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ISSN 00406015, Thermal Engineering, 2010, Vol. 57, No. 9, pp. 757762. Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2010.

Original Russian Text G.A. Filippov, A.R. Avetisyan, 2010, published in Teploenergetika.

A Calculated Study of Wet Steam Flow in the Combined Exhaust

from Steam Turbines at Nuclear Power Stations
G. A. Filippov and A. R. Avetisyan
AllRussia Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, ul. Kosmonavta Volkova 6a, Moscow, 125171 Russia

AbstractResults from a study of the behavior of polydispersed moisture with a high fraction of large drop
lets in the flow path of a turbine equipped with a combined exhaust are presented.
DOI: 10.1134/S0040601510090065

Construction of steam turbines for higher capaci The largest number of exhausts (LPCs) that has
ties, especially for nuclear power stations (NPSs) calls been achieved by now is equal to eight (the LPC pro
for making their last stages with a larger exhaust area duced by OAO Leningrad Metal Works has four
(because of increased steam flowrate) to obtain the exhausts), which is in fact the limiting value. There
required passage of steam at high vacuum and smaller fore, other ways of solving this problem are also con
losses with the outlet velocity. This can be achieved by sidered. The use of oneanda half (combined)
increasing the height of laststage blades, using a larger exhausts in the last stage may be one of them [the pos
number of exhausts, i.e., the number of lowpressure sibility of using this method was considered at the
cylinders (LPCs), and making a shift from highspeed Central BoilerTurbine Institute (TsKTI) and
turbines (with a rotation frequency of 5060 rpm) to Kharkiv Turbine Works (KhTZ) more than 25 years
lowspeed turbines (with a rotation frequency of 25 ago]. An additional endface area is obtained in such
30 rpm) in the case of using NPS turbines of large capac an exhaust without increasing the length of the last
ities. Titanium blades with the length l = 1400 mm (Sie stage blades as a result of dividing the flow downstream
mens, Hitachi, and some other companies) have been of the lower tier of the second to last stage and supply
developed for highspeed turbines, and 1840 mm (Sie ing part of the steam (approximately 30%) to the upper
mens) and 1730 mm (Alstom) for lowspeed turbines tier after turning it through 180 in a swivel chamber
[1]. The use of longer blades for lowspeed and espe [1, 2]. Figure 1 schematically shows the flow path of a
cially for highspeed turbines results in that consider highspeed turbine of the last and the second to last
ably higher stresses develop in the blades and disks, the stages, which have 1320mmlong titanium blades. The
rotors become heavier in weight and larger in sizes, upper tier of the second to last stage makes 477 mm, and
and the peripheral sections of blades move with higher the distance between the blades is equal to 930 mm. With
the root diameter of the two last stages dr = 2000 mm, the
circumferential velocities. Considerable problems are
total exhaust area Fex will be equal to 19.9 m2 (13.8 + 6.2),
encountered in the design, manufacture, and opera
which is a factor of 1.76 larger than in a stage having
tion of blades with the maximally possible length due
l = 1200 mm and dr = 1800 mm (Fex = 11.3 m2) and a
to these circumstances. factor of 1.10 larger as compared with a blade having
Application of Baumann stages to obtain a larger l = 1500 mm and dr = 2300 mm, and also somewhat
exhaust area does not seem to be advisable because this larger than in lowspeed turbines with l = 1450 mm
would result in LPCs becoming significantly less effi (Fex = 18.9 m2).
cient. The second to last Baumann stage having almost Such a stage is sometimes called an inverted Bau
twice as large (by a factor of 1.71.8) available drop of mann stage, which is not quite correct, because the
enthalpy across the upper tier, considerable supersonic considered stage has essential differences. The main
velocities, a reduced ratio of speeds u/cf (where u and difference is that the temperature drop equal to the
cf are the circumferential and fictitious speeds), and temperature drop across the last stage is exhausted in
large relative pitches result in that the upper tier is the upper tier of this stage, due to which it becomes
more than 5% less efficient. Essential difficulties arise possible to use well elaborated profiles of the last
also in constructing stages before a twotier one due to stages upper section thus achieving high efficiency of
the need to increase their heights and using nozzle this stage. In addition, this part of the blade can be
arrays having very small values of 1 < 10 ( is the flow made lighter than that in the Baumann stage, which
exit angle from the nozzle array). makes it possible to reduce tensile stresses.


be obtained from experimental studies at least on a

model flow path of the last stages.
The motion of moisture downstream of the second
to last stage can be approximately calculated and the

efficiency of its separation in the blades of a swivel
device can be determined using the results of previous
studies and generalizations [3, 4]. Moisture that
appears in the flow paths of turbines is generated spon
taneously in the flow core or in the vortices of cascade

edge traces as a certain degree of steam desuperheating

is reached. The droplets generated after spontaneous
condensation have very small sizes, which are in the

range from 0.10 to 1.0 m depending on the condi
tions of their incipience. After that, steam condenses
on these droplets during its expansion; these droplets
grow in size, coagulate, and precipitate on the flow
path surfaces. Steam usually expands with very small
supercooling; i.e., the state of twophase flow is close

930 to equilibrium. Concurrently with the growth of drop

lets, the largest ones are divided into parts under the
effect of steam flow as they collide with fixed nozzle
vanes and rotating (rotor) blades.
As is well known from the results of experimental
and calculated studies, the moisture content and dis
Fig. 1. Schematic design of the second to last stage
perse composition of droplets downstream of the noz
equipped with a swivel device. zle cascade are distributed very nonuniformly along
the pitch. The largest droplets are generated in the
wake race when films separate and disintegrate and
When the combined exhaust is used, additional may reach 100150 m in size depending on the
losses (around 3%) caused by turning part of the flow moisture content, velocity, and density of steam. Such
appear. However, these losses can be compensated by droplets have the strongest effect on the stage effi
increasing the efficiencies of the last stage and the ciency and erosion of rotor blades, because they move
upper tier of the second to last stage. This is achieved with considerable slip [cm/cst < 0.50.6, where cm and
by removing from the main steam flow an essential cst are the velocities of moisture (droplets) and steam]
part of largedroplet moisture from the space before and collide with rotor blades at velocities close to the
the last stage and separating it in a swivel device. The circumferential speeds of rotating rotor blades. As
high efficiency of separation is possible due to a large droplets collide, they disintegrate and are thrown to
angle (180) through which the extracted steam con the upper part of blades by centrifugal forces. The con
taining high concentration of large droplets is turned, tent of moisture in the lower part is minimal, and it is
low pressure of this steam (30 kPa), and concurrent mainly finely dispersed moisture (i.e., moisture that
suction of steam and film moisture through the sepa does not come in contact with rotor blades) that moves
rators slots to the first lowpressure heater. in this part. Some generalized results from experimen
tal studies [24] of model stages and fullscale tur
Calculating the motion of twophase flow down bines are shown in Fig. 2. As circumferential velocities
stream of the second to last stage, determining the dis increase, droplets undergo intense disintegration, and
perse composition and amount of moisture that enters their modal (mass averaged) size dm becomes consid
into the peripheral zone of the combined stage, and erably smaller. Concurrently with an increase in u, the
estimating the mass of separated moisture in the swivel heat drop across the rotor cascade and steam velocities
cascade present a very intricate problem. To solve it, increase, and this also facilitates disintegration of large
we must know, first of all, the boundary conditions droplets. Figure 2b shows the density of droplet size
downstream of the second to last blade: distribution of distribution function for two values of velocity u at the
moisture over the height, disperse composition, drop final content of moisture downstream of the rotor cas
let motion velocities and directions, and other param cade y2 = 1012%.
eters. Data on the separation coefficients must also be The distribution pattern of moisture content, dis
known for the chosen design of a swivel device and persion composition, angles, and velocities of two
perforated blades. Answers to all these questions must phase flow downstream of stages with a large blade



dm, m (a) dm, m y2, % (a) dr, , deg

40 30 60
20 12 dm 40
2 8 y2
10 20
4 dr
200 300 400 u, m/s
(b) 0 0
mi /mi, % 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 l
40 3

20 4
cm w2m

dr w2st
cst u
0 25 50 dm, m
Fig. 3. Distributions of dm, y2, y, and dr over the blade
Fig. 2. Modal size of droplets vs. the circumferential veloc height (a) and triangle of velocities at the stage outlet (b) at
ity (a) and density of the droplet size distribution function y2 10%. w2m and w2st are the relative velocities of steam at
(b). y2, %: (1) 1012 and (2) 56; u, m/s (at y2 = 10
12%): (3) 400 and (4) 270. the outlet from rotor blades, and l is the relative coordinate.

height to mean diameter ratio (the LPC last and sec vectors cm and cst ( and dr). It should be pointed out
ond to last stages) depends on the geometrical and that at a distance of 2030 mm from the exit edges of
operating parameters (heat drops, reactivity, and oth rotor blades, the moisture content y2 increases from
ers), but primarily on the fraction of largedroplet the root to periphery from 4 to 20% with the strongest
moisture, i.e., moisture moving with considerable slip increase observed in the upper 2030% zone of the
(cm/cst < 0.70.8) and colliding with the surfaces of outlet cross section. The largest droplets thrown from
nozzle vanes and rotor blades. The fraction of large the rotor blade surfaces by centrifugal forces concen
droplet moisture depends on the incipience locations, trate in the same zone. Clearly, the regularities shown
heat drops (steam velocities), pressures, and other in Fig. 3 may differ very considerably for stages having
parameters. For example, if the expansion process other geometrical and operating parameters.
depicted on an h, s diagram intersects the saturation
line at the point corresponding to the state upstream of As an example, the motion and separation of mois
the last stage, the fraction of largedroplet moisture ture were calculated in the combined exhaust shown in
will not exceed 57%. If the same intersection occurs Fig. 1. The pressure, moisture content, and bulk
upstream of the second to last stage, the fraction of velocity downstream of the second to last stages lower
largedroplet moisture in the last stage may be as high tier were p1 = 32 kPa, y1 = 6.8%, and c2 = 130 m/s, and
as 15% or more. The published results of experimental the steam flowrate was equal to 205 kg/s. The pressure
studies carried out on multistage turbines and single downstream of the last stage and, accordingly, down
stages are very limited and have insufficient accuracy. stream of the upper tier was p2 = 4.9 kPa, and the bulk
For example, the direction of motion of large droplets velocity at a steam flowrate of around 193 kg/s was
was determined using the erosion method, i.e., by equal to 255 m/s (the loss with the outlet velocity was
observing the washout of paint from metal balls. These equal to around 41 kJ/kg). The Mach number deter
circumstances do not allow the generalizations drawn mined from the velocity c2 was equal to 0.76.
up to be regarded as sufficiently reliable. For carrying out an example calculation, we
Figure 3 shows some qualitative generalizations of selected the experimental data obtained for stages
available data [24] obtained from works on studying close to each other in the geometrical dimensions
how the final content of moisture is distributed down and operating parameters (content of moisture
stream of the rotor cascade y2, modal size of droplets upstream of the stage, circumferential velocities,
dm, droplet entrance angles, and angles between the steam parameters, and others). The distribution pat



terns of some parameters (y, dm, , projections of the Q2(W), and Q3(W), are viscous laminar flows; and e is
droplet velocity vector on the meridian plane, and cir the inner energy.
cumferential direction) along the blade height (see The terms R1(W), R2(W), and R3(W) describe vis
Fig. 1) at the outlet from the second to last stages cous turbulent flows. For example, the expression for
lower tier at a distance of around 30 mm from the exit R1(W) looks as follows:
edges were taken similar to those shown in Fig. 3a.
Since the steam exit angle in the absolute motion dur 0
ing operation under the design operating conditions is
close to 90, the parameter dr in fact characterizes xx 2 k
the deviation of vector cm from the axial direction. It is 3
supposed that the content of moisture increases from
the root to periphery approximately from 3.5 to 15%;
dm, from 5 to 25 m; , from 30 to 60, and dr, from t
20 to 50. Thus, the absolute velocities of droplets can
be approximately calculated from the indicators char 2 t t t ,
 kc x + c x xx + c y xy + c z xz + t T x + k
acterizing twophase flow by constructing the triangle 3 k
of velocities of the steam phase cst and moisture drop
lets cm. It has been determined for the considered case t
that the values of velocity cm varied from 160 in the k

root section to 270 m/s at the periphery. It should be t
emphasized that the initial characteristics of two 
phase flow presented above cannot claim to be highly
accurate. In the subsequent, experimental studies of
t t t
models of the second to last and last stages will need to where xx , xy , and xz are the components of the ten
be carried out for determining their economic effi sor of turbulent stresses, T is temperature, is the heat
ciency and efficiency of moisture separation in the conductivity coefficient, t is turbulent viscosity, and
swivel device taking into account steam extraction to k and are the parameters of the k turbulence
the lowpressure heater, as well as other parameters model.
characterizing the motion of twophase flow. The expressions for R2(W) and R3(W) are written in
The flows of twophase medium in the gap between a similar way.
the second to last stages tier and the last stage, and in
The quantity (W) describes the source term of the
the swivel device installed upstream of the upper tier
turbulence parameters k and :
were calculated using a software system developed
with participation of the authors of this paper [5]. The
2 T
calculation was carried out in the meridian plane for ( W ) = 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, + P, C 1  P C 2  ,
k k
the flow path of a highspeed turbines last stages (see
Fig. 1). The boundary conditions with respect to the where P is the generation of turbulent energy, and C1
steam phase flow velocities and pressures were taken and C2 are the turbulence model parameters.
constant over the height. The flow of steam phase was
calculated by solving the averaged system of Navier The liquid phase was modeled using the method of
Stokes equations with the k turbulence model and Lagrangian fractions without taking into account
modified turbulent viscosity [6]. In this case, the equa interactions between droplets or phase transitions.
tions of conservation can be written as follows [5]: Thus, the existing moisture was considered as an
ensemble of absolutely elastic particles without taking
Wt + F1 ( W )x + F2 ( W )y + F3 ( W )z into account heat and mass transfer with the carrying
steam phase. Under these assumptions, the droplet
= Q1 ( W )x + Q2 ( W )y + Q3 ( W )z (1)
motion equation takes the following form:
+ R 1 ( W ) x + R 2 ( W ) y + R 3 ( W ) z + ( W ),
m m m = F fr + F p + F v.m + F gr , (2)
1 2 dt
where W = (, cx, cy, cz, E, k, )t; E = e +  (c x +
2 2
where mm is the droplet mass, cm is the instantaneous
c y + c z ) + ; is the density of carrying medium; cx, velocity of a droplet, Ffr and Fp are the friction and
cy, and cz are the Cartesian components of steam pressure forces, Fv.m is the force due to acceleration of
velocity; E is the full energy per unit volume; k and carrying medium entrained by a droplet, and Fgr is the
are the kinetic energy of turbulence and its dissipation; force that takes into account the effect of gravity and
F1(W), F2(W), and F3(W) are Eulerian flows; Q1(W), the presence of noninertial effects, e.g., rotation.



y2, %

15 3
IV 2

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 l

Fig. 5. Distribution of moisture content in different cross

sections of the calculated area. The numbers of curves cor
4 respond to the numbers of cross sections in Fig. 4.
5 II
I The density distribution function for the mass fraction
of moisture was taken similar to that shown in Fig. 2b.
2 This function is close to the Gaussian distribution law
1 and was approximated by a piecewise constant distri
bution. These assumptions are conservative, and the
obtained values correspond to an upper estimate.
Fig. 4. Steam current lines (1) and droplet trajectories (2)
(5) in the gap between the second to last and last stages. dm, The main aim we pursued in the calculations was to
m: (2) 5, (3) 15, (4) 30, and (5) 45. Cross sections: I construct the velocity profiles and current lines for the
downstream of the second to last stages lower tier, II steam and liquid phases, determine the fraction of
upstream of the laststage diaphragm, III upstream of the droplet moisture entering into the peripheral zone,
swivel (separation) device, and IV downstream of the sep
arator, upstream of the second to last stages upper tier. and estimate the moisture separation ratio in the
swivel device.
For illustration, Fig. 4 shows the calculated steam
The terms in Eq. (2) are determined as follows: current lines and trajectories of droplets with different
1 diameters (dm = 3, 15, 30, and 45 m) in the meridian
F fr =  k fr A m c c dr ( c c dr ), plane in the space downstream of the second to last
stage. The calculation was carried out for = 60 and
where Am is the droplet crosssection area, c is the cm = 200 m/s (similar calculations were carried out
instantaneous velocity of carrying flow, and kfr is the also for other values of and cm). The steam current
friction coefficient: lines and large droplets (dm > 10 m) undergo consid
0.687 3 erable stratification in the studied space at the selected
24 ( 1 + 0.15Re dr )/Re m at Re m 10 ; initial parameters; the major part of these droplets is
k fr =
0.44 at Re m 10 3 ; thrown to the periphery and falls into the separation
device. Small droplets (dm < 10 m) deviate from the
Rem is the Reynolds number of a droplet, steam phase current lines only slightly, and their veloc
Fp = Vmp, ities are close to the velocity of steam. The calculations
were carried out under the assumption that all mois
where Vm is the droplet volume, p is the pressure gra ture droplets that came in contact with the swivel
dient in the carrying flow, device blades separated and removed with the steam of
d ( c cm ) regenerative extraction.
Fv.m = Mv.mVm 
dt Integration of the equations yielded the distributions
of moisture content at four cross sections (Fig. 5). The
where Mv.m is the virtual mass (it is taken equal to 0.5).
highest concentration of moisture is observed
Based on Eq. (2) and taking the abovementioned upstream of the swivel separation device (section III)
assumptions into account, we can find the droplet tra and makes yIII 10.5%. The steam flowrate upstream
jectory from the equation of the separator is equal to around 30% of its total
dx m value; therefore, the separated fraction of moisture is
 = c m , (3) yIII = 3.15%. The content of moisture upstream of
the last stage (section II) is yII 5.2%, and the sepa
where xm is the droplet displacement vector. rated fraction of moisture yII = 0.7yII = 3.64%. The



true content of moisture in the flow downstream of the The use of a combined exhaust for lowspeed tur
separator (section IV) yIV = 4.2%. Then, the separation bines also seems to be promising. The use of blades,
ratio in the swivel device will be = (yIII yIV)/yIII = the length of which is increased up to 1800 mm (in this
(10.5 4.2)/10.5 = 0.6. case, the root diameter is as large as 3000 mm),
A comparison of the obtained value of with some involves considerable difficulties in the manufacture,
results obtained from studies of separation devices car transportation, and erection of turbines. In addition,
ried out at close values of the parameters and taking the cost of such turbines becomes much higher. If a
into account considerable extraction of steam (up to combined exhaust is organized with a 1450mmlong
7% of its total flowrate) to the lowpressure heater laststage blade, the exhaust area increases from 18.9
allows this value to be regarded as quite realistic. A to 28.7 m2, which is commensurable with the exhaust
somewhat higher value of can be obtained by opti area of a turbine furnished with 1800mmlong last
mizing the separator design. stage blades (Fex = 28.9 m2). At the same time, the
weight of the LPC rotor and the maximal diameter of
Since the total content of moisture downstream of the rotor with the blades installed on it increase only
the second to last stages lower tier is yt 6.8% (section I), slightly as compared with the initial rotor furnished
decreasing the content of moisture upstream of the last with 1450mmlong laststage blades. With such an
stage by yI yII = 6.8 5.2 = 1.6% and upstream of the exhaust and three LPCs, the capacity of a singleshaft
second to last stages upper tier by yI yIV = 6.8 4.2 = turbine can be increased up to 2000 MW (with the suf
2.6% will result in a better efficiency of the combined ficiently high values of vacuum and efficiency).
exhaust as compared with the initial version. Since the
content of moisture is reduced as a result of removing
large droplets, which have the strongest effect on the ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
erosion of blades and on the efficiencies of the stages This work was supported by the Russian Fund for
(in proportion to 1.5y0 [3]), the increase in the effi Fundamental Research, grants nos. 100800444a
ciency can be estimated: and 100800403a.
= 1.6 1.5 0.7 + 2.6 1.5 0.3 = 2.87%.
At the same time, the additional losses in the blade REFERENCES
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