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Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 1 of 45

Subject Code: EEP-141

Experiment No: 1

AIM: To connect the Digital Multimeter for measuring instruments to


measure current, voltage and power in AC/DC circuits.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Digital multimeter, resistors,variable D.C supply , multimeter probes, diodes, ICs, Transistor,
LED.
THEORY:
Multimeter is common multipurpose instrument used to measure electrical quantities in a
circuit. A Multimeter used to check AC or DC supply, Resistances, small amount of current, continuity
and various electrical components. There are major differences between the analog and digital
multimeter. Digital Multimeter offers very automatic range and easy to read display.

DIAGRAM:
Page 2 of 45

REQUIREMENT: Resistance, LED, transistor, diode, capacitor, dc battery , ac voltage source ,


bulb, variable resistance

PROCEDURE: Digital Multimeter:


1. Continuity testing:
a). Turn the function selector switch from off position to buzzer position.
b). Insert black lead to the common jack and red lead to the V jack.
c). Connect the device between red and black leads.
d). Multimeter generates the continuous sound (Beep).

2. To measure the value of resistance:

a). Connect the resistance to be measured between red and black leads.
b). Use function key for switching to the measurement range.

3. To measure voltage and current:

a). Multimeter is always connected in parallel to measure voltage and always connected in series to
measure current.
b). To connect multimeter in parallel in circuit .Connect red lead to positive potential and black to negative
potential.
c). Take reading on the appropriate scale.

4. To check diode and transistor:

a). When a diode is connected in forward biased i.e. anode of diode is connected to red and cathode is
connected to black lead.
b). When a diode is connected in reversed biased i.e. anode of diode is connected to black and cathode is
connected to red lead.
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OBSERVATION AND RESULTS:

LED
DC battery (V)
AC source (V)
AC current(A)
DC current(A)
Resistance (ohm)
Transistor

RESULT: Readings of current, voltage and power has measured by the multimeter.

VIVA VOCE:

1. What is multimeter and why it is so called?


2. List the advantages of digital multimeter over analog multimeter.
3. While selecting the range for measurement of voltage, current or resistance with digital
multimeter, what points should be considered.
4. Out of two viz analog and digital multimeter which is quicker for measuring votage , current or
resistance.
5. Explain why it is preferable to start measuring a given quantity by first selecting a higher range.
6. What is importance of colours coding resistor?
7. In tolerance band how many colors are used?
8. What does the color bands signify?
9. How we can remember the sequence of color?
10. What method is used for finding resistance?
11. Capacitor is active device or passive device?
12. Capacitor store which type of energy?
13. Capacitor allows flowing which type of current in it?
14. What do you mean by a Diode?
15. What are applications of DMM?
Page 4 of 45

ANNEXURE

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue:
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 5 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

EXPERIMENT NO. 2(A)


AIM: To verify Ohms Law and study its limitations
APPARATUS REQUIRED: 30V dc supply, Digital Multimeter as an Ammeter , Digital Multimeter
as a Voltmeter, Resistance.

THEORY: Multimeter is common multipurpose instrument used to measure electrical quantities in a


circuit. .A Multimeter used to check AC or DC supply, Resistances, small amount of current,
continuity and various electrical components. There are major differences between the analog and
digital multimeter. Digital Multimeter offers very automatic range and easy to read display.
: If I is the current flowing through a conductor of resistance R across which a potential difference V
is applied then according to ohms law
I V or I=V/R
Where V in volts, R is in ohms, I is in amperes and 1/R is the coefficient of proportionality.
As long as physical states i.e. temperature, pressure etc. remain the same the current flowing through a
conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied across its ends.
LIMITATIONS:
Ohms law cannot be applied to circuits consisting of electronics tubes or transistors because such
elements are unilateral i.e. they behave in different way when the direction of flow of current is
reversed as in case of a diode. Ohms law also cannot be applied to circuits consisting of non-linear
elements such as powdered carbon, thyroid, electric arc etc.

PROCEDURE:

1) Fix the value of R as 100 ohms.


2) By varying Rh voltage across R will change, record voltmeter and ammeter readings.
3) Take at least 5 readings. Calculate the ratio of V and I for each reading and tabulate as in the
observation table.
4) Draw graphs of I versus V for different value of Resistance.
5) Comment about the nature of the graphs drawn by you.
Page 6 of 45

PRECAUTIONS:
1) Switch off the supply first and then start making connections.
2) Connections should be neat and tight.
3) Do not touch the bare conductors or terminals without switching off the supply.
4) Adjust the zero error of the instrument.
5) Meters of suitable range should be used.
6) After the completion of experiment switch of the supply.

DIAGRAM:

Figure: Circuit diagram for Ohms Law verification

REQUIREMENT: DC power supply(0-30Vdc), connecting wires

OBSERVATION TABLE:
S.No Voltage (V) volts Current (I) Amp Calculate value of R=(V/I) Ohm
1
2
3
4
5
Page 7 of 45

CONCLUSION AND RESULT:

The ratio of V and I for any set of readings is constant and is equal to R. This relationship, (V/I) = R,
or V=IR was first established by a scientist ohm and is Known as Ohms Law.
You will observe that the nature of the graphs is straight lines passing through the origin having
different slopes. For higher values of R, the slopes of the graphs will move towards x axis

Figure: Graph between voltage and current


VIVA VOCE:
1. State Ohms Law?
2. What does I V and V I represent?
3. What do mean by resistance?
4. If the value of the resistance provided by the conductor is increased then the slope of I versus
V Curve will shift towards which axes?
5. Is the Ohms Law is applicable for capacitor or inductor circuit?
6. What will happen to the current if we stretch the conductor to the double of its length?
7. If the surrounding temperature is increased then what will happen to the resistance of the
conductor made of copper?

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue:
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 8 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

EXPERIMENT NO. 2(B)


AIM: To verify Kirchhoff Current Law and study its limitations
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No Equipment Range Quantity
1 Variable resistor 100 Ohms 3
2 Digital Ammeter 0-2A 3
3 Dc supply 30V 1
4 Digital Voltmeter 0-30v 1

THEORY: Node or junction in an electrical circuit is a point at which the number of branches meets.
Kirchhoffs First law states that in a dc circuit the algebraic sum of all the currents at a junction is
zero. The word algebraic indicates that the direction of currents are taken into account .The
convention for the direction adopted for the current is that all currents flowing towards the junction
are considered positive while the currents flowing away from the junction are taken as negative or
vice-versa.

In the given figure there is a junction P at which 5 branches are connected the magnitude and
direction of currents flowing in various branches are shown in figure. According to the convention
followed I1, I2, I5 have positive sign and I3 and I4 have negative sign or vice-versa.
Applying Kirchhoffs first law it can be written mathematically as
I1+I2+I5-I3-I4=0 or I1+I2+I5=I3+I4
or
Total incoming current = Total outgoing current
The above statement is true as the current cannot accumulate at the junction therefore whatever
current flows into a junction must flow out of the junction
Page 9 of 45

PROCEDURE:
1 Switch off the power supply.
2 Make circuit connections as shown in figure.
3 Switch ON the supply.
2. Adjust R1, R2, and R3, to some suitable value and note down the current readings of A1,
A2, and A3.
3. Record five sets of such readings by adjusting R1, R2, and R3.
4. Tabulate the observations.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Switch off the power supply first and then start making connections.
2. Make the connections as per circuit diagram.
3. Connections should be right & tight.
4. Switch On the supply after making the connections.
5. Note the readings carefully.
6. Switch off the supply after the experiment is over.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Figure: Circuit diagram for verification of Kirchhoffs first law


Page 10 of 45

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

REQUIREMENT: DC power supply(0-30Vdc), connecting wires

LIMITATIONS:
Kirchhoffs current law and Kirchhoffs voltage law both depend on the lumped element model being
applicable to the circuit in question. When the model is not applicable, the laws do not apply.
Kirchhoffs current law, in its usual form, is dependent on the assumption that current flows only in
conductors and that whenever current flows into one end of a conductor it immediately flows out the
other end. This is not a safe assumption for high-frequency AC circuits, where the lumped element
model is no longer applicable. It is often possible to improve the applicability of Kirchhoffs current
law by considering "parasitic capacitances" distributed along the conductors. Significant violations of
Kirchhoffs current law can occur even at 60Hz, which is not a very high frequency.
In other words, Kirchhoffs current law is valid only if the total electric charge, , remains constant in
the region being considered. In practical cases this is always so when Kirchhoffs current law is
applied at a geometric point. When investigating a finite region, however, it is possible that the charge
density within the region may change. Since charge is conserved, this can only come about by a flow
of charge across the region boundary. This flow represents a net current, and Kirchhoffs current law
is violated.

RESULT:
In this experiment it is proved that the algebraic sum of all the three branches current meeting at a
junction is equal to zero. Therefore, the Kirchhoffs current law is verified

VIVA-VOCE
1. State Kirchhoffs Current Law ?
2. Kirchhoffs current law depends on the law of ?
3. Can Kirchhoffs current law be applied to AC circuits?
4. What are the applications of Kirchhoffs current law?
5. Can we apply Kirchhoffs current law in non-linear circuit?

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue:
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 11 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

EXPERIMENT NO. 2(C)


AIM: To verify Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL) and study its
limitations
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 DC Voltage Source 0-30 V DC 1
2 Rheostat 100 Ohms 2
3 Digital Ammeter 2A 1
4 Digital Voltmeter 30V 3

THEORY: Take a simple circuit ABCD as shown in figure with one voltage source E1 and with one
resistance R.

Figure: Circuit with; (a) One source of emf, (B) with two source of emf
In the circuit due to voltage source Ea current I, flows and produces a voltage drop IR across the
resistance R. According to Kirchhoffs second law, the algebraic sum of two voltages should be zero
to find the algebraic we must determine the sign of the voltages and for this we follow the following
convention.
1. We start from any one point on the closed circuit, move in the clockwise direction and finish
at the same point.
2. If we advanced from lower to higher potential the voltage is given a positive sign and vice
versa.
Following these two conventions in the circuit we start from point A and move in clockwise direction.

From A to B , E is given a positive sign as we are moving from negative to positive sign i.e from
lower to higher potential, B to C potential is zero, C to D the voltage drop IR is ve as we are moving
from higher to lower potential and B to A the voltage drop is zero. Since the algebraic sum of voltages
should be zero. We can write E+ (-IR) = 0 or E=IR.
Page 12 of 45

Now similarly we can apply Kirchhoffs second law to more complex circuits having more than one
voltage source and a number of resistances as shown in figure. In this circuit ABCDA, let the current I
due to E1 and E2. We start from point A moving in a clockwise direction: From A to B E1 is +ve;
From B to C, I*(R1+R2) is ve ; From C to D ,E2 is ve and From D to A voltage drop is
zero.Therefore the algebraic sum E1-(IR1+IR2- E2) = 0 OR E1= I( IR1+IR2- E2).
Thus we can find the algebraic sum of different voltages in a closed circuit and hence can verify
Kirchhoffs second law

PROCEDURE:
1. Make the circuit connections as shown in figure.
2. Choose Voltmeters and ammeters of appropriate range
3. Adjust V1 to say 12V respectively and note down the readings of V2 and V3.
4. Adjust V1 to other values and note down the readings of V2 and V3.
5. Tabulate your observations.
6. Find the relation between four voltages given by V1, V2 and V3.
7. .
8. On the basis of Observations in this experiment draw conclusions for the relationship of
different voltages in a closed circuit.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Switch off the power supply and then start making the connection.
2. Make the connections as per circuit diagram.
3. Connections should be right & tight.
4. Switch ON the power supply after making the connections
5. Note the readings carefully.
6. Switch off the power supply after the experiment is over.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Figure: Circuit Diagram for verification of Kirchhoffs Second law


Page 13 of 45

REQUIREMENT: DC power supply(0-30Vdc), connecting wires

OBSERVATION TABLE:
Calculated
S. No V1( volts ) V2( volts ) V3( volts ) value of Error
V1-V2-V3=0
1
2
3
4
5

LIMITATIONS:
Kirchhoffs voltage law is based on the assumption that there is no fluctuating magnetic field linking
the closed loop. This is not a safe assumption for high-frequency (short-wavelength) AC circuits. In
the presence of a changing magnetic field the electric field is not a conservative vector field. Therefore
the electric field cannot be the gradient of any potential. That is to say, the line integral of the electric
field around the loop is not zero, directly contradicting Kirchhoffs voltage law .

It is often possible to improve the applicability of Kirchhoffs voltage law by considering "parasitic
inductances" (including mutual inductances) distributed along the conductors. These are treated as
imaginary circuit elements that produce a voltage drop equal to the rate-of-change of the flux.

RESULT:
After performing the experiment it is proved that the algebraic sum of all the supply voltages and
potential drop in passive elements in a closed loop is equal to zero. Hence the Kirchhoffs voltage law
is verified.

VIVA-VOCE:
1. State Kirchhoffs Voltage Law
2. Kirchhoffs Voltage Law depends on .?
3. KVL can be applied on both AC and DC circuit. True or False?
4. What are the applications of Kirchhoffs voltage law ?
5. What is the difference between a network and a circuit?

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue:
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 14 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

Experiment No: 3

AIM: To measure power and power factor in a single-phase AC


circuit.

A APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Sr.No. Description Range Quantity

1 Single phase AC supply 220V ----------

2 Single phase Variac or auto 1


transformer 0-270V, 15A

3 Wattmeter AC 300V, /5A 1

4 Ammeter AC 0-1/2 A 1

5 Voltmeter AC 300V 1

6 Variable resistance/Rheostat ------------------ 1

7 Connecting wires ------------------ As per need

THEORY:
Power in ac circuit is given as
P=VIcos watt
P= Power input to load circuit
V= Voltage across the load
I = Current through the load
cos= Load power factor
Page 15 of 45

For a purely resistive circuit the AC current flowing through the resistor varies in proportion to the applied
voltage across it following the same sinusoidal pattern. As the supply frequency is common to both the voltage
and current, their phasors will also be common resulting in the current being "in-phase" with the voltage, (
= 0 ). In other words, there is no phase difference between the current and the voltage when using an AC
resistance as the current will achieve its maximum, minimum and zero values whenever the voltage reaches its
maximum, minimum and zero values as shown below. By measuring the power input to the circuit with the
help of a wattmeter and hence the power factor angle can also be calculated as:

W =VI Cos ----------------------------------- eq. (i)

or Power factor, Cos = [W/(VI)] ---------------- eq. (ii)

Therefore, = Cos-1[W/(VI)] ---------------- eq.(iii)

Figure: Circuit diagram to measure power factor of 1 phase ac circuit


Page 16 of 45

REQUIREMENT: Single phase AC supply ,Single phase Variac or auto transformer Wattmeter AC
Ammeter AC Variable resistance/Rheostat Connecting wires

PROCEDURE:
1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram shown in figure 1 and 2.
2. Take readings of Voltmeter, ammeter and the wattmeter.
3. Vary the value of R and take another set of readings.
4. Calculate power factor from readings in both the cases using equation no.3.
5. Draw phasor diagram by choosing a voltage scale and measure the power factor angle for both
the sets of readings.

OBSERVATION AND RESULTS:

Sr.No. Voltage Current Wattmeter Power Factor Phase Angle


(A) Reading(W)
(V) Cos = [W/(VI)] = Cos-1[W/(VI)]

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Dont switch on power supply without concerning respected teachers.
2. All connections should be tight and correct.
3. Variac must be kept at minimum potential point before starting.
Page 17 of 45

4. Switch off the supply when not in use.


5. Be as neat a possible. Keep the work area and workbench clear of items not used in
the experiment.

RESULT: The phase angle between current and voltage is approx zero hence (Cos = 1) power factor is
unity.

VIVA VOCE:
1. Draw a phasor diagram to show the phase relationship between the measured voltage and current.
2. If VIcos is called active power in an ac circuit, state what stands for VIsin .
3. In ac circuit which power has high value- apparent power or real power?
4. What is Power Factor?
5. How to measure power factor?
6. What causes Power Factor to change?
7. Why do need Power factor correction?
8. What are Power Factor Correction capacitors?
9. What is impedance triangle?
10. What is voltage triangle?
11. What is power triangle?
12. What are the units of real power , reactive power and apparent power?
13. What is and what is its units?
14. Define cycle and angular frequency?
15. State the advantages of AC over DC Supply.
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 18 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

EXPERIMENT NO. 4

AIM: To find voltage-current relationship in an R-L series circuit and


to determine the power factor of the circuit
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Sr. No. Description Range Quantity

1 Single phase AC supply 220V ----------

2 Single phase Variac or auto 0-270V, 15A 1


transformer

3 Wattmeter 300V, 5A 1

4 Ammeter 0-1/2 A 1

5 Voltmeter 150V 1

THEORY:
An AC series circuit consisting of a resistor and an inductor as shown in figure1. I is the current
flowing through the resistor and the inductor. The voltage drop across the resistor and the inductor are
VR and VL respectively. The phasor sum of these two voltages will be equal to the applied voltage V
as shown in figure 2. In a resistive circuit the voltage and current are in phase. In a pure inductive
circuit the current lags the voltage by 90 degrees as shown in figure 3.

Figure: R-L Series circuit


Page 19 of 45

Figure: Phasor between voltage and current

As I is common for both the resistor and the inductor in the circuit shown in figure 1. The current I can
be taken as the reference phasor as shown in figure 3. Voltage drop across the resistor VR is shown in
phase with the current I. Voltage drop across the inductor VL is shown leading the current phasor by
90 degrees. The phasor sum of VR and VL is shown equal to the total applied voltage V. The angle
between the applied voltage V and current I is . The power factor of the circuit is Cos. Current lags
the voltage by an angle as shown in figure 3. By measuring the power input to the circuit with the
help of a wattmeter and hence the power factor angle can also be calculated as:
W =VI Cos ----------------------------------- eq. (i)
or Power factor, Cos = [W/(VI)] ---------------- eq. (ii)
Therefore, = Cos-1[W/(VI)] ---------------- eq.(iii)

PROCEDURE:
1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram shown in figure 4.
2. Take readings of Voltmeter, ammeter and the wattmeter.
3. Vary the value of R and take another set of readings.
4. Calculate power factor from readings in both the cases using equation no.3.
5. Draw phasor diagram by choosing a voltage scale and measure the power factor angle for both
the sets of readings.
6. Compare the calculated value of power factor with the one obtained from the phasor diagram.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. While making the interconnections do not keep the power supply ON.
2. All connections should be tight.
Page 20 of 45

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Figure: R-L Series Circuit

REQUIREMENT: AC supply (230V), connecting wires

OBSERVATION TABLE:
Sr.No. Voltage Current Wattmeter Power Factor Phase Angle
(V) (A) Reading (W) Cos = [W/(VI)] = Cos-1[W/(VI)]

1
2
3
4

RESULT & DISCUSSION: The angle between voltage and current changes with the variation in
load . The phase angle obtained always is less than unity (in case of R-L or L load).

VIVA VOCE:
1. What is power factor?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of RL circuit.
3. Why are inductor uselly iron core.
4. What is the value of power factor for purely resistive and inductive circuit.
5. What is the min and max value of power factor

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue:
Intentionally Left Blank Page 21 of 45
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 22 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

BEEE PRACTICAL (EEP-141)


EXPERIMENT NO- 5th

AIM: To study working of Linear Variable Differential Transformer /


Linear Variable Displacement Transducer (LVDT).

APPARATUS: Linear Variable Differential Transformer kit, CRO and connecting leads.

THEORY: LVDT is used to translate linear motion into electrical signal. As per construction it is

fitted upon top of the panel, has two identical secondaries and one primary. The actuator is moved far

and from w.r.t. centre through a micrometer attachment. The construction is fitted in acrylic cage to

secure it from dust. The connections are made internally and brought out upon panel for observation

of electrical signals. The LVDT has range upto +10mm which is extended upto +15mm.
Page 23 of 45

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Figure: LVDT Circuit

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the instrument into mains and switch ON the power supply.
2. Connect CRO one channel (ground lead with ground) across the primary of LVDT sockets.
Connect other channel with secondary output.
3. Adjust micrometer to read zero on its scale. Then move on either side.
4. Note down the reading and also note down mm scale. Now move LVDT shaft with help of
knob in steps and note the readings.
5. Take atleast five readings on each side.
6. Plot graph by taking scale readings along X axis and reading on display along Y axis. The
graph should be almost straight line, which proves linearity of LVDT.
Page 24 of 45

OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.No. Displacement of S1(mm) Amplitude of S1(volts)


1
2
3
4
5

S.No. Displacement of S2(mm) Amplitude of S2(Volts)


1
2
3
4
5

RESULT: The graph obtained is a straight line. Hence output of Linear Variable Differential
Transformer is linear corresponding to movement of the shaft.

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue:
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 25 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

Experiment No: 6

AIM: To study the characteristics of a P-N junction diode and Zener


diode.
APPARATUS:
S.NO Apparatus Type Range Quantity
1. PN Junction IN4001 1
Diode
2. Resistance 1k ohm 1
3. Regulated power (0 30V) 1
supply
4. Ammeter (0-30)mA, (0- 1
3)A
5. Voltmeter ((0-30)V 1
6. Bread board and 1
connecting wires

THEORY:
The P-N junction supports uni-directional current flow. If +ve terminal of the input supply
is connected to anode (P-side) and ve terminal of the input supply is connected to cathode (N- side),
then diode is said to be forward biased. In this condition the height of the potential barrier at the
junction is lowered by an amount equal to given forward biasing voltage. Both the holes from p-side
and electrons from n-side cross the junction simultaneously and constitute a forward current ( injected
minority current due to holes crossing the junction and entering N-side of the diode, due to electrons
crossing the junction and entering P-side of the diode). Assuming current flowing through the diode to
be very large, the diode can be approximated as short-circuited switch. If ve terminal of the input
supply is 2 connected to anode (p-side) and +ve terminal of the input supply is connected to cathode
(n-side) then the diode is said to be reverse biased. In this condition an amount equal to reverse
biasing voltage increases the height of the potential barrier at the junction. Both the holes on p-side
and electrons on n-side tend to move away from the junction thereby increasing the depleted region.
However the process cannot continue indefinitely, thus a small current called reverse saturation
current continues to flow in the diode. This small current is due to thermally generated carriers.

PROCEDURE:
Forward Biased Condition:
1. Connect the PN Junction diode in forward bias i.eAnode is connected to positive of the power
supply and cathode is connected to negative of the power supply .
2. Use a Regulated power supply of range (0-30)V and a series resistance of 1k.
3. For various values of forward voltage (Vf) note down the corresponding values of forward
current(If).
Page 26 of 45

REVERSE BIASED CONDITION:


1. Connect the PN Junction diode in Reverse bias i.e; anode is connected to negative of the power
supply and cathode is connected to positive of the power supply.
2. For various values of reverse voltage (Vr ) note down the corresponding values of reverse current
( Ir ).

PRECAUTIONS:
1. While doing the experiment do not exceed the ratings of the diode. This may lead to damage of the
diode.
2. Connect voltmeter and Ammeter in correct polarities as shown in the circuit diagram.
3. Do not switch ON the power supply unless you have checked the circuit connections as per the
circuit diagram.

DIAGRAM:

Figure: Forward Bias Circuit

Figure: Reverse Bias Circuit


Page 27 of 45

OBSERVATION :

FORWARD BIASED:

S.NO FORWARD VOLTAGE (V) FORWARD CUREENT(ma)


1.
2.
3.
4.

REVERSE BIASED:
S.NO REVERSE VOLTAGE (V) REVERSE CUREENT(ma)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Graph ( instructions)
1. Take a graph sheet and divide it into 4 equal parts. Mark origin at the center of the graph sheet.
2. Now mark +ve x-axis as Vf -ve x-axis as Vr +ve y-axis as If -ve y-axis as Ir.
3. Mark the readings tabulated for diode forward biased condition in first Quadrant and diode reverse
biased condition in third Quadrant.

RESULT: The static and dynamic resistances of the PN Junction Diode are calculated from the
forward and reverse bias Characteristics

VIVA VOCE:
1. What is the need for doping?
2. How depletion region is formed in the PN junction?
3. What is leakage current?
4. What is break down voltage?
5. What is an ideal diode? How does it differ from a real diode?
6. What is the effect of temperature in the diode reverse characteristics?
7. What is cut-in or knee voltage? Specify its value in case of Ge or Si?
8. What are the difference between Ge and Si diode.
9. What is the capacitance formed at forward biasing?
10. What is the relationship between depletion width and the concentration of impurities?

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue:
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 28 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

EXPERIMENT NO. 7
AIM: To study and verify the truth table of logic gates.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Logic gates (IC) trainer kit.
Connecting patch chords.
IC 7400, IC 7408, IC 7432, IC 7406, IC 7402, IC 7404, IC 7486

THEORY:
The basic logic gates are the building blocks of more complex logic circuits. These logic gates
perform the basic Boolean functions, such as AND, OR, NAND, NOR, Inversion Exclusiv-OR,
Exclusive-NOR. Fig. below shows the circuit symbol, Boolean function, and truth. It is seen from the
Fig that each gate has one or two binary inputs, A and B, and one binary output, C. The small circle on
the output of the circuit symbols designates the logic complement. The AND, OR, NAND, and NOR
gates can be extended to have more than two inputs. A gate can be extended to have multiple inputs if
the binary operation it represents is commutative and associative.
These basic logic gates are implemented as small-scale integrated circuits (SSICs) or as part of
more complex medium scale (MSI) or very large-scale (VLSI) integrated circuits. Digital IC gates are
classified not only by their logic operation, but also the specific logic-circuit family to which they
belong. Each logic family has its own basic electronic circuit upon which more complex digital
circuits and functions are developed. The following logic families are the most frequently used.

PROCEDURE:
1. Check the components for their working.
2. Insert the appropriate IC into the IC base.
3. Make connections as shown in the circuit diagram.
4. Provide the input data via the input switches and observe the output on output LEDs.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Connections should be right & tight.
2. Always take accurate reading.
3. Meters used should be without error.
4. Be alert while doing practical.
5. Never avoid short circuit & loose connection.
6. Never exceed the permissible value of current, Voltage and power of any instruments.
7. Check all the connections before switch on the power supply.
Page 29 of 45

DIAGRAM:

Figure: Truth tables of various logic gates

REQUIREMENT: 230 VAC for bread board trainer kit.

RESULT : Truth Tables of various gates were verified.

VIVA VOCE:
1. Which are the universal gates and why are they so called?
2. Which are basic logic gates?
3. Which gate gives compliment of input?
4. What is the output of NAND gate at high inputs?
5. What is the outputs of NOR gate at high inputs?

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue:
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 30 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

. BEEE PRACTICAL (EEP-141)


EXPERIMENT NO-8th

AIM: To verify the voltage and current relations in star and delta
connected systems.

APPPARTUS REQUIRED:

S.No Description Range Quantity


1 3 A.C supply 415 Volts ---
2 3 balanced load(Squirrel cage induction 415 V,2.25Kw,4.6 1
motor) A,1440rpm

3 TPIC(triple pole iron clad) Switch 15 Amps 1


4 D.O.L Starter 15 Amps, 415 volts 1
5 Ammeter A.C 0-2.5/5 A 2
6 Voltmeter A.C 0-250/500Volts 2

THEORY:

When Star connections are done

Line voltage (VL) =3 Vph)


Line current (IL) =Phase current (Iph)

When Delta connections are done

Line voltage (VL) = Phase voltage (Vph)


Line current (IL) =3 Phase current (Iph)
Page 31 of 45

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Figure: (a) Star Connection, (b) Delta Connection

PROCEDURE:

1. Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram in star connection.


2. Get the connections checked by the teacher in charge.
3. Switch on the supply through TPIC switch.
4. Start the 3 induction motor through D.O.L starter.
5. Note down the readings of voltmeter and ammeter and fill them in observation table.
6. Make the connections as per delta circuit diagram.
7. Get the connections checked by the teacher in charge.
8. Repeat the same procedure as in case of star connection and note down the readings.
9. Switch off the supply and disconnect the connection.
Page 32 of 45

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATIONS:

Connection Line Phase Line Phase VL/Vph IL/Iph


voltage(VL) Voltage current(IL) current (Iph)
(Vph)

Star

Delta

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Connections should be right & tight.


2. Always take accurate reading.
3. Meters used should be without error.
4. Be alert while doing practical.
5. Always avoid short circuit & loose connection.
6. Never exceed the permissible value of current, Voltage and power of any instruments.
7.Check all the connections before switch on the power supply.

RESULT: It is observed that,

When Star connections are done


Line voltage (VL) =3 X Phase voltage (Vph)
Line current (IL) =Phase current (Iph)

When Delta connections are done


Line voltage (VL) =Phase voltage (Vph)
Line current (IL) =3 X Phase current (Iph)

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 33 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

. BEEE PRACTICAL (EEP-141)


EXPERIMENT NO-9th

AIM: To make a project on regulated power supply.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: A.C Supply, Transformer, bridge type rectifier,


capacitance, zener diode , Transistor.

THEORY: There are many types of power supply. Most are designed to
convert high voltage AC mains electricity to a suitable low voltage supply for
electronic circuits and other devices.A power supply can by broken down into
a series of blocks, each of which performs a particular function. For example a
5V regulated supply:

DIAGRAM:

Figure: Circuit diagram of regulated power supply


Page 34 of 45

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Eac Each of the blocks is described in more detail below:

Rectifier: Converts AC to DC, but the DC output is varying.

RESULT: The circuit made for regulated power supply is showing _____________.

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue:
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 35 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

BEEE PRACTICAL (EEP-141)


EXPERIMENT NO-10th

AIM: To use a bridge rectifier for full wave rectification of a sinusoidal


ac supply and to determine the relationship between R.M.S and average
value of rectified voltage.

APPARATUS:

S.No Equipment Range Quantity

1 Single phase ac supply 220V -----

2 PN junction diode IN4005 4

3 Voltmeter(AC,DC) 0-220V(AC), 1,1

0-20V(DC)

4 Resistor 1k,100 K 1,1

5 CRO -- 1
Page 36 of 45

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Figure 1

THEORY:
In case of bridge rectifier circuit as shown in fig.2, diodes D1 & D2 conduct during positive
half & diodes D3 & D4 conduct during negative half cycles. This current flows through the load only
in one direction i.e. from A to B during both the half cycles. This is called full-wave rectification.
The inductive coil L provides heavy oppositions to ac ripples (Xl = 1/ 2f L) & blocks them
whereas, capacitors C provides easy path to ac ripples (Xc =1/ 2f C) & by pass them. Thus a smooth
or pure dc is available across the load terminals AB.
v = Vm sin t
Vm = 2 Vrms
In full wave rectification
Vdc = 2Vm / = 0.38 Vm
Page 37 of 45

PROCEDURE:
1. Make connections as shown in figure2.
2. Switch on the supply through variac and fix up the input voltage around say 10 to 20 volts taking
care that the rated voltage of the rectifier is not exceeded.
3. Record in the observation table the reading of the voltmeter (V1). Observe the peak value of the
rectifier output voltage on the CRO .
4. Repeat step No 3 for suitable voltages and note the observations in the table.

OBSERVATION TABLE:
S.No Input Output Output Voltage Em from Calculated Calculated
Voltage in in the C.R.O Eav (V) (Eav)
Voltage(V1) Voltmeter (V1) Voltmeter(V2) (V)
Volts

Calculated Eav and Erms for each set of observations and tabulate the values. Compare the calculated
values of average and r.m.s voltages with those observed in the moving coil and moving iron
instruments.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. While making the interconnections do not keep the power supply ON.
2. All connections should be tight.
RESULT: The wave shape s have been verified.

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 38 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

. BEEE PRACTICAL (EEP-141)


EXPERIMENT NO-11th

AIM: To measure frequency, voltage, time period on CRO.

Objective: To observe sine wave, square wave, triangular wave and ramp waveforms on the C.R.O.
and to measure amplitude and frequency of the waveforms.

Apparatus: CRO, connecting wires, probes.

Theory: C.R.O. (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope) is the instrument which is used to observe signal
waveforms. Signals are displayed in time domain i.e. variation in amplitude of the signal with respect
to time is plotted on the CRO screen. X-axis represents time and Y-axis represents amplitude. It is
used to measure amplitude, frequency and phase of the waveforms. It is also used to observe shape of
the waveform. C.R.O. is useful for troubleshooting purpose. It helps us to find out gain of amplifier,
test oscillator circuits. We can measure amplitude and frequency of the waveforms at the different test
points in our circuit. Thus, it helps us for fault finding procedure.
Latest digital storage oscilloscope display voltage and frequency directly on the LCD and does not
require any calculations. It can also store waveform for further analysis. The oscilloscope has a time
base, which generates the correct voltage to supply the cathode ray tube to deflect this part at a
constant time dependent rate. The signal to be view is fed to you vertical amplifier, which increases
the potential of the input signal to a level that will provide a usable deflection of the electron beam. To
synchronize the horizontal deflection the vertical input, such that the horizontal deflection starts at the
same point of the input vertical signal each time it sweeps, a synchronizing or triggering circuit is
used. This circuit is the link between the vertical input and the horizontal time base.
Page 39 of 45

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Figure: Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect function generator output at the input of C.R.O. at channel 1 or at channel
2
2. Select proper channel i.e. if signal is connected to channel 1 select CH1 and if signal
is connected to channel 2 select CH2
3. Adjust Time /Div knob to get sufficient time period displacement of the wave on the
CRO screen.
4. With fine tuning of time/Div make the waveform steady on screen.
5. Use triggering controls if waveform is not stable
6. Keep volt/div knob such that waveform is visible on the screen without clipping
7. Measure P-P reading along y-axis. This reading multiplied with volt/div gives peak to
peak amplitude of the ac i/p wave.
8. Measure horizontal division of one complete cycle. This division multiplied by
time/div gives time period of the i/p wave.
9. Calculate frequency using formula f = 1/T.
10. Note down your readings in the observation table.
Page 40 of 45

PRECAUTIONS:
1) Connections should be neat and tight.
2) Make the connections according to the circuit diagram. Power supply should be switched off.
3) Handle the CRO carefully.
4) Note the readings carefully.

CALCULATIONS:

Amplitude is the maximum voltage reached by the signal. It is measured in volts.

Peak voltage is another name for amplitude


.
Peak-peak voltage is twice the peak voltage (amplitude). When reading an oscilloscope trace it is
usual to measure peak-peak voltage.

Time period is the time taken for the signal to complete one cycle. It is measured in seconds (s), but
time periods tend to be short so milliseconds (ms) and microseconds (s) are often used. 1ms = 0.001s
and 1s = 0.000001s.

Frequency is the number of cycles per second. It is measured in hertz (Hz), but frequencies tend to be
high so kilohertz (kHz) and megahertz (MHz) are often used.
1kHz = 1000Hz and 1MHz = 1000000Hz.
Frequency = 1/T

Voltage:
Voltage is shown on the vertical y-axis and the scale is determined by the Y AMPLIFIER
(VOLTS/CM) control. Usually peak-peak voltage is measured because it can be read correctly even if
the position of 0V is not known. The amplitude is half the peak-peak voltage.
Voltage = distance in cm volts/cm
Time period:
Time is shown on the horizontal x-axis and the scale is determined by the TIMEBASE (TIME/CM)
control. The time period (often just called period) is the time for one cycle of the signal. The
frequency is the number of cycles per second,

frequency = 1/time period.


Time = distance in cm time/cm
Page 41 of 45

OBSERVATION TABLE:
Function Vertical Volt/div Amplitude Horizontal Time/div Time Freq.
(b) (p-p) V=a*b Div (c) (d) T F=1/T
Division =c*d
(a)

Sine wave

Square
Wave

Triangular
Wave

RESULT: The frequency, voltage and time period of different wave shapes from CRO were
observed.

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue:
Name of Subject: Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering Page 42 of 45
Subject Code: EEP-141

Experiment No: 12

AIM: To observe the different wave shapes of function generator on


CRO.
APPARATUS: CRO, connecting wires, function generator.

THEORY: A function generator is a device that can produce various patterns of voltage at various
frequencies and amplitudes. It is used to test the response of circuits subjected to common input
signals. The electrical leads from the function generator are attached to the ground and input terminals
of the function generator under test.

Features and controls


Most function generators allow the user to choose the shape of the output waveform from a
small number of options.
o Square wave - The signal goes directly from high to low voltage.
o Sine wave - The signal curves like a sinusoid from high to low voltage.
o Triangle wave - The signal goes from high to low voltage at a fixed rate.
The amplitude control on the function generator varies the voltage difference between the
high and low value of the output voltage signal.
The direct current (DC) offset control on the function generator varies the average value of
the voltage of a signal relative to the ground.
The frequency control of the function generator controls the rate at which output signal
oscillates.
One set of controls chooses the broad frequency range (order of magnitude) and the other selects the
precise frequency. This allows the function generator to handle the enormous variation in
frequencyscale needed for signals.
Page 43 of 45

DIAGRAM :

Figure: Block diagram of function generator

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the function generator output at the input of C.R.O. at channel 1 or at channel 2.
2. Select proper channel i.e. if signal is connected to channel 1, select CH1 and if signal is
connected to channel 2, select CH2.
3. Adjust Time / Div knob to get sufficient time period displacement of the wave on the CRO
screen.
4. With fine tuning of time/Div make the waveform steady on screen.
5. Use triggering controls if waveform is not stable.
6. Keep volt/div knob such that waveform is visible on the screen without clipping.
7. Measure P-P reading along y-axis. This reading multiplied with volt/div gives peak to peak
amplitude of the ac input wave.
8. Measure horizontal division of one complete cycle. This division multiplied by time/div
gives time period of the input wave.
9. Calculate frequency using formula f = 1/T.
10. Note down your readings in the observation table.
Page 44 of 45

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Switch off the power supply before making the connections.
2. Connections should be neat and tight.
3. Make the connections according to the circuit diagram.
4. Handle the CRO carefully.
5. Note the readings carefully.
6. Switch off the power supply after the experiments is over.
RESULT: Hence we observed sinusoidal, square and triangular wave on CRO.

Subject coordinator: Er.Malkeet Saini


H.O.D: Dr. Ajay Vasishth
Date of Issue:
Intentionally Left Blank Page 45 of 45