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510 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 43, NO.

4, AUGUST 1996

odified Approach of Feeding


Regenerative Energy to the
Subrata Saha, Aditi Vasant Dandekar,
and Victor Prince Sundersingh

Abstract- A modified approach of injecting the regenerated Th is fired immediately. The voltage across the inductor
energy from a 3 - q5 ac squirrel cage induction motor drive L1 reverses and the current starts flowing through the loop
system, during its braking operation, sinusoidally into the 3 - Q JKABCDLJ to charge the capacitor Co. The loop equation
supply using a feedback inverter between the thyristor rectifier
bridge and the 3 - 4 inverter block is described. The validity of neglecting thyristor drop is given by
the modified scheme is verified by simulation and experiment.
L1-diLl -
dt
I. INTRODUCTION where V, is the voltage across the capacitor CO of the
feedback inverter. During this time, the loop JIHRYGFEDLJ
EGENERATIVE braking of a 3 - q5 ac squirrel cage which regenerates current to the mains will come into action
induction motor, driven by a voltage source inverter is a only when (V, - E l ) 2 V, sinwt, the source voltage. The
widely accepted concept, especially in applications like rail- corresponding loop equation neglecting S, and S2 drop is
way tractions, lifts, CNC machines, etc. All these applications given by
have frequent starts and stops and, hence a substantial amount
diL diL
of energy can be regenerated to the supply during the braking + +
L 2 2 L 1 2 V,sinwt = 0.
dt dt
(3)
operation resulting in energy saving. Several ac drive systems
with regenerative braking facility have been reported in the Here, diL,/dt is the rate of change of current flowing
past few years [1]-[7]. Except for the work reported in [6], through the inductor L2. Now, the change in the capacitor
all the drive systems suffer from a single major drawback voltage AV, during this time is given by
of sending a square-wave regenerated current into the mains,
thereby injecting undesired harmonics into the supply. In this i
A V - 2 dt. (4)
paper, a modified technique and control strategy is discussed, - CO
for the feedback inverter proposed by K. Matsui et al. [ 5 ] , to Here, i, is the capacitor current and is expressed as i, =
send a sinusoidal regenerated current to the mains. Z L ~- i ~ .the above T, OFF period the current flowing
~During
through the inductor L1 starts decreasing as the energy stored
11. PROPOSED SCHEME in it is used to feed power to the mains as well as to charge the
The feedback inverter configuration with only one phase capacitor COand inductor L2. At a certain instant of time, the
(415 V) of the 3 - 4 SCR bridge is shown in Fig. 1. After the current flowing through the inductor L2 will be greater than in
motoring dc link current becomes zero the feedback inverter L1 and the capacitor current i, will become negative. Now, in
configuration is enabled by first charging the capacitor COto addition to loop JIHRYGFEDLJ, loop FEDCBAKJIHRYGF
the dc link voltage El by external means. Then, when phase comes into action and the capacitor COstarts discharging. The
Rjust becomes positive with respect to phase Y,thyristors corresponding loop equation is given by
S3 and S2 are turned on and made to conduct for 180.At the diL
same time, transistor T, is turned ON and a finite amount of + +
L22dt - V, El V,sinwt = 0.
energy is stored in inductor L1. During this time, the equation
for the active loop ABCLJKA neglecting T, drop is given by The ON and OFF durations of the transistor T, should be
designed such that the entire energy stored in the inductor L1
diL during its ON period is totally used during its OFF period.
L 1 2 =E
dt Hence,the current flowing through the inductor L1, should
where diLl l d t is the rate of change of current flowing through become zero at a particular time. At this instant, the current
the inductor L1. Next, when T, is turned OFF, the thyristor loop JIHRYGFEDLJ will be out of action and only the loop
Manuscript received June 5, 1995; revised September 30, 1995. FEDCBAKJIHRYGF exists for sending regenerated current to
S . Saha is with the Department of Energy Systems Engineering, I.I.T. the mains. This is again followed by the ON period of T, and
Powai, Bombay 400 076 India. during this ON period, loop FEDCBAKJIHRYGF will still be
A. V. Dandekar and V. P. Sundersingh are with the Department of Electrical
Engineering, I.I.T. Powai, Bombay 400 076 India. in action for returning the regenerated current to the mains.
Publisher Item Identifier S 0278-0046(96)04151-2. To ensure that the current flowing through the inductor L2 is
02784046/96$05.00 0 1996 IEEE
SAHA et al.: A MODIFIED APPROACH OF FEEDING REGENERATIVE ENERGY TO THE MAINS 511

M
A
I
N
S

Fig. 1. Regenerative braking scheme using the feedback inverter.

sinusoidal, simulation of the feedback inverter is carried out TABLE 1


by a step-by-step method with the help of (1) to (5). SWITCHING
PERIODS OF THE TRANSISTOR T,

No.of the switching ON duration I OFF duration


111. SIMULATION
RESULTS
cycle in a half cycle
The step width chosen for the simulation is 1 ps. It is 1 1
assumed, that the starting dc link voltage is 600 V during
2 0.072 0 475
regeneration and the line-to-line voltage of the 3 - $ supply
is 415 V. It is also assumed that the dc link voltage remains 3 0.096
constant throughout the full cycle of 20 ms. While simulating 4 0,132 1 0.302
the feedback inverter configuration, emphasis is given on two 5 0.168 1 0.204
control statements to determine the ON and OFF periods of the 6 0.201 0.283
transistor T, for successfully regenerating sinusoidal current 7 0.229 0.no
into the mains. These are: a 0.251 0.263
1) The energy stored in inductor L1 during the T, ON 9 0.267 0.282
period should be fully dissipated during its OFF period. 10 0.375 0.37
2) The current flowing through L2 during the T,. OFF 11 0.275 0.m
period should rise to a maximum value satisfying a sine
12 0.267 0.302
wave 1 1 = 1,1 sin wt, whereas the current during its ON
period should decrease to a minimum value satisfying 13 0.251 0.332
another sine wave I2 = Im2 sinwt, where I,1 > Im2. 14 0.227 0.373
The values chosen for simulation are L1 = 9 mH, LZ = 50 15 0.195 0.418
mH, CO= 2 pF, 1,l = 5 A and I,, = 4 A. The ON and OFF 16 0.157 0.480
periods of T, in a 10-ms half cycle are determined by a trial- 17 0.111 0.565
and-error method using numerical solution, so that both the 18 0.060 1.loo
boundary conditions are satisfied. The ON and OFF durations
of T, are listed in Table I. It is seen that the switching pattern
of T,. gives an unique pulse-width modulation (PWM) which of the mains voltage V, sin wt. Hence, initially, the current
is very near to sinusoidal PWM. Fig. 2(a) shows the current through L1 is used to charge the capacitor CO and when
flowing in the inductor L1 during a half cycle. It is clear the voltage across it is sufficiently large, the inductor current
that the current i~~ goes to zero after every switching cycle i~~ flows into the mains and i~~ starts increasing. Until this
satisfying the control statement (a). The simulated regenerated condition is reached, current i~~ will be decreasing, resulting
sine wave current waveform for a full cycle is shown in in it to go below the set value. It was observed that very critical
Fig. 3(b). It is seen from this figure that the inductor current changes in the ON-OFF period were necessary to prevent
i~~ , after the transistor T, ON period, goes below the lower set ih2 from falling below the set value Imzsinwt. Since the
value I m 2 sin wt. The reason for this is as follows. According harmonic distortion as shown in Fig. 2(c) under this condition
to the control statement (b), when the inductor current i~~ is well within the specified limits, further improvement was
falls below Im2 sin wt, the transistor T, is switched OFF and not attempted.
the thyristor Th is turned ON. But, the current flowing in the The magnitude of harmonic distortion in the above regen-
inductor L1 does not instantly flow into the mains, because erated current waveform is determined by the fast fourier
the voltage across the capacitor COminus the d.c. link voltage transform (FFT)function defined in MATLAB 386 by feeding
El at this instant can be much below the corresponding value the current waveform discretized at 1 p s intervals. The plot
512 JEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 43, NO. 4, AUGUST 1996

Time (sec)

(a)

Fig. 3 . DC link voltage and regenerated current fed back to the supply

reduce the high-frequency harmonic component. On the other


hand, if a square-wave inverter is used for the regenerative
braking scheme, then atleast an additional L -- C filter will be
necessary. Since, a square-wave inverter contains high third
harmonic and fifth harmonic components equal to 33% and
20% of the fundamental frequency, respectively, large values
of L and C will be necessary. Further, as the inductor has to
carry the regenerated fundamental current and at the same time
0 0.002 0004 0.006 0008 0.01 0.012 0014 0016 0018 0.02
support the harmonic voltages, the voltage ampere (VA) rating
Time (sec)
of the inductor for good filtering may be as high as 50% of the
VA rating of the inverter. In addition, the filter capacitor further
(b) increases the cost. Similarly, a single pulse PWM inverter will
xl '
0 also call for an L - C filter because of the stringent rules laid
4.5
down by the utility companies. However, in this case, the filter
VA rating will be reduced because the harmonic distortion for
a particular value of pulse width is less than that of a square-
wave inverter [9]. Thus, the present scheme has certainly a
cost advantage over a simple commonly used square-wave
or single-pulse PWM inverter for the regenerating braking
$ 2
system. Finally, the size of the proposed inverter also becomes
'b
v)

1.5 more compact because of the absence of bulky low-frequency


filter components.
0.5 1
0
0
-
500 1000
---A
1500 2000
1
2500
Frequency (Hz) I v . EFFICIENCY
OF THE SYSTEM

(c) To determine the efficiency of the regenerative braking


Fig. 2. Simulated current through nductor L1 for a half cycle. (b)
(a) scheme the losses in the different components are calculated
Simulated regenerated current waveform. (c) Power spectral density of the as follows. The common power losses in the transistor T,. and
simulated regenerated current waveform.
the thyristor Th are the ON-state conduction losses, switching
losses, and the losses resulting from the snubber. All the above
of power spectral density against frequency as generated by mentioned losses in the power devices are calculated using the
the package shows that the lower order odd harmonics are general approach [9] and using appropriate values for the turn-
less than 2% of the fundamental. This is well within the on time, turn-off time, and the collector to emitter saturation
desired percentage limit of harmonic distortion specified by voltage Vce(sat) of the transistor T, and turn-on time, turn-off
the utility standards [8]. Harmonics distortion peaks found at time, reverse-recovery charge, and ON-state voltage drop of
1850 Hz is due to the switching frequency of T,.. This may the thyristor Th. The turn-on losses in the transistor T,. is zero
be automatically filtered by the combined effect of the line as it switches at zero current. Losses in the inductor L1 and L2
inductance and the capacitance. If required, an additional air are determined by calculating their VA ratings and assuming
core inductor in series with the line may be used to further their efficiency to be 95% which is quite conservative. All
~

SAHA et al.: A MODIFIED APPROACH OF FEEDING REGENERATIVE ENERGY TO THE MAINS 513

TABLE I1
EFFTCIENCY
CALCULATION

I DEVICE 1 SPECIFICATION

loff Time = 8 pa
Snubber Capacitor
C,= 0.047 pF
On State Voltage
SrmbberLcSs 39.15

Drop = 1.5 V
Turn On Time = 3 ps
Thyristor li Turn off Time = 20 ps Switching flun on 12.06
Reverse Recc~ery Lcm hm off 12.48
Charge = 15 pC at 35 A
Snubber Capacitor Snubber Loss 20.57
c, = 0.OlpF
Line Commutated On State Voltage Conduction Lose 9.54
Thyristors DIVD= 1.5 V
Loss h Induct& Ll
i
69.50
Loss in Indudor & 2.63
Total Power Loss 183.73
Power regenerated to the mains 1320.50

these losses are listed in Table I1 and the efficiency of the same feedback inverter configuration,the above idea can easily
system is found to be 87.78%. be extended to feed regenerated energy, during braking, to all
three phases of the supply. For this scheme, the switching
v. EXPERIMENTAL
RESULTS strategy of the bridge thyristors has to be modified during the
regeneration mode so that sinusoidal current is returned to the
The proposed scheme is verified experimentally by sending
mains phase by phase, independently.
the regenerated current of a 3 - q5 ac, 1-hp squirrel cage
induction motor to one of the phases of the 3 - q5 supply with
REFERENCES
the help of the above feedback inverter configuration. The
experimental drive system consists of a 3 - q5 bridge, a 3 - q5 [1] D. H. Braun, T. P. Gilmore, and W. A. Maslowski, Regenerative
inverter, and the feedback inverter configuration having the converter for PWM AC drives, in IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Con$
Proc., 1991, pp. 862-868.
same simulated component values. A sinusoidal PWM signal [2] J. C. Clare, P. R. Mayes, and W. F. Ray, Bidirectional power converter
with the same ON and OFF durations as listed in Table I for voltage fed inverter machine drives, in IEEE IAS Annual Meeting
ConJ Pr&, 1992, pp. 189-194.
is generated from a microcomputer to turn ON alternately the [3] J. M. Liptak, F. C. Joyner, and J. C. Guyesha, Regenerative controller
transistor T,. and thyristor Th of the converter. The waveforms for a voltage source inverter drive, in IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Con&
of the dc link voltage and the current fed back to the supply Proc., 1985, pp. 1672-1677.
in the regeneration mode are shown in Fig. 3. The current _141_ K. Matsui. K. Tusboi, and S. Muto, Power regenerative controls by
utilizing thyristor rectifier of voltage source inverter, in IEEE IAS
waveform is nearly sinusoidal, with a frequency of 50 Hz, Annual Meeting Con$ Proc., 1989, pp. 913-919.
similar to the above simulated waveform. [5] K. Matsui, U. Mizuno, and Y . Murai, Improved power regeneration
controls by using thyristor rectifier bridge of voltage source inverter
and a switching transistor, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 28, pp.
VI. CONCLUSION 1010-1016, 1992.
[6] B. T. Ooi, J. W. Dixon, A. B. Kulkami, and M. Nishimoto, An inte-
A modified control scheme for sending a sine-wave regen- grated AC drive system using a controlled current PWM rectifierhverter
link, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 3, pp. 64-70, 1988.
erated current to the mains is proposed and a detailed analysis [7] C. Schauder, A regenerative two quadrant converter for DC link voltage
is carried out to determine harmonic distortion, losses, and source inverter in IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting Con$ Proc., 1990, pp.
efficiency of the system. Simulation results strongly prove 954-960.
[8] C. K. Duffey and R. P. Stratford, Update of harmonic standard IEEE-
the validity of the proposed scheme. These results are further 519 IEEE recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control
confirmed experimentally by successfully regenerating a sine- in electric power systems, in IEEELAS 35th Petroleum and Chemical
wave current from a 3 - q5 ac, 1-hp squirrel-cage induction Industry Conf, 1988, pp. 249-255.
[9] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics Circuits, Devices and Applications.
motor to one of the phases of the 3 - q5 supply during its Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1988, p. 240, pp. 420-423, p. 461,
braking operation. Using the common 3 - q5 bridge and the and p. 493.
514 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 43, NO. 4, AUGUST 1996

Subrata Saha obtained the B.E. degree in electncal Victor Prince Sundersingh has been a member of
engineering from Bengal Engineenng College, Cal- the faculty of the Department of Electncal Engineer-
cutta University, Calcutta, India, in July 1991 and ing at I.I.T. Bombay, Bombay, India, for the last 30
the M.Tech. degree in energy systems engineenng years. He is currently a Professor and his mam field
from 1.1 T. Bombay, Bombay, India, in Apnl 1993. of interest is power devices and their applications.
After that he joined the Department of Energy He has nearly 50 papers to his credit in vanous
Systems Engineering as a Research Fellow and is national and international joumals.
currently working toward the Ph.D. degree. His
fields of interest are energy-saving ac dnve systems
and applications of power electronics in energy
conservation and alternate energy sources.

Aditi Vasant Dandekar received the B.E. degree


in electrical engineering from the College of En-
gineering Pune, Pune University, Pune, India, in
June 1992. She secured the first position in her
class and received the prestigious gold medal from
the University. She obtained the M.Tech. degree in
electrical engineering with specialization in power
electronics from I.I.T. Bombay in February 1994.
At present she is working as a research execu-
tive at Crompton Greaves Limited in research and
development (Electricah). Her fields of interest are
power converters and ac drives: