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An Exploratory Survey Report on Tea,

Cigarette and Betal leaf Stall: Their income


and Personal Condition

Submitted to
M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury, Ph.D.
Professor
Department of Finance
University of Dhaka

Submitted by
Mohammad Faisal Karim
ID# 34036
Department of Finance, EMBA
University of Dhaka

Submission Date: January 14,2017

Preface

To make any exploratory Survey analysis it imperatively required


guidance and reference without which project is incomplete. I am very
much thankful to Mr. M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury, Ph.D, who has provided
me an opportunity and motivation to gain knowledge through this type of
project. We will get practical knowledge from this project and this will help
me a lot in my career.

I am also obliged to my respondents, whose co-operation has contributed


major part in my project. I am also in debt to my fellow classmates who
shared their experience, knowledge and insight to complete the survey
report. At last but not the least, I am grateful to my group members,
colleagues and other people who have directly or indirectly helped me
during preparing the project.

Thank you.
Mohammad Faisal Karim
ID# 34036
Department of Finance, EMBA
University of Dhaka

Summary:

Tea stalls are part and parcel of our Bangladeshi society. In a tea stall hot drink
or tea is supplied. Biscuits, bread, bananas, betel leaf are also available
here. A survey has been conducted on a ea stall with provided
questionnaire to collect information on them. This survey was conducted
with the objectives of analyzing the present scenario of the tea stall owner
in Bangladesh. There were different categories of data such as name and
age of owner of the enterprise, Average monthly profit, number of
employees, monthly employee wages, number of family members,
yesterdays profit, name of the day, requirement of annual working
capital, requirement of additional loan, amount of land for living, house
rent, literacy rate, marital status etc.

A number of statistical tools (both quantitative and qualitative) were used


to analyze different variables. Frequency table and Cumulative frequency
distribution organize the data in different class interval and also
graphically represent them. A correlation analysis was done among
variables to identify their characteristics and how one variable is changing
with respect to another variable. A multiple linear regression model
technique was used to determine effect of different variables. In this
model, the average monthly profit used as dependent variable. Initially six
independent variables were taken into consideration to see their impact
on average monthly profit. After some logical and rational analysis, it was
shown that only four independent variables have significant effect on
average monthly profit.

Introduction

In ancient times, the cultivation and drinking of tea spread from China to Japan,
Taiwan and Southeast Asia. Tea or chai in Cantonese was first tasted in the
European continent in Lisbon, Portugal in the sixteenth century. There are four
basic types of tea: black tea, oolong tea, green tea and white tea.

In Bangladesh, local tea stalls have an earthen, rustic look to them. They are
normally located at railway or bus stations, near bazaars and factories or other
areas of business. The history of the Bangladeshi tea industry dates back to
around 1823 when tea started to be grown for commercial purposes in the Assam
forests. In 1855, the Assam indigenous tea plant was established in the
Chandghani Hills of Sylhet. In recent times, tea has become one of the most
popularly consumed and widely available drinks in Bangladesh, and indeed, in
the rest of the world.

Our local versions of tea houses or tea stalls are called tongs or cha ghor; these
open early in the morning and fortunately for some, serve customers well into
the night. They are usually run as small enterprises, with a young boy happily
serving customers and performing basic functions of cleanliness and the owner
managing the cash box.In rural areas, tongs are constructed of purely natural
materials, often using combinations of wood or tin walls and thatched roofs. In
both rural and peri-urban areas, clay burners are widely used. A beautiful silver
kettle, soot-blackened from use is constantly on the boil as is a round saucepan
with milk on another burner. Cha tongs usually have benches or wooden seating
arrangements and they stock a variety of biscuits, bananas, potato chips,
chocolates, mints and cigarettes.

1. Objectives of the Study

The objective of the study is follows:


To analyze the socio-economic condition of the tea stalls
owner.
To analyze the effect of different variables on the average
monthly profit of the enterprise.
2. Methods of the Study

2.1 Source of Data


Data for this study were collected using a questionnaire
developed by our course teachers. The questionnaire was
divided into 9 parts. Part one was consisted of Basic information
about the tea stall owner, Second part was about his education/
training, third was consisted of membership, fourth was about
household roster, fifth was about personnel employed in the tea
stall, sixth was sales and profit dynamics, seventh was about his
Financial information, eight was on his current loan and least but
not the least on house related information of the main owner

2.2 Sample Selection


The respondents involved in this survey were the owner of the
employee of a tea stall. A Face to Face interview was taken on
the basis of questioner to collect primary data. Each member of
our group was responsible for collecting data from 10 tea stalls
from their respective areas. Controls were used to eliminate
duplication of the responses. In this survey respondents were
chosen on convenience survey basis.

2.3 Statistical Methods


Simple statistical techniques were used to tabulate the results of
this study.
3. Limitations of the study
In spite of having the unstinting effort, there were some limitations,
which acted as a barrier to conduct the survey and for doing an
exploratory research work. Some of them are:

Insufficiencies of raw data as most of the owners were not willing


to provide confidential data.
Female owners of tea stalls were not cooperative.
Shortage of time to conduct the study.

4. Finding from the Survey

Describing Data by Frequency Table and Cumulative


Frequency Distribution

The first step in drawing a frequency distribution is to construct a


frequency table. A frequency table is a way of organizing the data by
listing every possible score (including those not actually obtained in
the sample) as a column of numbers and the frequency of
occurrence of each score as another. Computing the frequency of
a score simply a matter of counting the number of times that score
appears in the set of data.

The information obtained in the frequency table may be transformed


to a graphical or pictorial form. No information is gained or lost in this
transformation, but the human information processing system
often finds the graphical or pictorial presentation easier to
comprehend. There are two major means of drawing a graph,
histogram and cumulative frequency distribution.

In this section, data will be described with the help of frequency


table, histogram and cumulative frequency distribution.
4.1 Age:
Age is one of the important data in our survey. The frequency
table, histogram and cumulative frequency distribution are
drawn below for the age of the owner of the tea stalls.
Age Frequen Cumulative
Range cy Frequency
20 1 1
30 4 5
40 5 10
50 4 14
60 4 18
70 2 20

Table-1: Frequency table for Age of tea stall owner

In Table-6.1, it is clearly shown that most of the tea stall owners age
lies 30 to 40 years, which is 25% of total sample. Again, only 10
remains between 60 to 70 years.

Histogram of Age of the Tea stall owners

4 4 4

Figure 1: Histogram of Age of Tea Stall Owners

4.2 Number of Years in Business


The frequency table, histogram and cumulative frequency
distribution are drawn below for the number of years in business of Tea
Stall.

Table 2: Frequency and Cumulative Frequency Table of Years in


Business

Year Freque Cumulative


Range ncy Frequency
1-3 3 3
4-7 11 14
8-11 1 15
12-14 3 18
15-18 2 20
19-22 0 20

It has been found that most of the owners are in business for 3 to 7 years range.
Histogram of year in Business
11

3 3
2
1

0 0

Figure2: Histogram of years in Business of Owners

4.3 Average Monthly Profit

Cumulati
ve
Profit Freque Frequen Percentage
Range ncy cy Frequency
0-10000 1 1 5
10001-
15000 7 8 35
15001-
20000 2 10 10
20001-
30000 1 11 5
30001-
40000 8 19 40
40001-
50000 1 20 5

Monthly Profit

Mean 24900.00
Standard
Error 2758.38
Median 20500.00
Mode 36000.00
Standard
Deviation 12335.87
Sample 15217368
Variance 4.21
Kurtosis -1.74
Skewness 0.20
Range 36500.00
Minimum 8500.00
Maximum 45000.00
Sum 498000.00
Count 20.00

Histogram of Average Monthly Profit


8

1 1 1

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7.1 District
In this study, we identified Tea Stall Owner from 8 different districts.
Among them 35 % are from Noakhali and it is the highest
percentage. In addition, 15% comes from Feni and 10 % each
Rangpur and Comilla.

Distric Freque Percent


t ncy age
Noakh
7
ali 35
Tangai
1
l 5
Feni 3 15
Noago
1
an 5
Rangp
2
ur 10
Jhenid 1 5
ah
Comill
2
a 10
Barisa
1
l 5

District Percentage of Tea Stall Owner

35

15

10 10

5 5 5 5

Home District of Tea Stall Owners

2 2

1 1 1 1

teho

2 Owner Profile before Business

Out of 40 Tea Stall Owners, 62.50% was employee in the different


business sector, whereas only 30% was employee in same sector.
Owners profile before Percentage
business Frequency %
1=owner of a different business; 2 5.00%
2=employee in the same sector; 6 15.00%
3=employee in a different
sector; 25 62.50%
4=unemployed 7 17.50%
Total 40 100.00%

Figure-7.3: Percentage of owner profile before business

7.6 Percentage of ownership of main owner

Among 40 tea stalls the entire owner holds 100% ownership of the
business. As they are small shops so the owners opened it on their own
and they didnt go for any kind of partnerships.

Percentage of
ownership of
main owner
Owner
Other
Figure-7.6: Percentage of ownership of main owner

5. Regression Analysis

8.1 Model Formulation

The regression analysis described and tested the relationship


between a dependent variables and Independent variables. In this study,
we consider the Monthly Profit as a dependent variable and it is defined
by Y. On the on the hand five variables are considered as independent
variable and these are:
No of years in business in the sector X1
Yesterdays total sales in taka X2
Yesterdays profit in taka X3
Annual working capital, denoted by X54
Current capital investment in the business, denoted by X5

So the multiple linear regression equation can be formed as follows:

Y = a + b1X1+ b2X2+ b3X3+ b4X4+b5X5+ b6X

Where,
a is the intercept, the value of Y when all the Xs are zero

bi is the amount by which Y changes when that particular Xi


increases or decreases by one unit, with the values of all other
independent variables held constant.

We have already defined the regression equation and now we are ready to
use Microsoft Excel to compute all the statistics needed for the analysis.
The outputs are shown below:

SUMMARY
OUTPUT

Regression
Statistics
0.8267
Multiple R 8197
0.6835
R Square 6842
Adjusted R 0.5705
Square 5714
Standard 8083.9
Error 2862
Observations 20

ANOVA
Signific
df SS MS F ance F
1.98E 4E+0 6.04 0.0034
Regression 5 +09 8 867 81
9.15E 6.5E
Residual 14 +08 +07
2.89E
Total 19 +09

Lowe Uppe
Stand P- Upp r r
Coeffici ard t valu Lower er 95.0 95.0
ents Error Stat e 95% 95% % %
- -
2749.8 5324. 0.51 0.61 8669.8 141 8669 1416
Intercept 6558 423 646 359 9 70 .9 9.6
No. of years
in business in - -
the sector 365.77 449.1 0.81 0.42 597. - 597.
(Owner only) 1439 012 45 902 -1329 45 1329 455
Yesterday's
Total Sales In 3.8850 1.140 3.40 0.00 1.4393 6.33 1.43 6.33
Taka 2502 281 708 425 65 07 937 068
Daily rent for - -
the van/shop 1.4242 4.844 0.29 0.77 8.9662 11.8 8.96 11.8
In Taka 4806 537 399 308 5 15 63 147
Annual
working
capital In 1.2198 0.430 2.83 0.01 0.2971 2.14 0.29 2.14
taka 7237 216 549 322 5 26 715 259
Current total
amount of
capital - - -
invested In 0.0458 0.409 0.11 0.91 0.83 0.92 0.83
taka 3334 862 18 255 -0.9249 32 49 323

From the above table, we got the value of Adjusted coefficient of


correlation (R) almost 0.57055 . It implies that 57.06% variation of
dependent variable is explained by the variation of Independent variables