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ARGUMENTATIVE SPEAKING

By :

SITI ANNISA
1502050033

PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS


UNIVERSITAS MUHHAMADIYAH SUMATERA UTARA
MEDAN
2017
PREFACE

First of all, thanks to Allah SWT because of the help of Allah, writer
finished writing the paper entitled Argumentative Speaking right in the
calculated time.
In arranging this paper, the writer trully get lots challenges and
obstructions but with help of many indiviuals, those obstructions could passed.
writer also realized there are still many mistakes in process of writing this paper.
Because of that, the writer says thank you to all individuals who helps in
the process of writing this paper. hopefully allah replies all helps and bless you
all.the writer realized tha this paper still imperfect in arrangment and the content.
then the writer hope the criticism from the readers can help the writer in
perfecting the next paper.last but not the least Hopefully, this paper can helps the
readers to gain more knowledge about samantics major.

Medan, Mei 2017


Author
ARGUMENTATIVE SPEAKING

Defenition Of Argumentative Speech


Argumentative speech is a persuasive speech. Here, speaker efforts to
encourage audiences to alter their views on a controversial issue. Though they are
alike in some manner, persuasive and argumentative speech contains different
goals. A persuasive speech focuses on sharing a perspective and asking the public
to think it over. An argumentative speech targets to alter the viewpoint already
detained by the audiences. This type of speech is challenging. So, the speaker
should pick up the topic that he is confident at and come up with a strong
argument. When you involve into debates with family or friends, you obviously
tend to win or lose. The way of arguing shows your capability to compel facts and
concept supporting a topic. While losing an argument, chances are you only used
standpoint supporting your situation. In a perfect argumentative speech, there
should be strong claim and the points to support it.
For argumentative speech,discover a concrete and controversial argument
to use as your foundation. These speeches generally focus on the topics discussed
at the moment by society. Most of the topics of the argumentative speech are
derivative of the political discussion. This is usually noticed in the media. The
selected topic might be social, religious, ethical or political by nature. The public
must be confident to revise their long-held values. They might ask to change
detained conviction relevant to the recent evidence. Indeed, picking up a topic
which is debatable is important to develop good speech. The topic should not
include something which is already demonstrated or verified. Instead, should be
logical to convince the audiences. The speaker should come up with a strong
opinion to make his speech realistic to the audiences.

What a Speaker Must Know About Effective Argumentative Speaking


Argumentative speaking - the speaker appeals to his audience mainly
through the use of reason. Action is not demanded, at least not immediate action.
Through a presentation of a series of logical reasons, the audience is made to
understand what the issues are and is given ample time to reflect and then to
deliberate before action is taken. Argumentative speaking - the speaker appeals to
his audience mainly through the use of reason. Action is not demanded, at least
not immediate action. Through a presentation of a series of logical reasons, the
audience is made to understand what the issues are and is given ample time to
reflect and then to deliberate before action is taken.
What factors must a speaker consider in preparing an effective
argumentative speech? How can he become a convincing argumentative speaker?
Argumentative speaking centers primarily on controversial issues. The principal
objective is to arrive at the truth of the matter. Here are some factors to consider in
preparing for argumentative speaking:
1. Argumentative speeches involve problem analysis and making decisions about
the problem at hand after solutions are arrived at. For this reason,
argumentative speaking to be effective requires a clear statement of the
problem and an analysis of the important issues or questions upon which the
speaker and the audience are divided.
2. Since disagreement creates the need for argumentative speaking, the speaker
must learn how to influence his audience by presenting views and information
on the subject, by summoning evidences and by using reasoning, and, lastly,
by employing added persuasiveness through the appeals to motives.
3. Since the end of argumentative speaking is to convince the audience or to win
them to the side of the speaker, the speaker must demonstrate the ability to
think logically and clearly. He must show the reasons and causes behind things
and what the results of certain actions might be through evidences in order to
back up and prove or disprove a particular point of view.
4. To convince his listeners, a speak may employ these types of appeals:
evidences of facts or of opinions, specific instances to substantiate the
proposal for or against, analogies, causal reasoning, use of authority to lend
veracity and force to the arguments and categorical syllogisms for valid
reasoning. On the other hand, a speaker must also guard against the errors or
fallacies of reasoning that may weaken his arguments and may lead him to the
defeat of his objectives such as the following: hasty generalizations, the non-
sequitur or faulty syllogistic reasoning, false analogies, arguing in circles, that
is assuming a fact to be true and drawing out a conclusion, arriving at
irrelevant conclusions by means of evading the main issues or showing
ignorance of the subject under discussion, false assumptions, false appeal to
common knowledge, ambiguity of terms, and substitution of emotional
appeals for proper evidences and reasoning.
5. In argumentative speaking, the speaker must establish goodwill by the use of
encouraging words and sincere praises for their capacity to uphold their ideals
and must create responsive attitudes through emotional sincerity in his mode
of speech delivery.
6. Presenting a neat and well-groomed appearance, effective use of the voice,
that is varying the tone and inflection of the voice during the argument of
issues, using dramatic pauses at some significant parts of the speech for
emotional affect, effective meaningful gestures used to accompany words,
good choice of words, and vivid, forceful language delivered in a forceful
manner - all these are valuable aids to help a speaker win his audience to his
side.

The Art of Persuasive Public Speaking


Learn how to master the art of public speaking and persuade people. Get :
To be able to argue in a reasonable and logical way is the fine life skill. It helps to
stand up for what you think is correct and let others give attention to your
viewpoints. For an instance, if the topic includes eating egg and milk affects your
healthiness. You evaluate the opponent and create the own topic like Eating egg
and milk does not affect your health. Yet, you have to give strong points to
support your answer.
Terms to Present Argumentative Speech
These are some terms which help you to present an ideal argumentative
speech:
Claim
This is the main term that you should focus. Try to give a strong standpoint.
Support on the point, position, and the issue you are talking about. Do not
forget the main purpose of the speech.
Grounds
Grounds are the key information or the facts that you use to make your point
more powerful and reliable. Make sure that the details you give are an
appropriate reason for your claims in the initial place.

Argumentative Speech is based on:


Claims of fact
It starts with the reality relevant to the evidence. For an instance, you drink too
much alcohol and do not exercise. Then, you will surely put up the weight. If
you control your drinks, then you can maintain the weight.
Claims of value
Claims of value include the belief something is correct or incorrect, good or
bad. For an instance, punishing children is wrong. It does not improve the
habits of your children.
Here you can also state Punishing children is right. They will think properly
before doing anything wrong
Claims of policy
Claims of the policy are taken from the course of actions. For an instance, you
should be able to vote through the driving license. There is a precise rule for
the policy. It is realistic and superior compared to the current system.
Every child should learn different languages in the school. It is vital to
introduce teacher to the value of beginning foreign language experience.
While initiating the argumentative speech, get ready with the strong
arguments. You desire to give an influential impact right in front. Also, you
might wish to leave a good impression to the audiences hearing your speech.
Stay away from personal attacks. If you make the argument too boring, there
will be a higher chance of losing your audiences.
Besides, argumentative speech needs a powerful viewpoint on the topic that
you are delivering. Remember, the goal is not to win your audience but to win
the argument. You have to stand on your own point with an appropriate
reason.

Essential components of an Argumentative speech:


The main goal of an argumentative essay is to influence other in your
opinions. Generally, an argumentative speech addresses an audience with an
opposite opinion on a specific subject.

Here are four essential elements to focus when developing an argumentative


essay:
1. Pick Up debatable topic
While picking up a topic, you should select the topic with more than a single
side. For an instance, there is no way discuss on the topic human smell with
the nose. It is familiar fact which has no other strong points to discuss against.
2. Take a strong standpoint
While preparing for an argumentative speech, take a strong standpoint. Try to
stick with the stance. This makes your speech powerful. Make sure you do not
confuse the audiences with any irrelevant points.
3. Give some supportable arguments
A good argument needs to have reasonable and convincing evidence. Better
support your statement with information, figures, examples, and some relevant
opinions. Also, argumentative speech does not contain unproven opinions.
Make sure you research and present the argument that is a relevant argument.
4. Refute alternate positions
At the end of a strong argumentative speech, you have to refute alternate
positions. By dealing with the opponent, make some powerful argument. Try
to work on some common and stronger viewpoint.
Tips for delivering an Argumentative Speech:
Look for a concrete and controversial argument to use as your base.
Arrange your points properly. Arranging the points can be helpful while
planning your thoughts and presenting them
Give most of your time for research. Better research on your topics along
with the topics which your opposition is likely to pick up.

How to develop an effective Argumentative Speech?


After picking up the fine controversial topic, you should work on some
powerful points. Those points must make your speech influential. Start developing
an outline which translates into better argumentative speech.

These are some points to consider while working on an argumentative


speech:
1. Look for your topic
From absorption to health, you can find any types of the topic which you feel
comfortable to present.
2. Recognize your standpoint
At first, think the topic that you are supporting. Are you supporting abortion or
speaking against it? Most of the speaker loves to speak against abortion, but
should be confident to speak on the topic.
Better verify and try to prove the facts using some examples or the supportive
words. This makes your speech more powerful and interesting. Consider to
determine whether you are attempting to take the topic.
3. Carry out the research
You can definitely find the people who have worked for or else against the
topic that you picked up earlier. For this, you have to carry out the research
well. But, this does not mean you have to copy from them. Just take your idea
and use them in a better way. This helps to know what step you should take to
move forward to make a good flow of the argument.
4. Know who your opposition is
Each argumentative speech contains both for and against the side. The best
probable approach that you can use is to know your opponent. Knowing how
your opponent thinks and the points they use makes you easy to perform.
5. Know the facts
An argumentative speech might be weak if you do not provide any facts. For a
good outcome, you need facts supporting your argument on the controversial
topic. If you ignore this you might be in the problem while presenting the
speech. Be sure, you know and give the facts and make your points strong.
These facts reduce your risk of looking unprepared and unprofessional.
6. Choose the topic of your interest
You cannot give better outcome without a passion. To present superior
argumentative speech, you should have an interest in the topic. Better select
the topic of your interest. This helps you to work and perform better. If you do
not trust yourself and your topic, no one will as well.
Deciding on the arguable topic is essential to develop an effective
argumentative speech. Better do not pick up the topic which needs great logic
for convincing the audience. You should have an extreme desire in the topic
with a deep opinion on the subject. If he cannot fulfill these criteria, he might
not provide influencing arguments.

Example Of A Persuasive Speech

Global Warming

There is little doubt that the planet is warming. Over the last century, the
planets temperature has risen by around 1 degree fahrenheit (0.6 of a degree
celsius). The warmest since the mid 1800s was the 1990s. The hottest years
recorded were 1997, 1998, 2001, 2002, 2003.

The United Nations panel on climate change projects that the global
temperatures will rise 3-10 degrees fahrenheit by the centurys end enough to
have the polar caps all but melted. If the ice caps melt, a vast majority of our
countries borders will be under water. Monuments and great buildings, as well as
homes and lives will be under water, including New York City.

So now we know what some of the causes are for global warming, how
can we as individuals do our part to help save the planet?

The answer is simpler than you may think. You dont have to go miles
away from home to protest, or spend masses of money. If you try to follow the
few simple steps that I shall now give you, you will have started to help us all.

Firstly, plant a tree. This could be easier than it sounds. Join or help out a
local wildlife group and ask to plant a tree. Trees, when fully grown, will help
keep the planet cooler. On the same point, you could protest against the
demolition of the rainforests. This is the same principle, we need the trees to cool
our planet and yet they are chopping them down to create roads or homes.

Something as simple as walking instead of taking the car will help reduce
pollution. As well as stopping pollution, you are giving yourself exercise,
something important for our bodies. So the next time you get into your car, or
your motorbike, think do I have to make this journey by vehicle or can I walk?

When you are at home, and your getting a little cold. Put a jumper on and
do not adjust the heating. The extra heat produced by our homes also affects the
planet. So try wearing an extra layer in winter.

If possible, buy your fruit and vegetables from local suppliers. And try to
avoid imported goods. The more foreign food that we import the more pollution
from aeroplanes and boats it will create.

Keeping to the speed limit can also help the environment. The more you
speed the more petrol you are going to use, making the pollution higher. Also,
SUVs make about six times their own weight in CO2 each year. A small efficient
diesel car covering the same distance not only uses much less fuel; it makes two
thirds less.
If possible use solar energy, after all it is free; all you need to buy is the
equipment. You can get much of your hot water and heating from the sun and
even generate electricity.

Reduce, reuse and recycle. Only buy what you need; dont stock the
cupboards with things you may or may not use. Reuse whatever you can, like
containers and paper, and recycle what you cannot reuse. It really is as simple as
that.

Finally turning off unused sources of power such as televisions and heaters
will help the environment, as well as save you money.

If everybody stuck to these rules, we would be doing a great thing by


protecting the earth. So please take into consideration what I have said, and try to
do your part. After all, it will be our next generation that will feel the effects.
Conclusion

The above mentioned topics and tips for argumentative speech should help you
prepare and deliver an argumentative speech. If you have any suggestion or
feedback, please let me know in the comment below.