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MathCity.org Exercise 4.

5 (Solutions)
Calculus and Analytic Geometry, MATHEMATICS 12
Merging man and maths Available online @ http://www.mathcity.org, Version: 1.1.0

Homogenous 2nd Degree Equation


Every homogenous second degree equation
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0
represents straight lines through the origin.
Consider the equations are y = m1 x and y = m2 x
m1 x y = 0 and m2 x y = 0
Taking product
( m1x y )( m2 x y ) = 0
m1m2 x 2 m1xy m2 xy + y 2 = 0
m1m2 x 2 ( m1 + m2 ) xy + y 2 = 0 . (i)
Also we have
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0
a 2 2h
x + xy + y 2 = 0 ing by b
b b
a 2 2h
x xy + y 2 = 0
b b
Comparing it with (i ) , we have
a 2h
m1m2 = and m1 + m2 =
b b
Let be the angles between the lines then
m1 m2
tan =
1 + m1m2
( m1 m2 )
2
m12 + m22 2m1m2
= =
1 + m1m2 1 + m1m1
( m1 + m2 )
2
m12 + m22 + 2m1m2 4m1m2 4m1m2
= =
1 + m1m1 1 + m1m1
2
2h a 4h 2 4a 4h 2 4ab
b 4b
b2 b b2
= = =
a a b+a
1+ 1+
b b b

tan =
(
4 h 2 ab ) tan =
2 h 2 ab
b+a a+b

Question # 1
10 x 2 23xy 5 y 2 = 0 (i)
10 x 2 25xy + 2 xy 5 y 2 = 0
5 x ( 2 x 5 y ) + y ( 2 x 5 y ) = 0 ( 2 x 5 y )( 5 x + y ) = 0
2 x 5 y = 0 and 5 x + y = 0
are the required lines.
Comparing eq. (i) with
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0
FSC-II / Ex. 4.5 - 2

23
So a = 10 , 2h = 23 h = , b = 5
2
Let be angle between lines then
2 h 2 ab
tan =
a+b
2
23 529
2 (10)(5) 2 + 50
2 4
= =
10 5 5

=
2 729
4 =
2 27
2( )
=
27
5 5 5
27
= tan 1 = 79o31
5
Hence acute angle between the lines = 79o31

Question # 2 & 3 Do yourself as above


Question # 4
2 x 2 + 3xy 5 y 2 = 0 (i)
2 x 2 + 5 xy 2 xy 5 y 2 = 0
x ( 2 x + 5 y ) y ( 2x + 5 y ) = 0
( 2 x + 5 y )( x y ) = 0
2 x + 5 y = 0 and x y = 0
are the required lines.
Comparing eq. (i) with
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0
3
a = 2 , 2h = 3 h = , b = 5
2
Let be angle between lines then
2 h 2 ab
tan =
a+b
2
3 9
2 (2)(5) 2 + 10
2 4
= =
25 3

=
2 49
4 =
2 7 ( )
2 =
7
3 3 3
7
tan =
3
7
tan (180 ) = Q tan(180 ) = tan
3
7
180 = tan 1 180 = 66o 48
3
= 180 66o 48 = 113o12
Hence acute angle between the lines = 180 113o12 = 66o 48

Question # 5
Do yourself as above
FSC-II / Ex. 4.5 - 3

Question # 6
x 2 + 2 xy sec + y 2 = 0 . (i)
ing by y 2
x 2 2 xy sec y 2
+ + 2 = 0
y2 y2 y
2
x x
+ 2sec + 1 = 0
y y
x
This is quadric equation in with a = 1 , b = 2sec , c = 1
y
x 2sec ( 2sec )2 4(1)(1)
=
y 2(1)

=
2sec 4sec 2 4
=
(
2sec 4 sec 2 1 )
2(1) 2
2sec 4 tan 2
= Q 1 + tan 2 = sec 2
2
2sec 2 tan
=
2
x
= sec tan
y
1 sin 1 sin
= =
cos cos cos
x 1 + sin x 1 sin
= and =
y cos y cos
x cos = ( 1 + sin ) y and x cos = ( 1 sin ) y
x cos ( 1 + sin ) y = 0 and x cos ( 1 sin ) y = 0
x cos + (1 sin ) y = 0 and x cos + (1 + sin ) y = 0
are required equations of lines.
Now comparing (i) with
ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0
a = 1 , 2h = 2sec h = sec , b = 1b
If is angle between lines then
2 h 2 ab
tan =
a+b
2 sec 2 (1)(1) 2 sec 2 1
= = = tan 2
1+1 2
tan = tan =

Question # 7
Given: x 2 2 xy tan y 2 = 0
Suppose m1 and m2 are slopes of given lines then a =1 ,
m1 + m2 =
2h 2h = 2 tan
b h = tan
2 tan b = 1
=
1
m1 + m2 = 2 tan
a 1
& m1m2 = = m1m2 = 1
b 1
FSC-II / Ex. 4.5 - 4

1 1
Now slopes of lines ar to given lines are and , then their equations are
m1 m2
1 1
y = x & y = x (Passing through origin)
m1 m2
m1 y = x & m2 y = x
x + m1 y = 0 & x + m2 y = 0
Their joint equation:
( x + m1 y )( x + m2 y ) = 0
x 2 + ( m1 + m2 ) xy + m1m2 y 2 = 0
x 2 + ( 2 tan ) xy + (1) y 2 = 0
x 2 2 xy tan y 2 = 0

Question # 8
Given: ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 = 0
Suppose m1 and m2 are slopes of given lines then
2h a
m1 + m2 = & m1m2 =
b b
1 1
Now slopes of lines ar to given lines are and , then their equations are
m1 m2
1 1
y = x & y = x (Passing through origin)
m1 m2
m1 y = x & m2 y = x
x + m1 y = 0 & x + m2 y = 0
Their joint equation:
( x + m1 y )( x + m2 y ) = 0
x 2 + ( m1 + m2 ) xy + m1m2 y 2 = 0
2h a
x 2 + xy + y 2 = 0
b b
bx 2 2hxy + ay 2 = 0

Question # 9
10 x 2 xy 21y 2 = 0 , x + y +1= 0
10 x 2 15 xy + 14 xy 21y 2 = 0
5x ( 2 x 3 y ) + 7 y ( 2 x 3 y ) = 0
( 2 x 3 y )( 5 x + 7 y ) = 0
2 x 3 y = 0 or 5x + 7 y = 0
So we have equation of lines
l1 : 2 x 3 y = 0 .. (i)
l2 : 5 x + 7 y = 0 . (ii)
l3 : x + y + 1 = 0 (iii)
Now do yourself as Q # 14 (Ex. 4.4)

Error Analyst
Muhammad Tayyab Riaz (2009-10)
Pakistan International School Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia.