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Strong Encryption For Everyone

Is A National Security Advantage

The Enemy Within


Terrorism As A
Multidimensional Phenomenon

New Trends In The Terrorist Threats


Against The Business Sector

Q&A With Ray Kelly:


Former N.Y. City Police Commissioner

Terrorism Bookshelf

Winter Issue
Vol. 21 No. 4 2016
Printed in the U.S.A.
IACSP.COM
Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4
I N T E R N A T I O N A L

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Vol. 21, No. 4 Winter 2016

IACSP Director of Operations


Steven J. Fustero

Page 30 Associate Publisher


Phil Friedman

Terrorism As A Senior Editor


Nancy Perry

Multidimensional Phenomenon, Contributing Editors


Paul Davis
By Jonathan Appel, Ph.D, and Dohee Kim- Appel, Ph.D. Thomas B. Hunter
Joshua Sinai

Book Review Editor


Jack Plaxe

Research Director
Gerry Keenan

Conference Director
John Dew
Page 16 Communications Director
Craig O. Thompson
The Enemy Within: Art Director

Violent Extremism In The U.S.,


Scott Dube, MAD4ART International

Psychological CT Advisors
Cherie Castellano, MA, CSW, LPC
By Jerome Kahan
Counterintelligence Advisor
Stanley I. White

South America Advisor


Edward J. Maggio

Homeland Security Advisor


Col. David Gavigan

Page 6 SITREP, Terrorism Trends & Forecasts 2016 Personal Security Advisor
Thomas J. Patire

Page 8 Strong Encryption For Everyone, By David Gewirtz Emergency Management Advisor
Clark L. Staten

Page 12 U.S. Justice Departments National Security Division, By Paul Davis Director of Emergency Ops.
Don L. Rondeau

Page 16 The Enemy Within: Violent Extremism In The U.S., By Jerome Kahan Tactical Advisor
Robert Taubert

Page 22 New Trends In The Terrorist Threats Against The Business Sector, Hazmat Advisor
Bob Jaffin

By Dr. Joshua Sinai Security Driver Advisor


Anthony Ricci, ADSI

Cyberwarfare Advisor
Page 30 Terrorism As A Multidimensional Phenomenon, David Gewirtz

Cell Phone Forensics Advisor


By Jonathan Appel, Ph.D, and Dohee Kim- Appel, Ph.D. Dr. Eamon P. Doherty

IACSP Advisory Board


Page 36 Secure Driver: Is Perception And Reaction Time Overlooked, John M. Peterson III
John Dew
Thomas Patire
By Anthony Ricci Cherie Castellano, MA, CSW, LPC
Robert E. Thorn

Page 38 An IACSP Q&A With Former N.Y. City Police Commissioner Ray Kelly, Southeast Asia Correspondent
Dr. Thomas A. Marks

By Paul Davis European Correspondent


Elisabeth Peruci

Page 44 IACSP Homeland Security Bookshelf: Reviews by Dr. Joshua Sinai Middle East Correspondent
Ali Koknar

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Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


SITREP

T
Terrorism Trends
he last quarter of 2015 saw an intensification of Ye-
mens war, amid heightened regional rivalries between
Saudi Arabia and Iran complicating prospects for peace.
Political tensions increased in Haiti, Guinea-Bissau and
Moldova, where protests over endemic corruption and a
lack of confidence in the government could escalate. In
Africa, Boko Harams deadly attacks increased in northern
Cameroon, and Burkina Faso was hit by an unprecedented terror at-
tack. On the nuclear front, in East Asia, North Koreas announcement
that it had carried out a successful hydrogen bomb test was roundly
condemned, while nuclear-related sanctions on Iran were rolled back
in accordance with the July 2015 deal.
In Yemen, violence in- astating siege of the southern outside the presidential palace off election, originally planned
creased as the Saudi- city of Taiz, where both sides on 28 January. for 24 January, was postponed
backed coalition inten- routinely use heavy weapons for the second time amid growing
sified its air campaign, in civilian areas Lawlessness Elsewhere political tensions concern over a series of violent
mostly targeting the and the expansion of jihadist heightened. Moldovas capital protests by opposition supporters,
capital city Sanaa, in groups continued to plague Chisinau was rocked by protests and disagreement over the valid-
response to cross-border the south, particularly Aden, over corruption and demands ity of last years legislative and
incursions and rocket at- where ten people were killed in for early elections, highlighting presidential polls.
tacks by the Huthi/Saleh a car bomb outside the security severe discontent which could
bloc. The Huthis contin- chiefs home on 17 January and worsen if protesters demands are In Guinea-Bissau, the struggle
ued to carry out a dev- eleven in a suicide bombing not met. Haitis presidential run- within the ruling party (PAIGC)

6 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


between the dominant faction led tems and hire the best security for employee and family training
by former Prime Minister Pereira personnel in their never-ending and awareness.
and the coalition around President quest for fending off attacks For a copy, please visit: http://
Vaz worsened, almost causing an but the weak links will remain, www.ready.gov/calendar
institutional crisis. and cyber crooks know this.
You can bet that many attacks
Elsewhere in West Africa, deadly will be driven towards employ-
Boko Haram attacks intensified ees home systems as portals to
in northern Cameroon, with 25 the companys network.
separate attacks, which left at Linked Stolen Data: The
least 88 killed and some 100 black market for stolen data
injured. In Burkina Faso, 30 ci- will be even more inviting to
vilians, most of them foreigners, crooks because the data will be
were killed in an unprecedented in sets linked together.
terrorist attack on 15 January Cars, et al: Lets hope that
claimed jointly by al-Qaeda in 2016 (or any year, actually) FBI Releases Preliminary
the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) wont be the year that a cyber Semiannual Crime
and al-Mourabitoun, an AQIM punk deliberately crashes an
splinter group. In the north, jihadi Internet connected van car-
Statistics for 2015
groups are also suspected to have rying a junior high schools
Statistics released today in the
attacked gendarmes near the bor- soccer team. Security experts,
FBIs Preliminary Semiannual
der with Mali and kidnapped an working with automakers,
Australian couple. 2016 Information will crack down on protection
Uniform Crime Report revealed
overall declines in the number
Security Predictions strategies to keep cyber attacks
of property crimes reported and
2016 TRENDS at bay.
overall increases in the number
Deteriorating Situations No bones about it, 2016 is sure Threat Intelligence Shar-
of violent crimes reported for
Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Guin- to see some spectacular, news- ing: Businesses and security
the first six months of 2015
ea-Bissau, Haiti, Korean Penin- chomping data breaches, predicts vendors will do more sharing
when compared with figures for
sula, Yemen, Somalia many in infosec. If you thought of threat intelligence. In time,
the first six months of 2014. The
Improving Situations 2015 was interesting, get your it may be feasible for the gov-
report is based on information
Iran seatbelt and helmet on and pre- ernment to get involved with
from 12,879 law enforcement
Conflict Risk Alert pare for lift off sharing this intelligence. Best
agencies that submitted three to
Moldova practices will need hardcore
six months of comparable data
Source: http://www.crisisgroup. Wearable Devices: Cyber revisions.
to the FBIs Uniform Crime
org/en/publication-type/cri- crooks dont care what kind Transaction Interception:
Reporting (UCR) Program for
siswatch.aspx of data is in that little device Its possible: Your paycheck,
the first six months of 2014 and
strapped around your upper thats been directly deposited
2015. Source: www.fbi.gov
NCTCs Counterterrorism arm while you exercise, but into your bank for years, sud-
theyll want to target it as a pas- denly starts getting deposited
Calendar 2016 Now sageway to your smartphone. into a different accountthat IACSP News
Available Think of wearables as conduits belonging to a cyber thief.
to your personal life. Snatching control of a transac- Many of our members are not
NCTCs Counterterrorism Cal- Firmware/Hardware: No tion (integrity attack) means receiving our new monthly CTS
endar provides information on doubt, assaults on firmware that the thief will be able to Enews (electronic security report)
known terrorist groups, indi- and hardware are sure to hap- steal your money or a big busi- because we either do not have
vidual terrorists, and technical pen. nesss money. your email address, or you are
information on topics such as Ransomware: Not only will Source: http://robertsiciliano. using a .gov or .mil email address
biological and chemical threats. this kind of attack continue, but com/blog/2016/02/02/2016-in- for your membership record. If
an offshoot of itI will infect formation-security-predictions/ you would like to receive our
This edition, like others since someones device with ransom- Author: Robert Siciliano is an CTS Enews, please send me an
the Calendar was first published ware for you for a reasonable identity theft expert to TheBest- email with the email address you
in daily planner format in 2003, pricewill likely expand. Companys.com discussing iden- would like us to use. Also include
contains many features across the The Cloud: Lets not forget tity theft prevention. your current address. Please send
full range of issues pertaining to about cloud services, which are the information to my attention
international terrorism: terrorist to my personal email address:
protected by security structures Released: 2016 National iacsp1@aol.com
groups, wanted terrorists, and that cyber thieves will want to
technical pages on various threat- attack. The result could mean
Seasonal Preparedness
related topics. The Calendar also wide-scale disruption for a Messaging Calendar In the meantime, happy 2016! And,
marks dates that terrorists may business. as always, be vigilant and safe.
believe are important if planning The Weak Links: A com- The Ready Campaign has just
attacks to commemorate particu- panys weakest links are often released their 2015_Ready_Sea- Thank you.
lar events. their employees when it comes sonal_Calendar. This PDF docu-
To download the calendar, to cybersecurity. Companies ment outlines intended strategic Steven J. Fustero,
please visit: http://www.nctc. will try harder than ever to put messaging month by month with Dir. Of Operations/
gov/site/pdfs/ct_calendar.pdf in place the best security sys- links to resources that can be used IACSP
Strong
Encryption
For Everyone
Is A National
Security Advantage

I
By David Gewirtz
n the wake of recent terrorist attacks, citizens and those
responsible for protecting them are asking the same
questions. How could the attacks have happened? What
else could we have done to prevent them? What should
we have known that we didnt know?
Many of those questions If only we knew ... Gathering that information is
eventually lead to the sub- a formidable challenge that
ject of intelligence gather- If only we could listen in ranges from the policy and
ing. If only we knew ahead on their conversations, read privacy concerns of citizens
of time what the terrorists their e-mail, sift through to technological issues. In
were planning, perhaps we their social network conver- this article, were going to
could have stopped them. If sations. If only we could get ignore the very complicated
only we knew who to sus- ahead of the attack, if only and important privacy and
pect, perhaps we could have we knew what they were policy issues and go straight
looked into them -- and then saying, then we could have to the technical problem:
stopped them. taken action. how can we know?
8 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4
The key premise here is that if we could decrypt them, we
there is an ongoing stream could read them -- and pos-
of data being transferred and sibly prevent another attack.
if we could somehow tap
into that stream, read it all, An obvious -- but danger-
and take intelligent action ously incorrect answer --
based on the incredibly tiny would be to make sure that
fraction of the data, thats government and law enforce-
meaningful from a counter- ment can crack any encryp-
terrorism perspective, we tion the bad guys might use,
might prevent another attack. usually through the use of
back door vulnerabilities
Most of the issues of tapping built right into the encryption
into the various streams are technology.
solvable from a partnership
or legal perspective. Agen- This is an approach being
cies work with some private actively advocated by legisla-
companies -- often as a result tors and national law enforce-
of a court order -- to tap into ment officials, particularly
some information flow and when it comes to smartphone-
derive some targeting value. based communications and
Again, for the purpose of other consumer-level com-
this article, lets assume that munications protected by
works well enough. Lets high-quality encryption.
again delve further down,
into a technical issue: en- They reason that if there were
crypted communication. back doors engineered into
the cryptography algorithms,
Because once we have the then once authorized by an
policy and judicial approval appropriate oversight body,
to tap into digital communi- they could easily flip a switch
cation, and once we have the and listen into any such au-
ability to get a data stream thorized conversation.
from the vendors (or from,
uh, other sources), if the It seems to make sense, but
messages themselves are building in back doors is a
encrypted, we still have to very, very bad idea. Here are
be able to decrypt them to six reasons why:
read them.
1. Back doors are deliber-
Given that its relatively ob- ately engineered flaws in the
vious to terrorists and crimi- system. Any flaw that we can
nals that law enforcement exploit can be found and ex-
and national security orga- ploited by our enemies. Since
nizations will be attempting this is an asymmetric battle, if
to read their messages, its we engineer flaws into things
not a big jump for them to like smartphones, we are -- by
decide to use strong crypto to design -- subjecting every
protect their communications smartphone user to penetra-
from prying eyes. tion by the enemy. Back doors
are a gift to the enemy.
That brings us to our current
challenge: bad guys are en- 2. Back doors give the enemy
crypting their messages and an excuse to innovate. If we
build back doors or others can access person- and enemy states) will use all, our asymmetric advan-
into our systems, al, private information (like that information for stalk- tage is our enormous eco-
its not like en- normally-protected health ing, harassment, and other nomic and industrial might
emy actors wont care secrets), the potential run-of-the-mill bad behavior (and enormous brain trusts
know. The fact for blackmail increases ex- that might otherwise be kept like those at the NSA and
is, theyll find ponentially. in check. in companies like Google
alternate ways to hide their and Apple).
communications, most likely
building their one encryption If we build encryption that
technology in secret. So not anyone can crack with the
only will we still have to right codes, anyone can
crack encryption, well have So here are the talking points crack it. But if the very best
to find out what it is first. encryption is out there and
you should take back to your used by everyone, the only
3. Dont assume terrorists ones with the resources to
dont have access to top tech- agencies, departments, and possibly crack it -- doing
nology skills. As an example, it the hard way -- is us,
back in 2012, I wrote about
organizations. One, built-in because we have more re-
Irans investment in higher encryption back doors will be sources than anyone else to
education. Despite seeming throw at the problem.
backwards in some areas, the used against us more than it
nation has more than 3.5 mil- So here are the talking
lion college students, 40,000 will help us. Two, if we build in points you should take back
masters-level students, and to your agencies, depart-
20,000 Ph.D. students. Back back doors, the bad guys will ments, and organizations.
then, more than 20 million One, built-in encryption
Iranians were online. So while engineer alternate encryption back doors will be used
I would never recommend you against us more than it
conflate terrorists with Irani-
solutions. And finally, if we will help us. Two, if we
ans, its important to realize let encryption be the best it build in back doors, the bad
that Iran is representative of guys will engineer alternate
the sort of nation that produces can be, we will be the only encryption solutions. And
terrorists -- and many of them finally, if we let encryp-
are technologically astute. ones with the resources to tion be the best it can be,
we will be the only ones
4. Back doors and encryption crack that encryption - the with the resources to crack
flaws open the door to other that encryption -- the old
forms of spying. Dont just
old fashioned way. By actually fashioned way. By actually
assume that back doors will breaking the code. breaking the code.
be exploited only by govern-
ments and terrorists. Back And its not like we havent
doors will open the door to used our overwhelming
industrial espionage of an code breaking skills before.
unimaginable level. While This is what we do.
allies have always spied on
each other, once its easy to About the Author
crack encryption, everyone 6. Engineered-in back doors Perhaps, most importantly,
David Gewirtz is Director of the U.S.
will be doing it -- and no will be used by individuals an engineered-in back Strategic Perspective Institute, Distin-
secret or competitive advan- as well. Once engineered-in door gives up our asym- guished Lecturer for CBS Interactive,
Cyberwarfare Advisor for the Interna-
tage will be safe. back doors are created, you metric advantage. You see, tional Association of Counterterrorism
can bet those exploits will be while the terrorists asym- and Security Professionals, IT Advisor
5. Privacy isnt just about for sale online. And then you metric advantage is they to the Florida Public Health
Association and an instruc-
people hiding stuff. If bad can bet that scumbags (as can hit any one target and tor at the UC Berkeley ex-
guys, terrorists, enemy states distinguished from terrorists we have to protect them tension.

10 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


A marvelous book! ... The most handy, the most accessible
how-to book to be aware of the threats that were facing.
 
! ($!
!

You should consider Among Enemies a must-read if you


travel overseas, whether on business or even to gain an
understanding of the hidden threats you could face.

 " "#
!! $#(!#!#
!$!$ %"##

An indispensable and authoritative companion for every


business traveler engaging in overseas business activities.

!"$$!$#!#!!!" $!#( #!#

How prepared are you


to protect your business secrets?
Each business day, some 35,000 executives, scientists, consultants and lawyers pass
through the nations airports to destinations across the globe. They carry, along with

       
   

Their goal is to further their interests,improve their bottom line, engage in transactions
with foreign partnersand maintain their competitive advantage.

On the other side, carefully watching most of those travelers, beginning the moment
they arrive at the airport and often sooner are uncountednumbers of espionage ope-
ratives. These individuals work for foreign intelligence services and economic concerns.
They, too, are pursuing a goal: to separate international business travelers
from their trade secrets.

About the author Luke Bencie


For the past 15 years, Luke Bencie has traveled to more than 100 countries on behalf of the U.S. Government as
&"!# !%#"$"#!( "' !)!"#"#" $(##!#
espionage. He has seen the lengths to which foreign intelligence services and other hostile global competitors
will go to steal American business secrets.

www.among-enemies.com
U.S. Justice
Departments
National Security Division
Prosecutes Record
Number of Terrorism-Related Cases
By Paul Davis

T
he U.S. Justice Department has prosecuted more than 60
individuals in terrorism-related cases in 2015.

Speaking before the International Institute for Justice and


the Rule of Laws Event on More Effective Responses to the
Foreign Terrorist Fighter Threat in New York City this past
September, Assistant Attorney General for National Security
John P. Carlin stated that since the previous years meeting, foreign ter-
rorist fighter cases in the United States increased from about a dozen to
more than 50.
12 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4
In total, since 2013, we have are tools we have used for nage, cyber, and other national In a recent and notable case, the
publicly charged more than many years and ones that are security threats. NSD announced on December
70 individuals, in over 25 now globally recognized as 30th that Enrique Marquez Jr.,
districts, for foreign terrorist invaluable in our fight against The National Security Division 24, of Riverside, California, a
fighter or homegrown vio- terrorism, Carlin said. (NSD) was created in March longtime friend of Sayed Riz-
lent extremist-related con- 2006 by the USA PATRIOT wan Farook, the male shooter in
duct. And the FBI has open Carlin explained that ISIL uses Reauthorization and Improve- the San Bernardino, California,
investigations of suspected social media the language of ment Act. The mission of the terrorist attack, was named in a
supporters of ISIL in all 50 youth and a global marketing National Security Division is federal grand jury indictment
states, Carlin told the group. tool designed to reach house- to carry out the Departments that charges him with conspir-
At the U.S. Department of holds around the world. Ac-
Justice, we fight against ISIL cording to FBI Director James
to protect the American pub- Comey, ISIL now has about
lic, here and abroad. But we 21,000 English-language fol- We know that ISIL used Twit-
also understand that our work lowers on Twitter alone. ISIL
contributes to global efforts to exploits social media to recruit, ter to terrorize Mosul before
eliminate the threat ISIL poses to disseminate messaging and
to innocents around the world. to plan attacks. We have seen their attack. ISIL also uses
We recognize our collective each of these borne out in the
responsibility to prevent our
citizens from going overseas
United States. social media to make public
or funding others to join ISIL
in a campaign that uses rape,
We know that ISIL used Twit-
ter to terrorize Mosul before
calls for lone offender attacks
sexual slavery and the murder their attack. ISIL also uses
of civilians, including chil- social media to make public
in the West, Carlin said. ISIL
dren, as tactics for success. calls for lone offender attacks
in the West, Carlin said. ISIL continues to target the young,
According to the Justice De- continues to target the young,
partment, Carlin said that the including children, in its recruit- including children, in its re-
U.S. uses law enforcement ing efforts, and its message is
investigative tools and tech- getting through. In the United cruiting efforts, and its mes-
niques that are both effective States, over 55 percent of defen-
and protective of individual dants in foreign terrorist fighter sage is getting through. In the
rights and the rule of law. So- cases are under 25-years-old.
phisticated undercover opera- Over a third are 21 or younger United States, over 55 percent
tions disrupt those who plan to
travel to engage in terrorism, Carlin went on to say that the of defendants in foreign ter-
allowing the government to U.S. is witnessing a surge in
identify the threats early be- what we call homegrown violent rorist fighter cases are under
fore potential fighters travel, extremists (HVEs) individuals
train or return. inspired by this extremist ideol- 25-years-old. Over a third are
ogy to conduct attacks inside the
We criminalize providing a United States. ISIL and its sup- 21 or younger
broad range of material support porters have repeatedly called for
for terrorist activity. These attacks right where potential at-
tackers live. Terrorism with
the reach of mass, global
marketing: No passport or highest priority: to combat ing with Farook in 2011 and
travel required. terrorism and other threats to 2012 to provide material sup-
national security. port to terrorists.
Carlin, a career federal
prosecutor who serves as The NSDs organizational The NSD also reported that
the Department of Jus- structure is designed to ensure Marquez was also charged
tices top national security greater coordination and unity with two counts of making a
attorney, oversees nearly of purpose between prosecutors false statement in relation to the
400 employees responsible and law enforcement agencies, purchase of two assault rifles
for protecting the country on the one hand, and intelli- that were used in the deadly
against international and gence attorneys and the Intel- shooting at the Inland Regional
Asst Attorney General John Carlin domestic terrorism, espio- ligence Community. Center (IRC) on Dec. 2, 2015.
The five-count indictment addi- this case, were used in the Dec. 2 attack on
tionally charges Marquez with the IRC that killed 14 people and wounded
marriage fraud and making a 22 others. Specifically, he is charged with
false statement on immigra- stating on a Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,
tion paperwork in relation to Firearms and Explosives (ATF) form that he
an alleged sham marriage with was the actual buyer, a statement that was,
a member of Farooks family. and which defendant knew to be, false.
the NSD announcement stated. The final
Marquez is currently being held in federal two counts in the indictment allege that
custody without bond and was arraigned Marquez entered into a sham marriage with
in U.S. District Court in Riverside on Jan. a member of Farooks family in November
6, 2016. 2014 and that on July 17, 2015, he signed
an immigration form, under penalty of per-
Enrique Marquez Jr. has been indicted jury, that he was living with the purported
for his role in plotting terrorist attacks on Syed Farook spouse in Corona, California, when he was
American soil with Sayed Rizwan Farook not actually living there.
in 2011 and 2012, attacks which were, for-
tunately, not carried out. He is also charged According the NSD the charge of providing
with firearms violations for making straw material support to terrorists carries a maxi-
purchases of weapons for Farook weapons mum sentence of 15 years in federal prison.
that were eventually used to carry out the The charges of making a false statement
recent terrorist attack in San Bernardino, in connection with acquisition of firearms
Carlin said. This indictment is the next each carry a statutory maximum penalty of
step in holding Mr. Marquez accountable. 10 years in federal prison. The marriage
I would like to extend my gratitude to all fraud count carries a statutory maximum
the members of law enforcement involved sentence of 5 years in prison, and the charge
in this ongoing investigation. of making a false statement on immigration
paperwork carries a statutory maximum
Mr. Marquez is charged for his role in sentence of 10 years in prison.
a conspiracy several years ago to target
innocent civilians in our own backyard Nicholas Teausant Facebook Photo
In another recent and notable case, the U.S.
with cold-blooded terror attacks, and Attorneys Office for the Middle District
with providing weapons to an individual of Pennsylvania announced on December
whose endgame was murder, added David 22nd that Jalil Ibn Ameer Aziz, 19, a U.S.
Bowdich, the Assistant Director in Charge citizen and resident of Harrisburg, was in-
of the FBIs Los Angeles Field Office. The dicted by a federal grand jury in Scranton
covert nature of the defendants alleged ac- on charges of conspiring and attempting to
tions is a stark reminder of the challenges provide material support to ISIL, a desig-
we face in preventing attacks planned in nated foreign terrorist organization
the name of violent jihad, and underscores
the critical need for those with knowledge According to U.S. Attorney Peter Smith, the
about terror plots to come forward. Indictment alleges that from July 2014 to
December 17, 2015, Aziz knowingly con-
The NSD reports that the indictment spired to provide, and attempted to provide,
charges Marquez with conspiring with material support and resources, including
Farook to provide material support and personnel and services, to ISIL
resources, including weapons, explosives
and personnel, to terrorists, knowing and Jalil Aziz Mugshot Aziz used at least 57 different Twitter
intending that such support was to be used accounts to advocate violence against
in preparation for and in carrying out the use the United States and its citizens, to dis-
of fire or explosive to maliciously damage seminate ISIL propaganda and espouse
or destroy any institution or organization pro-ISIL views. Aziz allegedly posted
receiving federal financial assistance and a hyperlink containing the names, ad-
property used in interstate or foreign com- dresses, and other identifying informa-
merce or in any activity affecting interstate tion of 100 reported members of the U.S.
or foreign commerce. Military and calls for violence against
them, the announcement stated. On
Marquez is also charged with two counts of at least three occasions, Aziz allegedly
making a false statement when purchasing used his Twitter accounts and other elec-
two assault rifles for Farook a Smith and tronic communication services to assist
Wesson, model M&P-15 Sport, 5.56-caliber persons seeking to travel to and fight
rifle that was bought on Nov. 14, 2001, and for ISIL. In one instance, Aziz alleg-
a DPMS, model A-15, 5.56-caliber rifle edly acted as an intermediary between a
that was bought on Feb. 22, 2012 which, Eric Marquez Mugshot person in Turkey and several well-known
according to an affidavit previously filed in members of ISIL.

14 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


Aziz also passed location information, Canadian border en route to Canada with upon innocent persons. We hope that this case
including maps and a telephone number, the intent of continuing to travel to Syria will be a reminder to us all to stay vigilant
between these ISIL supporters and a search to join ISIL. On March 26, 2014, Teausant and involved in the lives of our youth, and in
of a backpack located in Azizs closet iden- was indicted on one count of attempting to particular, with respect to the dangerous influ-
tified five loaded M4-style high-capacity provide material support or resources to a ences they may be subject to on the Internet
magazines, a modified kitchen knife, a terrorist organization. He pleaded guilty to where these organizations are very active.
thumb drive, medication, and a balaclava the single count in the indictment without a
(ski mask). plea agreement. Teausant is scheduled to be Teausant faces a maximum statutory penal-
sentenced by United States District Judge ty of 15 years in prison and a $250,000 fine.
The case is being investigated by the FBIs John A. Mendez on March 8, 2016. Law enforcement will remain a strong tool
Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF), which in this battle. But it alone is not enough.
includes the Pentagon Force Protection Agency Nicholas Michael Teausant attempted to Our first goal ought to be to dissuade
and the Pennsylvania State Police, with assis- travel overseas to join ISIL and to provide would-be foreign fighters from joining
tance from the Harrisburg Bureau of Police. material support to the terrorist organiza- ISIL in the first place, Carlin said. That
This case is being prosecuted by Assistant tion, said Carlin. The National Security requires us to engage with our communi-
Divisions highest priority is counterterror- ties and support efforts to identify possible
According to the NSD, the maximum ism, and we are committed to stemming the interventions at every step of the foreign
penalty provided in the statute is 20 years flow of foreign fighters abroad and holding terrorist fighter development cycle, from
imprisonment and a $250,000 fine. accountable those who attempt to provide recruitment and radicalization, to mobiliza-
material support to designated foreign ter- tion and return. We must work together to
A third recent and notable case was an- rorist organizations. disrupt and detain those who have already
nounced on December 1st, by Carlin and gone, while simultaneously deterring those
U.S. Attorney Benjamin B. Wagner con- This case, like others in communities across who seek to follow that path.
cerns Nicholas Michael Teausant, 22, of the United States and around the world, is an
Acampo, who pleaded guilty to attempting example of how a young person from any
to provide material support or resources to place and any background might make the About the Author
a foreign terrorist organization. terrible decision to try and become part of a
terrorist organization, added U.S. Attorney Paul Davis is a frequent contributing edi-
According to court documents, on March Wagner. Fortunately, the FBI intervened in tor to the Journal of Counterterrorism &
17, 2014, Teausant was arrested near the this case before any harm could be inflicted Homeland Security International.

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JournalCounterTerrorism_0114.indd 1 1/9/14 10:51 AM


The
Enemy
Within
Violent Extremism
in the United States
By Jerome Kahan

Tashfeen Ma-
lik, (L), and Syed
Farook are pictured
passing through Chicagos
OHare International Airport
in this July 27, 2014 handout photo
obtained by Reuters December 8, 2015.
U.S.-born Farook, 28, and his spouse, Malik,
a native of Pakistan who lived in Saudi Arabia for
more than 20 years, died in a shootout with police hours
after a December 2, 2015 attack on a holiday party at the
Inland Regional Center social services agency in San Bernardino,
California about 60 miles (100 km) east of Los Angeles.

16 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


T
he Enemy Within, a PBS FRONTLINE special TV broad-
cast in 2006, exposed the unpleasant fact that there
was an enemy within our midst composed of a network
of Islamic extremists living in a small town in California
that sought to encourage, to energize, to activate ... ex-
tremist Islamic sentiments, to carry out acts on behalf of
these terrorist groups and their extremist beliefs here in
the United States. In addition to these so-called home-grown terrorists,
who have grown in numbers since the PBS special, the enemy within
also includes an expanding group of extremists of all stripes capable
of carrying out violent attacks on the nations people and property in
the name of their causes, which are not related to the jihadist terrorist
ideologies. Surprising as it may seem, given the plethora of security
dangers we face, the Obama administration has identified violent ex-
tremism as the pre-eminent threat to the United States.

Who exactly are these enemies in our midst? What dangers do inspired by jihadism or even self-radicalized by propaganda placed
they pose? What are the reasons individuals become violent ex- on the Internet by terrorist organizations such as ISIS who also
tremists? How can we counter these threats? Are there roles for publish and broadcast anti-West and pro- terrorist messages via a
citizens as well as federal agencies and local police in rooting out series of online magazines and social media outlets. Suicide attacks
and prosecuting these hidden hazards? This article will address are one of the most serious threats posed by jihadist extremists,
these issues and draw some conclusions. reminiscent of Kamikaze pilots of WWII.

Who is the Enemy? Domestic violent extremists, on the other hand, are U.S. citizens
driven to violence by personal beliefs or extremist ideologies
Jihadist violent extremists are Americans who may have traveled having no relationship to foreign terrorists. They are drawn to vio-
abroad to become exposed to the extreme ideologies of terrorist lence as a means of supporting a variety of scary causes including
groups and returned radicalized and prepared to carry out domestic sovereign citizen anti-government movements, racism, bigotry,
terrorism in the name of a jihad defined as a holy war waged on anarchy, white supremacy, right-wing militants, neo-Nazi views,
behalf of Islam as a religious duty. They are found in communi- anti-religious views, right wing and left wing political extrem-
ties, often as part of clandestine terrorist sleeper cells, waiting ists, left wing civil liberties advocates, and even environmental
for direction by their foreign masters to take violent action against extremists. These domestic extremists can act alone, but often join
specified targets, inspired by jihadist beliefs to take action when militant, ideologically motivated groups, who form their own small
and as they see fit, or independently undertaking extremist activities communities in which individuals with shared extreme beliefs live
against people or property at a time and place of their own choos- together in small communities and by their own rules of society
ing. Other individuals with unhappy or unrealized lives looking without breaking the law-- disseminating extremist propaganda
for a new direction and meaning can stay in the U.S and become and retailing the ability to suddenly commit egregious acts. While
terrorist attacks since 9/11 for preventing violent extremism, and seek- lated lifestyles and the ability to plan and
have made more headlines and ing to protect, strengthen, and empower act without worrying about being part of a
tend to instill greater fear in the these communities to discover and remove group activity, but may not be able to easily
population, more Americans the basic drivers of violent extremism. The instigate a complex and high-consequence
have been killed since 9/11 by strategy acknowledges that an effective incident. This form of extremism poses a
such non-Islamic domestic ter- CVE strategy must first identify potential special danger, since it is easier for law en-
rorists than jihadist extremists. jihadist extremists and only then can there forcement to penetrate plots concocted by
The most immediate threat to the nation, be interventions designed to halt if not several people than individuals who act on
as assessed by the FBI , however, are from reverse their path to radicalization or, if their own given that the lone wolfs chief
lone wolf violent extremists antisocial already radicalized, to thwart efforts to asset is no one else knowing of any plans
and disengaged individuals, as in the case of take destructive actions including suicide for violence, making this threat exceedingly
Dylann Roof who massacred nine citizens attacks. The strategy also entails efforts to difficult to disrupt, as stated in the Age of
in a South Carolina church, motivated to counsel other forms of violent extremists the Wolf: A Study of the Rise of Lone Wolf
take action by personal grievances, familial who make themselves known in ways that and Leaderless Resistance Terrorism, by
problems, individualistic ideologies, psy- make them see a productive future within the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC)
choanalytic dynamics, or extremist Islamic existing society, while at the same time in February 1, 2015.

FBI and police investigator are seen


around a vehicle in which two sus-
pects were shot following a mass
shooting in San Bernardino, Cali-
fornia December 3, 2015. Authori-
ties were working to determine why
Syed Rizwan Farook, 28, and Tash-
feen Malik, 27, who had a 6-month-
old daughter together, opened fire
at a holiday party of his co-workers
in Southern California, killing 14
people and wounding 17 in an attack
that appeared to have been planned.
REUTERS/Mike Blake

beliefs. Studies done by the SPLC indicate seeking to identify and track other domestic If individuals monitored for a number of
that these lone wolves are responsible violent extremists in order to block and then years exhibit no further progression in the
for the large number of domestic extremist reverse their efforts to turn distorted and radicalization process and provide no basis for
attacks that have occurred over the past dangerous beliefs into destructive actions. intervention, these targets fall off the radar
five years. As a practical matter, the above strategic screen often to surface later and conduct an
objectives are virtually impossible to act of violence. As in the case of other open
Countering Violent Extremism achieve, especially the all-important step Western nations, the U.S. faces a monumental
of identifying individuals ripe for jihadist challenge in trying to identify and then track
The causes of violent extremism are com- radicalization or those already radicalized. potential violent extremists. In words that ring
plex and numerous, shaped by the lure of Most of these individuals already know how true to American authorities, a former senior
terrorism as well as deep rooted political, to blend into communities across the nation, French counterterrorism official noted there
social, cultural, and economic grievanc- staying in touch with other members of a are too many of them, too few of us [.and]
es as well as isolation from society. For small cell, typically with no visible signs of that monitoring one suspected individual re-
these reasons, the Obama Administrations being dangerous to their societies. This is quires three to ten agents for round the clock
Strategic Implementation Plan (SIP) for also the case for individual domestic violent surveillance and such resources are not avail-
Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) is- extremists who can hide within communi- able to monitor all these people, as reported
sued in 2011 stressed the importance of ties, as distinct from those who live as part by CNN, Washington, January 8, 2015.
finding and eliminating the root causes of outlier communities with their colleagues
through enhancing engagement with local where they walk the line to avoid arrest. Role of Federal Agencies
communities that may serve as breeding
grounds for violent extremists, building Lone wolfs of any persuasion are especially The Administrations CVE strategy expects
government and law enforcement expertise hard to identify, given their relatively iso- all relevant federal agencies primarily

18 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


the FBI and the Department of Homeland development, and other efforts to identify and local levels. Efforts along these line
Security (DHS) as well as the National and take actions to disrupt violent extrem- as appearing in DHSs Approach to Coun-
Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) to ist plots, both jihadist violent extrem- tering Violent Extremism, issued in 2012,
pursue specific programs within their areas ists and domestic violent extremists. In include working with the Department of
of responsibility, relying upon and improv- response to concerns over civil liberties, Justice (DOJ) and state and local law
ing existing programs and instituting new FBI agents have been encouraged to use enforcement partners to train front line
initiatives. At a White House Summit on the least intrusive methods possible in officers, first responders, and community
Countering Violent Extremism in February their investigations. leaders [on such topics as effective
of last year, the President called for federal and ethical policing] and best practices
agencies to build awareness of the dangers Coordinated by a Senior Executive, ef- in community outreach [in order] to
of violent extremism at the community as forts of DHS to counter violent extrem- improve communication, build trust, and
well as national level, and be prepared to ism cover a spectrum of activities across encourage collaboration between officers
intervene in order to undermine the attrac- most of its major components, including and the communities they serve and pro-
tion of extremist movements and ideologies the Intelligence and Analysis Division tect. Community Awareness Briefings
that seek to promote violence [efforts (I&A) tracking individuals who leave the (CAB), developed and delivered by DHS
to]address the root causes of extremism U.S., become radicalized, and later return; in partnership with NCTC, are scheduled

As in the case of other open Western nations, the U.S. faces a monumen-
tal challenge in trying to identify and then track potential violent extrem-
ists. In words that ring true to American authorities, a former senior
French counterterrorism official noted there are too many of them, too
few of us [.and] that monitoring one suspected individual requires
three to ten agents for round the clock surveillance and such resources
are not available to monitor all these people, as reported by CNN, Wash-
ington, January 8, 2015.

As presented by the Bureaus Director be- Immigration and Customs Enforcement to share unclassified information on the
fore a Senate Committee, the FBI has estab- (ICE) uncovering dangerous extremists threat of violent extremism with commu-
lished partnerships with federal, state, and who may be illegal immigrants; and Cus- nity leaders and discuss how this danger
local law enforcement agencies and built toms and Border Patrol (CBP) preventing can be dealt with at local levels.
closer relationships with communities for individuals with radical extremist beliefs
countering the threat of domestic violence from entering the country or potentially Community Policing for CVE
by jihadist or other extremists, whether fleeing if they fear authorities are about to
groups or lone offenders. FBI special agents disrupt their plans for conducting violent Local law enforcement and federal gov-
in charge (SACs) continue to run CVE actions. As bluntly put by the Reuters ernment officials have the experience to
educational programs for communities and news service this past June, the Depart- engage and build relationships with the
assign designated points of contact in this ments Transportation Security Admin- communities they serve a longstanding
issue at over two dozen FBI Field Offices. istration (TSA) has largely failed in its approach for fighting crime that can have
FBI field offices host the Community Rela- longstanding struggle to deal with the fact value in curtailing violent extremism of all
tions Executive Seminar Training (CREST) that terrorists have become increasingly kinds. With such capabilities, police mov-
program to develop positive relations with adept in circumventing airport security ing about communities and tapping their
minority groups in their communities and when boarding international flights to sources can hear about or come into contact
in particular to dispel feelings among Mus- the U.S. with individuals acting suspiciously, might
lims that government agents treat them all observe indicators of radicalized behavior
as extremists. Joint Terrorism Task Forces DHS seeks to engage local communities or other signs of violent extremist leanings,
(JTTF) under FBI leadership, have been in the fight against violent extremism, and might be able to recognize potential
modified and upgraded to take the primary coordinating as appropriate with the FBI dangers that could be missed by federal
role in investigative, surveillance, source and other agencies at the federal, state, authorities, such as terrorist related sleeper
cells or underground extrem- execute their normal responsibilities. This IWATCH complements SAR by creat-
ist groups. Indeed, over the has led to requests from local law enforce- ing tailored opportunities for citizens to
years, local law enforcement ment for federal assistance. At the same observe and report unusual activities that
agencies have played a criti- time, identifying, tracking, and intercepting seem out of place in their own community,
cal role in containing violent the potentially violent actions of what now not only signs of terrorist planning but
extremism in their communi- has become thousands of potential terrorists also indicators of all kinds of potentially
ties, working with state and and other extremists residing in the U.S. is violent extremist behavior. As recently
federal authorities to disrupt many plots and overwhelming federal assets, notably the put by the Secretary of Homeland Secu-
in some cases to dismantle local branches FBI that needs help to keep tabs on rity in April 2015 as a guest on the CBS
of terrorist organizations. hundreds of possible terror suspects, as TV Show 60 Minutes, If you feel youve
CNN reported in its program, FBI strug- observed something suspicious, do not
If building and exploiting relations at the gling with the surge in homegrown terror dismiss it [as many] terrorist plots
community level are not done with care, cases on May 30, 2015. Oddly enough, have been averted just because someone
however, community members, notably this has resulted in the dilemma of federal was observant enough, and reported what
Muslims, could conclude that they are agencies calling for local police assistance they saw to the authorities. Programs
being treated as priori suspects and not in CVE, while community law enforcement relying on alert citizens to report suspi-
as partners working to lower the dangers agencies ask for federal help to identify cious behavior may be uneven in results
of extremism. Federal agencies need to and root out would be violent extremists. and can lead to as many false positives

Citizen involvement in CVE is already being implement-


ed in the Suspicious Activity Reporting (SAR) program,
for instance, which involves citizens, businesses, and
banks as well as local law enforcement authorities in
a procedure for identifying and reporting actions of in-
dividuals that might represent unusual activities by ex-
tremist individuals or groups.

avoid what has been termed securitizing Unfortunately, the lack of more resources as credible leads, but they are a useful
relations with the Muslim community that to recruit substantially large numbers of element of CVE.
risks maintaining trust due to perceptions additional local and federal law enforce-
that a peaceful group of citizens are being ment personnel to beef up the fight against Where Do we Go From Here?
subjected to extra governmental scrutiny. violent extremism has led to a an impasse.
As local law enforcement officers work However, this proverbial Gordian Knot Most Americans do not worry in their
with their communities, moreover, they might be cut through greater active support daily lives about the threat of violent
themselves are targets of attacks from in CVE from alert citizens. extremism within our borders, but enjoy
violent extremists primarily representing their freedoms while accepting more
anti-governmental ideologies. Anti-gov- Citizen involvement in CVE is already traditional dangers such as natural disas-
ernment extremist such as militia groups being implemented in the Suspicious ters and accidents as well as criminals
and sovereign citizens believe that police Activity Reporting (SAR) program, for and gangs that rob and kill. This public
are agents of the illegitimate government instance, which involves citizens, busi- attitude has been influenced by experts
and should be attacked, as is the case of nesses, and banks as well as local law who purport to demonstrate that many
white supremacists who, as reported by the enforcement authorities in a procedure extremist plots have failed due to local
Anti-Defamation League (ADL) last year, for identifying and reporting actions of law enforcement efforts, FBI overt and
believe police are tools of the Jewish- individuals that might represent unusual covert operations, or sheer incompetency
controlled government. activities by extremist individuals or on the part of the perpetrators. As of
groups. If You See Something, Say Some- 2013, it was estimated that since 9/11,
Local authorities in thousands of communi- thing is a DHS initiative that supports almost all of over four dozen terrorist
ties across the nation face a demanding and SAR through a nationwide campaign that planned attacks against the nation were
resource-heavy process in identifying and enhances awareness of the need to report thwarted. Recently, a series of jhadist
tracking high risk extremists, often as part suspicious activities as well as programs extremist plots to bomb high profile tar-
of intense and time consuming federally-led that award prioritized state and local gets, including banks, capital buildings
JTTF investigations, while continuing to grants for developing such programs. and commercial establishments were

20 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


disrupted. Some extremists managed to and programs for CVE, they also need for radicalization and violent behavior
get their hands on explosives or materials to engage in programs that help com- with little hope of reversing this unin-
to make a bomb, with more than half of munities deal with the issue of violent habitable environment and returning to
these acquiring components for bombs extremism. However, resource constraints relative normalcy.
from federal informants or agents as part plus the lack of confidence in federal
of a sting operation, as reported by the agencies found in some communities, In conclusion, it is clear that strategies
Heritage Foundation a few year ago. limit the ability of the feds to make for meeting the challenges of CVE, which
sustained contributions to CVE at this can be quite persuasive when articulated,
Yet it only takes one such incident making level. This is why it is essential to build are difficult to implement in practice, of-
headlines to remind us that violent actions trusting relationships between police and ten leading to results that do not work or
by extremists in the U.S. do in fact occur their communities that can open up op- trigger counterproductive consequences.
on a regular basis, and that it would be fool- portunities to identify at-risk individuals This led a Brookings Institution expert
hardy not to take seriously the threats posed or groups in time to enable appropriate in February of last year to suggest either
by jihadist and domestic violent extremists interventions before violent actions are ignoring ineffective CVE engagement
as both these vectors of violence become committed. As the Guardian wrote in programs that do nothing but can cost a
more numerous, capable, and dangerous. a June 25, 2015 piece titled Beyond lot or to do no harm by avoiding pro-
Consider the recent anti-racist slaughtering Dylann Roof, actions to prevent or at grams that might exacerbate the situation
of innocent people in Charleston as men- least identify potential violent extremists and alienate communities already vulner-

Federal agencies have sought to enhance their ability


to counter the plans of violent extremists by employing
intelligence, surveillance, investigational, and interven-
tional capabilities while striving to protect the publics
constitutional freedoms.

tioned earlier, the jihadist-driven bombings need to go beyond law enforcement to able to radicalization. Nevertheless,
at the Boston Marathon in 2013, or the mass family members, friends, teachers, sports from a positive perspectives, it can only
murdering of theater goers in Colorado coaches, religious mentors and mental be hoped that this article will generate
three years ago. health professionals who all require train- new interest in developing and carrying
ing to spot what the secret service terms out governmental and community level
Federal agencies have sought to enhance stressors triggers that will turn violent programs to counter if not conquer the
their ability to counter the plans of violent words into action. enemy within through effective and af-
extremists by employing intelligence, fordable means that result in successful
surveillance, investigational, and inter- While strong community-oriented polic- and measurable ends.
ventional capabilities while striving to ing can contribute to CVE, however, pres-
protect the publics constitutional free- sures are rising from public officials as
doms. In the view of the FBI, the Attorney well as the officers themselves for police
About the Author
General, and the President, this challenge to revert to more traditional approaches
would be far more difficult without key as they face increasing problems in en- Jerome Kahan is currently an independent writer
features of the Freedom Act, including gaging with communities suffering from and analyst, having worked for over 40 years in
the modified but vital NSA programs for high crime rates, serious socio-economic the national security, arms control, and homeland
gathering and being able to access meta- problems, reduced budgets, and individu- security fields. At the State Department, Mr. Kahan
held positions on the Policy Planning Staff, as Dep-
data on phone records of U.S. citizens and als bent on using force against the cop
uty Assistant Secretary with the Political-Military
business given a court order. However, on the beat. More generally, until and and Intelligence Bureaus, and as Politico-Military
the Freedom Act still requires the govern- unless major changes are made by state Counselor in our Embassy in Turkey. Mr. Ka-
ment to respect the constitutionally based and local law enforcement on one side han has written and/or contributed to a number of
laws of individual privacy and liberty. and demonstrators and their leaders on books, published articles in a variety of
the other, many communities across the journals, and taught for ten years as an
While these federal agencies have the re- nation with their imploding situations and Adjunct Professor in the School of For-
sponsibility to provide top down policies strained police relations will remain ripe eign Service at Georgetown University.
New
Trends
In The
Terrorist Threats
Against The
Business Sector
By Dr. Joshua Sinai

WTC NY 9-11-2001

22 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


T
he business sector constitutes one of the primary
strategic targets of contemporary terrorism be-
cause attacking it can cause severe and cascad-
ing economic damages to the targeted businesses
and other sectors in the countrys overall critical
infrastructure as well. In such a way, inflicting
cascading damage on a countrys economy is one
of the four objectives, alongside human fatalities/injuries, phys-
ical damage on the targeted facility, and psychological dam-
age on a countrys population, of terrorisms overall objective to
damage, undermine, and extort political and other concessions
from the threatened government and its economic sector.

In the recent period, in addition to bomb- As mentioned earlier, terrorism utilizes vey, a professor of international business
ings and shootings, terrorist groups have elements of military, economic and psycho- at Duke Universitys Fuqua School of
begun employing other types of warfare logical warfare against the targeted country Business, This is all about vulnerability.
tactics against their business adversaries. and its economy. In terms of psychological When consumers feel less safe, it changes
In the first development, terrorist groups warfare, terrorists aim to spread fear, anxi- their spending patterns. Businesses will
and their supporters (as well as state spon- ety and panic throughout the wider society change their investment and employment
sors of terrorism, such as Iran) now employ by transforming a specific terrorist incident plans. Lack of confidence negatively
cyber weapons to inflict economic damage beyond its localized setting, thereby creat- impacts growth. And terrorism not only
against their adversaries, such as the cyber- ing a perception that every citizen and disrupts normal business activity, but also
attacks by pro-Hamas Palestinian hackers critical node in a countrys infrastructure increases the costs of doing business, either
against the website of the Israeli stock is vulnerable to attack. Thus, when a na- directly through economic damage or indi-
exchange on April 7, 2015. tion is incapable of deterring or preventing rectly through the consequences on society
the terrorist adversary from attacking its of increased terrorism risk insurance rates
In a second development, with terrorist businesses, whether restaurants, shopping and costly security measures. Countries or
groups such as the Islamic State (IS/ISIS) malls, hotels, transport, and even public regions that experience frequent and large
controlling vast amounts of territory in gatherings such as movie houses and con- scale terrorist attacks, such as Afghanistan,
weak and fragile states, they also employ cert halls, it causes the affected government Pakistan, Iraq, Syria, Yemen, and Somalia,
terror to loot and appropriate for themselves to appear inept and incapable of protecting have virtually no tourism industry, which
bank accounts and illicitly sell the oil from its citizens and critical infrastructure from also results in low levels of consumer
the production and storage fields in the terrorist harm. spending and minimal foreign investment.
areas they govern, particularly in Iraq and
Syria, in order to substantially grow and Repeated and large-scale terrorist targeting Even highly developed countries that ex-
expand their funding sources (in addition of the business sector, therefore, has cascad- perience less frequent terrorist incidents
to forcibly taxing the populations and busi- ing effects on other critical infrastructure suffer economically from such attacks.
nesses in those areas). sectors. As explained by Campbell Har- This was demonstrated by the ISIS-led si-
multaneous attacks inflicting a greater impact on the including stoppage of some air- ranging from low to high com-
on November 13, countrys economy. line flights from Egypts popular plexity and lethality of weaponry
2015 against busi- Sharm el-Sheikh resort following and tactical execution
ness targets in Paris, Even low level impact terrorist the blowing up of the Russian pas-
France, where res- knifing attacks that might aver- senger airplane that had departed As suggested by this notional
taurants, the Bata- age one to three fatalities and its airport. illustration, the business sector,
clan concert theater, injuries per an attacks shooting, like the rest of society, faces a
and a packed sports stadium were knifing, car ramming, or stone In an example of the most sig- continuum of types of potential
intentionally targeted, in which throwing, can lead to a countrys nificant economic disruption in terrorist attacks, weapons, and
130 people were killed, and overall economic decline. This the aftermath of a terrorist event, lethality. These tactics range from
some 368 others were injured. has been the case in Israel, where al Qaedas simultaneous suicide relatively low impact conven-
Such mega terrorism incidents revenues at restaurants, hotels and airplane attacks against the World tional attacks, such as shootings
end up affecting every sphere in the overall tourism industry have Trade Towers on September 11, and bombings to cyber-attacks in
a countrys economic activity, for sharply declined, particularly in 2001caused the loss of life of some the form of computer viruses, de-
instance, in this case, resulting in an important tourism city such 3,000 civilians, with the terrorists nial of service, and data breaches,
a drastic decline in foreign tour- as Jerusalem, which is highly likely expecting thousands more to those involving biological,

Egypts Prime Minister Sherif Is-


mail (2nd L) and Tourism Minister
Hisham Zaazou look at the remains
of a Russian airliner which crashed
in central Sinai near El Arish city,
north Egypt, October 31, 2015.
The Airbus A321, operated by Rus-
sian airline Kogalymavia under the
brand name Metrojet, carrying 224
passengers crashed into a moun-
tainous area of Egypts Sinai penin-
sula shortly after losing radar con-
tact near cruising altitude, killing
all aboard. REUTERS/Stringer T

ism, with hotels and restaurants dependent on a steady stream of fatalities). In terms of economic chemical, radiological or nuclear
experiencing substantially lower tourists for its economic well- losses, as reported by a June 30, (CBRN) unconventional weap-
revenues. Interestingly, in what being. In Jerusalem, moreover, 2004 New York Times article, the ons and devices. To forecast the
became known as the Charlie even local residents have become attacks cost the citys economy likely type of terrorist threat,
Hebdo (and follow-up) attacks wary of dining at restaurants 143,000 jobs a month and $2.8 weapons, lethality and impact on
in Paris on 7-9 January 2015, in or shopping at popular outdoor billion in lost wages in the sub- the targeted business, it is neces-
which a total of 16 people were markets such as Machane Yehuda. sequent three months. Overall, sary to consider the terrorist adver-
killed and 22 injured, these at- Even more seriously, Arab res- it also resulted in $40 billion in sarys intent to damage particular
tacks resulted in less economic taurants in Israel, whether in East insurance losses, with the ripple businesses, its past attack history,
damage than the later Novem- Jerusalem, Nazareth, or in Jaffas effects of the attacks impacting local presence and support, and
ber 13 attacks because they mixed Jewish-Arab neighbor- the countrys airline industry, as its capability to conduct an attack
were considered one-off type hoods, have been experiencing well. The attacks also resulted in of various levels of complex-
incidents. Once these attacks sharply reduced volumes of Jew- additional billions of dollars in ity of tactics and weaponry, and,
were followed by a mega, mass ish customers, resulting in much indirect consequences, as well. especially, its ability to physi-
casualty attack, however, both reduced revenue and increased cally reach its targeted location,
attacks cumulatively demon- Arab-Jewish friction. Types of Terrorist Threats or, in the case of a cyber-attack,
strated the severity of the ISIS/ Against the Business Sector to breach its IT defenses.
al Qaeda terrorist threats against Finally, in non-Western countries
Frances economy, whether by such as Egypt and Tunisia, tour- The business community, whether It is also important to note that
local or foreign operatives, and ism has been sharply reduced in the form of its personnel, facili- terrorist threats do not affect all
the governments security forces as a result of al Qaeda/Islamic ties, or operations, is threatened by businesses alike. Bigger compa-
inability to prevent them, thereby State attacks in those countries, a continuum of terrorist attacks nies, for example, especially those

24 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


with extensive overseas presence, portation (aviation, ground and the 1970s and 1980s, hijacking disappeared on March 8, 2014
such as multinational corporations maritime), energy (nuclear power, was a pervasive terrorist tactic. while flying from Kuala Lumpur
in oil and gas, automobile manu- oil and gas facilities, and chemical This tactic was transformed in International Airport near Kuala
facturing, military equipment plants), financial institutions (such 9/11 when the terrorist goal was Lumpur, Malaysia, to Beijing Cap-
sales, hotel chains, and restaurants, as stock exchanges and banks), not to hijack and then land the ital International Airport in Beijing,
may more be vulnerable to certain tourism (hotels and restaurants), aircraft but to use planes as suicide China, might have been caused by
types of terrorist attacks than and shopping malls. The terrorist bombs to cause mass destruction. one of the pilots. In another case,
smaller and more localized com- risks to these business sectors are In response, as security has been although not terrorism-related,
panies. In addition to the different discussed in this section. hardened at airport terminals and the deliberate crashing on March
motivations by terrorist groups aircraft (especially by automati- 24, 2015 of Germanwings Flight
to target their perceived business Transportation Sector cally locking cockpits), instead of 4U525 by Andreas Lubitz, its co-
adversaries, some multinational hijacking planes, terrorists have pilot, in the French Alps while the
companies, such as hotel chains Throughout the history of terror- turned to other tactics such as aircraft was en route from Barce-
and restaurants, may present ism, the transportation sector has bombing them by firing shoulder- lona to Dusseldorf, demonstrates
much softer targets than their more been among the most frequent launched Stinger missiles at flying the potential for radicalized insiders
hardened automobile, oil and gas, targets of terrorist attacks, as aircraft. This was demonstrated by to carry out such attacks.

Throughout the history of terrorism, the transportation sector


has been among the most frequent targets of terrorist attacks,
as reinforced by recent terrorist incidents, such as the bombing
on November 24, 2015 by an ISIS affiliate in the Sinai Peninsula
of the Russia-bound Russian airliner in mid-flight, killing all
224 people on board.

and military sales company coun- reinforced by recent terrorist in- al Qaedas unsuccessful attempt Ground
terparts. Similarly, businesses in cidents, such as the bombing on to down the Israeli Arkia Boeing
regions that are frequently targeted November 24, 2015 by an ISIS 757 aircraft, carrying 261 passen- Terrorists seek to exploit new vulner-
by terrorists, such as the Middle affiliate in the Sinai Peninsula of gers, that had just taken off from abilities in their adversarys defenses,
East and North Africa, face more the Russia-bound Russian airliner Mombassas airport in Kenya in so as one sector is hardened, those
frequent and higher lethality threat in mid-flight, killing all 224 people late November 2002. In another that are considered soft and less
risks than those in areas that ter- on board. As demonstrated by this new trend that was successfully fortified will be attacked. Thus, as
rorists do not consider vital for and other attacks, for terrorists executed, ISIS operatives report- the aviation or maritime sectors have
attack because of their hardened determined to indiscriminately edly exploited weak Egyptian become more secure than they were
defenses, such as Western Europe, kill in high quantity in order to security at the Sharm al-Sheikh prior to Sept. 11s aircraft hijackings,
where terrorist attacks, as a result, cause economic disruption and airport to plant a soda can that terrorists turn to less protected targets
are less frequent although still psychological anxiety, aviation had been converted into bomb to such as commuter trains, buses and
more sought after because of the transportation (airplanes), ground explode the Russian aircraft while subways which they attack with
worldwide publicity such attacks transportation (trains, subways in flight. Airlines are also highly greater frequency. Interestingly, only
generate for their cause. and buses), and maritime transpor- concerned that insiders, such as one attack against the transportation
tation (cruise ships and oil tankers) radicalized pilots, who might sector has involved a weapon of mass
Categories of Businesses are iconic targets. intentionally crash their aircraft destruction, which occurred on March
Targeted by Terrorism in mid-flight. Although still under 20, 1995, when Aum Shinrikyos
Aviation investigation, it might be possible operatives employed sarin gas to
Certain business categories are (although unproven) that the crash attack Tokyos subway system, kill-
of greater risk to terrorist attack The aviation sector has long been in international waters of Malaysia ing 12 and injuring more than 5,000
than others. These include trans- targeted by terrorist groups. In Flight 370, which mysteriously persons. Since then, attacks against
ground transportation like ground and aviation terrorist war- operates in the southwestern part sector, but that insurgency, which is
have involved con- fare, groups that engage in maritime of the Philippines, also engages in in its final phase, has been primarily
ventional weapons warfare seek to damage the overall piracy as a means to raise funds for localized. In Africa, separatist rebels
such as guns, bombs, economic well-being and sense of its operations. in Nigeria have been attacking the
and knives. Examples security of their state adversaries. For facilities and employees of foreign
of targeting subways example, when terrorists belonging to The highly popular international oil companies, such as Royal Dutch
include a 1997 plot by the Egyptian Al-Gamaa al-Islamiyya cruise industry is a potential terror- Shell, in the oil-rich Niger Delta.
two Palestinian operatives (who may (also known as Islamic Group IG) ist target. Moreover, new classes of
have been acting on their own) to carry attacked cruise ships along the Nile mega cruise ships are in service that Other types of threats to the gas and
out suicide bombings in New York River on four occasions from 1992 to exceed 140,000 gross tons, carry up- oil sectors are presented by the al
Citys subways, which was foiled by 1994, tourists kept away from Egypt. wards of 5,000 passengers and crew Qaeda and ISIS insurgencies, which
the New York Police Department, In the Philippines, when the Abu membersmaking them desirable have become transnational and
the February 6, 2004 bombings by a Sayyaf Group (ASG) attacks cargo trophy targets to ambitious terrorist created ripples throughout every
Chechen suicide bomber of a Moscow vessels or abducts foreigners from a groups, such as al Qaeda. A terrorist critical node in the affected coun-
underground train (killing 41 and tourist resort (as it did in 2001), it im- attack against such mega ships would tries economic infrastructures. The
injuring about 120 people); the bomb- pacts on the entire countrys trade and not only cause a catastrophic number facilities and personnel of Western oil
ings by al Qaida-affiliated terrorists economy. In Somalia, when al Sha- of casualties, but threaten the entire companies, for example, have been
of Madrids trains on March 11, 2004 baab militiamen hijack foreign ships cruise industries economic viabil- attacked by al Qaeda and its affili-
(191 fatalities and more than 1,800 sailing off the countrys coastline, ity. To counteract such threats, the ated terrorist groups in Algeria, Iraq,
injured) and the suicide bombings of vessels steer away from that region. cruise industry has instituted security Kuwait, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and
Londons underground (and above The January 1996 seizure of a Turk- measures guided by regulations set Yemen. In one of the most prominent

In countries such as Israel, buses have long been targeted by


Palestinian terrorists, with such attacks intensifying during the al
Aqsa intifada (September 2000 to early 2005), and again, in what
is considered the Third Intifada, beginning in September 2015, with
Palestinian terrorists attacking Israeli passengers, primarily with
knives, on board buses or at bus or train stops.

ground) trains on July 7, 2005 (52 ish passenger ferry by pro-Chechen forth by the International Maritime of such attacks, in mid-January 2013,
fatalities and more than 700 injured), terrorists exposed the vulnerability Organization (IMO), such as em- al Qaeda linked terrorists affiliated
and the plot in September 2009 by to terrorist attack of passenger ferries ploying security officers and security with Mokhtar Belmokhtars group,
Najibullah Zazi and two associates in the Bosporus, Aegean and Black watchmen aboard ships, restricting took foreign workers hostage at a gas
to conduct a suicide bombing of the Seas astride the straits. The October access to ships, maintaining security facility near Amenas, in Algeria, kill-
New York City subway system, which 2000 suicide bombing of the USS zones around ships, screening of pas- ing some 39 of the hostages (along
was also thwarted a few days prior to Cole by al Qaida operatives in the sengers and luggage, and monitoring with an Algerian security guard).
the date of the intended bombings. In Yemeni port of Aden, killing 17 U.S. the supplies that are loaded onto ships.
countries such as Israel, buses have Servicemen; the thwarted plot in June In another type of terrorist threat
long been targeted by Palestinian ter- 2002 by al Qaida operatives to bomb Energy Sector against the oil and gas sector, the ISIS
rorists, with such attacks intensifying American and British warships in the group, which captured numerous oil
during the al Aqsa intifada (September Gibraltar Strait; and the October 6, The energy sector, especially the gas fields in Syria, which are primarily
2000 to early 2005), and again, in 2002 suicide bombing of the French and oil industries on which a nations located in the eastern region border-
what is considered the Third Intifada, Limburg tanker in the Gulf of Aden energy supply is so dependent, is per- ing Iraq, enable it to reportedly earn,
beginning in September 2015, with all represented stark reminders that the ceived by terrorists as an important according to a Financial Times report,
Palestinian terrorists attacking Israeli worlds military and economic vessels strategic target. Currently, al Qaeda an estimated $1.5 million a day from
passengers, primarily with knives, on represent trophy targets of opportu- and its affiliates, and the Islamic its black market oil sales to various
board buses or at bus or train stops. nity to terrorist groups. Since these ter- State, represent the primary terror- customers in Syria and Turkey.
rorist attacks against maritime vessels, ist threats against the energy sector,
Maritime most attacks against this sector have although threats are also presented by Financial Sector
involved criminal piracy, although other localized conflicts. The FARCs
The threat of maritime terrorism is terrorist groups such as Abu Sayyaf, insurgency in Colombia, for exam- Financial institutions and banks have
particularly significant because just which is affiliated with al Qaida, and ple, has targeted that countrys energy been directly targeted by terrorist

26 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


DONATE TODAY @ iacsp.com/foundation.php
groups for attack. Terrorist groups region. The same type of bank funds appropriation faced such attacks, there is concern that a suicide
such as al Qaeda, its affiliates, and also likely has taken place in the territory under attack on a single shopping mall would cause the
ISIS, regard the financial sector ISISs control in Syria. Such massive bank thefts public to consider all malls to be unsafe. At the
as extensions of Western economic have elevated ISIS to the worlds best-resourced same time, however, although retail centers were
power and dominance. Noteworthy terrorist organization. not directed targeted, the detonation of the pres-
terrorist attacks or plots against this sure cooker bombs by the Tsarnaev brothers of
sector have included the following: Tourism Sector a block of Boylston Street filled with spectators
and runners near the finish line of the Boston
* The November 2003, dual suicide bomb attacks Tourism is vital to a nations economy because Marathon on April 15, 2013 (killing 3 people
in Istanbul, Turkey, against the British consulate it impacts on a governments revenue, national and injuring 264 others), caused an economic and
and the local headquarters of HSBC bank, kill- income and employment. In many nations, tour- psychological toll on the owners and employees at
ing at least 50 people. Al Qaeda and a Turkish ism is a major economic sector and source of the stores and offices in that area, some of which
Islamic militant group, the Great Eastern Islamic revenue, so attacking it leads to economic reces- were shut down for several weeks afterwards.
Raiders Front (IBDA-C), claimed responsibility sion and unemployment. Thus, in such susceptible
for the attacks. countries, terrorist groups perceive hotels (and Other countries, however, have experienced mass
especially Western hotel chains), restaurants casualty terrorist attacks against their shopping
* In summer 2004, the U.S. government raised and tourist resorts as major targets for attack, as malls, notably the September 21, 2013 mass shoot-
the terror alert for financial institutions in New demonstrated by recent incidents. In one of the ing attack by al Shabaab gunmen at the Westgate
York City, Newark, NJ, and Washington, DC, most prominent examples, on June 26, 2015, an shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya, which resulted in
after uncovering an alleged al Qaeda plot to at- Islamist terrorist carried out a mass shooting at an estimated 67 fatalities and more than 175 injured.
tack the Citicorp building in New York and the the tourist resort at the Tunisian Port El Kantaoui,
NYSE; the International Monetary Fund and
World Bank buildings in Washington; and the
killing 38 people, of whom 30 were British tour- Conclusion
ists. This followed an attack in on March 18, 2015,
Prudential building in Newark. The alert was when al Qaeda-affiliated terrorists conducted an As demonstrated by the types of terrorist attacks
lifted after several weeks. attack by three Islamist terrorists in the Bardo that have targeted various business categories,
National Museum, in Tunis, killing 22 people, of for business executives, ranging from security
* In August 2005 the police chief for Londons whom 20 were foreigners who were visiting the directors to financial executives, managing and
financial district (the City) warned that terror- museum. With tourism contributing an estimated mitigating the risk from terrorism in all its mani-
ists might strike that business hub, where they had 10 percent of Tunisias gross domestic product festations is now part of their overall business
been surveying targets. Londons business quarter (according to a recent news article), as well as decision-making process in order to make their
includes hundreds of banks, insurance companies, employing 400,000 people directly or indirectly, enterprises as hardened and resilient as possible
law firms and other critical institutionsinclud- these terrorist attacks (as well as uncertainty over against such threats. To manage their risk to ter-
ing the London Stock Exchange and the Bank of future attacks) resulted in an estimated 80 percent rorism, business managers need to prioritize the
England. It is also a leading international center decline in foreign tourism, with more than 70 types of terrorist threats likely to challenge their
for trading in metals, oil, and other commodities. hotels forced to shut down. businesses and allocate protective resources in
The City of London was targeted in previous years
response, based on those measures that will likely
by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA). Although the war-torn and economically poor yield the greatest return on investment. Specifically,
West African country of Mali is not a tourist business security directors are aware that effective
While no high profile terrorist attacks against the destination, the November 20, 2015 terrorist defensive responses to the challenges presented by
banking sector have occurred in Western countries attack on the luxury Radisson Blu Hotel in its terrorism require their enterprises to be continuously
since this earlier period, banks continue to be tar- capital Bamako, in which 22 people were killed, vigilant, putting in place appropriate security and
geted by terrorist groups. In a new trend, terrorist was a reminder that foreigners working in eco- risk mitigation measures and protocols and continu-
groups and their supporters have attempted in sev- nomic development and humanitarian assistance ally updating and testing their emergency response
eral instances to conduct cyber-attacks against their programs, who constituted most of the victims, plans as these threats continue to evolve, often in
adversaries banking institutions, such as the April are continuous targets of terrorists who seek to unpredictable directions. They also need to ensure
7, 2015 attacks by pro-Hamas Palestinian hackers undermine a countrys return to stability. that their commercial property insurance policies
against the website of the Israeli stock exchange.
are supplemented with terrorism insurance to cover
In response to such terrorist threats, the hotel in- losses that might be caused by a terrorist attack.
In another type of terrorist exploitation of the dustry around the world has beefed up its security
banking sector, such groups and their associated departments, implementing a range of security Finally, in case of a major terrorist attack, business
commercial/charity fronts have reportedly used measures to protect guests at their properties, rang- security directors also understand the need to imple-
the international financial system for money ing from deploying armed guards to erecting ment continuity of business operations measures.
laundering or to move funds from one country to concrete barriers and metal detectors, although se- As examples of such foresight, in the aftermath of
another, posing another form of substantial risk curity breaches continue to be exploited by terrorist 9/11 the New York Stock Exchange a perennial
to the financial sector. groups as demonstrated by such recent incidents. potential target of terrorist attacksestablished an
alternative trading floor outside New York City, as
In an especially worrisome new trend, terrorist
groups, such as ISIS, use their captured territory Retail Sector have other financial institutions since then to repli-
cate their business operations outside their municipal
in weak and fragile states to appropriate funds
As iconic symbols of a nations wealth and con- areas in case of terrorism-caused catastrophes.
from its banking sector. In a prominent example,
in June 2014, with ISISs capture of Mosul, Iraq, sumerism, the retail sectors shopping malls are
which is one of Iraqs main oil centers, it report- especially attractive targets to terrorists. With their About the Author
edly appropriated, according to a Financial Times open spaces and bustling shoppers, they represent
Dr. Joshua Sinai is Director of Analytics &
report, an estimated $500 million in funds from its soft targets because of their lack of controlled Business Intelligence at CRA (www.cra-usa.
central bank, including gold bullion. It reportedly access and other security fortifications. Even net), in Vienna, VA. He can be reached at
also seized additional funds from banks across the though American shopping malls have not yet Joshua.sinai@comcast.net.

28 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


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Terrorism
As A
Multidimensional
Phenomenon:
Implications for an Ethical and
Legal Homeland Security and
Counter Terrorism Response
By Jonathan Appel, Ph.D. and
Dohee Kim-Appel, Ph.D

A French sol-
dier secures the
access to a Jewish
school in Paris as part
of the highest level of Vigipi-
rate security plan after last weeks
terror attacks January 12, 2015. Jewish
schools and synagogues in France have been
promised extra protection, by the army if neces-
sary, after killings by Islamic militants in Paris, the head
of the communitys umbrella group said on Sunday after a
meeting with the French President. REUTERS/Gonzalo Fuentes

30 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


I
ntroduction
Terrorism did not begin in a vacuum, nor is it merely a mod-
ern phenomenon. Many Americans only became acutely
aware of modern terrorism after the first World Trade Cen-
ter bombing in 1993 and the bombing of the federal build-
ing in Oklahoma City in 1995. Yet, modern terrorism began
decades, even centuries, before these recent activities in
the United States. As Walter Laqueur (1996) observes, the meaning
always changed with the flow of historical circumstances, and dif-
ferent time frames gave various meanings to terms like terrorism,
socialism, and anarchism. The past 30 years have witnessed an
unprecedented growth in the number of bombings, kidnappings,
arsons, assassinations, and other forms of violence and terrorism
as tactics to achieve political objectives.

Since the terrorists attacks of hope of organizing an appropri- teenth century, changing forms as enforcement terrorism, used by
September 11 there is even ate and effective response for and ideology, and was often used nations internally to maintain so-
more reason than ever to con- homeland security and counter- as a tool to combat perceived cial control. Examples included
duct a vigorous analysis into the terrorism efforts. imperialism. After World War II, the white terror of Chiles
causes, impact, prevention, and the meaning of terrorism changed military intelligence services,
understanding of violence and The Changing again and often became associ- the Death Squads in Brazil, the
terrorism in a modern day and Meaning of Terrorism ated with the horrific acts perpe- White Warriors Union in El
multidimensional context. Ter- trated by the Nazis regime. By Salvador, and the K.G.B. in the
rorism is often over-simplified The meaning of terrorism has the mid-1960s to early 1980s, the U.S.S.R. (Wolf, 1981). Many
as a religious, fundamental or changed over time. Many ex- term terrorism was most often ap- countries that report extremely
irrational act. Terrorism is best perts suggest the concept of plied to the actions of violent left- low crime rates may be charac-
seen as a dynamic and ever- modern terrorism originated wing groups, as well as those of terized by enforcement terror-
changing phenomenonbut from the 18th century. This nationalists or even official states. ism. Non-government terrorism,
one that is best organized trough notion of terrorism, at least Several authors (Kushner, 1998; which Wolf characterized as
a multi-dimensional lens. It from the Western perspective, Carr, 2002) have distinguished agitational terrorism, is done
stands to reason without a prop- grew from the French Revo- between government-sponsored by small groups of individuals
er and accurate understanding lution (17891799), and was terrorism and terrorism done who want to alter the countrys
of terrorismthe response will originally used to describe the by non-governmental groups; status quo, but must do so within
be less than optimal, and lack actions of a government, not a however, a typology especially restricted time and space pe-
firm ethical and legal moor- band of revolutionaries (White, relevant to criminal justice was rimeters and must restrict their
ings. It is wide lens view of 2010). Terrorism developed and developed by Wolf (1981). Wolf organizational membership to a
terrorism that will offer the best expanded throughout the nine- referred to government terrorism handful of persons (Wolf, 1981).
Into the 1980s, the and the American Homeland as limitations. This new terrorism mentalism, suicide bombers are
meaning of terror- a target as exemplified by the is cell-based or asymmetrical, not exclusively religious; only
ism changed once WTC/Pentagon 9/11 attacks. has access and use of modern 43% are identifiably religious
again as terrorism The United States is now lon- technologies, and may have the (Brym, 2007) Most suicide
was now the tactic ger protected by its geographic capacity to develop exceedingly bombings are motivated by
of Middle Eastern isolation as terrorism has truly lethal methods -- including with strategic, political, and territo-
groups with the use found a transnational home in WMD or biological weapons rial reasons. Religion can serve
of hostage taking and the target- the global age. potentials (White, 2010). as a justification and can even
ing of U.S. interests around the help motivate the bombers, but
world. Some violent activities The New Terrorism The newest forms of terrorism not all terrorism is inspired by
of hate groups were also in- also while often politically religion idealogy and religious
cluded in the evolving defini- There is perhaps a dividing vague is also often fundamen- fundamentalists. Even religious
tion. As terrorism has evolved point between old and new tally religious driven (but often fundamentalism is unlikely to
into the new millennium there terrorism in the late 1980s and in a religious-political hubris). be a single cause of terrorism,
has been an increase in the early 1990s. This dichotomy is While some see the new ter- but it may reflect other aspects
diversity of offender groups. between selective and nonselec- rorism as primarily driven by of group and personal dynamics
There is now terrorists who are (Borum, 2004).
independent from a state, hold
violent religious fanatics, and/ Most suicide bombings are moti- One must also carefully distin-
or are groups or individuals that guish between terrorism rooted
terrorize for a particular cause vated by strategic, political, and in Palestinian nationalism and
such as the environment. terrorism rooted in Islamic fun-
territorial reasons. Religion can damentalism. The former has
The nature of the post- Cold its roots in radical leftist groups,
War world has seen a change
serve as a justification and can even not religious fundamentalism.
in the dynamics of the inter- help motivate the bombers, but not The two have very different be-
national system where nations liefs and agendas although they
do not clash merely over eco- all terrorism is inspired by religion have influenced each other over
nomic or territorial issues, but the years (Poland, 2011). This
now also over long-submerged idealogy and religious fundamental- is important because it helps to
cultural issues. According to undermine the belief that Islam
Huntington (1993) the division ists. Even religious fundamentalism is monolithic and that Middle
of the world in the future will Eastern politics is homoge-
be exceedingly based upon a is unlikely to be a single cause of neous. Moreover, many often
clash of civilizations and their lump all terrorist groups from
peoples cultural and religious
terrorism, but it may reflect other the Middle East together an
identities (Huntington, 1993, aspects of group and personal dy- error that often leads to a gross
p.25). This appears to be the misunderstanding of the region
case with a comparison of Is- namics (Borum, 2004). and its people.
lamic and democratic nations
and is reflected in the increase The Multidimensionalism
of conflicts and terrorism in the of Terrorism
last few decades. tive destruction. Laqueur (1996) religious ideology, other experts
argues that modern terrorists are note that radical Islamic terror- As suggested earlier, much of
But, as terrorist attacks have more ruthless and more violent ism is first and foremost a politi- the new terrorism has been
increased sizably since the than their historical counter- cal and psychological response the product of the emerging
1970s, and the plurality has parts. Laqueur also states that to contemporary political issues independence of Islamic coun-
been directed against United modern terrorism has been typi- and does not reflect the es- tries and is multi-dimensional
States citizens abroadespe- fied by indiscriminate violence sence of Islam (Esposito, 1999). with political, psychological,
cially diplomats and persons and the intentional targeting of Armstrong (2005) contends social, and religious aspects.
doing business. While tradi- the civilian population. fundamentalism is often a form This multi-dimensional process
tional terrorism was Marxist- of nationalism in religious dis- exists both on an individual and
Leninist in ideology, since the The New Terrorism or ter- guise, and suggests one should at a country and state level. It
dissolution of the Soviet Union, rorism since the 1980s --can not over-generalize that such involves groups of people form-
the new terrorism has been be categorize as a truly global atrocities are caused by Islam or ing associations, defining social
seen as largely inspired by the phenomenon not bound by geo- that the entire motive for terror- realities, and taking actions
Shia Islamic faith. Along with graphicbut also as a process ism is religious. It is noteworthy based on the meanings given to
this trend into the 21st century not bound by traditional organi- to point out that while widely those realities. Terrorism con-
has been increasing lethality zational hierarchies or structural associated with religious funda- sequently has become the new

32 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


reality for the United States (a resent the shift to direct rule can serve as merely a public stimuli and possible motivators.
reality it was really unprepared by the modern nation-state justification or excuse. Terror- Psychology has tried to profile
for). Unlike many other social (Blanton, R., T.D. & Mason, ism is likely the result from a terrorists with limited success
processes and realities-- terror- Athow, B. 2001). Prior to 1945 combination of other multiple as they constantly change over
ism is violent and is conducted the world was multi-polar, but factors as well. time. Former CIA psychiatrist,
in situations where violence after WWII, it became bi-polar Jerrold Post (1984) built on the
is not expected. Motivation with regards to a deterrent com- Social Aspects of Terrorism. earlier models that sought to
for terrorism and an effective petition known as the cold Terrorism and counter-terrorism explain terrorism a form of psy-
response cannot be considered war between two super pow- is also a social process. Bandura chopathology or personality de-
apart from political, historical, ers. After the collapse of the (1990) noted that the path to fect, arguing that two different
psychological, familial, social, Soviet Union, the U.S. began terrorism can be shaped by forms of dysfunction produced
and group dynamics, and even to enjoy and assume a position fortuitous factors as well as two different patterns of terror-
purely accidental factors. of primacy. According to Betts, by the conjoint influence of ist behavior. The first type was
the U.S. confused primacy with personal proclivity and social the Anarchic-ideologue. These
Political Aspects of Terror- invulnerability (Betts, 2002). inducements. Horgan and Tay- individuals were hypothesized
ism. Terrorism (and counter- lor (2001) have noted: What to come from severely dys-
terrorism) can be viewed as a Scholars of all disciplines have we know of actual terrorists functional families where they
political process. It is violent extensively argued the long- suggests that there is rarely a likely had suffered severe abuse
political activity designed to lasting adverse effects of co- conscious decision made to be- or maltreatment, leading them
force particular interpretations lonial control in a post-colo- come a terrorist. Most involve- to have hostile feelings toward
of reality on others. Through- nial world is that it unleashed ment in terrorism results from their parents. Their extremist
out history, many nationalists violent ethnic conflict. This gradual exposure and socializa- ideology was a displacement of
who found themselves under is one of the many negative tion towards extreme behavior. their rebellion and hostility onto
foreign control adopted the tac- side effects of colonial control The Social-Developmental the state authority. That is, they
tics of the terrorists in order to (Blanton et al. 2001; Lange et approach has been suggested, in acted out hostility by rebelling
fight foreign powers occupying al. 2003; Lange and Dawson various forms, by a wide range against the state of their parents
their lands. Nationalist groups 2009; Ratner 1996). Pluchinsky of researchers and observers. (Post, 1984). In contrast, the
throughout Europe turned to (1998) has suggested blood Terrorism, in this view, is not second type, the Nationalist-
the philosophy of the bomb, and feud terrorismretaliatory the product of a single decision, secessionist was not hostile,
nationalistic terrorists began to acts of violence to satisfy the but the end result of a dialec- but loyal to his parents, and his
follow the pattern set by the vengeance code of a clanwill tical process that gradually extremism was motivated to
violent anarchists (according only see an increase through pushes an individual toward a retaliate or avenge the wrongs
to White, 2001- Terrorism in the early part of the 21st cen- commitment to violence over done to his parents by the
the modern sense came from tury. Blood feud terrorism time. The process takes place state. In essence, they rebelled
violent anarchists in the late seems likely in the 15 newly within a larger political and against external society out of
1800s). Nationalists believed independent states of the for- social environment involving loyalty to their parents (Post,
they were fighting patriotic mer Soviet Union. the state, the terrorist group, 1984 p.16). Crenshaw, (1992)
wars. They often adopted the and the groups self-designated notes that the idea of terror-
tactics of the anarchists. The In the more modern eraCIA political affliation. The interac- ism as merely the product of
nationalist Irish Republican covert activities, including tion of these variables in a group mental disorder or psychopath
Army (IRA) rose from such assassination and regime de- setting is used to explain why is unlikely to be accurate as a
nationalistic growth against stabilizing missions and U.S. individuals turn to violence psychology of terrorism cannot
colonialism (Laqueur, 2004). nation-building efforts (IRAN and can eventually justify ter- be considered apart from politi-
is offered in the text as the rorist actions. Three factors cal, historical, familial, group
Conflict over secession and classic example) have a back- - injustice, identity, and need dynamic, organic, ideological,
self-determination has grown lash potential with indigenous for belonging have been found and even purely accidental,
in many postcolonial nations, populations. It often creates the often to co-occur in terrorists coincidental factors.
resulting in extended and of- hotbed of conditions that foster and strongly influence decisions
ten far-reaching campaigns of the development of resentment to enter terrorist organizations Religious Aspects of Terrorism.
violence, civil war, and terror. and terrorism. Vengeance is and to engage in terrorist activ- Finally, since the last part of the
Nation-states with a colonial often a trigger in terrorism ity (Borum, 2004). twentieth century, terrorism has
past are significantly more individuals engaging in terror- often become embedded in a
likely to experience secession- ism violence is a complicated Psychological Aspects of Ter- religious process, that is hard
ist conflicts by both ruling and problem and the question why rorism. Terrorism and counter- to separate from other contexts.
excluded groups of people, they engage in terrorism is still terrorism is also a psychological Religious and Spiritual tradi-
suggesting that segments of more difficulty to determine process. Individuals take ac- tions across cultures and epochs
the population are accustomed than we can conclude on face tions within associations, ap- have traditionally focused on
to self-rule, even under indirect value. The demand for retribu- plying interpretations of reality the transpersonal accepts of
colonialism, and then likely to tion or expression as vengeance and reacting to environmental living, but as psychological
science evolves, of terrorism today, including disrupting terrorists operations that any civilized society would
there may be a rec- revolutionary, political, national- and arresting planners. Profiling denounce them. This includes
ognition and the ist, cause-based, environmental, was also identified as a possible (but is not limited to-- (1) piracy;
need to study this criminal, religious, enforcement, means of prevention (as part of (2) slavery; (3) war crimes; (4)
transpersonal level maverick, splinter, and even deterrence)but this can prob- crimes against peace; (5) crimes
of self and group psychotic or lone-wolf terrorism. lematic if based solely on racial against humanity; (6) genocide;
ideologies. (Ap- The new domestic terrorist or religious factors because it and (7) torture (The Princeton
pel & Kim-Appel, 2010). The movement includes Christian could alienate the very com- Principles on Universal Jurisdic-
Transpersonal domain repre- Identify advocates, Klan mem- munities in which one needs to tion 28, Princeton University
sents the need for an expansive bers, militias, Freemen, skin- engage for information and pre- Program in Law and Public Af-
identity beyond the personal heads, survivalists, Populists, vention efforts. Profiling should fairs, 2001). Many countries
ego and the desire to experi- gun enthusiasts, militant anti- be based on a multidimensional can use principles of Universal
ence transrational stages of abortionists, tax protesters, and analysis of the multipath factors jurisprudence to provide a uni-
consciousness (see Walsh & neo-Nazis. that come together to create the fied approach to addressing
Vaughan (1993). It is at the tipping point for expression of these issues including dealing
transpersonal sphere of influ- terrorist behavior. with terrorism.
The Legal and
ence one can be driven towards
aggressive acts. It is from this Ethical Framework in a Former Defense Secretary Robert Slowly but surely over time, the
level one can express what Grof Multidimensional Address Gates advocates the developmen- principle of universal jurispru-
(1985) calls malignant destruc- of Terrorism tal of relationships. He believes dence appears to be develop-
tiveness. Grof indicates the security begins by developing a ing world- wide (Van Alstine,
need to distinguish defensive Most important, Homeland concept he calls partner capac- 2009). This is in regards to the
or benign aggression which Security and most importantly ity (Gates, 2010). The prime protection of human rights and
is in service of the (perceived) our legal system should develop goal of this policy is to help environmental concerns and
survival of the individual or the a clear definition of terrorism, countries develop the means to now towards a global stance
species. Malignant destructive- such as that suggested by the defend themselves and creating against terrorism. Such an ap-
ness is a form of aggression that Terrorism Research Center, alliances to support them and proach would not have coun-
can be done with even without which excludes singling out the right towards democratic tries operating in isolationbut
any biological or economic one ethnic or religious group rule. Partnerships require new in extended partnerships and
reasons. Malignant destruc- or nonviolent acts of protest by cooperative intergovernmental universal rule applications.
tiveness is born out a lack American citizens that are not relationships, assistance from
of an integrated transpersonal potential violent crimes against allies, and pooling resources to Human Rights and
perspective (e.g. experiencing persons. Davis & Jenkins (2002) solve security problems. Secular
a discontinuity among living note to successfully deter terror- Muslim nations are also critical
Democratization as
organisms) as well as in a striv- ism we must: players in international security- Central to Ethical and
ing for transcendence in the -so to blindly frame terrorism as Legal Actions
context of desiring death-rebirth. Manifest strength and, perhaps a problem inherent in Islam itself
A transpersonal search can be even more important, manifest is a strategy that is unlikely to be The United States took the lead
worked through in a constructive purpose and determination. effective. after World War II in the adop-
moral and ethical system, or it These authors go on to say: tion of Human Rights agree-
can be abandoned in despair and/ Universal Jurisprudence ments, but more recently human
or existential crisis. This innate We must also show: (1) Con- rights have taken a back seated
desire for purpose, meaning, and sistency with American values Universal jurisprudence is a to global politics (Carr, 2002).
transcendence beyond a finite in war and a moral validity ap- broad concept and embedded in Right after World War II the
material life can also be per- parent to others with whom the the idea that: United States was essential to
verted or hijacked by spiritual or United States needs to work; and establishing institutional and
religious systems that advocate (2) A balance between efforts to The nature of the crime, with- legal infrastructure intended to
self or other destruction crush a particular terrorist orga- out regard to where the crime develop peace while promoting
nization and efforts to mitigate was committed, the national- human rights. In light of the hu-
Islam and Muslim countries are the factors that give the organiza- ity of the alleged or convicted man travesties of World War II
not a monolithic entity, and we tion appeal and power (requiring perpetrator, the nationality of the United Nations developed
must educate ourselves on the consistent attention by policy the victim, or any other connec- the Universal Declaration of
nuance of its plurality, internal and lawmakers and those who tion to the state exercising such Human Rights. The United
dynamics, and historical com- execute the strategy) (p.25). jurisdiction. (The Princeton Nations Universal Declaration
plexities. Our national policies, Principles on Universal Jurisdic- of Human Rights (UDHR) is
laws and counter-terrorism strat- This approach also indicates tion, 2001, p. 1). the most famous human rights
egies should reflect this fact. efforts through interdiction agreement in the world. The key
However, Islamic terrorism is which includes gathering in- These crimes are usually so hei- messages of the Universal Dec-
still only one of countless forms formation and intelligence and nous and universally condemned laration of Human Rights are

34 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


that human rights are globally terrorist groups to end was by Conclusion References
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foreignaffairs.com/articles/66224/robert-m-
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retribution based systems. Au- of terrorists causes. enlarged vantage point that we Grof, S. (1985). Beyond the brain: Birth,
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ultimately negatively impact A more universal and human tion in different pathways as Horgan, J. and Taylor, M. (2001). The
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rorist groups end: Lessons for countering
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Abu Graib Correctional Facility nisms. This would include more Washington, D.C.: RAND.
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by Coalition forces in Iraq (Cole, counterterrorism operation About the Authors 3-20). In H. Kushner (Ed.) The future of ter-
rorism: Violence in the millennium. Thou-
2003). It is still not known what partnerships, as well as, use sand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Foreign Affairs, 75, 5, 24-36.
some 1200 persons detained structuressuch as the use of field of Behavioral Health for almost Laqueur, W. (2004). No end to war: Terror-
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Professor in the Department of Behav- International Publishing Group.
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Pike, G. H. (2006). USA PATRIOT Act:
Whats next? Information Today, 23, 4, p.1-
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is seen as abusive in their pursuit would include the development Sciences at Tiffin University. Dr. Appel, Poland, J.M. (2010). Understanding terror-
teaches criminal justice and psychology ism: Groups, strategies, and responses. NJ:
of terrorismthis can hinder of perhaps of a more inclusive Prentice Hall.
as has developed and taught a psy-
needed partnerships and moral political processes that could chology of terrorism course for Tiffin
Princeton Project on Universal Jurisdic-
tion (2001). The Princeton principles on
and ethical authority. hear international complaints University, and is certified in the Psy- universal jurisdiction 28. Princeton
University Program in Law and Public Af-
and grievances (thus allow- chology of Terrorist by the American fairs. Accessed at: http://lapa.princeton.edu/
We must work diligently to ing the venting of anger that Psychotherapy Association. Dr. Appel hosteddocs/unive_jur.pdf
has degrees in psychology and criminal Pluchinskya, D. A. (1998). Terrorism in the
understand why and how some otherwise would be expressed justice with a specialization in Home- former Soviet Union: A primer, a puzzle, a
people become terrorists. We through terrorist actions). land Security.
prognosis. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism,
21, 119-147.
must also become aware of Silke, A. (ed.) (2011). The psychology of
Dr. Kim-Appel was born and raised counter-terrorism. London: Routledge.
the processes, developments, So we must show force and Silke, A. (2003). Terrorists, victims and soci-
in Seoul, South Korea, where she got
and factors contributing to the perseverancebut in a mea- her undergraduate degree in Art from
ety: Psychological perspectives on terrorism
and its consequences. Chichester: Wiley.
end of Terrorism. There have sured and consistent way. This Seoul Womens University. She came to U.S. Department of Homeland Security
been terrorists organizations consistency must also be in line the United States in 1991. She then ob- (2006). DHS six-point agenda. Accessed
November 8, 2012 at: http://www.dhs.gov/
that have disbanded which and congruence with American tained two masters degrees (one in Art xabout/history/editorial_0646.shtm
Therapy and one in Family Counsel- Walsh, R & Vaughan, F. (1993). On
we can learn from and since moral and legal values we ing). Her Doctorate was then earned in Transpersonal definitions. Journal of
1968, 268 terrorist groups profess. It must also be seen as Counseling with an emphasis in Family Transpersonal Psychology, 25 (2)
pp. 125-182.
have disbanded according to part of universal human values Therapy and a Cognate in Gerontology. White, J. (2010). Terrorism: An introduction.
Jones & Libicki (2008). Jones that exist, not merely for self- She currently is an Associate Professor Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Wolf,
of Counseling and Art Therapy at Ursu- J.B. (1981). Fear of fear - A survey
and Libicki (2008) found that serving benefit of a particular line College, and she has taught at both
of terrorist operations and controls
in open societies. New York, NY:
the most common way for nation-state. the undergraduate and graduate levels. Plenum Publishing.
Secure Driver:
Is Perception and
Reaction Time Overlooked?

I
By Anthony Ricci
s Perception and Reaction Time an often over looked skill
or just one that is taken for granted? This is a skill that
cannot be taught in one lesson, but it is a technique and
muscle response that can be practiced and understood
over time. Many Officers/road users take these two words
or actions at face value. We first hear of these topics in
High School Drivers Ed class: the classroom teacher ad-
dresses the importance of scanning the road - our eyes never
stop moving or we need to look 12 to 15 seconds down the road
and be ready to react and of course in some PD Academies there
may be discussions on time and distance and even some math to
show students just how fast things really do happen.
36 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4
The reason this topic cannot be taught in one lesson is that there caller is hiding in a downstairs closet. Your mind is set on the im-
are so many underlining factors involved. For example we tell our portance of the situation, saving a life, catching a thief, a potential
students to scan the road but we forget to tell them how to scan, how confrontation of a weapon and maybemore than one suspect, your
the eyes and mind work, and what to look for. In some instances own well being, oh and I almost forgot DRIVING TO THE SCENE
looking at the car down the road may not be enough but glancing SAFELY. En route a car pulls out in front of you 300 feet down the
down at the tires may give you a better indication of which way that road (football field). Your PPCV is traveling at 60 MPH with lights
car is going to start moving. By knowing what to look for the driver and siren. The question is do you have enough time to stop and/or
can save time and start to react sooner. avoid the vehicle?

As we are approaching the next blind curve or the next car pulling Since accidents happen in feet not hours we first have to change
out to cross the intersection what should we be thinking about? It is MPH to FPS. An Accident Re-constructionist would multiply 1.47
one thing to teach a student to see the car well ahead, but to tell the times 60 MPH = 88 FPS which is exact. However, for the sake of
student to begin the information processing technique from the time this article lets make it easy by multiplying 60 by 1.50: (60MPH/2=
they approach the vehicle to the time they get out takes on a whole 30) (30 + 60 = 90 FPS) At 60 MPH for every second you travel you
new meaning. WE MUST are traveling 90 feet. Using the
CONSTANTLY PROCESS BEST case scenario if it takes
INFORMATION SEE- you .5 second to recognize the
ING IT, DOES NOTHING
BUT IDENTIFING, REC- Since accidents happen in car as a potential hazard and
another .5 second for your
OGNIZING AND REACT- brain to tell your hands and
ING QUICKLY and ACCU- feet not hours we first have to feet to do something, you have
RATELY, SAVES LIVES. just covered 90 feet and are still
A Law Enforcement Officer change MPH to FPS. An Acci- moving at 60 MPH or 90 FPS.
must take this process to a Problem is before you saw the
much deeper level. He/she dent Re-constructionist would car you were looking down
has to scan the roads for many at the police radio for only a
things, not just potential ac-
cident situations.
multiply 1.47 times 60 MPH = split second, which put you
90 feet deeper into the acci-

Perception time: the time it


88 FPS which is exact. How- dent zone. You now have 120
feet and approx. 1.3 seconds
takes for the brain to identify
an object as a potential hazard ever, for the sake of this article to stop, this situation just
got real serious. If the driver
is at best .5 to .75 seconds if froze on the steering wheel
the driver is alert and ready lets make it easy by multiply- and slammed on the brakes,
to react. which is quite common, your
ing 60 by 1.50: (60MPH/2= 30) vehicle would end up 30 feet
Reaction time: the time it through the obstacle. A PPCV
takes your brain to tell your (30 + 60 = 90 FPS) At 60 MPH should be able to stop from 60
hands and feet to do some- MPH in approx. 140 to 150
thing again it can take .5 to
.75 seconds if the driver is in
for every second you travel you feet if using correct braking
technique.
ready mode. While your brain
is telling your foot to get to the
are traveling 90 feet. Since the driver does not con-
brake-pedal, time is quickly trol braking distance the only
passing and you are getting place to make up time and
much closer to the dreaded create more distance is in
contact point. Remember at the perception and reaction
this point the brakes have process. Driving is mostly a
not been activated and your skill of the eyes and mind and
vehicle is still traveling at trainers need to focus a large
the same speed. Hopefully amount of time on how and
you will have enough space what the officer perceives as
left to allow the brakes and dangerous and reacting quickly
steering wheel to work. The and properly to it.
less space you have the more
skill and luck you will need. About the Author
Youve been called to a Anthony Ricci is President
break-in where a female of ADSI 1adsi.com.
A IACSP Q & A
With Former
New York City
Police Commissioner

R
Ray Kelly
ay Kelly, the author of Vigilance: My Life Serv-
ing America and Protecting Its Empire City,
served twice as the New York City police com-
missioner. In his book, Ray Kelly writes about
the sixteen terrorist plots against New York
City that were thwarted after 9/11. He also of-
fers his views and insights into the challenges
and controversies facing law enforcement today.
The son of a milkman and and later became a New York where he oversaw the police
a Macys dressing room City police officer. Kelly response to the 1993 World
checker, Ray Kelly grew up rose quickly through the Trade Center bombing and
on New York Citys Upper NYPD ranks and he became spearheaded programs that
West Side. He served as a the police commissioner would help usher in the
Marine officer in Vietnam under Mayor David Dinkins, citys historic drop in crime.

38 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


Eight years later, after the gest serving commissioner
9/11 attacks, newly elected I thought that I should put
Mayor Michael Bloomberg down some of the things that
appointed Kelly to be NYCs I was engaged in. I enjoyed
commissioner once again.
It got us what I was looking the experience and it made
After a decade serving as Un- for, which was trip wires and me reflect on a lot of things.
der Secretary of the Treasury I tried to make it a readable
for Enforcement, overseeing listening posts for New York. book and it didnt have a
U.S. Customs, and com- lot of numbers and that sort
manding an international For instance, during the London of thing.
police force in Haiti, Kelly
believed that the city could bombing, I was on the phone IACSP: It had some good
not afford to rely solely stories.
on the federal government with our person in London
for security. Kelly created Kelly: I hope it was a good
and improved the NYPDs before the head of the Metro- read.
counterterrorism and intel-
ligence bureaus. politan Police knew about the IACSP: In addition to being
police commissioner twice
Ray Kelly retired from the bombing. We didnt know if this during tumultuous times, you
Marine Corp Reserves with
the rank of colonel after 30
was part of worldwide series of also had other experiences,
such as serving in Vietnam,
years of service. He holds
degrees from Manhattan
attacks or what. We got granu- Washington and Haiti. You
could have written an entire
College, St. Johns Univer- lar information very quickly. We book just on your time over-
sity School of Law, New seeing international police
York University Graduate didnt have anyone in Mumbai operations in Haiti.
School of Law and the Ken-
nedy School of Government during the bombing there, so Kelly: Youre absolutely
at Harvard University. right. They say that about
we sent three officers there just 85% of the people there are
(Editors note: Mr. Kelly Catholic, but 100% believe
was interviewed prior to the after the shooting stopped. They in Voodoo. That fatalistic
terrorist attack in San Ber- spiritualism basically says
nardino, California and the were able to gather some really that when problems arise
shooting of a Philadelphia they come from evil spirits.
police officer by a man who detailed information.
confessed to the crime and IACSP: One of the things
supporting ISIS). you should take credit for
is creating a robust coun-
Ray Kelly was interviewed terterrorism bureau and you
by Paul Davis, a contributing enhanced your intelligence
editor to the Journal. bureau, including sending
NYPD detectives overseas.
IACSP: Why did you write Was this effective? Was it
this book? worth the time and money?

Kelly: Ive been blessed with Kelly: Yes, I think it was.


a lot of experiences and op- First of all, the funding for
portunities and in those ex- the overseas program comes
periences are lessons learned from a private foundation.
and I wanted to memorialize The only thing that was on
it. My predecessors all wrote the public payroll was the
books, so as I was the lon- salaries and living expenses
of the officers. We and how we can better protect you thought was the most seri- transaction where he bought
did that from the ourselves. Is there a possibility ous of those plots and how they the car in Connecticut. We
get-go because I of something like this happen- were thwarted? identified him the next day.
knew there would ing in New York? The FBI goes to his house in
be problems and Kelly: I want to be clear: basi- Bridgeport and surrounds his
issues. You have IACSP: And meanwhile the cally, it was 16 plots that were house thinking hes in there,
a guy in Brooklyn whose car bad guys are communicating thwarted, but I never stated but hes not. He drove to the
was broken into and, hey, you immediately worldwide via the that the NYPD did it. The FBI airport with an M-9 rifle, which
have a detective in Abu Dhabi? Internet, emails and telephones. does great work and the NYPD he was going to use to shoot his
It got us what I was looking for, does great work, and oh, by the way out. When he gets to the
which was trip wires and listen- Kelly: Yes. way, we were lucky. Well take airport, he leaves his rifle in the
ing posts for New York. For luck every time. One attack in car, pays cash for a ticket and
instance, during the London IACSP: Did your detectives particular, where the individual gets on a plane to Abba Dhabi.
bombing, I was on the phone meet any resistance from drives into Times Square in The plane pulls away from the
with our person in London foreign governments or our 2010, finds a parking spot for ramp but brought back and
before the head of the Met- government, like the State his SUV on 45th and Broad- hes taken off the plane. Hes
ropolitan Police knew about Department, the CIA, the FBI way, and sets off this bomb. He arrested and confesses to all of
the bombing. We didnt know and so on? walks away, sets off a fuse and this. If in fact that bomb had
if this was part of worldwide thinks hes going to blow up worked, it would have killed
series of attacks or what. We Kelly: They didnt receive it. this car. It only smoked. There probably scores of people.
got granular information very There was some grumblings was a vendor near there and Times Square on a warm May
quickly. We didnt have anyone on the ground level, but Bob a police officer on horseback night was packed with people.
in Mumbai during the bombing Mueller, who was the FBI di- who saw the smoke coming You would have had a lot of
there, so we sent three officers rector then, supported it. Some out of the car, reported it and people killed.
there just after the shooting ambassador wanted them to the fire department came and
stopped. They were able to report to him, but our position ultimately the bomb squad IACSP: In your book you
gather some really detailed was this is a cop-to-cop rela- came. What he had done was called terrorism theater.
information. They landed on a tionship. Now I was the Under dumb-down the formula he
Sunday and by the following Secretary of the Treasury for was given. He was a natural- Kelly: Thats what it is. They
Friday I had a 75-page report Enforcement and then the U.S. ized Pakistani. He had gone to want to make a show. Terror-
from them. We had 400 people Customs Commissioner and Pakistan and came in contact ism sort of by definition means
in our audience listening to one of the things we did was with the Pakistan Taliban and they are trying to level the play-
them when we had a hook-up. to have out LEGATs, our legal they gave him the instruc- ing field. Terrorists are fighting
These were security directors attaches, in other embassies tions on how to do this with against a much biggest force or
in the New York and surround- throughout the world. I was readily available equipment. entity the U.S. Government
ing area. We had a tabletop aware of that program, but However, he thought that he or another government so
exercise that I administered this was going to be different. looked Pakistani and he would what they are trying to do is
with our executive corp. I sent This was between cops and raise suspicions, so on his own instill fear in people, and thats
the 75-page report to the FBI it worked very well. We now volition, he dumbs down the the theatrical part. And quite
and they had it that morning, have cops in the NYPD who formula. He uses a lessor grade frankly, New York is still the
and we had an actual exercise were born in 106 countries. of fertilizer because a higher worlds biggest stage. It is the
in the field, roughly approxi- This gives the department level would be reported to the financial capital, the communi-
mating what had happened in tremendous diversity. We were federal government. He goes cations capital and the cultural
Mumbai. Thats what I was able to match individuals with to Pennsylvania to buy fire- capital. So you get more bang
looking for from the program the country based on language crackers, but instead of buying for the buck, no pun intended,
speed. Speed is information. skills and that sort of thing. As M-80 firecrackers, which are by attacking New York City.
It worked. It wasnt only look- far as I know, it is still work- very powerful, he buys M-88
ing at the culture they were ing well. firecrackers. So he kind of IACSP: Why did you write in
assigned to, but being able to outsmarted himself. your book that after the 1993
travel to other locations and get IACSP: In your book you do attack World Trade Center
information quickly. We dont a good job of describing the IACSP: Thankfully. bombing you believed we were
want to wait two years for a thwarting 16 terrorist plots facing a new breed of Islamic
federal government report. We against New York. Can you Kelly: He gets away but were jihadists that were more daunt-
want to learn what happened give us an overview of what able to track him based on the ing than anything America

40 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


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has ever seen before? More Inquiries, or Stop, Question & Some- Kelly: Yes. I think the sub-total of my ex-
daunting than Nazi Germany times Frisk. periences are pretty varied and defused.
and Imperial Japan? They certainly helped me. I think I was
Kelly: It is common sense. It says that if sort of the right guy at the right time. I
Kelly: The Internet has been people, particularly young people, have a had been in the federal government, I ran
a game-changer in terms of tendency to carry a gun and have the po- a federal law enforcement agency in the
motivating people and also in showing the tential for being stopped and having that federal government and I had seen what
means of how to conduct mayhem - Im gun found, they are less likely to carry it, the federal government could do. I had
sure you know about Inspire magazine. therefore you will have less spontaneous been in Haiti and worked with federal
So it is a very different threat from the shootings. When stops are done at a rea- authorities and I worked for a long time
threat we faced from the Japanese or the sonable level I think it will reduce shoot- as a street cop, running police commands
Germans. Fighting a standing army is one ings. Weve seen it here in New York and and that sort of thing. So it all sort of came
thing, but being able to identify a needle weve seen it in other cities. There was an together for me to get the job done just
in a haystack and prevent a terrorist attack article in The NY Times in the last month three and a half months after the horrific
is very difficult. or so saying there is an increase in shoot- events of September 11th. The city was in
ings in 30 cities in America. Thats not a the doldrums and I like to think that under
IACSP: How does law enforcement and coincidence. Thats a result of backing off the leadership of Mayor Bloomberg we
intelligence agencies deal with the lone from these types of tactics and strategies. It did a good job of bringing back the spirit
wolf terrorist? is perfectly lawful. It has been validated by of the city and reducing violent crime by
a Supreme Court case, Terry vs. Ohio, and 40% at the same time. This was done, by
Kelly: With great difficulty. In the book it works. The NYPD has cops from 106 the way, with 6,000 fewer police officers
we talk about Jose Pementel. He was countries, so to think we have a policy of than the previous administration.
born in the Dominican Republic and he racial profiling is wrong. Stop & Frisk is
comes here when hes three or four years not a be-all or end-all, but the total tactics IACSP: What was your high point as police
of age and he later becomes a Muslim. and strategies that we used in the Bloom- commissioner and your low point?
He is motivated by films he saw on the berg administrations 12 years that resulted
Internet, including the alleged atroci- in almost 9,500 fewer murders than in the Kelly: The lowest points are always when
ties that happened at Abu Ghraib. So he 12 preceding years. That is a phenomenal police officers are shot and killed. We had
wants to kill U.S. troops returning from number. And if history is any guide, those on my watch two instances where two cops
Afghanistan. We got lucky by getting a lives saved are men of color. were killed at the same time. You have to
confidential informant next to him. Hes make those announcements to the family
using the confidential informants apart- IACSP: Im against most forms of gun and it is always gut-wrenching. The best
ment, which we totally wired, so while control, but taking illegal guns away from moment was when I was appointed. We
this case is going on, Im watching him street criminals is true gun control, in my sent out the three Cs, we called it: crime
make elbow bombs, three-joint bombs, view. suppression, counterterrorism and com-
basically. Making the fuel for that was munity relations. I think we succeeded on
600 match tops. He took the tops off of Kelly: Youre absolutely right. all fronts. No successful terrorist attacks
the matches. The simplicity of it makes it and we had crime reduced to record lows.
very, very difficult to identify these people. IACSP: The DEA chief recently backed We had record low shootings and record
We get into these chatrooms and pick up up the FBI director by agreeing that there low shootings by police officers. Were
some concerns, but a lot of times now the was indeed a Ferguson Effect on police proud of it.
chatrooms are password-protected and it officers. Do you agree?
is a one-on-one conversation. It is difficult IACSP: I read that ABC is producing a TV
to monitor that sort of thing. But because Kelly: I totally agree. Just ask the cops. series based on you and your book. Can
of our increased diversity we are able to Theyre the best source. Dont ask the you tell us anything about that?
have someone undercover interacting on a White House. Ask a cop on the street.
chatroom who uses the dialect or the street Kelly: Well, we met with them and I have
jargon of Karachi, because they were born IACSP: In addition to your long service an ABC contract and we are starting to put
in Karachi. with the NYPD, you also served as a it together now with a writer. Well see
Marine officer, a federal law enforcement how it develops.
IACSP: If I may change gears and cover official and a corporate security executive.
crime, why do you think proactive police Do you think these experiences helped you IACSP: Thank you for your
tactics like Stop & Frisk are effective? in your job as the police commissioner, long service and thank you for
I read that you prefer the term Street especially during your second tour? speaking to us.

42 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


IACSP
Homeland
Security
Bookshelf
By Dr. Joshua Sinai
The following are noteworthy recently published books on various aspects of homeland
security. The capsule reviews are arranged alphabetically, by authors last names.

Critical Infrastructure System Security and Resiliency


Betty Biringer, Eric Vugrin, and Drake Warren, (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2013),
229 pages, $75.96 [Hardcover], ISBN: 9781466557505.

T
his is a valuable textbook on the methodologies and technologies required to mini-
mize risks and upgrade resilience in critical infrastructure. The book is divided into
two sections. The first section discusses the methodologies involved in conducting
security risk assessment (e.g., estimating security risk by conducting threat and
consequence analysis on undesired events, whether terrorism or natural disas-
ters, against critical assets, and assessing the effectiveness of protection systems). The
second section focuses on the evaluation and design of resilient systems (e.g., a discussion
of the current state of qualitative and quantitative resilience assessments, measuring the
costs of resilience in terms of absorptive capacity and recovery costs); and case studies
of how to apply the studys infrastructure resilience analysis framework to assessing an
entitys level of resilience.
44 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4
The concluding chapter discusses future tastrophes such as in Kansas, China, India, tions during such incidents; and the processes
directions in resilience assessments. The and Thailand; the impact of natural disasters involved in recovering from such incidents,
appendices include an example of the ap- on indigenous populations in cases such as including having a fully implemented busi-
plication of a root cause analysis-type fault Mindanao, Indonesia, and Louisiana, U.S.; ness continuity plan in place. The Appendices
tree to examine the elements that might and the role of local communities in helping include a series of checklist questions and
cause the potential breakdown of an electric recovery efforts. issues to consider in preparing pre-incident pre-
power transmission in order to understand ventative and post-incident recovery programs.
how to prevent such events. The chapters The authors are veteran practitioners in public
are accompanied by numerous tables and safety, with Mr. Shepherd also a retired high
diagrams, including a chapter summary and ranking FBI official in counterterrorism and
reference resources. Two of the authors are a former director of security for the Venetian
senior members of the technical staff at San- Resort Hotel Casino, in Las Vegas, NV.
dia National Laboratories in Albuquerque,
NM, where the third author had worked until
he joined the RAND Corporation in 2011.

Active Shooter: Preparing


for and Responding to a
Growing Threat
Kevin T. Doss and C. David Shepherd,
(Boston, MA: Butterworth Heinemann/El-
sevier, 2015), 318 pages, $44.96 [Paper- Counterterrorism Law
back], ISBN: 978-0-12-802784-4. Stephen Dycus, William C. Banks, Peter
Disasters Impact on This book provides a comprehensive and
Raven-Hansen, and Stephen L. Vladeck,
editors, [Second Edition] (New York, NY:
Livelihood and Cultural detailed examination of the measures required
Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2012),
to prevent active shooter events, ranging from
Survival: Losses, preparing for, responding to, and recovering 912 pages, $209.00 [Hardcover], ISBN:
Opportunities, and from such incidents. Following an introduc- 9780735598638.
tory overview of the threat presented by ac-
Mitigation tive shooters primarily against private sector This highly useful legal textbook presents
Michele Companion, editor, (Boca Raton, workplace facilities, the chapters cover topics a comprehensive and detailed overview of
FL: CRC Press, 2015), 354 pages, $79.96 such as how to profile the behaviors and counterterrorism law within the larger field of
[Hardcover], ISBN: 9781482248432. mindsets of active shooters, including triggers national security law. The book is divided into
that might drive such susceptible individuals eight parts: an introduction, authorities and limits
This is one of the few books that compre- into violence; the components involved in in the war on terrorists, detecting terrorist threats,
hensively examine the discipline of disaster preparing preventative programs, including detaining and interrogating terrorist suspects,
management as it is applied to managing response and recovery programs; how to train criminalizing terrorists, prosecuting terrorists
disasters around the world. This edited and exercise employees in understanding how and their supporters, applying counterterror-
volume is divided into five sections: a dis- to respond to such violent events, such as in ism law in homeland security, and applying
cussion of disaster risk reduction in general; accordance with the ALICE response protocol noncriminal sanctions against terrorists and
post-disaster resettlement and implications of alert, lockdown, inform, counter, and escape; their supporters by means of public sanctions
for rebuilding in the cases of the Ecuadorian understanding the roles and responsibilities of and launching lawsuits against terrorists and
Andes, Honduras, Algeria, and Japan fol- first responders with whom affected security their supporters. The textbooks chapters are ac-
lowing the 2011 earthquake and tsunami; personnel need to coordinate effective response companied by excerpted sections from relevant
the components involved in rehabilitating measures during such incidents; how to con- criminal codes and criminal cases, including
livelihood in cases involving natural ca- duct internal and external crisis communica- notes and questions for discussion.
The books chapters
cover topics such as the
process of investigations
(investigation
terminology, the
elements of successful
investigation, whether
physical or electronic,
including undercover,
Investigative Interviewing: or via interviews); the Policing in Israel:
Psychology, Method, and difference between Studying Crime Control,
Practice public and private Community Policing, and
Eugene F. Ferraro, (Boca Raton, FL: CRC sector investigations; Counterterrorism
Press, 2015), 389 pages, $63.96 [Hard- the fundamentals of Tal Jonathan-Zamir, David Weisburd and
cover], ISBN 9781466590861. Badi Hasisi, editors, (Boca Raton, FL:
interviewing, including
CRC Press, 2016), 263 pages, $79.96
This is an authoritative, comprehensive collecting evidence in the [Hardcover], ISBN: 9781498722568.
and detailed examination of the practice
of investigative interviewing whether in course of such interviews,
criminal proceedings or in the private sector evidence retention and The contributors to this edited volume,
where due process still has to be followed. who are prominent Israeli criminologists,
The books chapters cover topics such as the chain of custody examine three significant aspects of polic-
the process of investigations (investigation over such evidence); ing in Israel: crime control (e.g., analyzing
terminology, the elements of successful in- crime hot spots, measures to ensure road
vestigation, whether physical or electronic, differentiating interviews safety, and the impact of the organization
including undercover, or via interviews); from interrogation; of the criminal justice system on crime
the difference between public and private rates); police and community (e.g., the re-
sector investigations; the fundamentals of methodologies to detect lationship between the police and minority
interviewing, including collecting evidence deception and, when communities, such as Israeli Arabs); and
in the course of such interviews, evidence policing terrorism, with the Israeli police
retention and the chain of custody over such appropriate, overcoming also responsible for maintaining internal
evidence); differentiating interviews from deceitful denials by security. Also discussed is media cover-
interrogation; methodologies to detect de- age of police performance, including in
ception and, when appropriate, overcoming suspects; handling confronting terrorism. Although the Is-
deceitful denials by suspects; handling legal legal challenges to raeli police has recently experienced several
challenges to interrogations; future trends in high-profile scandals involving financial
investigative interviewing; and methods to interrogations; future corruption and mismanagement of criminal
improve results in interrogation interview- trends in investigative cases, it is hoped that the installation of
ing. The appendices include a glossary of Roni Alsheikh, the former deputy head of
investigative terms and terminology, an in- interviewing; and the General Security Service (Shin Bet) as
vestigations checklist, a preprinted statement methods to improve Police Commissioner, will restore the type
form, and an employee statement checklist. of efficient policing that is so well discussed
The author, a veteran expert practitioner in results in interrogation in this important volume.
compliance (including in the U.S. military), interviewing.
is Chief Ethics Officer of Convercent, Inc.,
in Denver, CO.

46 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


Save on the Latest Books for
Security Professionals from CRC Press

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Visit www.crcpress.com to see our complete selection of titles


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Homeland Security and Pri- Policing Terrorism: Risk Analysis and
vate Sector Business: Cor- Research Studies into Security Countermeasure
porations Role in Critical Police Counterterrorism Selection
Infrastructure Protection Investigations Thomas L. Norman, [Second edition]
Elsa Lee, [Second edition] (Boca David Lowe, (Boca Raton, FL: CRC (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2016),
Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2015), 354 Press, 2016), 203 pages, $71.96 [Hard- 483 pages, $55.96 [Hardcover], ISBN
pages, $79.96 [Hardcover], ISBN cover], ISBN: 9781482226836. 9781482244199.
9781482248432.
Written by a former British counter- This reference handbook is a comprehen-
terrorism detective, this highly useful sive examination of the methodologies
This practitioner-based handbook provides and technologies required to conduct risk
a comprehensive and detailed overview of practitioner-focused book is divided into
two sections on policing terrorism. The analysis and to select effective counter-
all the components involved in conducting measures required to develop a security
risk assessments to safeguard private sector first section, The Law Governing Ter-
rorism Investigations, discusses the law program. The handbook, which is intended
business facilities against the spectrum of for security professionals, is divided
threats, such as terrorism, cyber breaches, governing terrorism investigations, in-
cluding how terrorism is legally defined, into three sections: selecting appropriate
and malicious employee insiders. The books methodologies and tools to conduct a
chapters cover topics such as an overview of government policies and statutory pre-
ventative measures against terrorism, the prioritized risk analysis of ones assets,
the Department of Homeland Security and in terms of the probability of the threat
its National Infrastructure Protection Plan need to balance the interests of national
security and individual civil liberties in to their being attacked; the components
(NIPP); trends in the evolution of the terrorist in terms of policies, standards, guidelines
threat and warfare, including how terrorists conducting surveillance and information
sharing on terrorist suspects, how terror- and procedures involved in implement-
plan their attacks; the components involved in ing a security program; and metrics of
conducting risk assessments, in which risk is ism is funded, and a comparative study of
how terrorism-related laws are applied in effectiveness in selecting and budgeting
defined as the product of threat x vulnerability; for countermeasures in terms of security
how to conduct an intelligence investigation a number of states. The second section,
Investigating Terrorism, discusses is- personnel and technologies, as well as
in cooperation with law enforcement; and the authors guidelines for writing threat
how to exercise a facilitys security plan. The sues such as the need for police officers
to understand the levels of legal powers and vulnerability assessment reports. The
handbook includes numerous highly useful author is a veteran security risk manage-
tables and diagrams that serve as templates for granted them to track the radicalization
of individuals into terrorism, how to re- ment consultant.
putting together the security plans discussed
in the chapters. The author, a former U.S. cruit informants and how they need to be
Army Counterintelligence Officer and Special handled, including in court proceedings.
Agent, is the CEO and founder of Advance
SCI, LLC, a professional services firm in
security and investigations.

48 Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4


Intelligence-Based Introduction to Homeland Defense and Defense
Security in Private Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA): The U.S. Militarys
Industry Role to Support and Defend
Thomas A. Trier, (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Bert B. Tussing and Robert McCreight, editors, (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2015),
Press, 2015), 187 pages, $55.96 [Hard- 224 pages, $71.96 [Hardcover], ISBN 9781466595675
cover], ISBN: 9781498722032.
The contributors to this highly useful textbook examine the roles and missions of the U.S.
This is a highly useful practitioner-based armed forces in support of civil authorities in homeland defense, particularly during emer-
overview of the components involved in gency and disaster events, such as natural disasters and terrorism. The chapters cover topics
such as the constitutional and legal frameworks governing the support of the military to civil
conducting in-house intelligence-based
authorities (including the role of US NORTHCOM in homeland defense), the air, land, and
security assessments and the guidelines maritime domains where the military supports civil authorities, the militarys role in counter-
required to mitigate a private businesss risk ing potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD)-type events, and emerging challenges in
and vulnerability to criminal, workplace homeland defense in areas such as competition over the Arctic Region, cyber security, and
violence and other types of illicit activities. unforeseen catastrophes. Each chapter includes diagrams, tables, discussion questions, and
The book is divided into six sections: an in- reference sources. and legal frameworks governing the support of the military to civil au-
troductory overview of intelligence and the thorities (including the role of US NORTHCOM
advantages of an intelligence-based security in homeland defense), the air, land, and maritime
program; assessing a security program in domains where the military supports civil au-
terms of its capabilities and compliance thorities, the militarys role in countering potential
to security standards; building consensus weapons of mass destruction (WMD)-type events,
and emerging challenges in homeland defense in
among stakeholders for a security program;
areas such as competition over the Arctic Region,
the components of a security assessment cyber security, and unforeseen catastrophes. Each
in terms of external, internal, and industry chapter includes diagrams, tables, discussion ques-
threats vis--vis vulnerabilities; planning tions, and reference sources.
and resourcing involved in conducting an
intelligence program assessment; develop- Please note that three of the capsule reviews
ing a strategic and tactical plan to mitigate originally appeared in the December 2015 issue
enterprise risk; and case studies that dem- of the online journal Perspectives on Terror-
onstrate best practices in implementing an ism (www.terrorismanalysts.com). Reprinted
intelligence-based security plan. The author, with permission.
a retired former high-ranking FBI official in
intelligence management, provides advisory About the Reviewer
services to the private sector through his
firm, Security Intelligence Consulting, LLC. Dr. Joshua Sinai is Director of Analytics & Busi-
ness Intelligence at CRA (www.cra-usa.net), in
Vienna, VA. He can be reached at Joshua.si-
nai@comcast.net.
Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4
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Journal of Counterterrorism & Homeland Security International Vol. 21, No.4