4, AUGUST 1996
Abstract- A modified approach of injecting the regenerated Th is fired immediately. The voltage across the inductor
energy from a 3 - q5 ac squirrel cage induction motor drive L1 reverses and the current starts flowing through the loop
system, during its braking operation, sinusoidally into the 3 - Q JKABCDLJ to charge the capacitor Co. The loop equation
supply using a feedback inverter between the thyristor rectifier
bridge and the 3 - 4 inverter block is described. The validity of neglecting thyristor drop is given by
the modified scheme is verified by simulation and experiment.
L1-diLl -
dt
I. INTRODUCTION where V, is the voltage across the capacitor CO of the
feedback inverter. During this time, the loop JIHRYGFEDLJ
EGENERATIVE braking of a 3 - q5 ac squirrel cage which regenerates current to the mains will come into action
induction motor, driven by a voltage source inverter is a only when (V, - E l ) 2 V, sinwt, the source voltage. The
widely accepted concept, especially in applications like rail- corresponding loop equation neglecting S, and S2 drop is
way tractions, lifts, CNC machines, etc. All these applications given by
have frequent starts and stops and, hence a substantial amount
diL diL
of energy can be regenerated to the supply during the braking + +
L 2 2 L 1 2 V,sinwt = 0.
dt dt
(3)
operation resulting in energy saving. Several ac drive systems
with regenerative braking facility have been reported in the Here, diL,/dt is the rate of change of current flowing
past few years [1]-[7]. Except for the work reported in [6], through the inductor L2. Now, the change in the capacitor
all the drive systems suffer from a single major drawback voltage AV, during this time is given by
of sending a square-wave regenerated current into the mains,
thereby injecting undesired harmonics into the supply. In this i
A V - 2 dt. (4)
paper, a modified technique and control strategy is discussed, - CO
for the feedback inverter proposed by K. Matsui et al. [ 5 ] , to Here, i, is the capacitor current and is expressed as i, =
send a sinusoidal regenerated current to the mains. Z L ~- i ~ .the above T, OFF period the current flowing
~During
through the inductor L1 starts decreasing as the energy stored
11. PROPOSED SCHEME in it is used to feed power to the mains as well as to charge the
The feedback inverter configuration with only one phase capacitor COand inductor L2. At a certain instant of time, the
(415 V) of the 3 - 4 SCR bridge is shown in Fig. 1. After the current flowing through the inductor L2 will be greater than in
motoring dc link current becomes zero the feedback inverter L1 and the capacitor current i, will become negative. Now, in
configuration is enabled by first charging the capacitor COto addition to loop JIHRYGFEDLJ, loop FEDCBAKJIHRYGF
the dc link voltage El by external means. Then, when phase comes into action and the capacitor COstarts discharging. The
Rjust becomes positive with respect to phase Y,thyristors corresponding loop equation is given by
S3 and S2 are turned on and made to conduct for 180.At the diL
same time, transistor T, is turned ON and a finite amount of + +
L22dt - V, El V,sinwt = 0.
energy is stored in inductor L1. During this time, the equation
for the active loop ABCLJKA neglecting T, drop is given by The ON and OFF durations of the transistor T, should be
designed such that the entire energy stored in the inductor L1
diL during its ON period is totally used during its OFF period.
L 1 2 =E
dt Hence,the current flowing through the inductor L1, should
where diLl l d t is the rate of change of current flowing through become zero at a particular time. At this instant, the current
the inductor L1. Next, when T, is turned OFF, the thyristor loop JIHRYGFEDLJ will be out of action and only the loop
Manuscript received June 5, 1995; revised September 30, 1995. FEDCBAKJIHRYGF exists for sending regenerated current to
S . Saha is with the Department of Energy Systems Engineering, I.I.T. the mains. This is again followed by the ON period of T, and
Powai, Bombay 400 076 India. during this ON period, loop FEDCBAKJIHRYGF will still be
A. V. Dandekar and V. P. Sundersingh are with the Department of Electrical
Engineering, I.I.T. Powai, Bombay 400 076 India. in action for returning the regenerated current to the mains.
Publisher Item Identifier S 0278-0046(96)04151-2. To ensure that the current flowing through the inductor L2 is
02784046/96$05.00 0 1996 IEEE
SAHA et al.: A MODIFIED APPROACH OF FEEDING REGENERATIVE ENERGY TO THE MAINS 511
M
A
I
N
S
Time (sec)
(a)
Fig. 3 . DC link voltage and regenerated current fed back to the supply
SAHA et al.: A MODIFIED APPROACH OF FEEDING REGENERATIVE ENERGY TO THE MAINS 513
TABLE I1
EFFTCIENCY
CALCULATION
I DEVICE 1 SPECIFICATION
loff Time = 8 pa
Snubber Capacitor
C,= 0.047 pF
On State Voltage
SrmbberLcSs 39.15
Drop = 1.5 V
Turn On Time = 3 ps
Thyristor li Turn off Time = 20 ps Switching flun on 12.06
Reverse Recc~ery Lcm hm off 12.48
Charge = 15 pC at 35 A
Snubber Capacitor Snubber Loss 20.57
c, = 0.OlpF
Line Commutated On State Voltage Conduction Lose 9.54
Thyristors DIVD= 1.5 V
Loss h Induct& Ll
i
69.50
Loss in Indudor & 2.63
Total Power Loss 183.73
Power regenerated to the mains 1320.50
these losses are listed in Table I1 and the efficiency of the same feedback inverter configuration,the above idea can easily
system is found to be 87.78%. be extended to feed regenerated energy, during braking, to all
three phases of the supply. For this scheme, the switching
v. EXPERIMENTAL
RESULTS strategy of the bridge thyristors has to be modified during the
regeneration mode so that sinusoidal current is returned to the
The proposed scheme is verified experimentally by sending
mains phase by phase, independently.
the regenerated current of a 3 - q5 ac, 1-hp squirrel cage
induction motor to one of the phases of the 3 - q5 supply with
REFERENCES
the help of the above feedback inverter configuration. The
experimental drive system consists of a 3 - q5 bridge, a 3 - q5 [1] D. H. Braun, T. P. Gilmore, and W. A. Maslowski, Regenerative
inverter, and the feedback inverter configuration having the converter for PWM AC drives, in IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Con$
Proc., 1991, pp. 862-868.
same simulated component values. A sinusoidal PWM signal [2] J. C. Clare, P. R. Mayes, and W. F. Ray, Bidirectional power converter
with the same ON and OFF durations as listed in Table I for voltage fed inverter machine drives, in IEEE IAS Annual Meeting
ConJ Pr&, 1992, pp. 189-194.
is generated from a microcomputer to turn ON alternately the [3] J. M. Liptak, F. C. Joyner, and J. C. Guyesha, Regenerative controller
transistor T,. and thyristor Th of the converter. The waveforms for a voltage source inverter drive, in IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Con&
of the dc link voltage and the current fed back to the supply Proc., 1985, pp. 1672-1677.
in the regeneration mode are shown in Fig. 3. The current _141_ K. Matsui. K. Tusboi, and S. Muto, Power regenerative controls by
utilizing thyristor rectifier of voltage source inverter, in IEEE IAS
waveform is nearly sinusoidal, with a frequency of 50 Hz, Annual Meeting Con$ Proc., 1989, pp. 913-919.
similar to the above simulated waveform. [5] K. Matsui, U. Mizuno, and Y . Murai, Improved power regeneration
controls by using thyristor rectifier bridge of voltage source inverter
and a switching transistor, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 28, pp.
VI. CONCLUSION 1010-1016, 1992.
[6] B. T. Ooi, J. W. Dixon, A. B. Kulkami, and M. Nishimoto, An inte-
A modified control scheme for sending a sine-wave regen- grated AC drive system using a controlled current PWM rectifierhverter
link, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 3, pp. 64-70, 1988.
erated current to the mains is proposed and a detailed analysis [7] C. Schauder, A regenerative two quadrant converter for DC link voltage
is carried out to determine harmonic distortion, losses, and source inverter in IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting Con$ Proc., 1990, pp.
efficiency of the system. Simulation results strongly prove 954-960.
[8] C. K. Duffey and R. P. Stratford, Update of harmonic standard IEEE-
the validity of the proposed scheme. These results are further 519 IEEE recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control
confirmed experimentally by successfully regenerating a sine- in electric power systems, in IEEELAS 35th Petroleum and Chemical
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[9] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics Circuits, Devices and Applications.
motor to one of the phases of the 3 - q5 supply during its Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988, p. 240, pp. 420-423, p. 461,
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514 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 43, NO. 4, AUGUST 1996
Subrata Saha obtained the B.E. degree in electncal Victor Prince Sundersingh has been a member of
engineering from Bengal Engineenng College, Cal- the faculty of the Department of Electncal Engineer-
cutta University, Calcutta, India, in July 1991 and ing at I.I.T. Bombay, Bombay, India, for the last 30
the M.Tech. degree in energy systems engineenng years. He is currently a Professor and his mam field
from 1.1 T. Bombay, Bombay, India, in Apnl 1993. of interest is power devices and their applications.
After that he joined the Department of Energy He has nearly 50 papers to his credit in vanous
Systems Engineering as a Research Fellow and is national and international joumals.
currently working toward the Ph.D. degree. His
fields of interest are energy-saving ac dnve systems
and applications of power electronics in energy
conservation and alternate energy sources.