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31/10/16

ME 46005:
Physics and Measurement

Assignment 4:

Optics

Answers and peer evaluation

Make sure you write the following:

Last name:
First name:
Student number:

Make sure all the papers are stapled

Now give it to your neighbor.


Make sure you see name and student number,
Otherwise, return it to the person who gave you.

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Make this table on the first page

Points
Problem 1
Problem 2
Problem 3
Problem 4
Problem 5
Total

Problem 1

phasors interpret wave functions as vectors


Im 1 = A1 cos = A1 Re ei

2 = A2 cos ( + ) = A2 Re ei( + )
i sin 3 = A3 cos ( + ') = A3 Re ei( + ')
e i


1
A3
for A1=A2=A0 : '+ ' = cos ' = 2
cos

1 Re A0
3 = A3 cos ( + ')
= 2A0 cos ( 12 ) cos ( + 12 )
Im Im

A2 A3
A3 A0
+ A3


A1 2 A0
1 Re Re
3
3 4

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Problem 1

wrong:
Spherical aberrations are a fact of the spherical shape of a lens, must be
corrected with aspherical shape

Rays at distance from the


optical axis have other focal
length than rays closer by.
With an aspheric surface
this can be solved.

Problem 1

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Problem 1

anisotriopic wave propagation: different speed for different polarization direction

Problem 1

Such an object will be imaged at the focal plane.


The focal distance is defined as the image distance of an infinitely far object.
The light rays of such an object are parallel when they arrive at the lens.
Parallel rays intersect on the focal plane.

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Problem 1

Problem 1

Principal planes are plains used to construct images of thick lenses

principle plains

V
_ _ _
F V H H F

o i

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Problem 1

principle planes

V
_ _ _
F V H H F

o i
cardinal points : - front focal point (F) rear focal point (F)
- front principal point (H) and rear principal point (H)
- front vertex (V) and read vertex (V)

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Problem 1

At the interface, the disturbance arrives at a certain frequency. This is also


affecting (disturbing) the interface with a certain rate.

The interface hands on these disturbances with the same rate, however,
speed of handing it to the next volume element may be slower. Hence, the
wavelength is decreasing.

In case of a transverse, elastic wave in a string, the individual string element


is still moving up and down at the same rate as its neighbor element.
However the speed with which the disturbance is spreading may change.
Hence, the wave length changes.

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Problem 1

Coloured light exposes black and white films, Hence the coloured hallow
that is caused by chromatic aberration of the lens will also cause a
fuzziness in the B/W pictures.

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Problem 1
x k) Gas discharge lamps produce highly coherent light.

!
temporal coherence: How long is the em-field inside the light beam
at a fixed location in ~ phase
-> linked to bandwidth of light

lowest frequency

highest frequency

the bandwidth of an emission line of is not very narrow and


hence the coherence of the light is low albeit higher than the
one of an incandescent lamp 14

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Problem 1

Phenomenon Can be explained in terms Can be explained in terms


of waves of particles
Reflection

Refraction

Interference

Diffraction

Polarization

Photoelectric effect

Model for light:


The propagation of light is governed by its wave properties, whereas
the exchange of energy between light and matter is governed by its
particle properties (packets of energy and momentum).
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Problem 1

the angle between the E and B field is always 90 degree.


The polarization of light gives the direction of the E-field

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Problem 1

h
Momentum of photon is given by: p=

1
as the wavelength depends on n: medium = vacuum
n

it can be seen that p is indeed directly proportional to n

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Problem 1

Light adsorption and emission is H emission adsorption


wavelength
spectrum spectrum
caused by energy transitions in
400nm
the atoms or molecules. Atoms
and Molecules have discreet
levels of energy that they can
assume. Hence the adsorbed light
energy is about the same as the
emitted. There is a small
difference due to conservation of
momentum in the adsorption and
emission process. Effects are
small and often screened by the 656nm
uncertainty of the energy level of
the atomic state. 700nm

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Problem 1

1 point for each correct answer

Points
Problem 1 Add points scored for this problem
(Total for 15 points) and enter here
Problem 2
Problem 3
Problem 4
Problem 5
Total

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Problem 2a 3 points
So"

R"
A"
O" " "
"
" V" l -> 1 point
"
C"
I"
Si"

triangle OAC: =+
triangle OAI: = +2
=> + = 2
-> 1 point

using paraxial approximation:


L/So; L/R; L/Si and eliminating L

gives the required expression for the image distance 1 1 2 -> 1 point
+ =
So Si R
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Problem 2b 2 points

Then use the definition of the focal point = image of an -> 1 point
infinitesimally far object,

hence 1/So=0 and 1/Si = 1/f => f = R/2 -> 1 point

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y"

Problem 2c 10 points
x"

approach:
1. focus = image of object at infinity; these objects have parallel rays
-> 1 point
2. choose such that the rays are parallel to the axis of the paraboloid

3. Pick one arbitrary ray, intersect it with the parabola at point A, look for -> 1 point
its reflection

4. For reflection the tangent to the parabola at this point is needed, this -> 1 point
is a curve with the slope of the tagent

5. The slope of a curve is equal to its derivative (gradient), for the -> 1 point
parabola here: dy d a
m= = a x =
dx dx 2 x
6. construct this curve: Extend the incoming ray through the parabola
and intersect it with the y axis, which defines point B. Construct a point -> 1 point
A having the same distance as A from B but on the opposite (positive x)
side of the y-axis. [=mirror of A]
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y"

Problem 2c 10 points
x"

cont:
7. Draw a normal to the x-axis through A. Its foot-point is point C -> 1 point

8. The line connecting C with A has the desired slope, hence is the
required tangent -> 1 point
(math: |AB| = x; |AA| = 2x ; |CA| = y = a x;
The slope of CA = |CA|/-|AA| = - y / 2x = -a/(2 x ) as required

9. Draw the normal to the tangent through A this produces the normal -> 1 point
needed to apply the law of reflection.

10. Use incoming i = reflected r construct appropriately -> 1 point

11. Intersect the reflected ray with the x-axis: argue that either due to
symmetry or the fact that the x-axis is also a parallel ray but it is -> 1 point
reflected in itself (tangent at vertex is perpendicular to x-axis). Hence
the intersection point F of the reflected ray with the x-axis equals the
sought for focal point

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Problem 2c 10 points
construction
y=a x x<0

A B A
i
r

F C x

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Problem 2d 2 points

spherical aberration chromatic aberration


refracting
yes yes
lens

reflecting
spherical mirror yes no
-> 1 point
reflecting
no no
parabolic mirror
-> 1 point

Both spherical refracting lenses and reflecting mirrors


have spherical aberrations.
The parabolic reflecting mirrors do not show that
aberration.
Both mirrors do not show chromatic aberrations.

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Problem 2e 3 points

parabolic mirrors do not show spherical or chromatic aberrations -> 1 point

mirrors have less losses, as compared to lenses the light is only


-> 1 point
reflected, hence weaker signals can still be detected

the opening (size) of the optics defines the resolution. It is easier


to make stable and precise large mirrors than large lenses, as
-> 1 point
mirrors can be rigidly supported from the back, lenses only from the
rim!

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Points
Problem 1

Problem 2 Add points scored for this problem


(Total for 20 points) and enter here
Problem 3
Problem 4
Problem 5
Total

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Problem 3a 10 points

problem solving strategy: try to solve the dynamics of the transverse motion

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TRANSVERSAL WAVE IN A STRING

x
=T
Forces acting on m ? =
m

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TRANSVERSE FORCE COMPONENTS

Ty= T sin x
=T
=
Fy = T (sin - sin )

Ty=- T sin

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Problem 3a 10 points

problem solving strategy: try to solve the dynamics of the transverse motion
split rope into small elements of mass m=1 dx,
define deflection of rope as u -> 1 point

look at forces that act on these elements as function of location


=> tensile tension T -> 1 point

introduce angle to describe the disturbance (deflection of rope in direction of


y-axis -> look at as function of x and time t -> 1 point

split forces into components parallel and perpendicular to the x-axis


-> 1 point
-> Fx and Fy ; realize that only Fy is causing the transversal deflection!

Calculate Fy as function of x,t or respectively, look at the two ends of the


mass element (as there are opposing forces!) -Fy and Fy -> 1 point
Fy= T(sin sin )

-> now we have mass (m) and force acting on it!


-> upwards force = upwards acceleration times mass
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Problem 3a 10 points

cont. problem solving strategy


use small angle approximation: sin tan Fy = T (tan ' tan ) -> 1 point

use slope of rope =T ( tan ) dx -> 1 point
x
to express
tan as
f(u):
u u
= tan Fy = T dx -> 1 point
x x x
2 u
=T dx
x 2

2 2 u
Newton: Fy = m u = dx
t 2 t 2
1

-> 1 point
2 u T 2 u
= -> 1 point
t 2 1 x 2
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Problem 3b 2 points

increase the tensile stress will increase the velocity -> 1 point
increase the linear mass density will decrease the velocity -> 1 point

Problem 3c 3 points

i = i 0 cos(k1 x t)

t = t 0 cos(k2 x t)

r = r 0 cos(k1 x + t) -> one point each -> watch out for correct sign

33

REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION OF WAVES


area 1 area 2
y i = i 0 cos(k1 x t)
r = r 0 cos(k1 x + t)
i+r t
t = t 0 cos(k2 x t)
x
= i + r = t

at x=0 : 0i + 0r = 0t

vertical force for all x : Fy = T sin T tan = T
x

=> for all x in (1) : Fy = T i + r = Tk1 [0i sin(k1x t) 0r sin(k1x + t)]
x x

for all x in (2) : Fy = T t = Tk20t sin(k2 x t)
x
forces at x=0
must be equal : k1 ( 0i 0r ) = k2 0t use: sin(-)=-sin

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Problem 3d 10 points

boundary condition at x=0, amplitudes left = amplitude right -> 1 point

expression for vertical force correct -> 3 point

forces left and forces right of interface must be equal at interface -> 1 point

correct calculation k1 ( 0i 0r ) = k2 0t -> 1 point

2k1
0t = 0i -> 1 point
k1 + k2

k1 k2
0r = 0i -> 1 point
k1 + k2
0t 22 -> 1 point
translation into transmission coefficient T= =
0i 1 + 2
0r 2 1 -> 1 point
translation into reflection coefficient R= =
0i 1 + 2
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Problem 3e 5 points

realize that is indirect proportional to phase velocity v: -> 1 point

0t 2 2 => incoming and transmitted amplitude have the same


T= = >0
0i 1 + 2 orientation -> no phase change
-> 2 point

0r 2 1 => for v2>v1 hence 2<1: R >0 hence no phase change


R= =
0i 1 + 2 => for v2<v1 hence 2>1: R <0 hence phase change
-> 2 point

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Points
Problem 1
Problem 2
Problem 3 Add points scored for this problem
(Total for 30 points) and enter here
Problem 4
Problem 5
Total

37

Problem 4a 5 points

In stead of 1 there are now 2 surfaces at which partial reflection


occurs. -> 1 point

When the layer thickness is /4, the second reflected wave will
again reach the first surface with a phase shift of with respect -> 1 point
to the first reflected wave. (1point)

Then, there will be destructive interference between both -> 1 point


reflected waves.

Therefore, no power of the incoming wave is transferred to the


reflected wave and reflection is eliminated. (2 points) -> 2 point

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Problem 4b 5 points

n1 cos i n2 cos t
r= -> 1 point
Start with given formula for normal incidence n1 cos i + n2 cos t

Calculate reflection coefficient at the 2 interfaces (and set them


equal to each other)

n1 nc n n
=r= c 2 -> 1 point
n1 + nc nc + n2
(n n ) (n + n ) = (n + n ) (n
1 c c 2 1 c c
n2 )
n1 nc + n1 n2 n n2 nc = n1 nc n1 n2 + nc2 n2 nc
2
c

2 n1 n2 = 2 nc2
nc = n1 n2 -> 3 points for correct math

39

Problem 4c 5 points

A different angle of incidence will result in a larger optical path. (2 points)

Therefore, the OPD will be more than . (1 point)

Therefore, the interference will not be fully destructive (1 point),

meaning a worse performance of the coating. (1 point)

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Points
Problem 1
Problem 2
Problem 3
Problem 4 Add points scored for this problem
(Total for 15 points) and enter here
Problem 5
Total

41

Problem 5a 7 points

Both matrices rely on the paraxial approximation, meaning that tan() sin() .
(2 pts)
x2 = x1 + d tan1 1 x1 + d 1
2 = 0 x1 +1 1

x x1
x1 x2 2 = 1 d
0 1 1
d
2
(1 pt for sketch) (1 pt for correct math)

+
x2 = x1 = 1 x1 + 0 1
x1
x1
2
2 = 1 arctan = 1f x1 +1 1
f
f
x
2 = 1 0 x1

1f 1
2 1
(1 pt for sketch
(2 pts for correct math)
using parallel ray) 42

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Problem 5b 5 points

(2 pts for sketch)

If the object is placed at f1, the image will be projected in f2.


Between both lenses, the rays are parallel.
This means that a defocus will not change the magnification of the image.

(3 pts)

43

Problem 5c 8 points

Consider the ray parallel to the optical axis (easy as angle=0) (1 pt)
After lens 2, it should again be parallel to the optical axis. (1 pt)
The heights of the rays are the size of the object, respectively the size of
the image (1 pt)

imag
1 f 2 1 0
1 f1 + f 2 1 0
1 f1 obj (2 pts)
=
1
1 f 2 1 0 1 1
0 0 1 f1 0
1 0

imag ff2 0 obj
= 1
(2 pts)

0 0 ff1 0
2
imag f (1 pt)
M= = 2
obj f1

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Points
Problem 1
Problem 2
Problem 3
Problem 4
Problem 5 Add points scored for this problem
(Total for 15 points) and enter here
Total

Points
Problem 1
Problem 2
Problem 3
Problem 4
Problem 5
Total Add all points scored and enter here
(Total for 100 points)
45

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