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Markers of becoming an adult

Chapter 13: Physical and

Permanent full-time job after
Cognitive Development school
in Early Adulthood Econ independence
Thursday, May 11, 2017 o Co-residence - slowed
8:08 PM down process of being self-
The Transition from sufficeint
Taking respon for oneself
Adolescence to But usuaylly americans in
Adulthood industrialized societes
Some countries = marriage
Becoming and Adult
EA = Emerging Adulthood Transition from HS to College
18-25 yo Grad high and go to college =
Experimentation and impt part of transition
exploration Top-dog phenom
Key features (Arnett Interaction with more diverse
1 ID exploration - love and peers
Increased focus on achievement
2 Instabilitiy
i Residential changes, Positive
love, work, educ o Feel grown up
1 Self-focused o More subjects
2 Feeling in-between o More time with peers
3 Age of possibilities, o More opportunities
transformation o Greater independence
Resilience o Challenged by acads
o Postive direction from But more stress and depression
troubled adolsecence
o Increased freedom
Physical Development
Plan ahead
Physical Performance and
Delay fgratificaiton
Postitive choices
Peak levels of phys performance
After adolescence = more
Young adult and athletes
adolesence/ x adulthood (Allen)
o Different for all tho
o How to be more mature
Peak, but also beginning of
Opportunities to be
Lessening of phys abilities
Candid, quality
feedbakc Health
Postive dault More than twice the mortality
connections with rate of adolescents
adolescents Few chronic health probs
Challenge Doesnt apply health shit even if
adolescents to be more they know it
Bad health habits = during Inherit tendency to
adolescene be overweight
Inactivity, pooor diet, obesity, High level of
aubstance abuse, low repro activity resuced degree
health, of genetic linkage
Donest consider how perso o Envi factors
lifestyle affects us Greater availabitily
o Not eating of food
o Snakcks Ejergy-saving
o Overeating devices
o Drinking Declining phys act
o Poor health = low life Sociocultural
satisfaction o Dieating
Dieting =
o Not smoking obsessoin
o Exercising
Few are successful
o Sun portection
o Fruits
Most effective
o Fat intake With
o NOT alchohol and fiber exercise
intake Daily weigh
Improve by
o Dont overeat Regular Exercise
o Good eating habits Prevents chronic disorders
o Exercise Aerobic exercise
o No drugs o 30 mins daily
o Enough sleep o Sustained exercise
No sleep o Jogging swimming cycling
o Many college students o Increase heart rate to
o May contrib to 60%
cardiovascular disease Benefits mental health too
o Shortened lifespan o Reduces anxiety
o 8 hours of sleep or more depression
dapat o Improves elf concept
o Why no sleep Strategies
Work pressures, o Reduce screen time
school pressure, fam o Chart your progress
ob, social ob o Get rid of excuses
Check-up o Imagine the alternative
Eating and Weight Substance Abuse
Obesity Addiction = beh characterized
Increased risk of hypertensionm by an overwhelming involvement
diabetes, cardiovascular disease with a drug and a preoccupation
Mental health probs with securing its supply
o Heredity Binge drinking
o College Sexual Activity in Emerging
o Extreme binge drinking = Adulthood
10 or more ina row Most have sex
o Absence in class, phys
Sexually active and unmarried
injuries, troubles with popo,
unprotected sex Uncertainty
o Develop arteriosclerosis Sexual script
o Pre-game o Stereotyped pattern of
o Peak = 21-22 yo, then role prescriptions on how
declines indives should behave
Alcoholism sexually
o Long-term, repeteated,
o Sex drive
uncontrolled, impulsive, i. Men = always
excessive use of alcohol ready
o ii. Women = inhibit
Impairs health and social
o Phys and emo sex
i. Men = phys
o Usually also related to
ii. Women =
o Genetic predespostion o Sex performance
(50-60%) i. Should be both
o Envi sexually skilled
Close relatives ii. Women = oral sex
Cultural variations skills
o They recover o Initiation and gateway
Cigarette smoking and Nicotines scripts
o Many health probs i. Men initiate sex
ii. Women are
Cancer, heart
gatekeepers (set sexual
disease, pulmo disease limits)
Asthma (second o Sex eval
hand smoke = children) i. Single and sexual
o Less smokers now = judged negatively
o e-cigarettes ii. Men are rewarded
o Want to quit 1. Nega
Addiction = judgement if too
challenge sexual and casual
with diff women
Nicotines -
increases energy and Casual sex
alertness o More common
Stimulates o Hooking up
dopamine Impulsivity,
Calmi sensation seeking,
ng alcohol use
o Friends with benefits
reducing Friendship with sex
without commitment
SEXUALITY Predictos of risky hetero
o Men Sexual desire
o Sexually active in increases
adolescent o Early critical period
o In college = less than o Genetic, hormonal, envi,
those who didnt go to cog factors
college No single factor
o Alcohol alone ingluences sexual
Sexual Orientation and orientation
Behavior o Although genes play role,
Heterosexual Attitudes and not as strong as other
Behavior characteristics such as
American's sexial lives are more intelligence
conservative than was previously Attitudes and Beh of Lesbians and
believed Gays
Adultery = exception rather Gender differences
than the rule o Lesbians
Do not engage in kinky sexual Fewer sex partners
acts Less permissive
Sexual beh = ruled by marriage Hate crimes
and monogamy Sexually Transmitted
Men = more permissive Infections
attitudes Spread thhrough sex contact
o Porn, masturbation, o Intercourse
casual sex
o Oral-genital
Can also be related to well- o Anal-genital
being, life statisfaction lol
Sources of Sexual Orientation
o Destroys immune system
Not an either/or preposition, but
o Leads to AIDS
a continuum
Bisexuality is legit Dev of drug
Similar physio responses during o Declined in US (AIDS)
sexual arousal, aroused by same
tactile stimulation
o Knoe your risk status and
No difference bt LGB and
your partner's
straight people
o Obtain med examinations
Women = more likely to change o Protected sex
sexual patterns and desires o No multiple partners
o Same and opposite-sex
o Other STIS
More likely to identify
selves a s bisexual
o Gonorrhea
Why are people gay Drip/clap
o Hormone studies Discharge
If given more Painful urination
testosterone, doesnt o Syphilis
make them straight Sores
Skin rash
Sprad to o Phys contact
plams/feet o Sexual assaults
o Chlamydia o Crude rmarks, jokes,
Infects genital gestures
organs Also men, but rarely
o Genital herpes Eliminatin
Family of viruses o Work, and acad envi that
o AIDS provide equal opportunities
HIV bt men and women
o To dev carrer and obtain
Destroys immune
educ in climate free of sex
Semen and blood
o Genital warts
Cognitive Development
Small, hard,
Cognitive Stages
painless bumps Piaget's View
Can cause cervical Adolescnet and adult think in
cancer same way
Forcible Sexual Behavior and Formal operational
Sexual Harassment o Logical
Rape o Abstract
Forcible sexual intercourse o Idealistic
without consent Adults
Victims = reluctant to suffer o Advanced in thinking bc
cons of reporting they know more
Rape of men does occur o Increase knowledge in
Why? specific area
o Males = socially Not all engage in formal
aggressive operational
o Aggression Postformal thought
o Angry at women Reflective, relativistic,
o Want to hurt or humiliate contextual
victims Provisional
o Drinking alcohol Realistic
Recognized as being influ by
o Dpression, fear, anxiety emotion
o Make changes
Date/acquaintance rape o Postformal thought
o Rape with whom the questionnaire
perpetrator is at least o 3 main categs
casually acquainted
Taking into acct
Sexual Harassment
multiple aspects of
Power of one over another
Many forms
o Sexual remarks
Making Monitoring the Occupational
subjusctuve choice in Outlook
particular prob Look at jobs in various fields
Perceiving Impact of Work
underlying complexities
Defines people
in a situation
o Financial standing
Creativity o Houseing, where they live
Most creative products = when o Peers
they were 30 o Health
Creativity peaks in adulthood o Identity
but declines, then peaks in 40s
Structure and rhythm to life
Not a great decline
Decline depends on field o Unemployment
o Older: philo, histo o Disappearing long-term
o 20s, 30s,: lyric poetry, careers
abstract math, theo physics o Stress
Employers dont often meet
Careers and Work expectations
Developmental Changes Workers = want flexibility and
Career decision making = more greater control
serious Work during College
Choosing a major, Offset costs of schooling
specialization, Restrict learning opportunities
Establish career in particular But grades suffer
field, climb up ladder, stable Co-op programs
Internship, summer job = helps
u land jobs
o Career mystique Unemployment
Cultural belief: Produces stress
hardwork -> status,
Physical probs
security, happiness
Never beenn a Marital problems
reality bc privilege Homicide
Finding a Path to Purpose Low life satisfaction
William Damon Decreased self-esteem
Purpose = missing element in o Must be supported by
life fam
Dual-earner Couples
Most teachers and parents
communicate the importance of Challenge in balancing work and
studying hard and getting good family life
grades but rarely discuss the o Who takes care of
purpose of acad achievement children?
Students often focus on short Division of work changed
term goals o Men = maintaining home
Purpose -> well-being o Women = breadwinning
o Men = more interest in Fewer emo mood swings - child
family and parenting Active before, still active adult
Adaptive strategie s Temperaments
Gender inequalities persist o Easy and difficult
o Women earn less Easy temp kids =
o Dual-earner: in favor of well adjusted adults
Diff kids = not well
o Women = more family
interference o Inhibition
Better rel
Inhibited kid - not
o Postive attitide to
assertive adutl
multiple roles o Ability to control one's
o Planning and
management skills
o Not having to cut back on
Continuity bt temperament and
profession respon childhood and adjustment in early
Diversity in the Workplace
Women have entered labor
Romantic partners
o Same needs for adults as
Ethnic diversity
parents do for children
There is still difficulty breaking o Partners- secure base to
through glass ceiling that which they can return and
prevents them from being get comfort and security
Securely attached with parents
Prevents women and ethnic = securely attached with
minorities from holding top jobs romantic partners
regardless of accomplishments
Positive caregiving
and merits
o More secure attachemtn
later on
Attachment in infacy does not
always by itself produce long
term postive oucimes, but rahter
Chapter 14: is linked to later outcomes
Socioemotional through connections with how
children dec
Development in Early Attachment styles
Adulthood o Secure attachemt
Thursday, May 11, 2017 + views on rels
8:09 PM
Easy to get close
Stability and Change to others
from Childhood to Not converned or
Adulthood stressed with romantic
Temperament o Avoidant
Indiv's beh style and char emo
Hesitant in getting
involved in romantic rel
Distance selves o More likely to last longer
from partner Physical Attractiveness
o Anxious Criteria for beauty differs
Demand closeness Still similarity
Less trusting o Matching hypothesis
Emotional, jealous, Choosing someone
possessive at our own level of
Benefits of secure attachment attractiveness
o Self-acceptance The Faces of Love
o Self-esteem Intimacy
o Self-efficacy Self-disclosure and sharing of
o Control emo, resilient private thoughts
You can change your After indiv's established stable
attachment thinking and behavior and successful identities, they
enter the sixth dev stage
Moderate-size contrib to rel bc
there are other factors
o Intimacy vs. Isolation
o Intimacy = finding
Attraction, Love, and oneself while losing oneself
Close Relationships in another person
Attraction Commitment
First Impressions o Fail: isolation
100 ms = sufficient to form iD dev is precursor to initmacy
Can be accurate Friendship
Can be misleading Gender diff in friendships
o Attractive = overestimate o Women = more close
Familiarity and Similarity friends
Familiaruty More self
o Impt condition disclosure
o Around together for a Sympatheic
long time Talking
Similarity compatnions
o Much more like us than Depth and breadth
unlike us o Men
o Same attitudes, values, More competitive
lifestyes, physical Friendship bt women and men
attractiveness o Cross-gender - more
Why? common now
o Consensual validation o Opportunities: learning
Their attitudes more about common feelings
validates ours and interests
Online rels o Problems: different
o Lose interperso expectations
connection Unclear sexual
o Benefit shy or anxious boundaries
o Misrepresent chars Romantic Love
Eros, passionate love Adults today choose many
Sexuality and infatuation lifestules that were long
Early part of rel considered concventional
Passion fear anger sex desure, Single Adults
joy, jealousy Rise in unmarried adults
Most impt: sex desire Rising rates of cohabitations
Affectionate Love Trend toward postpoining
Companionate love marriage
Deep, caring affection Stereotypes
Passion tends to give way to o Swinging single
affection o Desperately lonely,
Consummate Love suicidal
Triarchic theory of Love Challenges
(Sternberg) o Forming intimate rels
o Passion = physical and o Confronting loneliness
seixal o Finding place in society
o Intimacy = warmth, which has bias vs. unmarried
closeness adults
o Comitment = intent to Advantages
maintain it o Time to make decions
Strongest = consummate o Dev perso resources to
o Involves all 3 meet goals
Infatuation : only passion o Freedom to make
Affectionate: intimact +
o Own scked and interests
Time with friends
Fatuous: passion + commitment
Age 30 = pressure
Falling Out of Love
Cohabiting Adults
Our happiness and perso deb
may benefit Sexual relationship w/o being
o Betrays trust Increasing rates
o Draining u emo/fin Some couples = not precursor
o Does not return your to marriage, but ongoing lifestyle
feelings Reasons
Can lead to o Share time together
depression o Evaluate compatibility
Thinking is difficult o Share expenses
bc colored by arousing Problems
emotions o Disapproval = emo strain
Break up o Owning shit jointly
o Psych stress Lower rates of marital
o Decrease in life satisfaction, higher divorse
satisfaction o Less conventional
believers who do not believe
Adult Lifestyles in marriage
Married Adults o Domestic violence
1930s= marriage = endpoint o Infidelity
Now: personal fulfillment in and Usually early in marriage
out of marriage Challenges
More fragile and intense o Depression, anciety,
o Equaliy aun marriage illnesses, suicide, alcoholism
o High expectations Gender diff
Marital Trends o Wimen - sense sth wrong,
Marriage rates decline initiate divoerce
More kids = single parents o Better emo adjustment
o Divorce = second chance
Marriage's role = show that you
o Negative econ impact
have a successful social life
Best age? Remarried Adults
o Adolescent marriages = Men remarry sooner
most divorce Benefits
o No specific age o Usually unstable
How happy? o Low level of mental
o In US: 9 years ave health
Cross-cultural Comparisons o More egalitarian, shared
decision making
Traits = vary
o Many sizes and forms
Find it difficult to stay remarried
o Marry for fin reasons
Premarital Educ o Help in rearing children
Group + rel advice o Reducing loneliness
Can improve quality of marriage Gay and Lesbian Adults
Better level of communication Similar to hetero rels
High priority on equality =
Benefits of a Good Marriage
Live longer, healthier
Higher ave level of rel quality
Separation = poor helath
Adpting children
Good marriage = less physically
and emotionally stressed
o o Not masculine/feminine
Less wear and tear on
o Not large number of
sexual partners
Divorced Adults o Long-term commited
Causes relationships
o Youthful marriage Stigma/prejusdice/discriminatin
o Low educ o Stigma brings them
o Low income closer together and
o No religion strengthened their
o Divorced parents relationship
o Illegit child Transgender
o Alcoholism
o Gender ID/Beh is at odds o Most learn from parents
with sex they were born into Some accept,
Marriage and the o Desirable, undesirable
are perpetuataed
Husbands and wives may have
Making Marriage Work diff ways
Gottman Trends in Childbearing
7 practices to make marriage Age = increasing
succeed Birth control
o Establish love maps
One-child fmailies is increasing
o Nurture fondness and
admiration Trends
o Turn towards each other o Fewer children, fewer
instead of away demands = time for other
o Let your partner influence endeavors
you o Men = fathering
o Solve solvable conflicts o Parental care -
o Overcome gridlock = institutional care (yaya,
dialogue + be patient caregicing)
o Create shared meaning Women = interest in developing
Forgiveness, commitmet a career
o Self-repari process Advantage = early childbearing
Commitment o Parents = more energy
o o Few med problems
Becomes impt when not
happily married
o Less likely to build
o Hope = + changes in rel expectations
Remarried couples strat Advantage = late
o o More time to consider
Realistic expectations
goals in life
o Develop new + rels w/in
o More mature parents
o o Better est in carreers,
Counter set relationship
more income
patterns or "ghosts"
Dealing with Divorce
Becoming a Parent
Char: difficulty trusting
Parenting Myths and Reality
someone in romantic rel
o Hetherington: 6 pathways in
Birth of child = save
exiting divorce
o Enhancers = grew more
o Child = extension of
compertent, well adjusted,
parent (think, feel, act like
self fulfilled
parent when kids)
o o Good enough= ave
Child = second chance at
what they were not able to people coping, both
achive strengthts and weaknesses
o Parenting = instinctual, Not as good at
requires no training planningm less
Little formal educ persistenct
o Seekers Little interest in
Find new mates as sharing lives with
soon as possible anyone else
o Libertines o Defeated
Single bars, casual Increased
sex problems bc added
o Competent loners stress
Well adjusted self
sufficent socially skilled