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Judul Asli: Evolución del modelo para planificación subte..pdf

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Jos Saavedra, Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad de los Andes

Marco Alfaro, Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad de los Andes and Metlica Consultores S.A.

Jorge Amaya, Centro de Modelamiento Matemtico, Universidad de Chile

Abstract

In this work we present a methodological approach for finding near optimal solutions to the problem of defining plans for

underground mines. This problem of obvious combinatorial nature is intractable by means of traditional techniques

(Mixed Integer Programming for example). The approach proposed here is based in the mechanism of natural selection,

we construct a Genetic Algorithm to conduct the search of a approximate solution to the problem. In order to acquire

this objective, we first need a model which characterizes the gravitational flow of material from the drawpoints, the

chosen model for this objective is a cellular automata specifically designed with very simple rules of local evolution. The

model was implemented and tested, the time needed for a solution in real type cases is much less than the time human

planner needs actually for the same task. Possible extensions to this model are presented.

perspective is the combinatorial explosion of the problem.

Underground mining operations are very complex in We have the following result:

nature. The main factors that determine this complexity

(between others) are the unsuitable knowledge of ore Proposition I.1

resources contained in the mine and the parameters that

characterize them. From this point of view, we can obviously If we call Sk,l,m the number of feasible sequences in

see that human planners are unable to handling this

complexity and as a consequence very poor solutions are a sector of k blocks width by l blocks length by m

obtained.

The problem of underground mining planning can be blocks height, with m k,l, the we have

defined as choosing the best production plan in order to

maximize the benefits derived from the operations. This (k l)m < Sk,l,m < (k l m)!

planning could be made in three distinct scenarios: short

term (operational), mid term (tactical) and long term

(strategical). In this paper we focus our attention to the the proof of this proposition can be found in the work [7].

operational case. As an application of this result, if we consider a sector with

Many resources are wasted in preparing mining plans. dimensions then we are in presence of at least possible

Usually this task takes two or three workers dedicated only sequences, if we take 1 second in evaluating each one of

to this work. Moreover, they dont have any tools available this sequences then we need at least

and this imposes on the final solutions the human planner 34048129883307965499746321664130 years in order to

bias. Some efforts have been made to solve this situation. resolve this problem. So an obvious conclusion is that

From the point of view of classical optimization we can exhaustive search is a very bad strategy for this class of

consider a model that has the following features: problems.

The mine is subdivided into blocks of homogeneous Of course not every sequence is feasible. One possible

dimensions that conform a domain without holes (edge choice, in order to reduce this high number of sequences, is

connected). to make an algorithm that can generate feasible sequences.

When we extract a block from a given drawpoint, the Its not hard to see that this approach faces other problems

blocks that are in the same column descend in one that are not easy to resolve, for example to decide if a given

position (precedence restrictions) . sequence is feasible.

Ore extraction is supposed to be realized in a soft manner, In this paper we propose a model that breaks this

in the sense that adjacent columns cant show high classical approach to the problem of underground mining

differences in height, this restriction prevents dilution planning. We choose as an alternative an Evolutionary

entry. Model because of the flexibility and good empirical results

Usually the objective function of this kind of models is the in problems of higher complexity (like the one presented

Net Present Value (NPV) of the economic result of the here).

business derived from the operations.

II. EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS

this point of view is the dominant one presented in the

work [6]. Genetic Algorithms (GA from now) were introduced by

One of the problems that isnt resolved by this approach John Holland in 1975. They are inspired in Darwins

is the incorporation of the stochastic behavior of mechanisms of natural selection. Such mechanisms

Gravitational Flow. Because of this, we call to this kind of establish that an individual is generated as a mixture of the

models deterministic. genes from his parents by means of crossover, added to this

process of mixture there is a process called mutation Definition IV.1

(change in some segments of genetic material).

This last mechanism implies in some way evolution

because add novel elements not present in the genetic Given a set of drawpoints {i}ni=l we define a Extraction

information from parents. Finally, the adaptation to the

medium makes that some individuals survive and inherit Chart as a matrix M Mmxn with the number of

their genes to his sons. The general form of an Evolutionary

Algorithm is the following: drawpoints and m the number of turns. The coefficient mij

t := 0;

initialize (P(0));

mij : = tons (expressed in shovels) to extract in

evaluate(P(0));

drawpoint j in turn i

While Not has been done Do

P (t) : = select parents (P(t)); Observation IV.1

P (t) : = recombinate (P(t)); Extraction Chart M dont have to be a square matrix.

P (t) : = mutate (P(t));

evaluate (P(t)); If we call to demand (in shovels) in turn i then we have

P (t + 1) := natural selection(P(t); P(t));

n

t := t + 1;

m

k =1

ik D1

Next

In this Algorithm t is the counter of generations and

evaluate (P) implies to evaluate fitness function to every " " in the last restriction gives the choice of not satisfy

member of population P. This algorithm finish when the the hole demand, if not we could force our algorithm to

fitness value of actual population P(t) in time t dont innovate extract blocks that gives worse solutions.

or after a fixed number of iterations.

B. Chromosome Representation

The considerations in the moment of implementing GA The natural chromosome representation for a extraction

strategies are: chromosomic representation, population chart is a matrix like the one previously defined. This will be

size, fitness function, crossover and mutation operators, the formal structure in which we will define the crossover

crossover and mutation probabilities. For further reading on and mutation operators.

this technique go to references [3], [5], [7].

C. Crossover Operator

Given two individuals (matrix) from a given population, for

III. MODELS FOR GRAVITATIONAL FLOW example M;N, we define the associated crossover operator

as:

If we want to incorporate the stochastic behavior of

granular flow in our model we need first consider models for We select randomly a number in the set {1,...,m} (i.e. we

this phenomenon. select randomly a turn). Let i* such number.

In the last decade, some efforts have been made. The

main results were obtained by chilean well known scientists, We consider the submatrices of M and N given by M1 =

Eric Goles [1] and Servet Martnez [4]. These two = (mij) i*i=1, j {1,...,n} and, M2 = (mij)mi=i* +1, j {1,..., n}

approaches are similar in the kind of technique used, both and analog for N.

are cellular automata models.

Another interesting model is the one proposed by We define the new matrices

Gregorio Gonzlez [2]. In this work the ideas presented in

[1] are refined. Applications to underground mining are M N

presented. M = 1 and = 1

The most recent development in this area is the model N2 M2

presented by Marco Alfaro [8]. This model is a Cellular

Automata that has the benefit of simple rules of evolution, This crossover operator guarantees feasibility from turn to

and as a consequence, its possible to obtain a efficient turn of extraction charts, this because we maintain demand

implementation [9]. inequality in each turn.

Independent of the chosen model, its fundamental

for the proposed methodology to have some D. Mutation Operator

gravitational flow model. As we will see in the next To define a mutation operator we have to randomly select

section, our model consider a gravitational flow model a turn (row in the extraction matrix). We proceed then to re-

in the kernel of the evaluation function of the proposed balance the selected row with a number randomly chosen

genetic algorithm. between 0 and the demand of the turn, then we distribute

randomly in to the selected turn. This operator guarantees

IV. PROPOSED EVOLUTIONARY MODEL feasibility of the selected row (the number chosen is less

than demand).

A. Extraction Charts

Operations in underground mining are realized in E. Fitness Function

turns. Such turns are usually of 8 hours each one and In order to evaluate the fitness of a extraction chart

each day is divided in three turns. Given a set of we have to run a simulation of the chart and then

drawpoints {i }ni=1 a Extraction Chart is an assignment obtain a list of blocks with laws of ore grades. With

of tons to extract for each drawpoint en each turn. We this information we can obtain the benefit given by

can if we wish consider another kinds of periods like that extraction chart incorporating NPV in this

days, weeks, months, etc. Formally: calculation.

F. The Algorithm The results of the iterations are summarized in the

The search algorithm is described with the following following picture. This picture illustrate the behavior of the

pseudo-code: best solution in each iteration:

Algorithm.

Inputs:

Block Model

Location of Drawpoints

Population Size n

Parameters: Crossover and Mutation Probabilities

Iterations

Probabilities for Cellular Automata

Outputs:

Optimal Extraction Chart

Algorithm:

Initialize Extraction Charts Population

(n Extraction Charts):

P(0);

Fitness Evaluation(P(0));

For t = 0 To V FIG. 1: Best Individual Evolution.

Begin

Crossover (P(t)): P(t + 1); As we can see, the algorithm generates a sequence of

Mutation (P(t + 1)); solutions in which each one is at least equal or better than

Fitness Evaluation (P(t + 1)); the previous.

Next Generation Selection (P(t),P(t + 1));

End For B. Calibration of Model Parameters

In order to operate this GA, we need calibrate the

Function Fitness Evaluation(P(t)); functional parameters. The used example was the previous

For i = 1 To n one. We will vary crossover and mutation probabilities.

Begin To denote the instances of the problem we will use the

Simulate(Extraction Chart i(t)); notation An1/n2M, where n1 is crossover probability, n2

Cellular Automata(Extraction Chart i(t)); mutation probability, selection method A (Parents and Sons:

Economic Evaluation(Extraction Chart i(t)); PH; Only Sons: SH) and parent selection M (Roulette: R;

End For Drawing: S).

End Function

Each instance was runned 30 times and we determine in

V. NUMERICAL RESULTS which generation we reach the optimum. The following table

resumes the results.

A. Trivial Case

This case is a sector of 4 by 4 by 4 blocks, all of them with Instance Mean Standard Deviation

grade 0, i.e. sterile. This simple example has only two

extraction points, one in coordinates (1; 1; 0) and the other

in coordinates (3; 2; 0). The obvious solution to this problem PH80/20S 64.93 22.89

is to extract nothing from drawpoints. This example was PH90/30S 50.17 21.55

tested with the following parameters: PH80/30S 45.70 20.36

PH80/40S 38.33 20.33

Application Parameters PH80/50S 35.40 15.70

PH90/20S 61.13 27.64

Turn Number 5

PH100/20S 55.23 27.17

Max. Demand in each Turn 10 PH100/0S 100.00 0.00 (*)

PH100/100S 31.70 9.50

GA Parameters SH100/100S 100.00 0.00 (*)

SH80/20S 100.00 0.00 (*)

Iterations Number 100

PH100/100R 28.97 15.01

Population Size 10

Crossover Probability 0.8 (*) means that instance doesnt converge

Mutation Probability 0.2 never in 100 iterations.

We prove many others effects: Maximum Demand,

Selection Method Drawing

Number of Blocks, Population Size, Drawpoints Number.

Almost all of them gives a linear dependence between the

The solution to this problem was obtained in 63 iterations. number of iterations needed to reach the optimum and the

increase of the values. The only factor that shows

exponential behavior is Maximum Demand, i.e., if we vary

0.02 0.10 0.02

the Maximum Demand parameter then the number of

0.10 0.51 0.10

iterations needed to converge grows exponentially. We

0.02 0.10 0.02

summarize this effects in the following table:

Effect Variation Result constructed with the same philosophy so we can expect

some kind of integration and scale economies between +

Max. Demand Grow Exponential Grow both models.

Number of Blocks Grow Linear Grow In the future we hope to construct a model that

Population Size Grow Linear Decrease incorporates gravitational flow simulations and downstream

Drawpoints Number Grow Linear Grow operations.

Another source of extensions to the model is to consider

operational events as stochastic processes. In this way

D. Real Scale Example simulations of extraction charts would be more realistic. In order

This example was runned with the following parameters: to accomplish this objective is needed historical data to calibrate

the parameters of the involved stochastic processes.

Application Parameters

VII. CONCLUSIONS

Turn Number 12

As an obvious first conclusion we have that this problem

Max. Demand in each Turn 100 has a very large number of involved variables.

Number of Drawpoints 171 In this moment its really very difficult consider the hole

complexity of this problem. For example at the moment

Number of Blocks 400000

there arent appropriate models to handle the breaking of

the solid rock.

GA Parameters Another important conclusion is that the stochastic nature

of the phenomenon is hard to include in the modeling

process. Some attempts have been made but at the

Iterations Number 34

moment this efforts are in initial development. The proposed

Population Size 8 methodology could be applied in real type situations. The

Crossover Probability 1 response times are good compared with human planners.

The most important advantages of the methodology is that

Mutation Probability 1

we can test in an efficient way many choices and that the

Selection Policy Between Parents and Sons search procedure is well conducted.

Selection Method Drawing With this methodology we are in presence of a flexible

model that can be customized to satisfy the planner needs.

Ayuda a la Investigacin), Proyecto Ingeniera 2004,

Execution Time 3:11 Universidad de Los Andes.

Iterations Number 34 REFERENCES

We can extrapolate this result and see that in real [1] Eric Goles y Sebastin Pea: Modelamiento y

situations it would take about 8 hours to finish the Simulacin del Flujo Gravitacional. Informe Final PB5-

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[2] Gregorio Gonzlez: Estudio del Comportamiento de un

VI. EXTENSIONS TO THE MODEL Material Granular Mediante Modelos Computacionales.

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PB5- 10004, Apndice N3, 1996.

Recently, an extension of the model proposed in this [5] Zbigniew Michalewicz: Genetic Algorithms + Data

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Genetic Algorithms too and the main characteristics are: [6] Nelson Morales: Modelos Matemticos para

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