precipitation
of potassium nitrate, potassium nitrate liquor then return Rerong phase
ingredients , the downside is seen as disclosed herein potassium nitrate
plant circulating liquor impurity removal technology.

[0009] (7) Lightweight magnesium carbonate and magnesium carbonate


medicinal (Salt Industry Manual 2nd edition next book, 1054~1061
pages), discloses the magnesium salt (magnesium chloride, magnesium
sulfate) and ammonium carbonate preparing a lightweight magnesium
carbonate and medicinal technology, it relates to a magnesium removal
technique, the downside is seen as potassium nitrate plant circulating
liquor impurity removal of the disclosed technology.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0010] The present invention: (I) object of the present invention is to


overcome the shortcomings of the prior art and to provide a ammonium
nitrate and potassium chloride as raw materials prepared by the
metathesis process of removing nitrate liquor impurities, Avoid liquor
impurity accumulation approach.

[0011] (2) The object of the present invention is in the process of


removing impurities mother liquor, and will not a ect the entire solution
system production facilities, or that do not, a second removal of
impurities operational errors a ect the entire solution system
composition and performance, thus removing impurities liquor
production line and production apparatus of the present invention to
provide an entire solution system should be independent, even if a
particular operator error that does not mean the removal of impurities
a ect the entire solution system production facilities, thereby increasing
the security of the present invention, , reliability and practicality.

[0012] (3) The object of the present invention is, in large-scale production
entities, usually multiple sets of production equipment to run
simultaneously, thus requiring the present invention to meet the needs
of several sets of production equipment, production facilities are set up
do not have condoms , which can reduce the investment, operating costs
and land.

[0013] (4) The object of the present invention is to require continuous


operation of the present invention can be intermittent operation, when
the plant is running can run, when the plant shutdown can also be run,
which can increase the e ective of the present invention and exibility.

[0014] (5) The purpose of the present invention is, for the mother liquor
impurities, soluble sodium, magnesium is the primary, while the raw
material with the grade change, the requirements of the present
invention is to adapt to this change, both the simultaneous removal of
sodium, magnesium, also the removal of sodium or magnesium salt can
be used alone.

[0015] (6) The purpose of the present invention is widely source of


salting-out agent and precipitant employed, low prices, which can
improve the economics and feasibility of the present invention.

[0016] The present invention can be achieved through the following


measures:

[0017] (I) set up a production plant near Split purify production line,
production line set up in addition to sodium and magnesium units other
units, two units can be run at the same time can also be run separately,
will I~30% of the total circulation amount of liquor introduced into the
production line removal of impurities were processed, the main
component of the water-soluble impurities sodium, magnesium,
magnesium chloride as a salting-out agent to remove part of a sodium
salt, ammonium bicarbonate as the precipitating agent to remove part of
the magnesium salt, the mother liquor after the treatment dedoping
return liquor circulation system.

[0018] The object of the present invention can also be achieved through
the following measures:

[0019] (2) the set of shunt impurity production lines and production
equipment liquor circulation system is run independently and can run
continuously can also intermittent operation, usually intermittent
operation, ie when the plant outage when liquor circulation system
outage, shunt impurity production line can run as usual: The mother
liquor from the mother liquor
circulation system to the shunt slot
mother liquor impurity extraction
section production line for
processing, returning the
processed liquor mother liquor
system.

[0020] (3) set shunt purify production line, in a number of sets of


potassium nitrate production plant running simultaneously, a shunt
purify production line can simultaneously produce multiple sets of
potassium nitrate liquor apparatus will be removal of impurities,
handling post The mother liquor returned to their production capacity by
means of mother liquor system.

[0021] (4) production plant liquor circulation system in a di erent cycle


segments are separated from the pulp obtained liquid crystal potassium
nitrate liquor and separating said crystal slurry obtained ammonium
chloride liquid called liquor, except shunt miscellaneous liquor is usually
ammonium chloride liquor.

[0022] (5) shunt purify production line set, which in addition to sodium
and demagging units each unit consists of salting tank, sedimentation
tank, hydrocyclones, lter and other equipment.

[0023] (6) the salting-out agent magnesium chloride was added salting
tank, part mother liquor impurity sedimentation separation of sodium
chloride, the solution temperature 40 C~70 C.

[0024] (7) in the sedimentation tank precipitant ammonium bicarbonate


was added and the precipitate was separated from the impurity of
magnesium chloride to generate magnesium carbonate, solution
temperature 30 C~90 C.

Brief Description

[0025] (I) Figure 1 illustrates potassium nitrate plant liquor circulation


system and split o relations miscellaneous liquor production line, split
o miscellaneous liquor production line is set up near the plant, both of
which are run independently.

[0026] (2) Figure 2 illustrates the shunt liquor dedoping process and the
main production line equipment con guration, the shunt mother liquor
ow meter (not shown) are metered into the salting groove, the groove
con guration stirrer, salting-out agent ammonium chloride by the screw
feeder (not shown) was added to the mother liquor tank with mixing
shunt, salting out e ect is completed within a certain residence time,
sodium chloride impurities in the mother liquor partially crystallized,
crystal pump (Fig. not shown) into the hydrocyclone I implemented initial
liquid-solid separation, the upper clear liquid into the sedimentation
tank, bottom thick crystal slurry into the lter I implemented a secondary
liquid-solid separation, and the resulting residue is sodium chloride
impurities, send precinct external processing, ltrate pump (not shown)
into the sedimentation tank, ammonium bicarbonate precipitating agent
by a screw feeder (not shown) vessel su ciently mixed with the mother
liquor was added to complete the precipitation e ect within a certain
residence time, mother liquor impurity magnesium chloride to form part
crystallized, crystal pump (not shown) into the hydrocyclone 2 liquid-
solid implementation of preliminary separation, the upper clear liquid
ltrate con uence with lter 2, a pump (not Draw) back to the
production equipment liquor circulation system, the bottom of the thick
crystal slurry into the lter 2 to implement liquid-solid secondary
separation, and the resulting residue is magnesium impurities, outgoing
precinct process.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0027] Example 1: In the shunt liquor production line in Figure 2, the


shunt liquor temperature of 40 C, is pumped into the tank salting,
salting-out agent added magnesium chloride hexahydrate crystals were
added in an amount according to the magnesium ion meter lOkmol, stir
solution temperature 70 C, the residence time of 30 minutes, sodium
chloride crystal slurry formation of impurities via hydrocyclones 1, lter
1, to obtain a sodium salt of impurities precipitate residues, residues
amount by sodium ions from about lOkmol, sodium salt precipitation
purity of about 98%.

[0028] Example 2: 1, salting tank solution temperature 60 C, according


to the amount of sodium ion residues from about lOkmol, salt
precipitation purity about 95% Example.

[0029] Example 3: 1, salting tank solution temperature of 50 C,


according to the amount of sodium ion residues from about lOkmol, salt
precipitation purity of about 90%. Example.

[0030] Example 4: 1, salting tank solution temperature 40 C, according


to the amount of sodium ion residues from about lOkmol, salt
precipitation purity about 85% Example.

[0031] Example 5: In the salting tank solution temperature 30 C,


according to the amount of sodium ion residues from about lOkmol, salt
precipitation purity of about 80% in Example 1.

[0032] Example 6: Example 4 in the mother liquor, removal of the


precipitated salt, the temperature of 40 C, into the sedimentation tank,
in the tank by adding ammonium bicarbonate precipitating agent, was
added by an amount of ammonium ion meter 30kmol, stir solution
temperature 90 C, residence time 30 minutes, via hydrocyclone 2, lter
2, to give magnesium precipitate residues, residues of magnesium ions
by an amount from about 15kmol, about 98% purity magnesium
precipitation.

[0033] Example 7: In Example 6, the solution temperature 80 C,


according to the amount of magnesium ion residues from about 14kmol,
magnesium precipitation purity of about 95%.

[0034] Example 8: In Example 6, the solution temperature 70 C,


according to the amount of magnesium ion residues from about 13kmol,
magnesium precipitation purity of about 90%.

[0035] Example 9: In Example 6, the solution temperature 60 C,


according to the amount of magnesium ion residues from about 12kmol,
magnesium precipitation purity of about 85%.

[0036] Example 10: In Example 6, the solution temperature 50 C,


according to the amount of magnesium ion residues from about lOkmol,
magnesium precipitation purity of about 80%.

[0037] E ect

[0038] The present invention over the prior art has the following
advantages:

[0039] (I) for ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride as raw material,
prepared by metathesis potassium nitrate production process, the
mother liquor recycling, because the raw material potassium chloride
into sodium chloride, magnesium and other impurities, the mother
liquor in the long cycle The presence of impurities accumulated and
handling problems, and no known treatment techniques, the present
invention provides a technique to ensure the mother liquor impurities
accumulate maintained at an appropriate level, e.g., the use of the
present invention, can ensure that the equilibrium concentration of the
mother liquor impurities remain below 10%, the best can be maintained
at 5% or less, compared with the usual 15%, energy products may
decline 10 percent, the uctuation range of the product impurity
chlorine ion content can be reduced from 0.2 percent to 0.1 percentage
point.

[0040] (2) the removal of circulating liquor sodium magnesium impurities


present invention provides methods of salting-out agent and
precipitating agent magnesium chloride hexahydrate ammonium
bicarbonate source is easy, inexpensive, low impurity costs.

CLAIMS(6) translated from Chinese

1. Preparation of the metathesis method potassium nitrate, ammonium


nitrate and potassium chloride raw materials, products for potassium
nitrate and ammonium chloride, recycled mother liquor, wherein the
device is provided close to the production of a shunt purify production
line, production line set up in addition to sodium unit and the unit except
magnesium, which in addition to the sodium magnesium unit and the
addition means respectively, by salting tank, sedimentation tank, a
hydrocyclone, lter composed of two units can be run at the same time
can also be run separately, the total circulation amount of the mother
liquor 1% ~ 30% is introduced into the production line for removal of
impurities processing, impurity mainly composed of water-soluble
sodium, magnesium, magnesium chloride as the salting-out agent to
remove part of the sodium, ammonium bicarbonate as the precipitating
agent to remove part of the magnesium salt the solution temperature 10
C~90 C, the mother liquor return after dedoping treatment liquor
circulation system.

2. The method according to claim 1, wherein, wherein the set of shunt


impurity production lines and production equipment liquor circulation
system is run independently, continuous operation or intermittent
operation, ie when the plant outage stop liquor circulation system When
shipped, the shunt purify production line to run as usual: the mother
liquor from the mother liquor withdrawn part of the circulatory system
to the shunt impurity liquor tank production line for processing, the
mother liquor is returned after treatment liquor circulation system.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the set of shunt


purify production line, in a number of sets of potassium nitrate
production plant running simultaneously, a shunt purify production line
can simultaneously multiple sets of potassium nitrate production plant
mother liquor impurity removal process, the mother liquor after the
treatment according to the amount of processing plant returned to their
mother liquor system.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the plant


mother liquor circulation system circulating at di erent segments of
potassium nitrate crystals are separated from the liquid phase of said
slurry resulting potassium chloride crystals separated from the mother
liquor and the resulting slurry was commensurate with ammonium
chloride liquor, ammonium chloride shunt purify the mother liquor is
liquor.

5. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the salting-out


agent added magnesium chloride salting tank, so that part of the mother
liquor impurity sedimentation separation of sodium chloride, a solution
temperature of 40 C~70 C.

6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the


precipitating agent is added in the sedimentation tank ammonium
chloride impurities generated carbonate precipitation separation, a
solution temperature of 30 C~90 C.

Process for the preparation of potassium


nitrate
US 2157260 A

y 1939- J. DESSEVRE ET AL 2,157,260

PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF POTASSI UM NITRATE Fi led May 27.


1957 w r l H4 A 7 A H INVENTORS JEAN DsssvRE Louis DUREPAIRE
BERNARD QUANQUIN J W M Wys.

Patented May 9, 1939 ISFED :EFS T 3 ENZT OFF IE E PROGESSFOR THE.


PREPARATION OF POTASSIUM NITRATE Jean. Dessvre, Louis Durepaire,
and Bernard v, .Quanquin, Paris, France Application May , 1937; Serial
No. 145,150

In France June. 8, 1936 3 Claims.

nitrate, possibly containing asmall-proportion of ammonium-nitrate


and ammonium chloride; such a mixturemayfor-i-nstancebe collected
after a double decomposition betweenammonium nitrate
andpotassiumchlorideweitherpure or mixed with sodium- chloride--
(sylvinite) The present-inventiomhas ion-its object to prepare potassium
nitrate in the practically pure state by the. use of such a mixture of
nitrates, this being e ected not only by separating the potassium nitrate.
from the mixture, but also by convertingythe sodium:nitrate into
potassium nitrate.

The surprising observation has been made that in spite of the possible
presence of ammoniacal salts (chloride or nitrate), even in considerable
proportion, it is possible to convert the sodium nitrate into potassium
nitrate, within the mixture itself, by means of potassium chloride, either
alone or accompanied by sodium chloride (sylvinite) This makes it
possible to obtain in the form of practically pure potassium nitrate, the
whole of the nitrogen in nitric form which is contained .in the mixture, in
spite of the presence, in the mother-liquor, of more than 10 grams
molecule of ammoniacal salts per 1,000 grams of water.

The process in conformity with the invention consists in placing the


mixture of nitrates in the mother-liquor resulting from a preceding
operation, in adding potassium chloride, or sylvinite, and in heating for a
suitable time. After the conversion, the sodium chloride thus formed is
removed, then Water is added and the whole is allowed to cool.

The pure crystallized potassium nitrate may be removed, and the proper
quantity of mother-liquor is brought to the starting point of the cycle, the
remainder being separated for any possible further use, and chie y in
the cycle of double decomposition which a ords the mixture of nitrates.

The quantity of water to be added during the process in conformity with


the invention should be just sumcient to maintain in solution, during the
cooling, the ammoniacal salts contained in the original mixture, and the
sodium salts which tend to precipitate.

The quantity of potassium chloride, KCl, or of sylvinite employed for the


conversion may vary considerably Without producing any great changes
in the manufacture.

This quantity is especially determined by the proportion of salts, sodium


chloride and potassiumnitrate, which it is desired toobtain.

The drawing illustratesoneembodiment of the process.

, Example 5 To 2,150 litres ofmother-liquorobtained from a preceding


double decomposition between ammonium nitrate and sylvinite, with a
speci c gravity of 41 B. and containing: 10

. Kgs. H2O 1,200 NH4NO3 n 880 KNO: 407 NaNOs 271 ll NaCl 225
Percent H2O 1.4 KNO3 45.0 NaNOs 38.0 NH4NO3 6.2 NHiCl 9A This is
heated at 80 C. for 30 minutes, and one proceeds, at about this
temperature, that is, from to with the separation of the solid product, for
instance by a centrifugal treatment.

After washing with litres of water, there 35 are removed 580 kgs. of
sodium chloride accompanied by the insoluble impurities of the raw
material, but not containing measurable traces of potassium, of nitrogen
in the nitric state, nor of ammoniacal nitrogen. 40

The mother liquor which is collected after the centrifugal treatment and
to which is added the water from the preceding washing, has also added
to it 360 litres of Water, and is then subjected to a cooling to 28 C. in 30
minutes. 5

There are then removed, by centrifugal treatment or otherwise, and


after washing with 120 litres of water, 1,090 kgs. of potassium nitrate
having the following composition in the dry state:

Per cent 50 KNOs 95.7 NI-I4NO3 3.5 NHlCl 0.81

that is, containing only 4.3% of impurities. 55

A part of the mother-liquor or the washing water, containing 600 litres of


water, is removed from the cycle, and the remainder is again utilized for
a subsequent operation of conversion.
The portion of the mother-liquor removed from the cycle may be treated
by any suitable means, for the recovery of the salts which it contains, but
it is particularly advantageous to employ it for the preparation of the
mother-liquors required for the process of the double decomposition
between the ammonium nitrate and the chlorides of potassium and
sodium.

W claim:

1. A process of manufacturing potassium nitrate, comprising treating


ammonium nitrate with a mixture of potassium chloride and sodium
chloride in a solution saturated with these salts, separating a mixture of
potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, treating the latter mixture with a
mixture of potassium chloride and sodium chloride in a solution
saturated with these salts, heating the mass, recovering the sodium
chloride precipitated, diluting the remaining solution, cooling the diluted
solution, and recovering the crystallized potassium nitrate.

2. A process of manufacturing potassium nitrate, comprising treating


ammonium nitrate with a mixture of potassium chloride and sodium
chloride in a rst saturated mother-liquor obtained from a preceding
double decomposition between ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride
and sodium chloride, separating a mixture containing potassium nitrate
and sodium nitrate, treating the latter mixture with a mixture of
potassium chloride and sodium chloride in a second saturated mother-
liquor obtained from a preceding conversion of sodium nitrate into
potassium nitrate by means of a mixture of potassium chloride and
sodium chloride, heating said second mother-liquor, recovering the
sodium chloride precipitated, diluting the remaining solution with water,
cooling the diluted solution, and. recovering the crystallized potassium
nitrate.

3. A process of manufacturing potassium nitrate, comprising treating


ammonium nitrate with a mixture of potassium chloride and sodium
chloride in a rst saturated mother-liquor obtained from a preceding
double decomposition between ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride
and sodium chloride, separating a mixture containing potassium nitrate
and sodium nitrate, treating the latter mixture with a mixture of
potassium chloride and sodium chloride in a second saturated mother-
liquor obtained from a preceding conversion of sodium nitrate into
potassium nitrate by means of a mixture of potassium chloride and
sodium chloride, heating said sec ond mother-liquor, recovering the
sodium chloride precipitated, diluting the remaining solution with Water,
cooling the diluted solution, recovering the crystallized potassium
nitrate, saving a part of the remaining mother-liquor for adding to the
rst mother-liquor, and utilizing the other part as the second mother-
liquor.

Gunpowder drawings and patent images


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