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U.ND'E:R,STAN.DINO ITHELIFE O'F'

PR:O.PHET

M' h' ..... , d A"lf G"':h' • ",'1-" UI ~,amma:~ .. " aZ8J

Intemati,onal Islamic Federation o,f Student 'Organizations;

UFSO

Dis1tribution .. By Intemanonal Isllmi;c· Publisbing .H:ouse:

IN' TH' E' - N4 JIo..I[E- - 0--- ---Fc- _& I 1 ",lUI

_, " .. _ ·CWYI -_' - .. -" ~

,ALL OOMPASSI:O,NAT,E ALL. MER,CIFUL

Fi , E-..I· ,. , (1-Jiil119' A- U/I' 9-n1DI C- E'-) lSD" - -N'9' 9·t::n 6'72-' 1'--1 0

lrs.t ,II.ld'U(m,. C"',!! ,I -', n ,,',. ,'Q.. 1",,-., ,-".'~ ~ ~-- -,. Oii~, ,-, " .. , ~';7'

Re'vised Second Edition (142:0 AHJ 19'991 CE)

All rights reserved, No part of thri,s boo-k may be reproduced or transmitted in arty fonn or by any mesns, electronle or :mechanica1~. including ,photocopyiln,g, recording, or by any imOrmmllOrll stOffl,ge and retrieval sys'em~ wi.thoot 'M_hten

., * - ,l: -, , .,1.. P 1!..-l'·' h

pemnsSJon trom u-,~e ,'II.Iv IS: " er.

I Please tak{tpiirt in dds, :no~Jle w()trL ,by eonveyi ng 'Y~'~-r' I Ico~!e-mt5 tQ' t.~U!'H t~ rOIUi~:h E. M,a-d~ Fax 01 M,iI\-il addl'e·sli.

iCon.h~'Dts Preface

The lladrths 01'1 tllis 'Junk

aadith T'er:luinuJlJJgy

II IL7'

2.1

Cha,pter' One

A Meslag;e and a Leader

Paganism Ruled the Ancient Civilizations The Nature of the Final M~ss,ag'e

The Arabs at the Advent o:f lslim

:13 113

23 27' 31

A Teacher Messenger

Status of the S unnah in Relation te the Qur' ill The Pr-ophet (~~) and hisMiracles

,3,4 45

5:7

'C.h,apter Two

From Birth to 'Propbethood

The Opening of'the Prophet's (M) Chest B,SJjblr,a~. the Moffit

,A life of Ton

The S acrllegious War

The Alliance of tile: 'Virtnous Strength and ,Acti.vi~y

KJmdwjah

75

,8,) :87 8~8

'90 912

9S 99' 102

W ah ib N' £' '~-

•... , .. I.··· .' .1 .'" ..

araq. ,,1"1) i, . ,au ii,

104

Cha'p,te:r Three

The Miss,ion's St:r!DI'.le,

"Wh' .. ' ..,' .. 1!.C·· , ... 11~'?' ..... '~Ial! ls'Ut,e~'~1 ~

TheFirst Group, Announcement of the Cell ,Abu, Tilib

.1107 I,Or'7

UJ9 '~, 1.2

'll4 111

" A 'm--'- 'm-,l;I',i!' "l'b- n 'Y' i!'lilli:'! ir ,-",,) .. .r.1.. . ) - ,.I ~ .1,1,: ':~,lIi : ,~\, - \'~I_,.'

l20 m2l

123

Negotiatlons

The Migration to Abiyssini,2l

Sarnzaih (6) and "Um,8J! (6)AcCieptbllm The General Boycott

Th,(3:Ye. of Sorrow

In. Tiif

125 13,0 1:3,6

1.38 144 147

The Wisdom, ofthe larlt

The Completion of the Building TL,e' , Pure Nature

1,11'". ,'U ,,', ,3:1lilw,,J

IS1 1,$8 1,,59' '160

The Institution of,Pra~er

The Quraish Tribe and the .lsr6~'

Chapte:rFou:r

'The M'a,s8 Hijmh.: Its Cia n ses and. E·ffeets

Differences, B'enveen the TwoTowns

Th J' '~ 'Ll' ... ,... ..;I'" jl_,., e ews -- rLm:wlW'O[!A

The First Pledg,e of ~A:qabah 'Ihe Second Pledge of ~'Aqahah The Beglnnlng ofthe Hijr,aih

In the Council Chandler

The- HiJrall of the P,floph.et (ali)' ,A, L~S50nm Diplomacy

In ate Cave

1,63 .'63

1,64 1.,66 ~,6S: 1'70 1.76,

180 1,82 1,84 1,85 18:8

I :g,g< ~92

'194

Om, 'the 'W'ay 'to M'adiinan, Supplication

.Aniva]. at Madlnah

Settling Down in ,Madn1ah,

ell - - te -" Jj!!'.

, I ;ap "~or Il' -nre

19'

The, Fo.ndaotiolD of'tb!e N:ew Sucie'ty 19'

1'00 Mosque 200

T.he Brotherhood 20.2

The Non,.;'MusBms 207

The Chosen Ones 21:2

Tne Meaning ofWI(l'fshlp' 211

A Leadership Which Attracts the Hearts 225

Cb,SJ,pter Siix 233,

The~ Blood.y Struille :133,

Flying 'Columns 23'7

The Ex:peditionof ~'A:bdunab, ibm J~sh 24(~

The Battle ,of B,ad)r 242

Assessment and S,oo,ld~n,g 260

Aftermath ofBadr 265

The Beginnlng of the ,conDi,ct Between th,e Jews and

'fihe Mu:slirmsi 26,'

SJrumisbes,wiJth Mlle, Qur,aisb 275

The Battle of'1J];Iud :279

Lessens mom the Test 289'

The -M""," ... -rt1J~i 0" 'f"'UbI: 'Iuld" 29:8

, "","" ,,' (';Y,l~'J.Lj;!! ,C C'.' _",'

Th I,' 'E. R. "'.~ ts I', "f' 'r ~ ad I 301

" e uecs 0 IU,lI,~l!.l_,

3_'0_ 8_' The Exile of the Hmu, ,aJNadfr

_" - fI!

The i·S·II"'\II"'ilf'liI-··n'd'~' '8' ~.Al .. . ~; I .. '~!I!r.fI!_.._ ~ .. _' \~-

,31.1, 3,1,2 317 322 340

Dumat al J',anda[

The S~o-ry of the :S~ander

The B,attle of the Ditch / Confederates With the 'Qumy,dhah

,Cha,pt,er' SeveR A N,e'w Phase

The '~Um'ran ofij'u.day'biy,ah Wiilithe J'ews, On,oe Aga]n

Rehlm of'ilie Emigrants from A,1b~sjllia Harnessing of the Bedouln

Letten. tofbe K.in,gsand Rulers

"U'mnlt al Q!ar4I'~

The Mn;'tah Bxpedition. Dh. 311 SalisH

The 'CO,Dcrmest o'fMakk,ah The B,aule! of't.Iunayn

Defeat

Rally Md'Vi!ctory Booty

The 'W:i.sdom 'of the Distributio8

~2''!I' I~~

,353

1I:C::3'

,:J,ji:': .

3,'72 3,83 3-85 3,87'

,3""

,3'9' 404,

4-21 422 4,24

426 428:

Return of the HawiZ~m :D'elelvnon The S~ege. of Tai'lf

Tal the Land of the Hijrah

The A,' tlfl'tu.-l".· of ,l,J'L. o!!!< 'H" ypo c - it -,

.ne ...:',"" I~ _I~ IV I; I~!U'!IJ , ,,' J, "",' ~n tes

Tabo:k

Th051t Who Were Left, Behind The MOSqlU~ of Dis,sefJIt <. , If) The Beimmng of the Deputations ThePilgrimage of Aha, 81m (.)

A Deputation of the Pagans and a D eputati on of the ,P,eopI,e of theBook

C,h:apter E,igJit

Th-,@"M,,·i'o-it':'h-,OiPji:!lo,,·,'t"·'h"e,' H, 'o'I'I·liOi"",e',:"'''1

ell: J~' J. ' •• 1Ir.-',_ ~ )" .. , ," ~,. '~'."_,-I!,~

SettHn,g Down

The Farewell Pllgrimag,e

To Madrn;ah,

,eha,ptel' Ni:ne

The, 'C,o':m'p'anion-u H~:g'h

_, __ ' ,, __ =' 0, ,I;"

EpHo.gue

Sy.bo:[s, used iu this 'bo;g,k, TranS1iiltera,tioD, ,eha rt· Gloua:ry

4.30 431

4.32 434 ~]5

443 448,

,iII~,n1 -t1J'V

.... <::6'

'.'1..1-,.:·

14167' 467

,4:85 4f86: 491

4'93 4"3

502 ':;:03 S06, 309

P:RE' ". 'F-C! A C .. ·E·"

. I. .' .,B,." _'

01 Therearre many great personalitieswhose biographies people have 'read '~O savour the strokes of genius ill them and to' follo'w in admhatien their ways of nle and their attitudes inwards tile difficultlres and problems 'which confronted them i The mere act of :read~m,8 'mil,gbtbe ,only Unk between t]!JJ~:se grea:t penomdi,ti[es, andthose who :lmo,w them and it, might develop." inib) a deep'

, -

smd Y n'f !;'I[ ,!i:i~oc:·tiI·o- hum "";o;Iln, b ond

rQ~",::._ "=,,., g;. ~u ·-·.IIc~ .IIfLl_ , ~,Il ..... - ." 'iii

1:11 m,ust hasten to say that :1 did not write aboutthe g.reatest of

~1 IL, aliti 'M" 'L_. d (~)" ~B"I' d P b

ai '11ue. persona ItieB;, L 'U~.mmmal"~, ,.,.~ " 'Jless~.ng.s an. : '-,eace: .c e

him' . f 'Abdull iI'Ii'ii.. "w' th ,. 'I' .' dconceet i "rut I

upon m so·n()~··,·'.' ..... " . ,wi" Wli. ~ 'I.' nsunute I, concept Ul ml .}_ .• L

am, ,8! Muslim, througb knowled,ge: I know wb_y I believe in AUah (M) "The Exalted', (Lord) oflhe W'odds, and, in the propbethood of Mubam..mad (8), and. wh_y I follow 'the Book he brought 'to. us. Indeed, I know why I call others to believe in, aU tbi,s, which. has brought tmnquiUity to my bean.

In I L,n '11... '. .~_'I 'bl" ~L~d\ 1:.. ... _ f'" ,

'-I LJljppe:O, 'to nave ,prevJ,Q.;U&Y plll,.·' l'~-_, a nameer (I' tteatls'es [001

the life of Muhammad (_')1, Did I ever digress from it in anything

•• ,.il.,~ ... 1i.. I ? All th . ,', _" .t..," h I d' 00' .&-!",'L. _'I

'IiV,~U[W~ _' 'WTOt:e~' .. '. ", _i .. ,' ne lrea!ttses, m 'wlli~C' I 'iscuss, ,., ,,[[.w.i!.t.il~ mCl!l~s"

• _1 'b":li..· ~ Ld _....".ft, d 'II\..~- il th 1!~.i"; f"

SOCiiU . mamour ,ml@. ,1O,vemmeId, I .aepenae c.m:.aVty 00 I " e lll[e (L

Muhammad (~)fOi ltheirmaterial 'Thus :1 can tluthfuUy say that this book. is not a. sudden 1lirJt with the Prophet ofIs]mn (~)" nor :15, itt a [coUection of proo:& 'fO'f his 'tIUUtfu1ness" nor ideas wm·ch occurred to. me :about hisgieDUS" AJ~ 1nhm h. 'been aDaiI.ysod IHl1. ~en,gth ielseWbere. In prodUcDl,g, this, book I bad ·11, specific, objecti:~e

- -

j(ll. mind and :1 hope it has 'been ad:ie;ved.

CJ! The Muslims of today know,o,llly the surface layer' of the life or Muhammad (.), 'wb~ch neither ,arronses emotions nor evokes resolutions,. They extol the 'Prophet '{:M;,)amd his Compenions from inherited tr,adioon and little :bo'wI,edge, and think that 'Verba[ prailse 10[' some: smaU act is sufficiene,

lOr Such shaJlow knowledge of Muhammad, (M) is equiv.aI,enttoignor,aDce; of ,him. It is uojUS1:kI, the: ,gfeatreality 'that it should be tlllll[ed into a legend. .. It wiUbe injiustice to that period of ,bisttOry,.

woJcm 'was, plllllsadn,g 'm,th en.er,gy and strengtb" to 'be presented in fhe, shrouds of lbe dead, The life ofM'uuhammad, (M) is not. for M)uslims~, 'dteenterta:inme:nl 'of ,an :idl'fl penon nor tbe study of a m,entra) c,ritic. n isthe most excellent example for them to :FoUo,w', and 'fhe, source of the laws by which they are governed,

S ,'L' • ';i,L . ,., f b' 11.. • 'L

: o my sJlio:noonun,gs m me p~tabon o I, t us u!logmpliY or ,any

oombsion ill its sequence ofevents wUl be a terrib1e. inj ury 'withe

'1- ~ , r" 'm" !'tIl !'. '~f." ,

. -'. _, '. , ;' • ',' t , '."" I ~' .. ~ I I I ,'_'" l I

,rea lty 0,., , .. 1 . Itse, , '.'

I!J Th1l:B I: harve done m;y utmost "0 ,~;i'.vle readers ,I true pi,ciure: of the ,Uie' ,of.' the Prophft <M) ood I have made e,very effort '~O ,gi,\tie the: reasons and, eKp,1amatio.:n...s Cor whatever look p,lace: during his Ure time, Then I have allowed jhe plain facts. ,and. tbeir effects on

"d "iL, b' h" t'!iI'h .... .1 d -

min eg, WI.'I'~~.OIl1l,t any '. ~J!as or suter:~,ug~. l navemaae g;oO". use of

the ··b·liO:·'!IJII'f':~'p·.h'I"'a.~ 'WI' -~i+-4:ii!l'li1 'by':" b .:"i!*1I.!!lIi1iji'~';~nt and .• modern ,QI""h- ·o:~'a·.'lt's

UJ" ._ "'~'e""'~_~~-~~~ ".w,~~._., _'_," .~,·vULL, ~'!Ui~I,~,- __ ,_' I~,J,. _' ~~~ •. ~ •• L I~~. ,v.~ .. __ ~I'" '!'

The medern historians ~ea!n~owards analysis" comparison, and the tying: up of various events ill~o a. s,ystelllaUcwhoIe., That is the best pert of 'their met'hod. However" the an.d.,en~ h~storians rely ,an. 'lh.€!: collection of details, sifting ,of :sources~ and recording

(. ····n .. 'd' t.." . . These n ·L:··· .' .

o sma~JI, ,on'" !!JIg events .... ':' ese numerous arcmves eontam g'ems,

of importance if onlyproper 'use Is made of them,

101 Per:h3!JJ)s, here I hl,veblend,ed thetwo methods in a, neww,aJ,y which 'extracts the: 'bestftom, them both, Prom the details of ale

--~ .-

bi,ograph.y I have ~om.pUed! a, cohesl ve 'topic" aU, of whose parts are bound by one s,p.fdt. Then :1 ,atrM,ged the texts and narradons in sueh ,R way as to. conform w.ith the uwty of the topic and he'~p, 00 complete ,tbe: whole picture, M:y aim was '~O make the b~.ogr-aphy into some1i1in,g, which ,Durt.ures fa'~'tll~,pudfies

, ;. :,1..; ... ;"" ,.' .. ,.,.:, '11" d' I ''r'I' ..... ,+jt.~, ... jjIom. Oil"l'll~ _ 'W' ,h"·I;iI"!O~ :~T ~.'o,ur--altl1 ,: '. .... ,j' cu,~caCd:,rs an.. l,aoS uw ,i:)l 'b;f9i"-'~ _ , .... u ..... 0,(: ., bes on.e 1;.10

embrace the truth snd be faithful mit. and, which centains a wea]th ·of relevant examples,

OJ :I wrote sbout 'the. lire: of MUhammad (_) as. soIdie~r;s\VQuld viiri:~e ,aJoont t:b:eirge,llleml or employees about their empl,(!Iy:er or pupils about 'the'ir teacher, :1' am not, as, 'I b~!lyve: ;said" a neutral

11..," ,i 'I' ,.,.~ . .JII· 11... I " . '00' 'M'" I'

~~ls.tOFilan U1H'e_a~ '1'0 WnO:m. \m'te a~llt .. · .. Iooocrv,e,r,,'. wrote

with the soenes of M'oslim bact,wamness, r~,ght in front of my

eyes, So do not be surprised. if] relate dIe events, of the ,~ife of M'Uhammla.d. (_) in a manner which hims, at lOur sOrF.fomuJ. state" Wb.en,ever I present a story I include 10. it references to the 'tm,e· sentiments, :oound, ·thoughts and noble actions of a MusUm to correctthis terrible: degradation ..

to M'uhrunmad. (.) is not a. s,tory to 'be read on his 'bi,rtnda:y as 'm,any people d~1J) now, nor is he to be iextolled in fa,bri.cated ,pr,ayers added to tbe wO'lds of the Adh.5n '(plraye:r call), nor ean love fOir' himbeeXI"liessed, in poems or praise wru.c·Et m~y makle his admirers si.gh. when tbey 'hear them. The ties, that Muslims have 'with the noble Prophet (_1 aloe stronger and deeper than these deviations which have been thrust into the faith, 'The Muslimsl have indulged in these acts to express their relationship with their Prophet ( .. ) only when they have neglected the essentials of their faith and conteated themsel ves with outward manifestations andfotm,31]w.s,m" However, since these formalisms are Iimited in Islam they have resorted to imve'fidng new forms,

a They should not innovate. TOI tum away from inv:ent'~:ng formalities does not require much affhns,. The e:ffon, that does require determination is to hold fast to the: esseneewhieh bas been neglected and retum. to the tme faith. :SOl instead of listening to the story ofth,e. Prophet' s '(.M) birth being recited in. a pleasant voice, one ;should get up and reform oneself in olrder 10 draM" nearer to the Prophet's (~) 'pnlctic.es in his w'Ofldly' and spidtua~. life, in his likes. and dis,~ik,es, in his, knowledge and 3!C'tioID, i:n his habits and forms, of wor;shipi and, in maJOers mlating Ito 'war' and peace, 'The Muslims, in who,se .beans ·theProphel does net Ii ve and whose insjg;h~ IOoeS not follow ·~'hem. in. ,their actions and, thoughts 'win never benefit by merely sending .$alan, and Salam to him a thousand times a, day,.

1:1 I should :~ike 'to, emphasize here the necessity of separati.ng seriousness, from ibn in our lives. It would. 'be niee to fix a 'lime

e. """,. .~ .~. if d·' d · ,or:

I.Oflul1 anu, re,~axlltlonaIII.· not exceea :i.t ,00 a ume: ror

seriousness ,and wotk and not faU short of it.

If 'people want '~O ;sing or listen '~O a song" ~et them, do SQ., However' turning .Is~im it~,H' jnto a song, ,making the 'Qur' in into; beautiful ftmes. and fhe altun (life) (' bio'm"ap'hv)· into; aa l:'~Uhhs

,- .•• '.', ••• _. ,." . .1 •• _' _ ._ .. '_.' _' •. _ ....... - ~'_" -.J'. - .r.' ~.·.·~.WM: .

(poems) praising ,the 'Propbe~, and chants, have no justifIcation ,and can be acceptilb[le 'Doly toth.oscwho; are negllgenL This Imnafli:omd has, been to the deb1m1ent of IsIihn since itwes taken otll of the 'field of behaviour and, underst3ndin,g into the field, of p.ia.y md ,eD'~ertainment. Those who do ,this are' just the people described by'"",.' the Q'ur'ii,!i'i'''':;c A.'tlLtii',t. ('v~~)"",

U·llliiJf~ ... IU-C: .-_ .. _ -.' __ '= u.an, . :;'y1~',~; 1IJI.io'.I"''-"~:.,.,

,('And rorsa,ke' '~hose' 'wino, 'take' 'their RIIIgfionl 'for ,3 Il'a,tjllmre and a jest, and whom the ,~i1fe' olfdlll warM' bejp~n.,t) ~Qur'ln ,6::' 1,0)

IIJ Tile trWliSfonnatioil of'the 'Qw"'iD moo' mere ,melodious chanting to which music lovers listen to is Ilketbecae what made 'dle Jews ,and IChristians broadcast it everywhere, confident that it would not revive the dead. The transformation of 'the Prophet's (M) life in,to stories, q:a$RJ'ahs and unimteUi,gib]e prayers has made 1li:stemn,g' '10 it a form of meotal, ,~m.balanc.e' md,e.ccentricity ~ which, im,my op,ini(~n stems from a perversion o:f the :mmnc-ts, ,and a comtption of :soc.mety" n woulld be much betl!er for m,lllS'ic lovers, to listen to pure music, If they Mrdl fOI' serious work, they should seek i~ from pue

e ,-, ," wh e":b.A ' "j. '~L~" fth 'Q" "ur:tEi'Ii1; w'hi· !CJ'I!.. eomm ands ,,,,,,-,..I pro' hlbits

:5Ouroes~' un IlLll-."tr Ill. 100" ",,' , ,~~J!, vmcneo , ",GI!JI~I~,. !WW,_'- ,~_UVJII," ~

or 'the SU!l1Dab, which clarifies and, expbtins so that it may be followed, Of' the SIj,ab which gi ves '~e :fragrance of pure Ii,temltrme",

~._.A ,- • '[ ~,_..1 ·'oI'I'h ·1" ," A'-d'i t,'lL. • I 1'-

S()iWll,Jl, pnn..ap, es ,ww, upnght )lO'_IUCS. i'u,~,. ILw,llat :Js. 5'illm",

ell I began 'writing these pages while I was in Madlllab, In 'the

bo'-llv.,· 'p .. recinet 'whi,' ,I C ich bro 'uo1,.,. m e ctooc'dl fo rtu '''"'',a '&-'0",'-' a wh ~~,e,""'fld!

-," ,j' ,i .,.,.~" ILII,"-";, . "'_ I ~._I .,~ .1, . .It).J1!1:'L ... , &,.:,: ,_" -.'_ .ll~ ,- . ," 1:,.Ii~ ,1~_. : _ . IIlJI . Q.l.lL_

assisted me in completing some us.eful st!!lldies on the Sunnah and ttu=.' life of Muhammad, (!Wi),. To Al1ah (tI!:) be~,longs: the Grace for' whate-v;er' bounties He: (I!) has bes;oo,w;ed om me' and perhaps. He (iii) 'will make me of 'those who love H'im and His :Messeilger' 1(.). Now" since .I' can speak ana, act only with frankness, I must point 00£: that the distance between the Muslims and 'their Prophet (M) is wide indeed" no matter 'what, love 'for him 'tb,ey have in their beans and what pt,ay,ers, '~hey

o:ffer fur hhn, 'I saw them, 'v~;s[ting his i~i,W: witb ma~ and yeamingbeftlre "etuming to, ~he1r hemelands to find those: who e~n'vy 'th,em, for tlleir ,apod fortune and lon,g,£Qi[ the same chance. DINa believer would disp'Uime: ~he faet thal~!O'v,e for the Prophet (." is, oompu~:s.ozy and that love :fo'r him w,~:U vanish ~Jl1Jly from the heart of a stu'bbom hypocrite, How should one make this. feeling expressed and show its, allegiance to' him. This, isthe question that needs explaaatienand clarification.

10_ Yathrib, from the point, of view of general economics, is smaller than i't W,8S under the Ausand Khazra] in the preIslamie days, Tbe proportion of its land planted and cultivated toda.y is, one .. tenth ofwhat the Arabs used to plant and cul~iv,a:~e in the: old days.,tm,e majority of the inhabitants today are jhose pilgrims and visitors who remained behind

a fter jbe Ii"II ' ~ 01-- - ~ -- - a.'B~ Thev PKf~€ rred to be - - .-tl-'iIL. _ '.p_. .- - _- h- if;

'_!!!,Ik'f -=---,=-:~L~!i,rum'--i@,'-!'-- -;'-.f ,J(II_T_'=-:: .to oe near I~JDle, rrop et

(M) and, unemployed rather than to go home andworkl And

tib, 1- ~tiI.L." 'H'" ,,; ~ L II , n.ey ell it '_-.nlS - ,'lJr.nu.

'CI; :18 this, Islam or love for the Prophet (ifi)? ill remember' 'meetmg a !,"oup of Moroccamswho claimed that they came to, :Madrm:aih to escape persecution fOil their faith~, I explained to' d:t,em 'that they 1WeIe fleeing from~lle battlefront becaase theirbrothers we~e figbJtio,gtbe .Frmc_h,mvaders~am.d tlle,." were ,oo,mmit1inga crime in ,~,eavi[J,giliiOOlto bearthe brunt of the struggle; ,aU bydlem~lves .. ] Sucb, ill love: for ,the Prophet (~:) i~ :hlco,mpre';h,ens:ible and such a lfUj:[,M ~o :bis :MadInah is unacceptable, The' bond between the Prophet of AUah, ( .. ) and. the slaves of Allah (fi)ms s.tronger and firmer than find:in;g expression in such crooked, devious paths,

D: The enemies of Is~,im wer-e able to, demoli8hilhe structure @f Eslmn ,md, tum it into. ruIfIDS as a result of the :negJiglO1ee of the Muslims" How ,oould the heritage of Muhammad (.;) be ,~.eft open 'to, the, vicisS(~tudes, of' fbne;'? H:ow' could 'the e'M~Y day,s of Jahil.fYah be aUocwed to return? Howcoeld such a dangerous itransfunnlluOin be ;aJ:~owed tooccur in :silence? Howeonld SUCll a

iTlhe liirst AJj,!lIblc edirn~o,m ef ~Iil~s bookwa:spuh~~i~hed at: a ti'me: when I!he F~ndl ~ad· oo~lJ,I:pi,ed three regions Qif M.o:nwli;io iiI~Ol]jg wrllh 'OBiliIX Isllmi.c ffiarnds.,

datn,g:e:rous,ttansformation be allowed 'to occur in the expresslons of love 'fOf' dIe Me.s:senger of Allah (M)? Let 'llie :Muslims. 'therefore understand fully the Ufe of their great Prophet(~). This, wuuldne'wr occur if '(he :Me.ssage itself were e~.eady understoed and the life of the ODe' WhOc.Ol1veyed 'wt is audi.ed and. his te8ichin,g strictly fo,uoweG,. How ,cbeap is 'the love when it is. only.a tsJkl' .And how dear it is when it. is. ideal" safe and. assured! 01 I" apologize for my inaibUhy 14)1 do proper justice to the ;subj:ect, The Prophet's ('M) importance is great, and

~ ".., h' i' C' dl • m .' d- d h

expiammg , 18 nre nee "·8 a sensrtrve mmd and a 8, .. arp

lo:£elliec.t Let it suffice to know tbat this is my effort.

ell 0 Allab (IO! bless M:uham,mad, (~) and dIe family of MUhammad. (M:) just as you blessed Ibrlltim (Abraham) (U) and ~b.e :famny of Ibr'ihim (Abraham) (~)~ and be:

. .

bountiful to Muh,ammad <M) and the family oifMuharnmad

(~.)' . 1!... . '.t: 'II I·b·'ib; tAo b .... 11.. ) (WDf)"

[ ~,:, just as you were UOiU"t[i!,~JJ to,:ra~~~m \" . .-rruii:1lU, _~!

and the family of Ibra.hIm (.A braham) (H'flI). Verily You. are the Praiseworthy, ,All .. Glorious .. ,

IM!luihamlmd AI GhadlI

T'h1e 1Ildyt'hs olf ('hi,s, Book

ell 'I' was gID,ad ~hat this. new ,edni,OD W,iS pl1!llhlislllec1afte.1l" being revi,e~ed :by---the ~,gr!eat sch~lar '~.:f 'H~nh, -' Sheikh M~b~~ad'

Nasiruddln Al .. AU:mmI" who. commented (11[1 'the: hldiJths of this book. I hope 'that, I may be able to he~p 'in, bringing to Ught; tbe .sci,entitlc truth and a, si,fting; of' bistori,ea~, events by wa.:y of this. criticism. Mytbanks [0 hlmwbe volumeered.

OIl The problem with the historians who docum,enlt '~he: life of Muhammad (~) ,and other' events is their lack ,ofve:r.ificatio,n and autheaticatien. Many ancient as well as modem, scholars fell into this trap, 'though there are some differences intheir level of precissm and observatlon. When M started "to write the life: of the Prophet (~) I' strove~o follow asound method and rely only on trustworthy sources .. I think I have achieved this aim and, have gathered such material that would satrns-fy a, keen researcher. Hcwever jeaders will see that Sheikh 'N',a,iruddDl'''s, comments suggest that he doubts this is SOl" T~UlS I find myself compelled to clarify the method wbich I' followed,

elil The scholars of the Sunnah may di ffer in, the ,au~hentication ,or rejeetiorr of a ijadnh. Sheikh Nasimddm may argue: ma'l a Sadrth Is weak, and he has the right to' do so since be bas a :firm grounding "in. the knowledge of the Siurmah., The majiority of :ijadrtll scholars may think th.8l1t a ija.dnh is 'wjeak. However I may look at jts wording and find that it is in total agreement wltha ayah (verse) of the 'Qur~i1n or an .authenti,c Hadirth andthereby find no harm in, relating or writing it As [see w,t~ 'the Hadttb brings nothing new into the field [of law or good deeds; it, only explains what has already been fixed in the authentic sources.

01 Take, for example, the first a:adkm, which Sheikh NasimddIn Judged to be weak; "Love AUih (1M) fur the bounU'es He OW) bestows upon, you and. love, me :fo'];" the love of Alllh, (Ii)" " I lie may '~}ect. the autilenti,cadon. of 'Ibis ijwltb, by A~'-T~rLnidhi,md

Ail H:=:"I .. ~....... d '~, 1.." .. "" th . . 'il.. ..iI,..... R 'Ir ,iC:; .. ,,, ... ,..:iI 4!-1..,: .....

,1;", • ~:Jii ana de J.~ u e :n,gIlJJt to do so. owever r lli:O!LUW, nOLllJiIig

in. irs meaJdng to :pf'e¥e,llt mefmm aooeplin,8 it, 'Without hesiitation ..

11:11 IOn the other hand, I hesitated to record the ij:adith o,fMuslim and BUkhiti in the way in whi"ch the .Battle of tbe' Bani MuS'ta1iq took place, Their natratienscf the ij·adnh. suggest, that the Prophet (~) ;sudde111y attacked that tribe witb():l.l;t first offerin.g them the: Daw'uh or wiithom ,any b.reakmg: of a. treaty om. ·their pm o.r anything ,to rise; suspicion oeearring on their part lor knO'wled,ge of,a;ny susp,icious, ,acti.vities, from their side.

,ClI A, Ibaolle be.gan by' the MusJims in such ·EIl. m,mne.r finds disapproval in the :[ogic of lsllm" and, is, far'removed from·the icharocter' of the .P.llOpbet ('.), Thus I refused '£0 accept fua~, 'the battle began ,and ended in this way .. However; 1. 'was satisfied with the ,d:f1CUmstances ,M narrated by Ibn .latir" who, in spit-e of the weahless. of his manaJlmon as disclosed by Sheikh. Na,iIudlm-o" conforms to the assured principle of Islam of "no agg[l(}ssion exeept to' dle 'Mon;gdloers" ~f. As fu'l' those who are peac-eful ,md unaware; there WS .R.O justification .fol[ attacking them

o The JJadnh as, narrated by Bukh8lrI and Muslim 'CRn have :QO other explanaiion ilia its beiing the .dJesc.ri.ptic.'ll ofthe second phase of the :~nci.de:nt In other words" 'taking dI,em by ,s;u1pri;se came on~y after hostilities had begun between that 'tribe ,afI.d the Muslims, and each one was :~ylng in wait for th.e other. Thus it was the Muslims wbo saw' 'the opporlltni'~ and ,atlhlcked their enemy, and "war is deception' .wn this, 'case. there: must be some preface '~O Bukharfs and M·us:U:m.~ s narration similar-to what Ibn JarNI' reported ,and, was eriticized by Sheikh. N~iruddIm.m

o I am not the fi~s:t to adopt .s~ch a Une of app,roaeh., It is tbe approach adopted by most (If the scholars 'when o(mfronted by both weak and strong narrations, They agree that a weak Hadnh z, may be aecepted so long as it is in ooruo.nWty with the basic general principles, which are of course, derived .from. the Qm;'ID. and the SUIll3ih,., It 'was in the light 'of this, balanced view thalt I r-ela:t,ed, the Prophet' s (M) consultstiea wit:h.AJ El'abbib on. tbe oceasion of the Battle of Badr, eventhough the ijadnb scholars declared its chain of Darr-ators to be; we~, because it comes

'wi.thill,the :800pe: of tbe good deeds which ,Allah (B) ,and :H15 M:essenge-r (M) enjio:itled, and 'there' is no harm in relating it This is 5)0 :mr as '(h'e weak b~d1'tbs are concemed.

0: As ~£D[, the autheatie ~adlths Sheikhs N,3j$irudd:lh, knows ,quite'

)'11 ";1..,' 1il1.. '. "d' 'i,~ • d-'" •

we' ~ that tnere ISWI< e scope in merr. iverse meamngs to accept

or rej,cct: them. There is :0.0 scholar 'who has: not re] eeted some ,aU!then~ic. bldbhsi in preference to 'what ,aJppear:s to be: more: ,llu!1her-i!tic~ Mil,,. ,Allab, (Ii) prevent us from :prorvo:kift8, IOOnJIDJV!e,[,gy over' the S.uooah., whi,ch is umdo:rub:ted.lythe second source of Islim.,

Q N eVlerih~'~eJgs, if'l study1;tidiiLbs and find that, as a, whole, they agrlee withdl.e Qm'',ikl. in principle that there was no war until after the f)u"'W,ah had been ,cJead.y convey;ed"lhen how could I accept what su:ggeslts o~h.ern1~e?A]lalt (~) orders His Prophet (M) in the Qur,jinto say::

(SarY:!: j~ 'is' on:l~ iimpi're,d iin me 'dIat your' God ls: Orn.ej God,. 'Will you d1en :5U1i1i,elllder [to Hlm]?' NBllJIt If d'lIey ,31re ,averse 'th~n say::: I havel wam,ed you: a~~ ,a~Uli:el~, alt'ho!Jghi I !mow not whether near or far (, tfuat wihioh ',ot!! 3ire' promised/') (Qwr'in . .21; 1 0:8-'~ 09)

~ ,Aj))erthis announcement which:is dWecited. tll)both the callers, and 'the called, and afteI· tbe wars, ofthe Prophet (~) ,and.·the :righteous,

... :1,::,..,1:,;,,,' ·hl·' h "L ,..I~ ~~,.;JII ""L::i ..dL d 1:' ~ _il:_::_ ,j.L_

C~~~, m w_Jc .LUey .aWUptooull'Smli;~1.10-: I. ()t~ ,expmil.ug I~~'

IlJii~C!uae" ,,,,,_.;3,...'lloIf'IUi'iina"''ifa 'li'\Pi'\'n~"", il"L", i~~iMiitu nf.·:'~'''''''''-''''n.f-~'nfJ' o-'r lYE~, ;d.IIW WlU'I',,!!·,&a;"'t:i1 01"" r'~vlt'"""cW,v ttl,"", V'~~.Iljf!.~u.'~;J" U ~~rU' c ' -,' .

~iectifig it, m do not '!bimik '~t ,anyone could fr>roe me: 'to accept, 'wbm: the ·t\voSheikbs (Blichin aad Mllidim)rep.orted onthcaiIltho.rity of '~AbduUIDlibn 'Amt. He :said: .

. Lwrote toN,ifi~~, May AUih eli) bless blm~1 asking him. about the supplication. OO{OiKi fi;gn~h]!g.! He :oopn.,~d that, 'tharrt was in the eat:~,:y days of Islim, ,wneolli.e Piriophet (M) attacked the :BaI1Ia, Mu~1a1]qunaw,m:,es and :k.illed their fi.,gllter,s and, tOCl:k.thei'r.' women. capt~ve, and Itwas then. 'that be too'le. Juwairi!yya.b as

,,-:-,:"f:;:. He S~I.j-d '<it'I.!., ... ~ ~ AbduUIh ibn ~·Ulmarr t.~)·. ~'~!:1fn '-'-~':,<:i':;' '~T, ,"'1fe

WIJLe" :.!L ,_~ __ , UW_ _._ .,_ ... - .. _ ,_'v., .. _ .. __ .. \~::I' Wllv Wi;4;! .1]1, U,L

army, to.ld him. aoout it

ell Just as I bypassed ·thiS, I:Jadnb, I also bypSlSsed another, w'hjch ;stamd 'dlat tb,e Prop:bet, (M) ,address\ed his Com.paru.on.s and :informed. them of the persecutions whieawould take place: until the D,a.Y' of Iud,gement. and those who would be responsible for them, It has been proved :fiom. ·the !Qur~1n and 'the S;wrm_ah that.

4,'1!. Ph' (~). did' . '. kn' &.L.. •. 'I!..' .

Il .. U:e· i, ,rop,·et.~ .. " c not '·~o.w 'we unseen in tIllS strange,

d . ···I·' .... ..i d 'L,~, •

etai '.1iiU ana comprenensrve mmner.

to I pre.JeJj]!',ed fllismetJhod ofwriting the bio,papby 50 I accepted

',L •. who d'· ..... c. . .JI h fi'" dl . • I

tne n,arraaons . . =ose wor'· tnp eomormed to 'tLe . Ixe prin(apjes

sad. ~aws" even lftheir chains of narretors were not sound .. J rejected those badrths whieh were (I,escribed asajuthenti,c~, because: they d:~d nat comfOml to ·!the' 'fixed :principl,es md), laws,

ceordlng to .... nil"li . .J-"'i:!~a-I'!ii.;ll~;""R of Al' ··I·ii.'I1!..".;o; ··.··III~ :'o'lf'II, an' d' ·1<111'···-

a~'Ji,u.4· .... ' my 1..u!d,iI!i;.iI.;;J~~WYA.q; .. J! .: ~_WJ).!. '" :re:~lIg~ ... ILI! :_ _ U],e

... +1l. . d' .~ f th . Da'" . c . or..

:mewo·J),I.o.gy 0: . I'e:, .'; ". war",

Ot There is no spaceto comment on ,aj~ .. my reasonsfor differing ·with. Sheitb 'N~[md.dh1 over certain things, Nevenheless, dJer-e is space 'to, record an. of his c.OMOlen'ts, on the seurees I have: used, since I very much .ap.preci,aJt.e his profound. scholarship, and. he represents ,OJ 'well st,ext f01U!Bded point of view, in the sifdn.lJ of

_ ... 1" . '. aners.I .' l' . '.1.. .. • .... '1 ..... L ..... · ' .• ' .. 'L ... ...1 -;' b . 'i.~,

,1,~ igl:OU:S, matters .... aiso 't'(iijji~ that It IS, tne reaaerang ,·.t tc .• .iiJOW

the o'piinioQ. of 'one of the meticulous researchers. on tbe narrations whiehI have utilized. here. It does not matter whether I disagree with him or mot May AUah (It) re:wud him. for his

.. l¥'.' .. ' •. _. "'-'M -' tL. 'iIl.. .. in .. ···f·ilL··p .. 'h' -' (~) ...... ..:1 M . H" .

eU!:orts to proteet me I ien I age o lU,e,' [tip e, \~'. WlU _I,::.1ay 'Ie

(Ii) guide us' aU to' i'be str,aight :p~th.

U."~ d. -I.t·-h--· T' rerm ·'inulngy~-. -

,.I'1lJI ..'t ",.." __ .' '. v

~ - ..

'The 'two Sheikhs Isnid' or Sanad MaIn'

Sablh

!' ... r

'1 L1i'~"'il"o.l·: ,J.W_·.J!,u

Munq···atii

' ..

I, L . ,~~ .J . .:J /..flaU aaaa«

Tadla or Mudallas

MU"allal

. B ••. !··1t:lI..l;;)ri''' .... _ .. .:al ·M··. ·'I~'~I"·ll'··m· ,!,!,' .UlU1~1I ,tIIN, _ '"~ _~.l!!l

': The chain of :oma~ors,.,

:: The actual text, of the ijadI'th -e

.: ,An ,aiuthe:nti,c J.ladJthwho,se 18n,.;/'is complete withont .any deficiency aad whose nwrrator.s are absolutely trustworthy and accurate"

: A good, H:adfth whose lsnid is complete without any d,e'fIlci,e..u~;y and, whose narrators are' absolutely trustworthy but may not be very accurate,

!' Weak. 'There are different ca1eg:ories of weak 'lJatblb, of \¥hich aU tbose

1 ~ !'-'Jt"~dl'b·....,'~,nw·. ". are ,~,~g'Ififi,~rn,e~ iCl,

JI ~,~ . N-. __ . ~1I.v. ~. ~ 'II.;',A£U.JLIJ .f'UU1'_ .1.1111

: The name' of the $llvblwho heard it 'ftom the Prophet is omitted ..

: .A name in 'tile lsna:i is olmitted or an unknown name is mentioned ..

: Two or 'more names are omitted from the ls.nld.

: (1) The narrator gives the impieSs.]'oll that he/she beard U d.irecdy from one of

hi . sIb- • -III . 0,

v. - er Icontempormes;, wthough that IS

not, so.

(2) The narrator ascribes 'q)ualiti,ies, te the person from whom. :beJ:s:he hetlilld it which. thaI peESOIt does, not POiS5.eSS.,.

: Apparent]y sound, 'but there is, a hidden.

_,_'il~_" it,

wQU..U,ess, mu

: ,A :single trustworthy person narrates it, contrary to what other autlI'entic sources barve narrated.

11. ~l'~~~:-r. .Jv.~:M~r!p~1

.It. -. .fi~~ ...

:: ftJJj. untnws.twO.i!-~I.i person. narrates rt,

contrary to what comes from a.uthenti,c S(HIIEiOOS"

: .At .one point in its. ,chain there is a sinale .. r'lI!:I~~.-.r·.

;;lI~ ~II. _ I~""""O ,

:: A ijadtth YAUch has. th.e: attributes of both .l:lasan and Ghar ib.

: A fabrkation by lias who aserfbe itto the. Prophet eM). This. is" str.~ct~y speaking, mol a HadDh,

translation has been used. for all the

Gharil,.

Hcisan GW1".lo.

iI!!' ---

quotanons from. the Qur-ID. e.x1cept in ,R few' cases where the context required. a different translation ..

AM,elsa:ge: :1:0.11 a Leader P'apuis,.rnR.u.;edthe Anc;i.eo·t 'C.i.viliz·afio,ns

The ld,gtory of tbe: mankind is, sorrowful,. Bver since ,Adam '(_), May 'Peace be! upon him" andhis childir,e:o, descended on, eerth, as t~:m,e: '~fitbjf and. ei v:i~i:Zaltl'Ons flDm'ished and generations rose on jhe remains of others, hnmans have been, ;11, motJ.ey :rmxture, ,II one day they ~ on the right track, 1Ith,e;y are lost :for' days, :&000. a:fteI~ and if they see the n,gilt. of truth. once, then the darkness or falsehood, engulfs them many times. (th,.~ea:fter). If we: were 'to scrutinize the history o,f~hemankmd. in tile Ughtof beliefIn .AUml. (Sj) and. preparation for ,the Hereafter we should, find, the world closely rese '--:b'Ji'" "."

- - - - " '. - . --- - - J ,!!,,,,,sem --U,g a

drunkud. 'lWh.oISle periods of'drunkenness exceed hhi sobriety, or a sick man who is delirious and does not know whll. he says, 1t:J'AI though in experiences with themselves and theirworld, there are men's mmy deterrents from commi:ttins, ,evU and nUlny incend,v!esto do goo d.tbut overwhel ming passion cannot be subdued byknowledge alone"

WI How muoh of the wwoidd's· nfe: expired before the aip. uearanee of Muhammad 1(.'.):1 M,a.t1'v· centuries brou -'be ta . .. _1:""' __ --, - - - - - . . . .. '. . .J- _JJnes .mug Ii a

w,eaJ.th. of experience and knowledge :amd encouraged th,e g'OiWth. of the arts and sciences, philoSiOphi.EllS and ideas. In spite of th~:t" however, frivoH:ty became the rule and :man:y nations fen wi~hout .aJc:h:ievima: 'the status to which. they as:p,i red .•

g Look at the fate of the ,civn~;zmio,ns of Egypt and Greece,

·1f·-'d~!~:..:lIII'lIiIlll,d-i C.····1l..m~'I~1 ][!t.tJi.T;;';~"', and R· •. >ll"iin9;,1Ii!! I 4,n '!i1·C,o-·i!f meaa their .c~"."" '~'-'C"-I UloIiQ ~_ .11:1. 1I;,l!,! jf"_.,.;l'~'~ ~.oC. '.' ,.._., ••. L"' ..... , . u ........ ~ ..... _~!~, _. ~ !l~~ .livID

the poUUcal.po\b1lt: of view, but fromthe aspect. of feelings and. reason, Contemptible p~gmllsm desno,yed. 'themmd .. m,ade them fan ioto this, miserable p~t And '~he: buman being, whom,Al1ih (If) ,appoilJlted, as His su;periot' vm.ce,g,eren.t in. 'the heetvens and on the e'mtb, became a. slave subservient to the ~ow,~ i'eslt: 'thing in

these plaees, 'What else eould 'ilhere be ,aft,er rows and calves are

h- - ... :1 'I ~.~~ ... ,;3 '. i . ...1 .e., ...... ~ -'it,' ,-~ - ," '" . :1!..,., ' ..... d'?' EM""''- '. . . t~ "'.

,. li,1J, to WDJ':i WClO!iJI &W, stones ar,e wors,llll,pjpe,. 1- uJ~lR: na nons

'became :ponuted. with such. perversions, Paganism come'S from withlntbe self and, not fromthe 'environment Just as sad people ,~pply their feelingsto Ib,eir surroundings and fdght1ened, people imagine objects to be ghosts, ,similarly deformed personalities 'M)] ,ap:p:~y their stll(pidity and, steriID'wty to '~'beir' sunoundiags, and

de:~:fy the stones and the animals" ' -

[0' '0·' ,'~ --,'I!.. - ,,..t.. .. ' _.'III'nl h rt .'~ "'h dormsm 'h ''L,-

'. ' !.m~,y WJllem 1U~,Ie. :smww, "ear 'W~y.e:DS, • e "ormaJ[l,t t iougnt

awakens and people return to their lofty Idea,ls,tnese 'pagan impressio,D,S, 'will disap.pear automatically. Thuscthe first work

,,;'--_, the ~" "'t'ib' - :'-: ~w-' ~t"hL! - - .. , I ·'1 . ..1 ' .. ' . '. 'th··· ·.·i.·".e', , ,.,;Ii- " .. f

IU,I ne JI.a'l , IS, 'IL dn men ,anu, women . iemserves, tor I,IU, us' 0

'no' benefit inthe fight against paganism simply to slaughter the :ho,ly cows and. ;smash tb,e~ proud idols wllile hearts remain in their previous darkness. The worshipp~:r;SJ wi II j us1 search for othe-r gods, to bow before and make offerings, There are many pagans in, this world" though tbe~y have never met over an altar, and how q w"i;f'm-l-y" they ign .. -- ....... e the real presence ofthel"'r Lord and

u.lII . .II. .. _ "W!'~_: Ul_::.1. _,:VJL . , _w: __ '_'_ .'.' . _,,- _. ,--Ul.! I «II.Il.,

A,...... 'iI' II i

run aner some new umsion,

- -- - - -

g Supersti'nOD. does not follow its course i:n lw foe 'by anneuncing its fal;sehood and exposing :hs nonsense, I t conceals its, ;sh,D1m,e~esmess wwthtbs c]o'thblg: of eamestness. n borrows the accepted wear ,o:f~mJIb. and 'may' even adopt some of its premises andconclusions before adorning, itself for the 8ullib~e" This is, how paganism acts. It attacks the 'true religionand its plain r;ealities, not as 'tbe bee attacks tbeflO'wers of spring" but as tbe~ worms break down and waste a fe~I1i~,e soil, Or locusts attack the luxurious gardens and rum them into barren wastelands, NO'w ~ if :~t 'OO,IfLlpts - 'what it leaves, t'hen. l'r ww,n not comet what :il, takes,

'd" "'f' w- h--+ it ., ... 'I:.,..,~ '.. . d- before ~,~, _;:;..,L._ . .;:I I"t' lll.iJi!1!'II; ~* will

alL t, . aIL, ,I '..::a~wwas, ,gDl}' IlJ .11,1.1011"'"' ~,!~ .II .... ;"~lJ.ClU " , ~Wli .... ~~ ~,~,l",

become harmful after it has been, turned ;:~fJto poison in its,

,1.. Th-" '.' th 'II. '. L + 'IL d kn

stomacn, I! 'IS- rs __ JC secret Wny pagsmsm, W~dc,u:,oes not ,','-CiOW'

,Anall (.).~ claims to come c,moser to H'im and seek Hispleasnre through Its idols:: a portion. of truth :in portions of falsehood, in ,R context which definite:~y diverts, people from AUIlh (e) and

'" .'~ . .' , ,Ji.,t..~1"" fro- - AU :!I!=1..1 iii ... 'ni!'iP"'e" c- ,

removes: UK;IIJ, .. 'U'!'U,i:l"U, i:J! ,r"'-"' .n.e,.

QI The, greatest catastrophe wbldb. be.fe:~:~. the :reHgio,ms(l,n ac,tOll!lDt: of the' pagan mtta.c:k on 'them was, ~he: ·teniblle ,dumges affecting the reUgru!o:n of lsi (Jesus), son of Mary am (M~)" The,y tnrned its day into, du:lcness. and its peace jilin. d:istress\~~h.ey turned l!Ulity into idolatry, de,g:r,aded. the buman race and. hUll1g]: its up.Hftment. on a sacrifice .. They turned tile ideol,ogy of Jesus into a botcbpotcb of l!umSIJbllra]beUe&, myths and. legends, Themyth of 'ebe Trim~ty and redemption wastevi vedafterear1y paganism succeeded in 'Ihims,timg it, upon. 'the new Chri:sdani~.y,. Ifl~hi:sway it gained, two victories: it, strengfhened itself and it ~ed. others. astray, Thus 'when tl:u:~ sixthceD!t:ury of the Christianera arrived~ the ~ j,gbts, of .guid8!nce th_1'lJu,ghollJl't~he; world had. gone; out and Satan was travenlirng the vast: expanses, of :~a:nd~ admilj~, tbe tho,rns he had, planted and seeing how stm-dy they had gr-OWIl •.

o Magianism in .. Persia was stubborn vang,uard of the widespread ido.~aJ[ry in Cllin3lj Indla, rtheArab countries and all pasts of the 19m1omnt ,g~o·be., Chdst~anlty~, "_,'hleh. vehemend,y 0PPOiSil7d it, borrowed most prominent characteristics featurethe myths of 'the an!t.~!en~ Indians and Egypd,ans .. :1 taserlbed a wi fe and a child to A.U.ih (~) and seduced its followers in Rome, Egypl: and Ccnstantlneple 'wilh a. Id ~ld ofpolytheism mere advanced than thatofth,e: flr-e""wo[shjp'per~ and the idol-

'IIl.... ~ ,.;il.." "d "1.. ,t,..... d f 'lb."

wo:rsu~ppe;fS:: OJ. :Po~,.y!i.!tieJ:sm mWX)6 __ WI'b:i monotneesm an·· .' -~gunng

pure polytheism! . What is the value of 'these contradictions, wh~rch Ch_dstlaru:ty collected together?

i' - . . ..

,Th,ey new5:~, 'Ohrifti!a'lls 31rnd papnsl say: n: AlI~a;h bas: begotten a son

I( ·1l·I'dL ]c. ,n; (i-'I' ~' ui- it 'H" ~"-R1'I' Ii.. '('i!: f' [I' d51- H"· ~~

1- '. '.- -. ,.. !_.-, :.' .', n ,II '.' ~. L \ '111 Ii" -: - -- -. - - .' . •

I C.I ~ ! I reJil;; ". 1 Dry ,_5 ~:o __ 1i'I.,_ ,_,e _' . ". CJ_ ,I._ree ,{'I a. i'tee·I =, ,' •.. lIS [IS: ,3

('I!,. - 'L:"1iI ·;irr~ 'rA'S: a I d ,aiEl .o.i..\~, !I, '-li . Elil ~ "~'., "'"i'" . 'N-, w -- ~ It" - - If'~ f :-

[mal. [<5 L IUi"e !I~eave JL_. __ U!.!:i!IIio __ ,I'll Ifi!! eaUc!l!.~ _0 __ a~an yoo naIVe

'''c-- ·od..'l.It)-,otI: ---- .. ~ ar-hilit Aii~all w'a,t.~·.-,-.~·- know lRot. ,e,"": aV,ff,":'I:,.' ~or UILS. _ 0 Y - - ,gy -.p. __ .FU... '. - 10IJ - . -- - -, - . _u J,

'flose who lllWrlt. a In\=! agarrm .AI1blih Will~ MVlr be suooemul"'" [A brier]: ern~oymenl: j'n 'tbls worid] .Arndehen tlnw Us 'w~l~ be 'Ihelrretuml .. them We shalll malke thenll tal. d'IE~ severestttomtmit [DecalS"!' d1~y used: 'lO ..J"-~~'!-- .[ii .A;I~:il\.. !t·_lt •. -. H":- ·M···· !-.~.~- ... ~ _ .'. '.' ...1' ;1..1' ~[. ','. ",11.'11·: A""'·uIS~'II.eve .m ,n. ~I!I!, !iJ':.lle I _ ~s ,I ,esserngers:, ~:enlJ alrt!J!I'~r~3~_enge n[5 - JIif

Ii'p~';"'_, ~-'cmL~ . 'Ii~~:, 'e,K)' ,. ): 1(·QJlll"~iDID. pl,. ,6°'",,710'. )': .

.L '1'!Ij,A,iI'~l~ ~~Uil!', 'II'~II","""" __ I _ ...--- __ ~v. .0'. .

Cl It. seems, that the bond of ,po:~ytbeism, which IDmued the, pagan religions '10 the distorted, :he:l:venly religions is what made: them allies in the bid to destroy the Muslims from fhe day the latter began estaelishing 'their community on 't.bebasis of the ·wo·r.sbip of the One True God, AUih. (~) eautloned this, Ummah on. the:

• 'L ! 1 "lid' 'b~_,C; ~l ;I,t.. c: 'Ii '. d' 1 'L"

perseennon W.I.i1lC·l ·wou~. OO.J.,B:IL ·U.l[em rrom twl:eru,,'o_ -worsmpers

and. from the People of the Book at the same time, and He advised them to :io.l1:ify '~hemtse~,ves, 'wid! patience and

df "'h c: C' jl'I..~ ,. I

stea rastness m tl. e race <0 'W!lS Into. erance:

(AaJlllr,edly YOWl 'wil~ .be' tried ~Iil 'your :p.[.ropenyanJd rn yOIlr per.sOJ:ls:" and 'yOl.l will hear :mllch wrong, foom those' who, were :l1vem ttle, Sc.ripture be'rore 'you, and from the idola.illrs:" IBm i;f YOW' :pe(J"severe ,and ward 00 [ev·n),. th.en] '[hat Is of '~he stea:d:facst. hean ,of'thirngs.) (Qur'b. 3: 186)

101 The darkness which engulfed ttt.e hearts .and minds, in th.e absence of the lights of tawhld' contained w:n it also traditions of society and the systems of govemment, Thus ·tbe· earth 'was a den haunted by murder and destructien where the weak had no hope of peace and tranquillity. .And what good could be expected from paganism whlch rejected reason, forgot AJlah ,.) and,

yiekled 10 'the hands,oi':impos't,e:rs?" -

o It would n.Olt 'be strange if AUlh (M) refused to belp'them, as the I:Eadi~h says:

'["AJI1Dh ~.~i veriJy looked' Olt '[he people on earth ond detiest.edl~hem[ oll, both Alr005· and non-Arabs 'excep~' scm e· rremncll"d.s; o~1 ffihe P'8opb'~ ,o,f"1he B,ock." (From a long I:Iadith narrated 'by M:uslim)

It was these remsinswhieh were jmpenietmble[' y' polytheism wn spite of thetidal wave of unbelief which floode i, the hills, a.nd valleys", Before 'the p,[opb,eth,ood, of Muhammad (."":), 1be 'world was drowned in confusion and misery which weighed heavily o'n people's shoulders.

You came, while the people were in ,chaos: ify.ou had passed by them youwould have seen them worshipping idol upon idol,

The king. of Rome opptessed his 'people and the king of Persia 'was deaf and b~~nd from pride

FinaUyAllah (iI) announced that He (Ii) wOlund wipe out these traces and send. His, (Ii:) choi.oestluidance; tocreation, He (1t1 sent ,Muham:mad. (~).,

TL 'N". a'to'rD D'r'J'tLa 'F'~D"~I M,"-s-''''o- ig-"e"

ue " '",'" ,.~ 'c '-~.~ ,_: 1 __ 1,_ , __ . el&!!', ,',,'

The: prorphletbood of Muhammad, (~) bad. the unique dlW'ac't,e:ristic of being globalaad eternal. AU,ah (Ii) was capable of sending a warner to every village and a guide in. every age .. Now if 'Ib,e 'towns; are: always in need. of warners and the ages, 'j n need of ,iul,des" then Why 'were' they substnuted by ,ai, s"w:n.gle man:? The truth. is that this s.uibstr,tuti.om resembles tbe brevity which contains many meanings :m just a few words, The prophethood of Muhammad (M:) was a complete 811ibsJtitutw,Q1! f.:Ot the sendiog of an .army of prophets, distributed, dn'ou,gbout 'tbe ages and the

, -

wide world" In fact". it fiUooth.e need for sendingan angelto

every person who lived and wiU liveon this. earth for.' as :~o;O;g [as people look fC)l"W,arm to guldance and salvation.

o How is, that? On a dangerous ground a sincere advisermay tell you:: "C los e yO'. eyes and IOIU:OW me," 0;(" "Do not 15k me about ,anything which arouses your attention. n g,afety may be in obeying him, thus you 'would prefer 'to walk behind him un-til you cross into a safe terr,it)~)r.y., In ,tbis·c~elle' is youI!' appointed guide~,whil) ,thinks and sees for you and who 'takes you by your

. . --

hand. If be dies, so do you., However, if ,at the beginning a wise

person comesto you, l1Iapsthe:~ti_n.erary"wams you of the dangerous places, shows you in detail 'what stages and. difficllllltiesi YrOu have to :pass through and walks, with ylou for a while In order' to give you practical. guldlance in What: y:ou. have

m &,L" ~J1..: 'lid' b "..J bl

JJ.eam.~IUlen} m trus CMe~ yO'UWOUI"I, se your own g)lu~e c~apa_ e

of relying on your' own s.:~ght ,zma reasoning, The fir.sl case is suited ""'0 children and sim ple-minded people but .fb· e ;t!.i:>I" ond

fi:J;1I.II I.' ." I :LJ . ."_.l ~. I I! - r: - .l:;'. WJ.I , ,131 I. , L 1.1,. : ' - ': !I!.II_ ,'W': __ I,"~\,·. ,I~.' '. _-';1 . uj,_ ItJ. ... L:__ ~~!,p .. ' . (,I,'

case is to be ap'pUed when dealing with people of understandmg ..

tl When An. (.) sent Muhammad f;fi) to ~ide 'the worid, He ,ensured that themessage oontained 'the: principles whlc]h, \"onld open doors for imeUigent, people tOI understand what was and what would be, The Qur",!D, 'wmc,b H:e C,,~) sent down, on the. Prophet's (~) heart, is a Book. from ~hre Lord o·f'lhe. W,orlds to. aU Ii ving people to ,gu:ide' ,them to goodness and ins,pilie 'them, witb uprightness, Muhamm~, (~) was not a leader 'Of tribes, people who were good, because he 'was good, and wben he' died ,tbey faded aw,ay:. He WIS, ,e, force of goodness 'wbi,dl, played a, Folie in the meral ''Wor.:Jd simjlarr. to' the nl'l!ep..J.a:yled in, the mater~4'tl \vo'rJ.d 'by the di,scOVIe_ty of sleam ,and electricity. His ,ap'p'~)intm,ent IS. Pl"ophe.t ('?j5) re,preseol,ed a, stage in 'the evoluti!o:n ofthe :mallitind" Before dlat~ people under tile: guardianshlpi of'their keepers were Hk[e confined children, Thenthey grew' up and became capable of bearing :res:ponlSi'bi~]t.y' 'themsel.vl(!s. So .AUih's. message carne to tbem~ tJlrougb, the aglenc:y of M,uhammad (~),! and explained how 'they should ~h/,e on [earth aed return to heaven. Thus whether MUhammad (M) remained or wem ;aw,a;y,~ :~t would, no't take anytJhing away fromhis real Message which opened, eyes, and ears and sharpened, pen:eption:s. and minds" and it 'was all ,oon~aJblled in rJ.s bug.e leg,acy of the Qur"in and Swmah.

Cl He was not sent to collect a ;ge1 of 'people around him btIJ~, to for,ge a :~ink between creanon and the truth by whilch their exlsteeee wolldd be :meanmgfu[;, between, them and me ligbl, by 'Nbic:h they wenDa see their goa~., SOl those lNbo recognize the tmth Ln tb,em' liv.es, and w,a~kam.ong, people with a light, have detlnhe,~,y acb,Qwledged Muhammad (~)-" have taken shelter under bis. banner, even if tlley have never seen DO[' liv[ed witb, their guide.

(Oma:rnk'iiJruU Veri.Y,the:n~ has ([ome 'to, 'you a oonviindng' proo'f 1'l1I'o.pInet M'uhammad] 'from 'JOlIir' Rabb, ,3:nd Wle ,se:mt d'owll1l 'WI you a man~fest lilht [~bI5 QllIr'anJ. 'So, as far til!ose' who :betleved I'nl AJliaih and held' fast:, to H:imlj1 Hevi'IU admit. them to Hb M[ercy. ai III d: G!liace' Il'r .1',. '[a;raidise. m, and lJJ,Iirde them 10' Hl!mself by the SO'aif:gln: PMh. ) ,(Qur'lin 4:: 114-'175[J

So if you, see children ignorlng nlejr teacher's lessons or cUnging 'to his clothes while he is alive: (n' holding ooto ,his belongings after he is dead. then know ~h.aJt he isunw,\).rtih;y children. He I.S not fit to be addressed 'b,'v.· the t··ie:a,~LI'i'-'. of th

_uLu_ . _ _ __ _ _ _ __ .. _._ _ _ _ __ '.P' !;U"" .."",uIng 0. .. ue

Message, let alone standing flrmly on. its path,

g In 'the Prophet's (~) mosque run M·,adJ.n.~b I' saw throngs, of people seeking proximity to h~ s grave and longing. to spend 'Ihe~r ~ ~vesbeside' it. Ifthe Prophet (~)I came out alive and saw ~'hem he would IilJbho,r the: sight of them and hate to' 'be near them" Their shab byappearance, their lack of knowledge, their id~enessoo.d, ne,g~igen(e~ make theirrelationship wit:hthe' Prophet of Isnim (fi)weakert'han ·tbeweb ora spider"

Q: ~: said to them: '~~what do y,QU gain frombelng neartbe Propbe~, (~) end \vha~ does he gain from y,ou?"Jlt

[J Those who understand his :Mies5age and live it. beyond the sends and seas know the secret of the Prophet (;:W) better ~h3!n, yon. I t is a. spiritual and mental proximity above w'hich forms tne only bend between Muhammad (fi) and, those 'who are :rehlted to him. So how could. s~.ck spirits and fee ble mindsbe related, to.

1'1:]"Fio w· .. ho ~<'!i','il"'i',~ ,11;'0" deoosit ~Ih-·e·· Q,O' od h ealth o .. f:,..,ii,,;]mg.ililnilfl and th "'",

, [".,J" ' .. , "Y! ~Q'!JHILLIl,~ I~. "." ._ ""~'''''l~i''11 Ill,; L ,. c·... ,Iiinlam" .". ~'~!!!J~~,U'tll. JJJU, .. · w

world, in the sp~'rhs! and minds? Is dus proximity the sign oflove and. the means of forgi veness?Y.OIu will never love for AIlD.' s sake unless you fiFst know .An~. (~J. The natDrf:iJl sequence istharl before anything else vou should know 'who is vourRabb and,wWt::ai~

l'lUU .. ~l II

is ycur faith. When you kaow [his: with a eieanmind you will

,appr-ec.~a~e ~th a gmteftd. heart 'Ute kindness of'me one who i .... !,...,n··.·'y,~u.·,o::....:I: the M· •. '. 'essaJ;I);."f:: of.AIIlah ('#"i;\ to "'·o .. ··}:~ ,O!lir" bore ha ,,;I' -lr'" .' ..... ·.··1 ~1i;jI - "",,}' "",II"J lU.,,__ ---e'- - - - ------ ~l" - .;l .. 'I!;!!! iIiiIII'!' . v["" . u[uSulPS on

your account, That isthe meaning of ' the Hadlth: "love AJ~r-DIh, '~"~'l for the bounties, He' !'!t) provides ')lOIJ w:iith and love me f,or the lc v ' .. of AI~""'TI ~o;i~~ il' .. And the meanine of the QUI{~,m'''''' V~:'-;'

a e 0 IIl!! ~ I~~ , ,._', , ... , ,~, . _, '.' _____1 ...... "",nc.

(Say IOMuh~mmadm ma:tiIki'rndh ~f ',a:u [re'3lf,1'y) ~O:\I'@Afrlh, [hell fo~~ow' nle'; A~~!.ijh will~ ~ove' you .and €o'fgjive' 'you oif your :sIns;,. AII~h often is ~Jift"FoI1livinSi AU-Mer-ciifut), (Qufan 3:: 3m)

n 'I~ L, .. - -- oOI,Oii:i,1-In, , .. he p' "w:n'L'ei .... ·f' 'I'if' ili5iH'li, (~,) .dT]'..:I1 'flIlf'li/t a·· ·n1l'!i;II"i'·lOt-· 'L-'li m' . 1- f'-' U ., nen, ui~,uLan,!!.IiI ~ ',,I ~~,iI~ _ '" .v', - .' ~~_WJU~, ' '- .'U. :u,uiL, ' ~ rr':;"', .1 -. - .U". 5e

as a. ~~,g,atew.a:.:t~ fur forgiveness, and blessings, He never did, 00 for OJ, singl,e day~ because he 'was never lmpUcated In sMn,dlling~ He ~ens you eilher'to go M'th 'rum or go· ,a;~on.g wi,th someone else" and, let us all sland before AUIh (fiJ and pmyto Him (.)::

(y 0 Ill: :IAJI:on,le]' 'we'worshi'p~ 3JndYOllli E'J\',m:e] we ,ask for he~p :~,'raF each ,:illld e~erydlirill., Show' us the S'tr3~rJ1t pa:Efu.i lihe !P4rlh ,of'dtose wtllomyoo have' fa.votlired,~: Not (he ,dh lot'those who de.seJVe ,Olltr anpr nor of dtose wllo 10' aSllray.)· (Qlur~an I: 5 .. 1)

So if thi s Prophet (~) is, pleaslcd, wIth you", be will p.ru·y to A:~ lih (flt) for you: and if you are pleased wi tb 'him, and acknowledge h.i S :Q;nea:l work and status ill YIDUI heart, 'ithen pray to AUah. (fI) for himlikewise, Youwill be :particlpaHo,g 'M th the angels, 'who recognize bjs Ire~t'ness. and, 'pray for lids increased reward:

(LtlDt!AU~b and His an~rs shower btessil!1$ all '~11Je P,F'qpheL You who beUeveJ: ,M for ble5S~Il. on him ,and sa~UH: himl wi~hi a w,Mhy ullJ!ltat:inJ1I.,) (Qur'an 33:: 516)

o It is 0.0'1: Muhamm_ad '5 task to drag you to paradise vnth.a, rope, His task is, ,only to implant insight ioto your he-art to see 'the truth wi'[nm. His :mean.B of d,oingthat is. aBook 'wm,cb, falsehood 'CWl never approach either ,ftom infront or be:bind~ wmich is eas:y 'to remember and safe from devl ati on. That Isthe secret. ,of tile permanency in his message,

a Let us' see, 'lfu!erewm" how the Prophet (~) 'O:-mted. the enelrenmem In which he 'was bam, • the light of this Its5enual Mtme !of' m~, message. and let us before that look at ·the condidons of this emviromnellt iitoo]£

Tibe'Arabs at 'ille ,A,dvent lof,hllm

- '.' f 'M' ' .. I.:~ ..... :L ak i h 'ru.., d st .

The peeple o: c' .,' ~_m~, were we .. __ In t_,_ougnlt~ ane s,bong In

desire, sinee there is, no relationship between the :maturity of thought and the matm'ty of ins,tjmct; nOI between 'the ba~dness of soeieties m their' mteUectaM 'ihell:mcicw,Rrdness; in lust ,md desire, The, vieicusness of desire ,and, lusl: 'w\hJoh we hear about in Paris, and, Hollywood, is not much, more than what was experienced in the past cenmries when looU1lJ,ption ''WaS spreadl ov!u the surfaoe ,of''fhe g~"obe"l'be advance of d,vH:~zadon has bad nD effec,t fromthis po,:int. of 'Vie~w except tolnerease the means of gratification. 'The desires themaelvearemain ,tbe Sa.rD.1I,e befoee and ,after the flood [of' the 'time of N'oob (Noah.) (~1!!9]. Selflsru))§s" greed, showing aff' ql.lmeUhl,g and jealousy, as wen as all the other despi!caJble q1:WlHde~\~ .fiUed, 'the wo:dd of old, ,11 tho,ugh, through the ~,ge:s they app~m:'ed in different cloiliin.g .. You can see lim theprimitrnve village or among members of a" simple: tribe rivalry :fo:[' wealth ,an status, exists as itex:ists inthemost modem, societies. :Many :prople m~y ~ack v,ast reserves of knowledge and virme bt~!t i],ey never lack vast reserves: of' m,ckery" ,BOlibitio(O, and intrigue. You may 00 astonished at peo~ 'who do not llltderstarui ,a problem just undUthe~r' noses whereas t1:re:yun.iterstand, tbart so-and-so is no better than they."

CI Fromthe time: of (Nooh) (g)~ Ufe contained ,8J fair mnount of such s.tupi,U:ty' and stu'bbo:mness" Thus,when Nooh's (e) people were imv:~~ed ~o believe in Allah OJI) alone, their response te Noo'b (_) showed no coneern far 'Ihe ~uJbjectmatte'r' ~,,:f the: ffin,viEi;llti~)lil, AU they cared about was the person who extended the invirta'iion, and, ,th,e hW,_gh slams be would acquire with thiS] message:

~BIlI~hel d'ieftaiins of his 'folk" who, idf5believed" saii:d:: t~i5 [$: ,oo~ 3

'1' It:ilr...,.. ., • .L._, . td '. ~""'h·' 'mf' - - ... -'- . to . . H d AI~m

m;om~ !11';!i;Iyt1Uwno WGUI' •. ma!~_'I_uml_ .. supenolF '_~, 'YOlJ~, _-_I:. _: i

wUled, He Slrel, ·could 'h'3,ve stUI;[: down 3lnpb,~) 'CQur:',in, 23:: 24)

C There are many lope.n.m.o.gs, for personal. desire 'to infl uence one's aetlons and the effects of desire on morals are v[c·ry complicated. Among the violentwaves of desire and, sin and the people living in that environment were prominent examples. of strong passion and paralysed thought, or thought whieh developed under 'the shadow and in the, service of' uncontrc ned, passion, Disbeli ef in Al [lh (~) [and. the 'Last Day, concern for the pleasares of the world and engrossment in the satisfaction of them, strong desire for supremacy, grandeur and ,8uilhQldty" fickle prejudfees wh.i!ch

W~'g:,[~ W'aJ··· -, o-[r-= m--'!IIIi ... .;i3j; p' - ea e ,e· ,CO"I''''' flhesJe d esires: t"h'l,ey-': a- f[ .... the

~_v _ _ '. olli.,~ ~. 11.,[:1,1. -" "_' __ "._V~ l ii:J." I •. ', ,.~ Ill, _

.' [_

inherited traditions 'which direct the material and moral

activities. of the' iodivid,ual :in 'this, limited. sphere,

1l:J1 n is a mistake to' think, ofM:aktaih in those days as a village, ,ent

ff' fr- ;, . I' . . ... ,...A • ..3 .... , .. , .... nl ..;I, - f .,I.,~: •

'0 rrom crvi iZ.i(,n, ~N m a ~,~ate [uesert~ aware, 0.. U.OiU,iUJUg l.n

th Id h ,. '! "1 .. ,:: 'h- 1!..._~_~11 'II", . ~:IL bod ... 1"

e won . exc~p!t t e necessmes WUJC~ . ~~,y Aceptiu.lC, .• 'UUy auve,

On die contrary, it had, itsfiU until it ran wUd~, disputed ib, arrogance 'until it crushed, itself~ and ll1n_godliness SWl!k deep into its being Wltil itlhecBm's aJ.ll1ost imposs:ibl[e 'Ioex)tract it. The people were ei!1her blind to the t,ruth or denied it, In this society which had. never any sort of iumeHectual ,ci.vi1imtion, the indiividuars[ :pridl.e' reached such an extenr that theee ic(~uld be found. those who vied with, Pharaoh, in his tynmoy and arrogance,

. 0 Amr ibnI:Iisbim said, justifying his di.sbeUef in die Message of Muhammad (M):

"'We rivalled the BanD. 'Abd Man.lffor honour and prest~,ge uDJtilwhen we resembled two raeehorsea.they said: "'Among us: there :is a Prophet who 'receives revelations. By God, we shall not believe in him, and 'we shall never follow hlm unless we receive 'l!'evelalioDs, teo, jus1, ,~ik,e him,;"

1:11 It is, claimed ,tb81t AI, Ward ibm AI :M'ugilJra, said to '~he Messenger of AUih (M): "~~fprophethood 'were' true then I should ha/,\I,e' a prriori:ty to it rather than you" since I' am <older and hsve more w[eaith tban you,"

01 Such. arrogant stupidity wa5,not dJj:spliJed. 'by Makkall .one~ in Madrnah., \4Jbdlu!l11h j'hn 'Ublyyt g. ,dfisbe~ief was rOT simi~ar 'reasons.

A- ,C:Bif' ''*h-e- tllJ···''''''1:.. A-}i'!~jL.~·~ ·M··· essenaer "'~')Iwf'n-~t .. '°, Vl'¢i,·.·i! Sa'd , IJl,""ll. ~ .. , ~~~" U 1~1l ". lll.IJ.~. ~ '_. ,'IW~~!'w. . -b~' ,,~' -., ,_,_~. .., 'LV '_, k:t. t !' _ ... ' . -- -

ibrtUbIdab, d,mio.,g his s~cbess beio(Fe 'the: BaltJt1e ,of'Badr. He 'rode ,I: d.orSk,ey and, had Usrunah, ibn ZaldbelUnd, him. 'They rode:

. - _.~_, .... ..J L .. 1.'; f' I' .. ,~; h

1!mIiJ. 'theyp~tJy a g8t:nmng; itt' peop~e In W!I.-W;Ci was

~A' bd '{I:I!I:'L. ·'b· If iIl'L.-:- .-- - Th'-'- - th ...• .... '. '. t ined. -.~' t -_. . f

'" __ U_UUJ L,D. uiJ1lyy" '-,Ii; g;a_·_'~eli1nl: con.'arne •. , a mnl:!me (t!

Mus.~ims,! idoDatars,arnd .Jews, and ,aroOrIllthie M'mUms was 'A·1!.....JI·]' '~:II:'I!. "L_ Ra ~L

.. ~ c:wttJII,~.uhJ.li1J ,'Wm.ltli ..

When the dust :uom, 'die: ,animal reached 'the ,gathering, ~A'bdlu1iiUl :ibll Ubayy covered his nose wi.'~his cloakand said::

~'~".".~ .... , "I1'I.ot·, ~1!..-,A"''i;'' d '!'Ii~1t '0'.' '*"i U. ''''. ,I!<

IJU "~. __ "umV''lJT _ U.;]It." _1.1.1, ,,'i2JI.,

,[J The Prophet ,t.> ,greeted them :amdthen, ~opped ,and dismounted, Hie oa1!ledthem to. AIIIb. (Ii) and reeiifed.d1eQUf'1n to them, ~'AbdunDh ibn UbIyy said; "Hey' m.at1jtnere is noth~n,g better than 'What yam say,. Jf 111: is llietru!th then den't annoy 'us' with iit in, our' gatherings,,!Go back, to yOJlliI' muwd~ mdwboe"ve,r comes te you, teU him ,about It. ,,~

iCl ~'Abdwllh ibn :Rawaba. said: "On the comtl,1lY !OMe.sse;nga of

'. 'il'hl:'i!.. t~) bri ... . '.' ili ." WI" .',t., ..... ' ~,

A>I~m] !\'_::~,rl~g 'It to 111 'ID our ,ga __ ~.enngs.e Dve'iYU7.t'·

'1!hereupon, the Mus]ims"idulatols and, Jews be,g;m to abuse leach ,otner' DO.O) 'they were: on die' verge of comi~ng te blo!w:s .. The Messenger of Alllh (M) 'CQutinuedmpW)ity- them mill 'theycalmed down.

Q: Them hemollUlted aad 'rode off and 'when he reached Sa,~d ibn, Ubadlh he said::. "Did you bear what :l'b.m Sib'bin (thatis~ ~ Ab- d . 1'" ~ .. , h '1L.o U1..·:IIi::·. ).. "dT"

._,: _t1 ~i .. hUJ, .... n:YY sm, c ......

Cil Sa'd asked What he saidand tbe Prophet (~)to.J.d lum. Then '8a,j'd srud:~~YOiU mustpardon him, M'e~sengle:r of Allah ('M), for by Him 'who, :r,e~ealed the Book to. you, AU., (iii) has given you the tmthlNlhic:h He (.)r'evea~ed to y~)U" The people 'of this :laike (Madlnal) had assembled 'to crown him and tie a band (of

h :-., L..! 'b- .... ,..1 S" 'b All-\.. (.2' ... ), , . ~ io:L, , ",l"1k l~oD,our} on. lii:S r ICilU.. ,-' ut w. en ~,'~ __ an '.tMi:,' prev'e.ntelJ, 'u..ist wnn

'die truth, He gave you, be was outma1,ched by thaxL And that is 'wbatmade, bim do 'what you saw.,~'·1

I:J Ibn Uba.yy was tormented by Islam since he saw' it" as a threat to his leadership, and it was the same with Abo Jabl before, Now, if these: people 'turned away from the 'truth. after unders;tan,djgg i.t clearly, there ,are thousands of others, who" ahlhougb they do not understand. '[slim, hate itand fight; !ilcgainst it

IFi; A' "'d' .'L_,·, I '" __ ..:I'.€;l, 'f' . , , , d .il>1l.

'-II . UN. mese Slimp.e or ,comPO:UlW leonns 01 ignoranee ana tnese

delIberate or misguided hostilities, mUd mnwnemble· examplea of mJslPidanoe ami MRwareness" Islwn began to spread :Q·nl\Ys lilde by little until it 'tOOk. a whole :natiom ou! of dad mess into ~iA, in

fa j d' 'L._, •• L.. "IJ' . I-l 1..! ,t., • ded et, Is~am twDe 1 tnat Dm~OD. tnto. a un, uant amp W,llJIC;U, :p.rnvi.ue ,

.'[~ !. d'l ' . ..:iI. __ ." lb" I, ' . .,L.! 'h- _~,,~~.1 ",1..,~, "

l ~ummation an:~. g;Ul~oe.. rae essons wmer C~, nns iamazLQg

translonnation and Vlhi.c,h. raised tribes, and. n.~.QUS ft-om the: Nadir to 'l\he Zenidl were not medicine' for a pMticlJiJar time or' a specific set of people, Tirey were essendal 'cures fo.r human nature when,ever :it got out of hand, and they sha]], remain ,RS long as, bumWlS remain, and they sball ennoble them. and msusciwie life,

,A Teacher Messenger

Th,enews: had spread among 'the followers of the previous

, S,criptures ,tba!t the time f~lr.' the, appearance of a Prophet (M)

- - ...J ....... ( d ;1.1.." hadi . '.t::: .• n' I

had orawn near an=- gilS ~-, its Justhlcanons. ':i " e peap'le were

accustomed to receiving one Prophet after another wi.thcrut too long a, 'wait in between, and it often happened 'that p1oolph.ers existed in the same age ead lived in die' same or neighbouring regions .. After Jesus, however, the simaut.ion had changed, Almost six centuriea had passed shlcehis, :mini~try and ill new Prophet was. yet to be seen,

[J When the wodd beeame crammed widlvice and oo'mrption,.

i A ~ound aadl1b l'IIarmied by B'llItharr wiil 'llire 'e'X'plallBlioD of.Fall; QJ' Bart" 11 Li also J1Jffmltedl b,.· M!usl.im aad Aibmad fromti tke l..madnh of IUs~m:a: Ibn l.a!l'd.

'the eagerness form" 'dl,e awaited reformer increased, There were men who detested the prevailing ignorance and were looking forward to this, noble ]pos,ition, wishing that jheywould be: chosen far it Among them, was Umayyah Ibn A~, Sa~,t, 'whose poetry was fu]~ of references to ,Allah, (Ii') and lithe p,r,~iset~t W9JS due to Him,. S,!) much so that the Prophet (~) said of'him: '~(U Inayy.ah was ia:lhout teo accept l~d,alm.:2

Cl ~ Amr Ibn, al Shand reponed, mom 'U maiyyah:

:1 'was riding, behindthe Messenger of' Alh~tlli1 (~Ji:) one day ,and he said:

"Do you know any poem ofUmayya'h ibn ~d Salt?' m Said yes, so he saId, r-ecite it, Lrecited a, couplet, and. he asked me to continue red:~ing until I had recited :a,~undred couplets .~t

:RoiWeVe4':~ Provrndenoem\gnOlred these aspiring poets:i1ild revolutionaries and imposed the g['\r;,at trust on aJ.iUflJllWho never aspired for ~'~ n in;"" h ,~.J :~1'iI'!l.I' ~'''--o- ;11C1;h-'~ of'it:

~l~' ~~u' ~I" J ~!~ ,,,,Vl .. ' iUJ, !GU,lI; IwJl"'Y'b' I!.l. v , ,". ~

(You had 110' hope '~h,at the SCJIiPliUJ:[l~ w(~~~d be hlspired in you; bwlt wt ~s .3 mlen:y ~ir,tlml ,our Laird" se ne:Vf!f be' a he[;perrotihle; dwsbelite'Ver.)' (Qur:~an ,28:: 8,6)

Selection for the' great roles do not: <come about by aspiration for jhem but by mhe, :s.tf\e'n,fl~h 'b:) bear them, There ,alm-,e many peopl e in ~ ife 'who desirebut possess, only the .0])1:1 ity to desire, and~be:re are many staunch people whoremain si lent butwhen they are: given 'Ihe trust theyperform miracles with ~t

Cl No one knows the capac i ties of individuals except their Creator, and He: I(M} who 'Wants to g!udde the entire world ·ww ~~, iC'hOOS,e for 'this, ,g[1eat. task a no b~e soul. The Arabs ] n. their ja'h'il'ipa'h regardedM~,1jhaJmmad (~) w~~h res:pect~fo,r they saw'

~_n his character the signs of perfect manhood; However; they never thought. for one mom .. ent tllaJ~tbe future 0'f'tife: wou M. be tied to :his future, and that wisdom would burst forth from that

"

-,A, sonnd l~adfi!~Jv.d. ~ Muslim and 1:00 :M~nh; room Ablrn l.~Mr:ruitbi.I~,~l They !.~so

I'HUV'idiedi :ul: from moo ail Sl'fiarrdi:as lDJe aQ:mJP1.c1l'!M'I oli'lI:\ie :!blIG"\~i[lllg Uad/nih.

.36

A .~ ..t .. .,,"\ijf6oS' ."",~A' .!l' Ltt(;Ul,e¥

n J1~hr.~'!O~_' ~. __ ' ' _'

purem,Qulh. ,andl tm,m-seilie d.e~s and the jungles, ,the hills, and the~plaJms .. Th~Y' saw of him !l)nil:y' what a child sees of the surface of the sea: be is, fascinated 'with the calm, surface and knows nothing: of Us depths, AI1~h~'s selection of Mubmrunlld (M)was a 8UIpris,e~, but .alter the :ill~'ti31 shock disappeared be br~ced his strong shoulders to, 'bear the bmden, that was to be thrust Oil him!

Th- _.- - .... A"'_ L05; !!l'np. ,'II~Ia.d himself ,t..... 'L."I- "" task ,··'t'iL- . ·Ii·· "t d

e.[e~II .. 1W " ,~~,,",,~y _',b'!".;!, _ .fll.l~, r ii,U .Ill '" '~,', WI!, ilill C,lan,), a!il'

A. 1Il",1I!.." .... ,. -. "'~jt-.-.·- - M.· <::i

,l'1JIJ.alIi.ll, s assis !~~IIiei;,

0: For 2.3 years, the Revelation descended upon him, each. set of .4,.' (verses) being revealed .according '~O circumstances and events, This. ~ong~vibnmtperiod. WQ one, oflearning and teru::hing~, .A1mn, (:~) taugbtHis Prophet (~:)~ whe in tum received. these; ilDJuesting ,se-imCf.s andmmed them <Y\I'I~rm, his mind 1IlJntil they became ·a part ofhisbeing; Then be larugh:tthem tothe people, and

.. =..::i,j.lb.' . ·1... ",;IL.. ~;L. de 'iI!.., "'dl'L~~' f'.II'L~~"

capUvaiUQU Ylm OOU~ wun me leptJl~ atilt· IlJCauty 0 I tnearmessage.

"1"IL~ -R·.· ' l~ti· .~. f··-:":il... Q- --',='=', , ,.~'k! J I .....:h . ..j".J...,. teb

,u:u;:eve$ ~,on. 01 vue'· .. UF !!llui over L!LUS .1@ngpe:rllou. was none . try

the' Creator to prnv1de a cure fOl' .aiU[l!g souills, to esta'b~ish His (_)

111, : - ."., ,,,,1. ....... 'fin'" .:;,n .......... ,"" ..... ..:il 1f!I ..... "I·:1 -I,~ Af-n,pnnl;;;., .~ ... ..:Ii toec --.·-i ... ,'j,.-::t· !'- '-:-'-'i;'j:f ,,-, C'<!;--,1

.l!aws, 11m UJ1~ u"".::u,I..::!! im,W i;lIVIi.S~' """'_, .t";"'-""I;" 0;,;. WIlU .. ' 'C!J.IiliSiuuC. a ne-Yl! !S:OCJ:Cl.

order, 'The Qur' ant is harmot]y in its gua1s and mem:in_gs over sucb at lon,g time isoami.dered to be' one o.fdle aspects of~ts :mimcu]ons nature. 'The last portions to' be revealed after. almost a quarter of a

*111"-1'- ... . - '~.--- '1 iI"iiI"",'ill fli'O' tM,t'nt'll!"!i'li'lru and h-~f'iI'IIfI'i"'i:D~-Y-~ ,,,'[iI,~ .. t, .~ .... earlv

oeml",l .• ,.rj ·cmne U]! _'vl!J,.i:U! "",,. !JJ.ll.bJ..IL~1 "'.J W.l·, ,1U,llll.lII.t.IJ,_ 'if'if,IIU!l .w,~, !!;,igT J

ptlrtj,ons, onerom,plemel1!ting andreinforcing the odler a'S if they bad all been revealed at the smne t',im.et The: Arabs 'wmderedwb.y the Qur~!&1IlJ 'was revealed in that way::

(And thme W~Cli disbeOeve sa)':: ,uWl1y is not the' QUr'BlI revealed to him, ailiait. ort[:e?" 'Thus, Iit I: sem:t down in pam], that. 'We mi;W' su!\ulJptten your he'3lft '~hereb,. An,d 'W'e !have! r:ewaled it te yow. gr:adually~ ~n stagEl5. Ut 'W'3S revea~ed to the· ,P,roph.e[ ~rn 23 years:J~, Alrnd no wlmp[e or s~mUiltl!Jde do, dley· brirng [to !~ppo.se or to 'ffind fault in you or II. ~hi's, QU!r~'lnl].. burt W'e :reveall to ')'Ou ~Ile' tmdl :[~lgalnlt ~hat siim~f1iwdeor exampile-1, and tile be1lEr expllnaoom 'di,ereo,ft, )

(Qur~an 25: 32-.33)

01 The Qur' am explains the-real n8Jlture of the faith, as A~.1lah (10

,... ,..:II. '. ... .... ,..:1; h t,.," - . r 4,t..," ir. "t" 1f • , ... 1 U" .

mace It ,umJ tJ,e Il~,S'tiO:ry or mrs '~~n, I~WJ. In ns generiw, (:aw l\ :wt presenrs

the doubts and answers them. It briug$, its proofs with clear understanding of its opponents' views. It follows. aU the aeeusatiens made against it to 'the' farthest extent Mild then it presents i18 evidence .and, destroys :aU the accusations, The Qm"in began among t'lle people in. 'whose hearts. disbelief was, fii1imly rooted and on whose tongaes :aI,pme.nJt 'was, ready, It was.

"r.&li. 'h-..!I'I ill.. Ii..,,' ," - b th .

U, t:' ," .wate' ,_J~ cnosen uns CllVU'OmIli,e.ntto be tr e society

repr.-esenting the lowest level of doubt 'that could enter the heart and the; most extensive challenge that falsehood co,uid pose", Thus, if 'I'starn succeeded in dls,peUing~hese doubts ,and overcoming these hurdles, 'then i.t would be even morecapable of facing the other ,cnaJ~en.ges which are of a lesser degree,

D' Those questions which were' directed to' tb.e Prophet or were expected to, be' direeted "10 :him :in. relation to their varying be~ iefs and laws found satisfactory ans,wers in the 'Qur~'in!, with the understanding that the question represented n.ol, only the need of the ,questioner but also the need ofrhemankind ar~ all. ~im,es,~n this a't.mospbe.re full of questions, requests for clarification.or challenges, Revelation 'came to the Prophet (~) with the words: '~~SIY this' or 'HS,B(Y that", There, are many' Ay5t (verses) which 'begin with this command in reply 1.0 a question asked 0:1" assumed, When you read jhese elaborate answers" you feel a wave of

, ,- f] • ,'" 'i1.., "f -1J.. ....

ce'rtaulity I owmg mto your neart as n tne nusgi VUiI:g:s, you.

harboured OF were li,k'e~.y to harbour had been swept ,away. These s~ro.ng 'bonds are what tie 'the eternal M,essa,ge 1'0 'the conscience of the people. The' Qur' j_n is a living messeeger; you. ask h and ,wt amswe,r,s yo'u; you. Hsren to it and i~ satisfies you.

n L '11_ h " . b- I" Iii. . h I f ~1k - •

~l , .. o,)~ 'OiW It eshL,~ ~ sues t· e COJl,cep'" 0:· the resurrection

reward and punishment; how it stresses the comprehensiveness of Allah.;s w,~U and power in, the course of an eJns,we1t'to a ,question asked, Look bow the concepts. ,flJre' inlel'Vl(),ven in a give and take, in an ob] eetion ,81.nd, rebuttal as :if it were a flowing discussion which extended farther than dte immediate speaker and affecl'cd ,a~ I the manki Fled to the end. of time

(Does :not man see th.alt W'e have cff,ated hiliml from Nu,fan[mixed m;a~earlld fema~e seXl.!la~ dilsdlaltge' ,_, semern dliQlls1t, Yet beh,o~d he [S1ta:lds :forth]: as an open oppomell1lt., ,And h'e' pwtsforthfor Us a ~:jiilJr,abl"e'. ,A'liId forgEts: hl~: own 'm!aJtilDI. 'He' ,says ,t'Who wm .eive '11:'e' to th.ese!bones: after' '~hey'are rotten and '~ave berome durst'?" Say: IO Mubaffimad] '~Hle wIlli I_vie ~UetD them Who cf,eatedlZhem fa,r the 'fll1~ triml!!1 ,And iHe is ''the' AU-IKnow'Eir olF every' 'orea,tiicmP" He Wh.o p,:roduiC:es f'Dr you 'fire eut of' 'di:E; :grefil1 'Re, whel!1l be~n)idyo:w: :fclndle therew~m. Is nat He Who cmat-edthe heawns ,and! the eaM~, ,Abl,e' to creaee tile, ~rnke' olf Ilhem? Y,es.. rnn:diE!ed!: HE! is the ,AJU"kn.owllng SU,Plrem:e Crea,'t',ol1". Ve!rUy, HiiS Comlmandi" wben He iinttmdls a 'lhiiirng, is: onb'that HE' sa:ys: to i'~\I' ~Be'l~ and it, ilS~ So :lIonfilJd ~i He and exalted ,abo¥e af~ tha'tth,ey' ,j]UCJ(tate 'wjIJh Hrnm, and in Whose Hand$; ~5 the dOIl1:lnron o'F .all: thilngs:: aad te Him, you sha~~ be~etlJimed.) (Qm'~ll 36: 77 .. ,8.3)

10 This is one exampi:~,e of reasoning 'based on aeeuraee 'vis~oo. It is not specific for OD,e a,ge or one place. It is addressed I~O the general inteHeJct in all the mankind and it is an explanation of' 'Ibe wisdombehind the Revelation of the Qur" In, in installments, The Ayal! (verses) carnie to the Prophet (M)with 'the ,order' ~;';:say such .. ,mdl .. such" in reply to {he, questions putto him during his efforts to call mankindm ,AUlih (I#.iJ. Then both. the question and the answer are recorded, :90 tha'il the knowledge thus gained may benefit mankind till the' lend. of time, The command. to "say" ~ttracllled the concern of the scholars: I,~ ,i S an instruction from

A'l'II.B'h I,~i!-;.') f···· H' :'~, Messeng er 'M)I and. an lnstruction 'fmc .. '-r¥i the ...

_ ,.~itI. \~" I~O . ru~ ,jVJ ",;11"" __ ~ t,., . __ ~. ,~ ., __ .;!_= UIJ;;iIl.~U_ = ,.tu ""'

Messenger (~) to the people; and efter this; command esme the g:tatem;enmwlridl contained alm thElt AJ~aJ1 (~) wished. of' advice, exhortaticns and regulations,

o Vlbem the idolatorswan ted as was, their custom to transfer the field of dispute from the: veal. nature of the faithto the person of the Prophet t~) and his foUQtwers~ the following Ay,m (verses) were revealed:

(SialY 101 Muhammad]:: ,;0 HaM!' you thooght; whether AlIIh: 'caUlSES me, IM'uhammad] and those 'with me to perish ,or 'has m@r-cy OtiI, us, DJI:I~ 'who wm: protect me dlJbeli'e\iIeB from 3J p_ainfu( doom?'" say:: t~'He :isdll Beneficent., In iHiml 'We believe 3'liId in Hijm we, 'put. our 1nISt, And )'00 wll SOOIlJ ,blow who' it ls dltM, i: dea.rty' in erro,r/') (Qur~in. ,67; 28,·29)

Look bow He extracts 'the marrow from amid the dust of argument! Wbat good would it do to you if :Muhrunm,ad (~) and laU those 'with. him, were wiped our? Just think, how superstiti,ons, destroyed you. and diverted you fr,o,m the .straight path.!'It is not fhe duty of the Prophet (a) and :hi,g Companions 'to 'thi:nk about 'themselves. and their good fortune, hey are simply caners to the Beneficent: 'they believe: in. Him, and put their trust in Him, So if you want, the: way to '~he Beneficent, it is, prepared and easyl

Il:Ji n, is not necessary for a ,q~es~i,on to be asked for the answer "Say" to 'come from, AUah (.). n may be that the method used to present the pnnciples and etiquette of the del wah requires dlIis kind, of o,penwg~ 'Thus the purpose behind it would be to ,c;xp.lain 'the need for Isl!mJ and the Prophet in, such a, clear t}fid satisfact-Ory' manneethat all doubts are upraoted before tJ}l,ey are born"

(.s,ay ~:O Muham'mad]:: i'Tnumy" my Lord has gLJIid:ed m,@ to. a Stralgffi1t ,P,ath, a right reUgfon", the retl'gion a:r. l'bmilTm I:Abr-aham)" Hanifa' [i.le. ~he true. IsJa:mlrc 'M'omltheirsm - to believe j:n Onte, God [Af:I'.lh teo 'to worship none burt Amliht. Alone]and hie 'Was, not of AJ· Mushrlkfin (P,obttheisES]. ,Say [0 MuhammI3d]: IIVlewIDy,., Imry $illlt ('prayer,I',1 my sacrifi1ce, m'y ~hiilrng, and ,m', dying are for Allab, the lord of 'dlel '~alamm lJnanki~nd, jil1nJaln:d all!I' 'lil1a't exists]" ,uHe has no p,artner:. And of 'tills J baJ'\te' !been ·commanded" and II am the first'Df the MtI\$!imms., ~I S'dIY;: II Shall ,I see:k ,a ~ord other man A~~~h; w~,f.I'e He j!S 'tile' tord of alI ,tbimlgs? 'No. ipersofll earns and IsJjns] exc,e,pt ,aga:lin!St. ihrimseff lonty], .and ne bea:Jiier of !burdens: s.ha~! be.alf' f:1,e' burden !of a:nolher,;; Then unto, your- :!Lord :15 'YOIU rewr.n.1 ,so He wlU tlf~~ you tftal~ wherni'rl 'you halve been! dli:ffeFi'ng. 11') ('Q~I",1D 6,: l,61. -164)

This, address to the Pro.ph,et (~) implies a commandto all ~~Y~ng beings in his era as well. as 'Ule era of tile afterwardsto ccO:lJ~emplatewi~h their im1ltellectw:hat is being revealed to him and,

J"'[mdj,@'e:'WlC-!fth-- tho: '~i:r consciences '~be extent c f its aeer i -' ",". '.".JI

, ~_ ,,' _ '!ioi",L _ V' __ ~ _ _ _, __ ,1,1,_ 0 ,~,S aocuracy (lOu,

sincerity. ThiilS]f one's :hean is ,full of faith" it, ls faith in the Lord, of everything and the P,[opffil,et's, (~) task, ends at 'tIDS, point::. w,!h;en n~e intellect and heart arrive M ~h,eir Creator and ~be '~'~al""~~' nath ", k~ C,' ames clea" '~'" them Af-;e-- that sve " ,"', ",...a

;;:;I'1IjJIj, ,lg~.I!" pa ~oom_,;J; ,,", _v _ ,_. '. __ lI.Lf ,a, e _ery ,man, an'!.!l.

t ('lli'- e ' - - elves) b ear--- th ,,-, co' .. - s-eq - - - r'" th , , d-

o .' : '- ,_"! I ' . '. ' , ," :-,' 'I 1-, ,_. "~ " _: . '_ ' I" . . ':,' -::" n _' ,:': 'I' - i . '_ " _ '; -. '-I" ' ,J' - -."-.: " .', .,: • ...:

w'o.m.en. ,mus, '" ,ms " .' ,c_- " e·n ~', u.e,n.ceg, ,0 :. .'e gpo or

evil, that flley do.

OJ T, IL- Pr '.' ,-::'I[..::,~ (" ~)" is not an intermediarv who bears ,j:'''''IIi' y' '~'I~:

,iD'W,e opue,~ ,.,~, __ ,_ _ _ _ _ __ . '_, " ", ,] _ _,,,.. l!,lI,..yr '" ~V._ ,_ .... '1i.II'

the good Y(lU p,e:t~o:wmed~ nor a sacrificial victim who! bears fc)m:' YOlllthe punishment you. deserve, Herein ~.ies the deep gulf between Cmrnsd8!tdty and bl~lm. Islam~.3!teshjghly the value of humans and gives, them their ,a.ppropr.i:at,e reward according to their righteousnesa or depravity ,. In eruistian]'~Y, however', humans me; too lowly to have' direct access to the Lord of the' Wodds: there mnst be another whom they can apP'JiD2Ch and who acce,pts their' repentance, ,And, who is that ,()'Uher?' An adopted son.~ If people confess to sins,wt is, notthey 'who face' the

'nB'Il'IIi~:lItu-.. ,;iJb.,,,,- 11"':II""r~'~1 ,r.,,,:. 'W- !:II,lit' n ffere d '~'m, ,.:I 'iIi"I,,g,''''~' ,0, Ifl'" for these c~ T'Ii,C a III'Id-' I r"""~,~ii:iI!Jh'i' UJIC i2~' ,~lU:w "_,!iQ '.ill''''''_, ~,' c,~J!!.!! ~ ,lI:"@!.C ~~"",:.!!!,v. I~~:JN;,;;J!'" suss ,~.~_

'I.!. b 'Ii"' .• .L,' ri'f'" d,. ,j I . I Th"

tw.~e:y must beaeve m tnatu jney want togam salvanon lTl us

,blsnity is in need of heavy dm"g Iines 00' ltJr~vel~hro;ugh,Hfe opposed to logic and JUStiC!f.,

Cl In ms~am, A,Uiil, (~) 'tells His Prophet <_) something which

th- di tell t

' . ,"-,' " -", -,' --, _." ,-'.'-".' ' "-'," 'ii,

opens up' e eyes ane ,~.nLe, ect:

'(5.1)1 [0 Muh!;unJm;aJd]:: tlWl110 l~; the lord ,of the hearvens: 3,l1d~he ea:rth?" 'Say: N AlllaJh!"" Sa,: ,HOQ,yoUJ then take [other:s]' besIde H 1:111 for p~eao:r5: 'who can 'n~ltt\'ler bemlq;filt nCili 'hun even 'clm,emSld!ves?" tC~',· tn~ ,,;'t..b'l· d r -( ", ,'~ -u3J1 '10 'Iih,(i' :d~Jf(!d man or :is dartnQss ,enuail: ~r. I) lim,e ,lin ,main €q---,-- --" - - -i5'!L- -, - - -----1 ,-- - ,. - - -- - -- - -'1---

'to nlht?~ OF' ,aiSlign 'Elley'ttI ,Alilaih p3JrttI;ers'who c~rfed tile' ~~ke o'F H~s ,creatlo11l- so chait creatlon Iwhleh Ole)' made and His: cr-eaJtIDam:1 seemed am!!!' ro~heml? 'Say: ~',AJI[aJh [~tl1eCr!eatlor of a~l; thlrIJgs~ ail1ld

H' ,t ,L, " '0" '" ,.L-I ,. Ii.. . 11')' '('Q' ,'~ l' ,). 1·£) e I~; tl1lt me" UI;e' A~lugllty,.,_'Ur an 1. < . v

Thesequestions come one after the other Iike whiplashes which sting falseho od, awaken the sleeper and. spur humm1Jldnd to embrace tllile truth and rise highwith it This Is what t'h,e, Messenger of Islam (~) proclaimed and worked for.

C Islam encountered the s,t~o.n.g!esf. opposidon from the paganism of 'that time. It did not breathe its last: after (iI,batt~e or 1,WOI;, instead it fought bard far every handful of earth, After the death of the Prophet (~) it was '~h.ough't, tha:t paganis,M had, exhausted ,j:~s strength On. the contrary, it grew stronger and ,the whole peninsula was in, a tm:,moI~ duri ng A bn Bakr's ( .. ) reign, The M1I)lsIims were: sUl"ft)undedby 8. storm of'blind ~PQ\s.tasyarn.d, 'th,ey

beean ,Ci:l,rilh'll" in iO' 1'~ '0' mee morec H owe ver th I""''V 'W" ""'_, unable ,it I" 0-"

_ ~,~~,~ ,l,~.~_,_, -.'t--"-1~ , .!Ij.. "_., ,!\r ., '" ,U . FJir.. , ,\.Jl ."", y .. -" - '~',J.. . ~~ ~~ !~~~y, ~~ 1,-

defe ''!'I~ i t un til aft er t'h- ""'v ¢IU' .... tai n ed Iosses areater ~lh~ln" thos e th ev

i\iio.l~_.~f~ "_ I~ .:I, .. ,,~,W. '-1,- . _,. I"",:.;" ~.·_~I!l,~ ... _,~}~ .. _ L!u\~~'Wci ~~,l,¥UIL~ !~_,~.~_~ :~ __ r~~f", , ,~._.~.

bad experienced in {be Prophet's {.) lifetime while fighting those ido]a~ers'i The peoplewboremained steadfast to the 'truth afierthe' death, of 'their Prophet were the reel Muslims, Is.HI'm. I.S9;, ,-i ';1-, ent t- .... ~ ,-1,]. "."{ ,"~ ,;'-,,:,';11' A····· ~"I""lh' t.~kf)··· taur ht His

c mmllhm~n. ~:O prwc~p ,E;S) nOl>p~op 1:", .. ~. a . \. ~." Ita.u,g __ 1l _, ws

Prophet (~) and. the M 1Js:H~llS thrQugh him" how 'to adhere to the truth. they had. recognized aad.to held fast to ~.~ no matter how n1:uch.~hey were ~ttacked IJIld opposed,

I:J' The: world is overflowhl,g with, incentives 1:0 deviii~ion, and it :attem,pts fir'S,t and foremost not to Ieave any space in. :~tself(Q[ :faith. If faith gaais any p1iogress. after struggling :hard~ it will '~Jzy to make it forgo aportien and 'be CO[11ltem 'With aportion. If11 succeeds in, U1!13JDOfuvring failh, i~to this posinon, it will Olel1 be easy to tlnish, i'~ off, This is, whY' AU~, (~) gives the dec]s~ve; order in. the' 'Qw:'l'an~

d· ecreeine that faith '. ,j:!('1 '!'I'n 'l;n"',s;'!iJ1i1'i!li,1ti-~A '1::111."0'] e' ',,~i''l.! .."t.. "'~:I.·il'i-'i; .... ,j, 'Ii.,," d' ". • A.~..:I ;. '''''';''';;~lIi~,.JJ.~t . .1,4 i~) :w~, ,,,". :'. 1" ..... ibll."-'Iij~e(JT'!'l!W: .. ;~ ·Y'l',~,~l'I,.~J '~~'y''!''V'~ !JJe '_ll.V~.'~

and 'mar!t, this, fact millM never cease '10 'be impressed ~on the unbelievers, Thus wemusl hold fast~o '~bese ~l1!te,ae~ated teachings, love and.hw,e according to their directives amld make

, - ". ..- -, .".-, -., - thei - behalf 'Th'- - ,,-~ . fe ... ·11····· ~- th '.'-.' - .' c

:peace O:~ war on .. eue;ua .," ... ,,e! vawue: 0 . emo . ,onm. t .·e Sf;fVloe

of IsUtm. is no less than 'the valne of reason relevaat, The reJeVatwl 'Qu~:'!anicAY'al (verses) are' actually command. 'to the :M~ldhns 'wbi,cb. came in the: form of In address to rue: Prophet (~:).,

'('0' Pn)phetl:Remember 'Your' dU'W'k) Aillih and ,do not obey tfue di~b~l~ev!rsand the '1iI,)f1pOcrite5. Be'hoh:U AUah irs IlmJower,Wlse., ,And fo~[ow 'thiat. wh'j[h ls 1Ilslll'r-ed ~IilYOU: ffam Y.OIJ:r Lani'. leho[d Aj~ah r~:

Aware ,,,,flwhat yOLl! dtJ;", ,Am,d IPutt. yDll!r nust in: AUm,f for' A~llIlJh l~ sumcli~n[ as TnJ~ef!'.,) (QUF~lW, 13:: l.~l)

n is. not expected, that the Prophet: (~) would obey the non. .. believes andhypoc:ri.'b:~S for him, to be warned of it. It is we' 'wbo. are meant by this diJrectiv,e. :S~:milady we findthe verse:

( ,N'Ca~~ [~he man~jnd]: to your llal14 and do not be of tho,se who 3iScn1bepl3rtt!ie,:rs Un HlinJ. ,Arnd do not ,ca~~ auy' other god along wiltlh AllI'ahll1) (QIlI:",irl! 28:, 87-88)

From, the very start of Ms, ,da'wa'h the Prophet (M)w,aS;,ed war on pclythelsm and false gods, ,and it '~~5 from him thatt~h.e' people learned of this battle, 'thus il is not possible to expect otherwise from him ..

o Slmi~adylhe Qur'in, says:

(Do norSBaliA 'your ,eyes towards: 'tt:1a.t which We, cause scm,e' wedd'ed pdlin: 3rmoogt1hem 'CO ,em~oy i' ;arnd do JIm be emlevy en '~h;e[rat:mull1lt, ,and fGw~r your wIng [i'n tendeli1ness] fOr the' lbe~ievers.) (Qw:'arn l!k :8:8:)

(AJnd do motobe:y hi:m whose lliIe'3r£: We 'llJ3IW!mathl!' heedfi!ss ,of our R1membr:an;c,e" who, 'foffillows h~s 'OWIil I'ustand whose ease ha:5 been abandoned :Sa,y~ [[t:iS:') me imthfrom dl.e lbbb',of yeo [Alii].}

'CQtlr'~b, 18:' :28=2'91)

tAl1Id iif you [0 Muha'mrnad] a'~e, i'n doubtc~;ncerrnli'ng' d!lart; 'which 'We ~eve'a~ 'YOU,. 'tfuen ,que.s,t:i:on '~h!osew'ho' n~ad du!~' Scripture ['thlilt, W.3S:] 'before ,au., ~ndetEld~ ~he truth '6ronn your Lord h.as come to, you. So:, do not .beone o:f li!1ewavel1iers,.. ,Arnd do, not be one ,of' d11QSlEl Wihli.l ,d:,ell1:'Y' die R,.e'veilai~0Ii15 of Alil!~h,. for then you wU~ be, IQn~ o:fti1e IIQsers~,) (Qm' an 10:: 941-95)

The eemmentaters say~bat tlbe Umm,ah w,as, addressed by these Ay,i!' (verses) in 'dte person of its P,rophe~ f~), just as orders ·are given to the leader jhough 'he is, the soldi~rwho execute them,

Others say (bat the' Prophet <Ml himself was ,addres:ood by them in

'O'I;'!.J""ii" i\ll"io, spur him on and make him m ,n.~ d etermin ed It is ~I:]'k'~' ofj1.,iI';!o

'. ·.IIJ.U/Ii".r.l 1Ii.~ i;]I, :-.I~ , ..' ~.\ ~.IIJ_I!._ ... ,.~,~ I,W . Yt_i"". 'I!w!~,~LI;lJ.:L. ,v ., I~, ~ ,~, . ;~ Ul~

s1rong person whois told, notto wieakell~ or the intel~:ig:ent person 'who is told not to 'be stupid, not 'because ~'E~~, feaeed thmt,they w,i]l 'be so but '10 ,er.tcolm,age them 'to nUl~ll!tam these ''ID1l1ali'trues of s~[e:ngJtb and wisdom. Ina similar' mannee cour.a,geo~s people 'will go .fOIVnU'-d, intlto the jaws of deatb ifiliey are told not to 'be 'oo'W,ardly,

WI In allY case '['he Prophet (~) is tile 'most excel lent eXan:l;p,IDJ3 and, from his paUem of behaviourthe people take his ideal, Both he as well is, ourselves have been ordered to. steer clear of'.,e misguided peeple and not to ,adopt ,th~ir aU~'~udes and aetlons, the reason lor this beilnlg is that on many occasions truth is in, ,ilJ weak position and. bMd, to follow whereasfalsehood is stro.og and, has many ,attractions., An. ideology hasfhe right 'b) demand of Its adherenss '~heir m'OItal support m:Jd. 'their rejection of anything opposed to h. The orders wh:~"c:h, command, these a[.titudes will never be' short of sternaess: 'what more c~uld there be after Anib (!~) .says '®o His Prophet (M)::

(I" you 3Jscdbe a ,paRl1er: of AJlah yoor w.ork wli~J fali~alrrud itl10eed 'YOU 'w:i[l~ be ,;.u1nOJ1lg 'the! :Io.sei,rs. No, ~[ i5An~h '~(U!I mlIDst cSE!IN@, amid I)e 3'Monlg the '~h:arl!krull.) (QU[~,iD 3'9,: 6S-(6)

This, mode of address resounds in the !;airsand. :i'1, is, used for a purpose, Ithad the effect of rousing the feelings of the Muslims against icorrupdon and :frl,gbtenmg them aga:ins~ rumowing i tto happen, lest they fan l"~:o it

01 The opinions of the commentetors which previously quoeed

are also equally .ar'p'pHcalh~!e to this AySl (verse): .

'(And il~' y'ou [MIJ:hall1f1lwadl,a:re ~m doubt c.om(jeml[ns'Ch.a~ wih~ch 'We :lie:v:ea~m, "till, then 'Q,ufSltlon t.hose who, readthe Scripiw:re [~jhatw!as] ,befare yO!] •. ) (Qu{,'1n ~. 0: 94)

This is addressed to the reader or '~be listener' er fe jhe Pro,p:[\et (~) himself by WI,Y of eXhortation as )"OU already know, since the Prophet would never doubt his prephetheod,

,',Say 1:0 'MIUlh!arnlm.ad]:: l,li1e [8eneficent On,e' has 1110 sen, II: a!ml Hrst almo~ilthe w.orshlppeliS.; (Qur' In 43: :81.)

that is, if lIe had .. 1. son" I ;should. be tbe fust bl w(lrsni,p! him,

10 Su what is the meening of asking the People of ~be Boo:k1 The commentators sa:y,~it means th,e: trustworthy and just among them, for they would not hide the evidence oftrultb if they were ,a~di,ed" However ·tJh_ink '~~a!t such ttuthfid people among ·the People of '~~e BO(l,,1( are v,er.y scarce a!!f.ldI one cannot depend on wna~: they ,gay. 1 do not tbillk. 'd~is, is Ute meaning: of the verse, One 'comes to flJJPp!l!eC,~8!te the vaine o;f' what, one has, 'when one sees 'the' confusion. among others. So ifY,(Ju. lever D£Vie ,amY' doubt about the QUf~an being from AUttti1 (tIi)" then se.,ri_h, throughthe O~d and New "Testaments ,aoj yrQiU wiU qui.ckl.y return, '10 yOlU' Book and hold fast b) it, and praise: fbe AlmJghty at '~'lh£Jusmd, times for having guided yo;u to it! I fbink ~hi5, Iswhatthe verse is refernng to, since the tOOilth in Is 1001, becomes stronger and clearer w:h,en one discovers the oorruptionthat happened to tile earlierreligions, Thisunderstanding agreeswith A11ah "~IS 5D!,iol:

(AJrnd ~f YOU' do!fo~low ,the~r' desIres after 'd1:e Ikm,owl:ediew1:lioh hm !Oo,mem you)' then. 'yom: wll] ha'VI! ~rom: ,A~llalh nOllro~ecUlg M@nd nor he,1IPer.,) ('Qur",lk!J 2: ID.20)

0: It is, also supported by 'the sayin,g wh~cll, ButbOTF reports from Ibn '~,Abbb" He said:

~IO' gathering of Muslims:.. how (;Iou~d y,ol}asl~ ~l1le P'6'Olple of f1he Book while your Book wh'~ch w,as revecseoto 'Your Pn:)phe'w iistlhe' Imlc'ls;,'~ recent bOQikfromAJlllh f-)' You F@cUe i'~ lin i'll's, pur'E'~")ml wUhoul1 ,any corrupfij'lon" and Alllsh (''*]' tells vcu thot '~ihe People of' n~,e' Book.c:halnge;d ond iinterpollatedl the' Book of A.nlh f~) i lIi!hey Wfot'e,the Book with tlheir OYff"iil hcnds and si(]id' iitw~s frorn AI~aJhl ffiJ so that '~ihey mig hI' siel~ if' for 0 ~itfl,e' p~rce! I[)O'~~ notth€l

lknowled:ge which come te you p:re:'Y1'lenit 'V'OU 'from QlStingl Iheim? No" byAllllih (~). wedo not se'e; '0 sij'ngle one Ic,f them ev>er oskj'ng YOIIJ1oiboul'whal''VV(Js, Ire'ltl9 eledto th,e'ml~I'!

r:J Islimuom the educational point of view is kno'wledge of tb,e truth, ,and from jhe emotional pl~nt of view love, fo,r and support of it and hatred and, open enmi~ towards fws~h'oO'd. There are some people who show calmness in, th.eir (eeHn:gs, end 'witllthis they receive ,an opinion ,aood iI's opposiitC". TWs may be ,acoeptable in biflingmattelS. H:owe'ver, if it concerns faith. and, d,isbe~iet: mnrality and immorality, 'then it is not It is Allah, (Jj)wlho taught JUs ,Prop:ne~ (~)d1le Book and, faith, and f-rom 'thls ,[,eoogmtiot.l. of A~]ah;:s. bowuy to :him he held his fn:Uh dear ,and felt proud o,f~he; Qur;M" He lived, urith them,m.d for them be waged war and, made peaee, ,M'my a '~imie didhis enemies lliong: for him '~O compromise a ]itdewi~llil the.m" bu~ theY' were disappomt:ed.,

(Who wotdd ha~e had yo:LiI fJompromis:e"~hatm~'yma,,,

.C-.' " 'p]'~rn','II's'e )., (Qtll"'i'~,i!'iim ~,Cl, n'),1

_~IIII'1 _ll~l I. _"_',' .",~~. ail.". UOI!!! 7.,

g The naH'O\n who is 'worthy of' be:)oogj.ng: to, his, fold is that natien whrum struggles for trumh and does not ,aUow' it to 'be d:~spa[,aged, or 'wronged. Orne of U's characteristics is, niiat~ :it is a nation with an jdeology and a methodology: its moral and material existence depend on the 'fmlLerg,y i~ expends 'or this purpo~e ana the fi1Jlits it produces,

Status of t:llie SIIIIDJa,hinRela:tioD '1m tb,e· Qu r' in.

n is. the duty of Muslim to ,mange' in order, the sources fi,om. which tbey take ~beir faith and to knowthecorreetposition of the: recorded sayio,gs and actions of 'nh.e Prophet (.) in. relation to the comp,~ete record of divine Revelatienwith which the final message was crowned. The QUf'in is nrne spirit and essence of Islam and Us' conc,lusive verses its c{msthution was laid, down Iud, its method ~'xp.1aintld. ,AUa. (fi) himself undertook to pl!ni~ect U and in. 'tlbis, way '~b;.e reality of '~he faith was preserved

and everillasting.~,rufewas decreed, for 'rut The mantowhom ,AU,lh, (li) chose to convey His signs and deliver His message was a ~"U,vifJ:g Qur' an.'~ who walked .amon,g men" He was a perfect e;ltanp,:~;e of faith and :h.umUUy, striving and struggle, truth and strength, understanding and expsesslon, It is no wonder, therefore, that :bis gayin.g~:~ actlons.taelt agreements.morals and rules as w,eU, as a~~, aspe-cts of his. life are counted as, '~h,e pillars of faith and le,gi5~at"ion for :Muslims"

CI A~ liib (flt) chose bim to speak in His name and convey His ,meSS9Jg,e: :00, who is more capable fum heof ollderst3JiIl.ding the ,meming of Allih's words? And, who is mare cap~ble than be of defining 'the ,m,edlod" which oo,nfonns, to. ~h,e Qur',~h: references and 511ggestJ..ons? The IPPUcaDtiom of the ,~aw' is no less :bllpIlRWt, than its formulation, The jaw has, its teHer' ood, itrs;, spirit, Md, when. (l,ffnns are madeto i!Witerpref difFereom e:vents aocording to the law, one 'flnds j'1llri.strn,c op,hu.om ood, advlee being given and experieneesand lessons being' recalled, sometlmes ab,e application of the law in these 'V,ar[ous,cu,cumsmnce.s, seems to be nearer to the letter, and at o'fhe[,timea it seems nearer to the s,p.~dt

OJ The QlIIr~ an is, tillelar,w of lslan1 ,3IIDd the SliU1JilM Us ,application .. and :Mus]ffims are; required toresp eel this appU,cmion just as much as th~y arerequired to respect: the; law itself Allsh (10 Himse;~f g;i,ve His Prophet (~) '~b1e right to be followed in all that he ordered or :J)rrohibl'ted~, since: in, these things, he did not speakof

'ik. Ii !:1' AW' n ;!lo;f!!o r» r; .. rd but 'U' nder O'"i "il! d' ,o!l;ni"!"c. '~'o'm his Lord T' h'111'€"

.i.llf j. 'u·,'·· ,~!LiU,-. ..'u., '. LJ,' '1Iw.~ ~II~~J,_· ~~-~ ,0'.,1,' I., ,lI!"~ l_l.·~\~, .. _ .• 1 .L], __ ~~

obedience to him js obedience to AUah (it!) and it is not blind su'bmissf.o,D, to a human be,ing .. AUih (ii) says:

(Thosew!ho ,obey'the MeiS~rnp:r' .1 Am ['ih" and those WbO[IU'll a,w,aJ)'j Wefla.vE' Wlot s.!nt you as: a w.ard€!fli owr tl1em~)' (Qurj &14: ,SOl)

~And We hav,e r1!Veall@d you the, lememb:r:ance~ :S'O that you m.:ry explla~n '~:O :p·eopIDe: that wh~ch h~ been revea~ed 'for them, and dllat. periuaps tlley ma,yreftect." (Ql~r" ll!ln 16:: 44)

'(A'md Wharsoeveli tlU!' M'enenger girves youJI:a ke it .. All1dw'hat,-50-ever tite' forb~ClIs1l.ab5u~·n ((rom IIt],.), (Qut"an 519: 1)

(lIt must be r-emembered, however.~ tbat divine inspiration does mot paralyse, the higher human faculties, It ls a mistake to think that the prophet's are puppets whom. tbe angels, cause ~o· 'mJk or keep qui.et Even if they were not prophets theywou~d have: been 'respectable men qualified to be in the forefrom .. Revelation does not rome to p,eoplebaphazardJy. Only those I.e: selected fb:r it, who are the most perfect of all people in their intellect, virtue and character.Their way of Iife is. not to 'be discarded nor are they to be neglected; above ,all when aJ~. these qualities are reinforced by infallibility and the sagaci~y by correct direcsion. a To follow the footsteps of the Prophets, (~) is. total virme and; as such, the Sunnah of Muhammad, (M) was made a primary souree of' ~avll wo.ng '~vith '~be; IQur',mn by which Allih. (ill) honoured hi:m ana, all 'the; Muslims., The things that are reported from. him 'must be adopted, however, be seretinized carefullv before they, are ace nted as ~O''enuble because ofthe _______ .~.- ' '.:... .. '. e,t.'''"''''' . s.-_.,--,e .uSle {11 . e

distortions 'which OOC1ll!Ried in the .past, Not everythiou which. is au:thenticaJIly proved to come from rum is. always tlllmder,Mooa. correctly or given its d,ghtful positioa, The Muslims 'were' not hll!llrt 'by the fabricated b_jdlt.hs as, much as by the misinterp:r;etation of genuine b.adnbs.i This reached such a great e;xll,ent that finally peoplebegan to look at tlh,e endre collection of I)ldD:bs wial a sceptical eye and 'Wished that the M.us:.Um would ,el,adic;ate them,

01 This is an error OD. two counts. Firstl.y; it ignores histodcal reality, sinee the world :h3!S never known enyman whose every action. was recorded and minutely scrntrnni zed as those of Muhammad Ibu- Abdullah. How could they ·then. be thrown into, the dustbin? Secondly, there are: mamy gems of w isdom in. fhe Sunnah, and if they were' to be ascribedto ,an:ybody else, thmt. person would. De: considered one of the greatest reformers, so why allow theft] to go. waste and deprive people of their. benefit?

OVlhen we stlud,ythe; :I,epcy of Muhalmmad, (~) in morals and when, we Nvm!ew' his :sayings w:hicb, mn, in't,C) the 'tho U-SaD ds on. virtue, we have 'the impression. thllt if an army of ps~c;ho~.o,gislt5, and ed.uCiltlo,nists were to come ~og0the'F' and, ,try to p'roduce such adviee, tb~ywlOu]d fail. 'Yet moranty is om~y one branch of'the

'p- .. - 'h-' 'M' 't,(·~, '-) ,,----- . N"" rth-I'~" .. . . . .. b

1 .... 1 •. II'I_I'"-~ ! .,_,.;!, ·'-'- __ ',.,'~l', :" ,"1',',:' _,_' ,j ,~",,-,_ ',,', _,,;--;-.! .-:-.-::;-,-_ ':','

"rop._ '_ s .'_" ..... message., " e"ve .. ,. I eess, no one ,can ... eoo,

,aIllItb.Ofwty en the Sunnah unless he OJ' she, fulfils all 'the requirementsnecessary 'to 'i¥i'""li·,e fil--~, stu i dy of it benefl ~,~""l ,~"

~, , __ ' ~ '-'-'--------J -- .u.~J:\,,,",, Ii,ll.ll..,. iil '. • .. .11, _ ,ne:llClLw d]

'If'",'liil"ii'''''', I' ,..ll "i'i!.., .. M'·.· 'I '. ]-,., '.'.

,1l:S.W,W.IIJi ,anu me ,_ us tms.

(I) 'N!o.-OOf can be; an. ,authority on the SUfiTIa!1,un]ess be, or she studies the ,Q •..... ur-'anie seieacea in demit, The Q· •.•. '.u, ,--,~;="- is th Ci'i!- ,:·i"ml.·,

__ _ '.' .' . _ ... _ _ _ ... _ __ " .. _[alii ,b. ~ sOwe

co,ns'Ututw.on of Islam, and i'~ is, what defines, ,p'Fe~,~:se.ly f(lif M uslims them duties and, rights it de;.~,egat,es to 'them, ,all '~'heir f'esponsibilities! in 'olrd~'~md, ii, demarcates their acts of d.'e\fotiol1, their ~:~,vles" so 'tbl!t ~)n,e !act does, mat, !C[OSS out another or cause them to' neglect 1t'heir' work and d'ut:ies, ln~:ru fe, Those who fail to acqu~[etlt~s knowledge from the Ql!Ir~'!n w~U never be

tea f;' "t J 'i) £'h'"']' d . ' - h • h-

I'''':: 1-:: ·· .. "·-~'·"I ;::_ II, :,- '1'-.-", I' ',.-.-, '" i'_ ',,'. I .-, ,!' 1- _' _"~ [::'---'1' :'~ --->~' I -, '-~-i 'I ~! ,."_.: ",I

compensa "or 1..5058 . Y 811.y , In:Q_ e ,se,. au any picture w .~C .

forms in their minds, aiffiloutIslilfn, from (h mmli-Quran~c SOl:lI'De is defective !31nd,ma.y be w,la.n, contrary to the truth" Portbis reason the leadb1!P ~~bi'l'h' were keen to clear the Wi~V ~o' ~iI..-cb.,~i;

____________ ~, ,~~----..----- ... __ ---,L.-- aJ' JI,'lrl~IfJl~ DO .lie

Qur~,lJn to occupy Its rightful place in their hearts awl. lhe:y ensured. that :noddn,gvie:dwith it for priority,

ICl Ibn '~Abdu~ BMI' l"~p{l:r1t!@d in. his book Jim',i ~ B'ayiin ,at ,jl/m '14\'Q. :E"' . d'J' ~'h ,c_.... . J-'b" Ib :3 'A- b. . ..;111~L·'b y" .. '.- ... Ii.. .' ";j h- 'I.. d roaan rrom uaotr I, ~'n" -'"oou~ itti ien r .asar WnQ sam __ e near __

'~A~i (.) saying;::

:I' strcmg]y urge all these 'who have written coU,ec:tlo.Jls (other than Qur' in) 'I~l' go baek and destrey them, 'tor 'the people pe[ished, only because fhey followed s;ay.imgs of'their scholars and cast aside 'the Book ofdlei.ir Lor-d"

I He abo reported from. AI Zuber from, "Urwai fhat 'Umar ib.n ;ai Khattlb (.$) w~n~ed to 'Write down the Prophetic (M) sayingsend consulted fhe Companions about it. They' agreed, ,amd i.'Umar (4;) prayed for one month, as:ldng Alhil's guidance in. the matter, One day be. came, confident of Allah's.. decision, and said:

I bad wanted to 'Mile down 'the prophetic sayings but I remembered a people before Y'O!!];!I who wrote books and held fast: to them and for.got the Book. of AUah (II). By AlIah {Wj); I s:haU not mIx, 'the Book of .A:~~ah (.) wilth alll)1hing .at: all, [or in another versien] shall Rot cause tbe Book of AUmt (fI) to be forgotten.

101 Also, on. 'the ,alUlhori~y of Ibn Siri~lfl who said: "The ,chHdren (1:( Israel went astray because of some 'books tbey inherited. Bum 'dleir fathers.

o "A:~q.:a:maJ, end Al-Aswad visited '~AbduUih ibm M'as''Cid and they had. ,11, scrol I containing on bl11eres1i og. text i, ~ A.bduUln ibn M,u" ad thento ld his se:rvant to bring a bowl of 'water and 'with :it hewashed out the \v:dtin.g" repeating:"

·"W'e r,e~aN IJIIIQ' yOIl IM'uhammad] me best [of sl£Olies mroUlp Our Reve~ations unto ;fOll, ,o:f this [Qur'aJ!1. And lbefo~e ~hb: n.,e •. be:1brt tJhe mm'lll1g ,of DNirJe :lew'lauonl to you]', 'you were anlOinll~ho!Se wilL) knew nOEhil11g about ilt ~:£he'Qurr.afll]:. ~ (Qur' sn :~. 2:: .3)

CI TbeY' said 'to him. "Look, it contai ns wonderfid sayings."

o Buit he continued to wash i.t out and said; "These hearts are vessels, SOl fiU them 'with the 'Qur',In. and do not :£i11 ,t'hem with anything else. ~" The screll had contained a portion of tile sciences of the People: of the Book,

,II !H:e is ~UfW8 son orAD! Zu·ba)'ll:":;. !He neve-r'lhenfroml ~Umar. (+) ,;I!Jld im mct,. n.cvelf sa"\! hriIT!i!. This; ,qUco Wi on ,iIS: ·lheret.7ore weak. rnt is: ~~d in lJh.e' :sme mmIiIm: ~y All-eIKil1:tlitlb witb 'lh~ exoepHon ,oflh~ 'V,~rsi:On o:fRil5hid w:ho~pIl"~ n wm AI ZJUlui and. connected it by meJ!lUOI!I!~ng ·1 Abdiumlh. :ibn ''Umar :iioo iUrw,a ia:nd ~U:mW' ,( c)'. However. lhis II\-"o:n. is :Ili!re, as AI."Ealmm hffimself ex.plaiDOO.

Q Abu) l' on the authori ty of Amj" al Sha bi from 'Quraza, ibn Ka'b (.)" 'who said:

We ~eft: the tt)Vfl:iJ, :headmg £ll[ Iraq and 'Umar (,.)- went with us as, far as, Sirar, then he said: "Do you know why I have w,alk'ed, 'with you?"

OJ They said: "Yes, We'm:e the Prophet's (M) Companions so you have walked with us in order to see' us, off and honour us i "

ICl Then he said "You are ,goling tOI the people of ' a tOWiillwho recite' ~be' Qur'an with a hamming sound like that of the bee, Do not distract them with the I:I:adnb., Reci.t,e the QUf "in tothe best of your ability and keep '10 '~be minimum youI' quotations from the Prophet (-J. peace be UpO:D him. Cominue and I sbaU be your partner,'

CJ When Quraza reached Iraq, the people asked him te nana1e the Prophet's, (~) sayings and he said, "Umar (4'f.) st~"p'ped us from, doing; that" '

o 'Umar (.), ~Ali (A~)aJnd '~h,e other leadlng Compaaions did not reject 'Ole Sunnah, Nevertheless, they wanted to give the QlU"'IDl the greatest share. of reception and appeeclation, ,and this, is the natural sequence. One must :f)ilIllly and correctly understood 'the law before delving into the details and explanations whic'h are given for some parts of i 1:;, since the detai Is and explanstions are not needed by everyone, Also people's mlnds might he. clustered 'up and no space 'I'e:ft 'in 'them for the necessary and 'i mportant principles,

IJI Care must be taken especial ~,y since ~heway in 'wbich the ij',adrth are narrated brings together various sayings wbich '~he:

Prophet (~) made on different occasions and at di:ffe~eJ]t times, ~UrwBJ, ibn ,al. Zubayr reports t~al 'i'A'ishah said:

(1) Are you not surprised at Aba I:Iurainlh (.)'1' Be came and. S8J~ next to my mum and narrated l:IadRhfrom the: Messenger' of Allah (~)~ 'watJ:tmnlj me to hear, I. was. pm~yifIJg ,and he. left, before I

Tii:.", ~ 'ili,(} "t' ,P~.,f~~" 'F: •• i~"'I1J:m,,"A ,I' ~,~" L [I ,I;? OJ', • '"':lI"'"~""'1 j ~,'" .,',,",,_. __ - __ ,!ej'g'

finished n1!Y pmrye:r, If I had cat him I should have replied to him, The :Messenger orA] ~ah, <_) dId not recite Hadtth as you do.'

12')', A:~' ';1-:1.- und rstand inaof the Q'" ,_~',i!!I'. . ." the ... ···,-·:--·--'t-

\,- " JJ_e,tn'~:u,e- un _e:rs ~L_ lng, QI ;. ,~ur ",n carn!es,,!e CC.r.rec ,

understanding of the 8Juth,enti.,cbttdrths" n is best for those w:ho know the Sunnah torefrain from quoting 'l'he Prophes (~) if they do not understand the- full impliestion of ,the quotation, though they ,ma,)" understand the literal sense 'of the weeds. The S unnah suffered greatly in. 'the past from 'those: who memorized

-"'h- ·.·f···"'- bur understoc •. d',IV.- '~'."'~" ~A'~'!iIk-h,~.·- .. ".I!...~, .......•. ,

mue .,' I()'_ ~t .' 'Of un terstoo Ii, eryutne. ,,]s[~a, , s astomsnment at

,Abu. H urairah ~ s (~) quoting; of l;ladhhs was not bee ause shewas accusing ,him of h~~ng. His-method of narrati ng Hadtth neglected

",~ -" - . r- " . . 'I!' .. . •. , . ..... ,;al .... whic h· th v h ...~I '~,-,-- -c ' d' -, id . -' ,

'mu.e C.lfiCUmS,~ances, ~nuer_" Ie " " ,!e:y ",I:3iU !lI)een :sal ~_, an _, strung

one _rn:IadFlih to anod'DJer.. Muslim narrates that 'Umar <.:;,.~) struck Abu Hurairah (~) because he heard himqaoting theHadnh of the Prophet (8): "who-ever says ~ there is no god but A] lah, (~) wiU enter paradise." Perhaps 'Umar (,.) did. so 'because hie' found ,Aba H'lllf,airah, (~) meationing the !tIadnih to those wh,(I understood nothino: about it except that Islam is j} seeker

- .. ~ --~- --- - ~,~-", ---" -, ". -" ], __ , ,p.-- _ _ill.

··,t··· .-il. ,l T- nd ·t·:II..,. 1- .. ' :" '.'-', ", -·t~:!i' be hh ·d t-~ 6 S-:',-" :'1"'" . '~'~- ',H' I id fi'1-b

:s .ao!!eme.nl~ (In,. IJl.e:re ~,S .n(JI [1JC Uln _ ,lfl c' ,h,,_ _opplng ~,ue , • a _ H , '~

even ifj'~ be authendc" is better than reporting i~ in this manner, surrounded by Ignorance,"

O rlb·-· 'Abdul 'B'-'I"~C'1- ,~'Ifn~' A··. L;'- 'H', ""~,,,,L i(.-&:.-_)·· 'l-,:'. ·· •. · .. ··.·,,·f··;/,A!, ~~1f .JIl. n .ft.. .... u~, '. am: rei,pow, Il,S 1~W1alt , . LJ U .0 ursnraH .. ' ~'. ,u~m.se~ , S:8!J!"!!, .I!.

mn narratiflJJ:Oi to 'IOU IJadlmh which ~ f I hsd done so d,·: -'--:O! 'U n - .,~ ---- ,------ ~~e, J . ,- -. ---~- -~-.~- ~ '.. _ .. , '.. unnc . mar s

("~.)' time he wouldhave struck me with a cane." 'Umar's (-"~-)'i

~i,' ' --- . .-- - ,'- .. " ... , ---- '- .. '-- .. ~

reason forpreveeting the: narration of ~la.dirn]j 'was because he

W;':;iii"i']j.,;¢>d- t .... b nl',,'I--Jd' i(; ';'a:!'v 'i";;;;: tho ·",e', teachinas ..... f th ··I.a, .Q' ·F'li";'RI... and

_·_,Q;.II,n!i;.i,_ ,-OJ ,"'",', til>U '.IL!I;.o'~il u,~,~ , ,,'_Q·..,U uoa ""', _' I¥ ... II,.!J!!, ,c;y,.t, ~ . __ '

encourage people to swdy the Qur'an and extract whatthey , .. ,;I d frorr lt 'if'f' tbe ·S····· .... h: - ... -- 'f - d -,A,·----, thi h A b- .... - nee-\Jlec_ lOm L, .1. 1·!_I,e - unna were n:arrai:~e· _ aJ!l!u3l nlS - ,;}u . ee.r.ru

accomplished, :rnt would be absorbed. 'by enlightened minds and

s N,iliilir1liedi b,,.. Bl!lthan:~ M usllm and Ibn AbdlJj~: Barr".

!j; This exlP,lanata:OrDi Is ~mjpll'1o'~~~]e ,eve fl. _[)o:ssn:d~, siltlce'~lhe: :~laJdln1h it~lf I:!!~ ~),lr.rnted by M'!.!!s]lim sar_ys 'm'lil.d: ; U:m 3if' {~.) was &e :first, ~o me~t. Abo ~uraira! (~J and heM it frOil'll1 hi;QiI_, May '~e th,~ author shw!d. look ~!: i.'~ .aga.:in.,

'1 '"Ii>. ,I '. I. is , ,' .Sh~ikh 'iid, si '-11" ,.1.", -'-:--. c!--II,.,f· • .- I!..',,, :-',: .,' .. -"

.uat ~ ,satY 'os comet _ ! ... ~_ f1!IJ!.!!lI,,!I,Ul ,il'8iS. nil:! ,re.aOO.n8Ju. ,e oiJJec1,u:;lrl ~o my

··--;~----~'i: - . LA·" 1'~'1J--,.-1L -

exp.llanaJ~I,olll. 'Ii; ,~bl!~(liil';,.

would not. be ,misi~terp:(letled. Abu Hurairah (~) ,migb~, have 'been abl,e to quote a hundJred :bldRns on ,$6'l,ih because ofhis good memory, end perhaps '~U.mar (.) wou~d. ba;ve: no obj:eaion.to them bein.l tmgbt.m a, specialist sehool. R:owever.~ disliked theMuslim, masses to be oQcclOJ;l'iedwiUl such tllilingswhen, a few bJ,dHhs w:er.e :suffie,i,le.nl faF'~hem,!, andthen 'they ,oould devote more time '10 Wb~t would be benetieial for I~;~im and all its people, This is; 'the' :reaSO]1, WilY he o'lbj ected 'to those who, narrated, t~ommy b-~!., :rhnSazm reported almost ,a, thousand pages ofllamth on wu~~ for those who were interested in this kind of'knowledge, although to oco·up'}" 'dlemasses of ,Musitwmswith the like, wouldbe ,slteer :stupidity:!' 'Ulhattime would 'be left for the, Qur"m, itseID,f? fu, m.ct,m 001;0,(.1:)' the M:usl'~ms 'with rue 'Qur~iIl IDn 'mis maf.m,er~s. to trespass on me: religion,

!:J The Messeng;,er of Allah (M) said:

iIIReci"ve U"le Quri an 'cmdl do, irM)'t exoigger,ed'e irill iv' nor shun i't, ond do not eat by iiif..~r'!3

If any credit sho'rud, go, to the memorizers, it, is because 'th,ey conveyed theknowledge to those 'who could benefit from, :m'~. In, a similar vein theProphet said:

"Perhaps tbe carrier' of knowledge is not knowledgieable, Perhaps .one carries knowledge to ~person w,bo is; more know,~;edgeabl,e than one se~f.'~ -

!:lAblTl:. Yisuf' said;

,AI, A'mash asked me about ,il problem, The two of uswere alone and E answered rum. He' said:

'~~Where did you gt/f '~hi5,oom) Ya ~'q'l!]b?~" :1 said: "From ,the HadIthwbi.ch vou told me and. I ~old, o~ben,! 1~

;I, ;.

Them be: said tOome:~~O' Y il~q,ub~I learnt dlis l:IadY~b. before your pru-ents were married ,and E never tne:-wUs nlletlrdng until now, j"

I A Si~d ijadtth mlrnMe<([I b:y AbmiM.I:aml Aill- TaiI];~~i hili Soo~ Ma"iitJlii ral A:~bau ffU~n Ahdll~ Rdinl~n :ilbm. :Sh~bt

9A seund ~J'ilITfI~to~ by ~lRl;ll 'Abdl~L BmT' M wellas I~)'t_h.er oompi.l.cn;.,

. Y f:' th b- 'Ii ., 'II!.. h ll!... - AI- A~ .... , ... 'L..,

Abo '. O~su; . , •. ' [e sc _o,lsr:; nu gw t't' av'e seeD. wnat . . , .' :-',m~Jj,

the ,. .., '."-' did "1 '~"I'" ,·· .. t forbidden ,~,-, -. __ .. -"." ,~,~;ill,; -t

I~ • ,e; ,m[emOfrnZler, ! ~,r no, ,. ,w, ~s: no" ,,I,1!:)rlVl _ ,en. r~O ,mem,onze W!I !'Iou:ou '

d d-I· W' h . r. bidd . lh - 11.. ~'I.J d ,-

understan Ing.,_' at is tor =1,' cen I,S t :,at~, one' SuQUnJ, understand

. -'1

-c· il1", ,~'II ','

incorrect y,

o Tile technical arrangement of the ,b!drths as they were recorded and carnie' down te us, places all matters of faith in one chapter and [all matters of'Iaw ill another, and SOr on. 'Now" since b,~,!m is. [I coUecHon of a~ ~ these truths" the S unnah has come 'to resemble a huge clothing store in. which diffre~fierl,t garments arc arranged in different 'corners. Here you win find the bead,w;eat'" across xhere the trousers - and beyond tbalt ihe shirts, etc, N,3inuraU y; those who want a, complete iou~f11 will go t-o revery comer and select \vbat suits them, It often happens, however, that you sere someone burying, 'two caps and Ieaving barefoot, and

+.II!.. buvi b dk II!..' f'L. '. • -i!., Il.... - hi

anomer buying s, . [_ lililll ·',le~rc,~He:, olllt ] 9 wnnouta proper ,sJ~il1:! T ms

is 'what hap:pened to many groups who studied the Suanah,

After much, speculation, they came ou~ to the. poop]r€:: armed, with a toothbrush and turban without a tail, This, for them. is, Islillu. The' secret is that they entered this large showroom and came out thinking that -tite whole' of the 're-ligion was contained In Ollie ortwo BaJdVttb .. Thus they harmed the Qm[ an and the SUMiah (3) Lack ofunderstirnldi]l,g of Ihe Suoo_a'b~, in spite of the preoccupation with it, has harmed the orientation oftb.e Muslims and spread among them a set of unsuitable laws aad restrictive traditions, These are rejeeted by the sp,id'r of' fbe 'Qtrur~~:n and Sunneh, although they may be based on an authentic ijadrth not

- -

properly understood.

C The cause of this is that Is~_Am has presented a set of'Iaws on all important matters, and they are contained in the Qutoo ,a~d. Sunnah; they are an complemensary ~ verified and supported 'by one another. Thus if 'ilier1e appeers to be someihing which

d"' 'u h -'h" '. .' ,j .'. ~ 'I ", ... '~

CCU1\trs" _i!CI1iS au the ot - ers, II IS rnv'-estlgate-u. unn a ratJ.Orn~

explooat~on is, found .fi)r :it wbi·cn ceuferms t~[ all '~he others, or it: is rejected in favour of those whi,cb are more authenticated. 'Many of 'the scholars. think, ·tba~. the I;Iw:tJtJh, narrated bY' [one aurtbentic.

individual (aJld these b.adJths ,afe known technically as al1ad) must

I!..,= " , .... Ai if' 'h- .:II' th' iderr " fth Q" t ,.

1m;: lleJecte.u 1. t ey contradict t 'e evt lent 'ruearmng 0'11, ie '"urllnlrC

verses or other allJlthe,l!lIti,c sources or _ if they conltradict the 'reasonjn,g of qi)'as (an~do'gy) based 00 (he Qur",In, itself They

d . #. . 't.". .j;'1l. 'I!", d 'Ill.. ' ..111 b th . . .... , ... ..:11-'

:i!l~w)ereiltt1a*e between Ule ,liJiJt!ns lUlrraJ$Cu'y ":le,jl!Hists ,w-m those

namrted by people wbo are' memorizers. only. Let: me give you an example rofbow nations, malY be' exposed '10 stagnmion and moss as a result of '~heir misuaderstandlngof events.

a Many Muslims rule thaJlt women should not see any str,mg:er

b b d i M- d 1.,:1"" uk dl

or be seen,,:), any stranger, an- tn, a Dlalit~:w.e'women wau- ,e "

in. the streets wearing loose garments covering them from head '10 toe" There are' two slits for them to see through, although

, -

'these .ma.y be covered by pieces of glass or celluloid, This

w~oospread tradition is based on a :ijadlth lvhicb I heard tbe lfn5tn of the: Prophet's (M ) Mosque quoting: in .h.eplll~,pi t during a, Friday prayer, The; Hadrth states that the Messenger of Allah (M) objected to hiswives seeing ~ Ahdullih ibn, Umm M:akmm and when they pointed out that he: was blind, be asked. them" ,~~ Are you blind?"

a I objected, to the preacher's cjtillg ofthis ,ijadnh, since the: scholar of the Sunnah had spoken about hs meaning, .It is sheer

l~a1l'rarl.ed ib~' AbO DlwOd A~.·llnnid:IH Ibn S~~d aad A.I Bi>llhaq,m ihrQ~,gh, A!:",Zuhd.

The last ssid: r .. -, ,abhJJ!~;, slave ·of Ul!nm S!IJ~ m1lih, repa rl:OO, €w,m. U:m'm S~!;rumM that She said:

"'1 ';v,aJs, .~~ i.iIl, the Pr.oph~t ("' _ ... .) 1111t~ so .~'WS Malm.oll~, and Ibn Ufilti11i1 Maklil:!D appro;Bd1~d., Tn i~ W,~S after ~.ijab was :irus~ltl!l:~ed" The ,Pfioptiad (-.) ~id: Ve!'u yorll'~I'les from h~m,

So '!!'\I'e said: i!lO ,MeslSle:n:ga- of A]Jliliih (M), ~sm 't he blind md carrlnQt see or [Ie.co,g!l!Ji':ze l!!s?

He reiP"!~~d!; '~:Ne you ~,:ltfljd:7 ;\J:"ell,"t:yOUi ~ei:llg hil"ifl?

,AJ-Tififlliidh.r said it is a gDOO mid. sound ~adDih~ ,atlld Ihn :lj1aff:aw declared i~ clia&rnl cO'f namttDISto b ~ strong in his Fal'b (1J &r1, ThiS is ~!GubUwj }la,wever, siince Na'btlan ils:

'_.III :I!..~~ • -I b ]"~ ~'["'II.JI.. .1." [,... rr. :I!.'. n" •

,attoptC'f,JII as a,I,nJ!Wi It!!:: OJilY ,'y ),in ~; Ir"";!.iM 'W,IUO' IS !Y~(!nWtt :lO:r ~lruS mu:tu1g:elUi~ llfiIl

allth.mti,catim1:g, tie: .lliaHalOr'S, This fact; 'is 'p<l,inted ouf. by Ibn ij:ajar himselfin his :uMli'rOOudioll ~,o L.~, ai-,Mimn .. For t~is reaso[[ we see ,!hat he du:d rt~t~ wydu.9tiCaile N8bbal~, ill A~ Taqrib b:1[I~ sale!: ofh~m::, ><Acoep~abl,e ""tieR scrutmbed. Bll't TiO se.nI!~.iiny was d~~ (!C hi:m tJ'S regards t~ is: .ija.dmilll. ,{hi:s. statement 'cru1 OItlly eleam tna(: 'lliils :Sadfll:l is ohac'.:Ceptab:le. ibn" Abd:'!il :Barr say,s: UH,e ics ilJO'n oflflQse! wltptS( ,bJdmus ,lU"C m~1ltGntic mid th,is HadRh antis lis unlrno.w-n,""" as quoted by ~bJlJ ,al TlJ!rkrulani im ,,,4'l J'awiw.:r Al NN}i.

ignorance of the Snnnah to cite it when speaking of the duties [of women, th,eir 'w,ay of:~i£e and ·i[he· pnnclples oftheir p\anicipa.t~o.n ill society in. general, Wby do we not mention the i:Jadith reported 'by Buk_biirI in this ccnnection since they are more precise and ,aIllJthent~[c?

Q Under the h.eadingr.~Women at W ar and tbei~l Figbtin .. i with 'dbe Men" S.ukbatf narrates that Anas ,.) said:

II'When i~' was ~he day [of Uhud the people ('M.usIi rns] r,e;tr,eated ~forn around fhe' peop/lie, And I saw ~Ali'shah. daughh31r o·r Abo 6ol~r (.-). and Umim SilJ.l~aym:' their g[ormsnts were tucked in end II could :$,ee fhe, out~ij'f'le' 0'1 their' legs. 'They were' carrying] wClterbogs on their bocks, iPou~~ng the wal~er into lhe mouths of 'the people and rewurtrdng to fill 'them and repeat lthe some

procedure, Ii

He also mentioned. under 'dle heading "Women at 'W,ar' at Sea' 'tha.rt Anas (.) said:

"The Messenger of' AJ~,iih (~)e:Dt~er-ed the bouse of Milhan's daughter. He lay. down and slept. 'Then he laughed"

She asked; '~~Wb.Y' did you laugh, M'esseng:er ofAllsh (M)?

He said: '~I saw people from my Ummah saiUng across blue sea in theparh of AUah (fi) as if theywere kings. seated on fmunes ..

She said: O Messenger of AUab (~), pray to ,Allah (fj) 10 make me one of'them.

He said:~~O[ Allah (iJi), make' her one of them .. "

Then he :51[e.p~, ~,g.ain, and he laughed. She asked .bim the reason and :be repeated his dream as before,

She ,s,aid ; ".Pr3!Y '10 ,A.Ullh (ii1) 'mmake me one of them. '-ill He said:" You are among, the ,first" not among the! last.'

o She married ~'Ubmdah Ibn al ~amit after that, and she sailed. across sea! with Bint Quraza. When tiJ.'ey reached shore .she mounted herhorse, Itstnmbledend she fell off and died.

iClI He also mentioned under ~he h[eading of'~~W'om,en; 5, Carrying of Wate1"bags to the P[eopl.[e in Batde" that. 'Umer ibn AI Khat1.ib

(e) distributed scarves to the women of 'M:adinah and one exceJru!en~ scarf remained,

Some of 1bosewith him said': "O Commander Oftllf 'jfai~bml, give tlUs. one tothe grand, daugbt,er of A11mt's :MesSfJRg\eJ (M)~ ~ho ,! s 'With ''\1011. Thev mesnt U:Jml1, Kul'thlDl, d'I,I, f1!ht·· I ' f 'AII'

.. , , '.. 1 ... " . __ ,_ _ _ ,;I --- -.-. . ~-.. '. , '. 3!1!.I,6!ui er I) .

(.).

'Umar (4") Slid,:~'Umrn, Sa:U.m is more deserving of it. She was one: of the An$ir women 'who, tookthe p.~"edge:with ,AUiih "s Messenger (~O.·~~

'Umar ($) co,ntjnued.~ '''Slie 'Used '~O sew' w,a~e[' bags for us on the d~y of Ullitmd .. ~~

He; also mentioned under 'the beading 'Qf t"W:o,men '8 .A:ttendwoe

-*" ,4:JII.. .' 'W",:.',:'. ··1"'" .:m.il:!idl. '01" ',"'. 1ll.,'" ,"'iI',1,i!5"i~ ,.c.. ..... '.' m' .",' . ,.·'~.'··,··l .~''''r1f"''~' 1k, \',']j!jri 'M; ~ 1.'",. "., " ~ db · .. ·1 • Pl.· d) II.IJile ,. QWlUv __ DUlU"" JJII.L_ ~_ ~lRlJ' J~ 1')..11."" U a~ __ , L1l\~.IIJ:::

said . i '~W' '. : e i1;ne- 'uil·'k ,oIhL.a; n,..~,n'I1..~T gi''1'ft1l!'l,a wate 'Ii' 'lin ".1 .... 'ii!'!i;i(k. ;oJiiH""iHI,,;iII. H,!IlY

,~J. '.' '. 'W'_ !ri.1""H.lUl !1I.II1 Jr.lUr'U""~ .~.Y.uib ,i::!,. ~.' !~u w-n.~ all!~.lLW~.I.tlo

the sick. and removingthe wounded toMadIn~'~ esc.

OJ Let us suppose that Bukhart d~d not narrate these authentic nadrths,: s'l"!Joldd the IIaditll of the b~iF];d man be imposed uoon

III • , r·

8oo;i,ety?' Should WIDmen be confined '1'0 their homes and never

ablero leave this, pdson?' Such~, rulingcannotbe seen :in, the Qut';bJ., In f8Jct~ the Qur am makes 'this ruling 'tbepunisluneLot :fo[' women who commit fo'rni,cat~.'o.n.~

(As ford1:o..5e ,of yauf 'wom,efll who aile, gt:I'i~ty of ~ew!tlrnm~ cal~ to w:itrne.ss: 'four ,of yoo .aea~m:Slt th@m,.And ~f tJ&t~y ·tewlfY Uo the lmthof the ai~l:egatrtml] n~en, GOIiiI'ftlmu~i them '00, '~he houses; wlldll dead! ta:kethi@ml or 1:u:rntiHAHIh appoililt for 'them a 'way [tlliroHigl"ll neW' legislalDcuil )!.; (Qur~lin 4:: 15)

g However, th.eM'us]:~:ms" when they :fhlllr.id. the civilized ways of led~11c8,tlm;g men and ·women. too hardbecause of theM d.e,viation from the Q1Jr~',in resorted to' prisons and castles, and what happened is well known, The M:us]ims abandoned the Qur~il[[Jl for jhe :b,idiths. Then 'they albalJJdo,ned thebidrths for 'the ,sayin,gs of the scholars, Then they abaedoned 'the sayings of' 'the: seholars for the method 'Of 'the blind foUowe[s. Then they abandoned these' 'blind. fo·U~)wers andtheir stemn .. ess fur the ig.tlOraD~ people

and their eonfuston. The evohitioa of ls~lmic thought in 'this manner 'was a disaster 'for Islam and the M:usli:ms,. Ibn, '~Abd.ul Baa reports from ,A].,'l),aihhllk ibn ,MllIzab:mm:

"There 'wil~, come a time over people when the Qoc'lm wwU be I,eft on the shelf and s.piidlers wmn burn ld their webs over it: no use will, be m_ade.; ofwbat, is in it and men's actions will be according to narra'li.ions and l}adrtbs ."

I', The path, of rectitude in this blind alley is to retum to the [QM"m and make it the main priUaf' of our inte'UectuaI and

• e . ... 11 ~" Th h fu ~l ' . h .

s,pl,ntufu uves, '" ,en. wr en w'e are r III Y conversant W1tJ It we

should h)(),k, into' 'tb.c' Sunnah and benefit Hom tbe P'rolph.et's, (~) wisdom, way of life" WDISmp', character and :reg,ulatiollS" Nobody should. be' allowed 'to speakon the Snnnah who, has, little understanding of the 'Qur'Bn, or nttle unders£anding of the

., f' '. ," f' .'1.., " d

variety Q~, narrations, or IS unaware 0', 'IU~,e occasions ,HJ,

• ..J hl h tl "d

eircumstances uneer W~]C~ wl~Y weIe Sail: .. ,

Tb,e Prophet I(~) and Ids Mira,c~les,

The life 'of the P,ro,phet (M), 'both public as wellas private, 'went: according to the customary laws of nature and, as ,31 whole:" did not i'O beyond, U1Jem,. As a human being, be felt h1Dlg,er and sati,sfaction, he had his periods of health and sickness) he became 'tire~tll~ he rested, be fell: sad, and glad, H:o,wever, humans inthese tbings are of various categodesand, they are not aU bound, by a, gener~, law" There' are those who are passionate about tbe~ir necessities, and :if '~hey diminish Just, ,I little their .hearts palpitate and their energies are dlrai.ned. And there are others who are stUtrdy and [content 'with their smal I share" They march row,arns. ,their goal with high bead and firm footsteps., The macb~ne.s. whi,cl1 roo 0,0 o,i~, are of different categories .. There is tih.e. bad kind ,,,bleb. eonsumes much fuel and, gives! ntde benefit" and there is 'the JOod kind whieh produces much 'with a small fuel consumption. Hmnan beings are Just: like that with their 'bodies) necessities and luxuries.

o! .Anyo:ne\¥ho pursues the SUlrJn of MuhNnmad (M) Ibn. "Abdullah will see from his private. nfe me sturd~n.ess of the material whichmoulded his body in. sueh a Dluruner 'dla,t giants could not compete wirth him .. Hewas able to bearthe burdens of life and the difficulties of'the stmgei:e'M'th complete bravery and rectitude .. , Yes thereare geniuses. who are blind or deaf" who have stomachache or pains in their chest; but genius .tsnnt prophethood, ~:I. Allah's perfect faveur jn .anybod.y is that He (iij) should grnn:t him freedom from ad~~h.ese diseases, so that ,an '~e elements may be complete which would reotif-y his. vision. of life and. his behavlourin it~ Fromjhis point ofvi.ew·M:ubammrul (~) was a perfect human beingand :his life was in 1~ota~,aoocurd'mce with. AUah;'s,univ1e:llsallavrs concerning. outstanding heroes.

O' As lor his :pu;blic :~ife; as a Messenger (~) conveying the Message from .Allih (Ii)~ traimng the believers, resisting the unbelievers and p~rs.j;s:ting: in 'the spread of his da ~w,ahl~nt~1 :~t bore fruit WD an corners of the glob-e, ..

tJl There is no doubt thas, the Qur'an is a miraculous book, it awakens the higher f~.cU~tw.'es in the human race', It is. somewhat similar to the great events which happen to peopl e and cause them to think. deepI.ly and with. insight, 1'1 :~s therefore a human book. 'wh:ii£h assists the general awareness to be more mature and accurate,

'18iehol!d! W',e' have ,appo'jrnted ~t a ~ecw:rle' [Qtmf'an] In ,AF~ab'lc- that pemaps)'Oumilglu understand .. )· (Qur'an 413,:: 3)

A Scripture whereof the Ayil' (verses) are expounded, a lecture ('Qur . an,) in Arabic for people 'who bave knowledge,

Geed t·i:d~n.:gs and ,3 '\lIlar:ning.) (Qur'sn 41 ~ 41)

CI The difference between 'nle education of the Arabs. 'by ~l1e Qur'anand the education of the Jews by the Torah is like the' difference between the voice of guidance 'wbich shows the: [n~elUglenm person ·the way and the whlp of'punisbment which

sMngs the back of·the stupid beast to make it move forward, but

• " ... J.~ "!It._'M..] dl '1!... iib 'A' bd I l:lli 1... "il.. ''01, ::o:'I!..

di~S one step rorware ,ao·. thenjibs, . ,~~, ''cc U «u hJU r":.IaW'~;Jil8l

used, to ebant:

"Among us' is the Messenger of'AUah (M) reciting His, (ill) Book.

Wne.D. a. hidden ray of sU!lJJight- spU:IS, the. dawn, He showed us gnidanee after blindness ..

So O'tU" hearts have faith in him, that ·w.bwt be says is true .. At night he forsakes his bed,

_1. . h"

'When bedsmake the ido,jate.rs eavy 'wUh sleep,"

III S L. 111 ;Ii.... ".,t.. Q' 'I' is th I . ;, I' f j!.11l...

11....1 some scnorars iSayuliI't UJ!e '. ur ,im is tne onlY rmrac e ,OJ''Wlie

Pr-ophet. Here they are:~o()kiDI: on~y at the literal sense of the 'word :m.i.rac~e (Arabic mtlli2a)~ 'which is a supernwturnl

'b" d ";1,. h u d h hall

occurrence com .. mec WI,tl~ a Co iauenge, an, sue a, cnar enge was

o .. ffered on~y by the Qur'~.Wl. I have accepted a. simi lsr meaning", not because of the Iiteral definition of miracle, but m:n consideration of ~he intrinsic value of other miracles 'in relation "0 Ole: :nobJe g03J]s Islam 'brought by.

OJ There, is, however, no relationship between belief or action and these studii!?\S~ 'wicked people win not be forgiven 'thek wickedness because of theirbelief thatfhe Prophet W,3S she I. I ered by a cloud or addressed by a, rock, nor will righteous people lose their status if they deny such msacles, Such studies go back '~O the scientific assessment of the evidence Lor and agalnst such occurences and. tb.e eval uation o:f their signi ficance, A.ccumey or ~ naceuracy .i III this matter wUl not take a.way from one ~ s faith ..

lal A~e-rrjble craze took over the Muslims :in the ascribing of

''- .'. ", ,] . to .". 11..". " r·' '. c- -c.;11 , T·!!..··~ ." I'" ...... ,':t" .. f ~]t..'" . .:- 'r" t\i"lo the mtrac ,es. . 0 n -, gul.eOUS .peop,~e,.. .ue m,3lJ on ,.'I 0 . I~U,em wen, "",' . ~l.e

extent of linkingmlracles to the level of faiith,and ORe writer OlD ';,(fH,hifl even said in verse:' ~'"'AmFm the ability of sainrs to perform miracles, And, who denies, i~';, rejeet whatever he says," The relationship of this to falTh.rd is. Ute its relationship to ,gr8IUIDJar.- Of' astronomy J In other words 'Ihe essence of the religion is far removed from these studJe's whether they conclude

in, 'the amnnative~ ()II' negasive .. The miraeles whic:h are attribuiteiJ, to ·th,e~ saints by theiir admirers are evilexpressions of the: vices of laziness and. ~tupldity vihie:h.aI,e hj.dd)ern.wi~hin t'bem1, just as the .nlgnunalreS, of a sleeper aee '~h.e; ex,pl!e~sio.Ds of the~.r d.isturbed . . minds and Hayed nerves, This ,smot opened a locked. door 'Mthout: key; tha!! saint flew in the DJir without 'Win,gs;, ihat ,othe:r one 'urinated, on ,3, rook. and i.t turned inb); gold; ,aud, thM, otller one: had. mo,wIDed,le ef'the unseen!

a There is much. nonsense of this, SUd" reflecting ignC![.3J!11ce: of the '~;i':iili "i"'~~ii1'j_: of the """;~~g- ·.·'O-j,-iij ,(T[·ii:!l].~im)·· .,g:H·d··1 A'f' the ·,w·.··o'··r·'ld·.· .. lit" also

~ .. e ,I'~Q~ .1l,1iQ.~~~:~ ~,_ ,_,~J~ ~¥JL~· .. ",~lt~ '",I 'i2: ~_ , . _.' ~:II .. v.', :1., ,. ' ... _ J .. _ ~ I, . I~I!~ ..

sh!O:W'S thai!, its prom,oters are too deviant j:1Jl their minds and hearts t() understand fully the nves of the Prophet (M:) and &.~s Companions, Muhammad (fi) '\¥E not ,9" man of ,faJD.ciful imagination. who built his~ifJe and mission on ·fictit~om;sta~.es,. He was a man of reality' who perceived fromnearand .af.'" and If be w,mlt,ed.aJlIl.ytbjn,S he: would take the necessary steps to. achieve it. In taking these steps, as, can be seen. hl the ligbtof 'bitter teality, he took 'the lllItmo5t precautions ,and expended his jrtmost energ i,'f) S,' Nei~her he nor his Companions ever thought that

'h . . .. .. . 'lid' " .' C:" 'h ". lf'he .' ~" ... ' ·d·· ..... t: 'Il.'. ... ,. II:' 1!..

.I:,eave:nwou~.·, stnve :~or .. :j:~m.1.j. ne rle!Wxe .. ~, act lor mm if'he WM

l~)f, Of' :~(I{i;,k a:ft:er him i:f 'he was, negligent, Never were miracles 'Of 'supemaItocal oeeerrences fhe feundanons or girders in 'I1~e' building of'a greaJt, man, or a great nation,

o Muhammed (.) and his Com:panions~eamt~nd taught, tiOtu.".~'·: 'lh.fltoo.d made peace, defeated and. were de:rear.tOO. They

~ I~ ~

spread their can ·th_rougho~~ dtl~ horizons and they struggled. an. a.

handful of e'.arth,. 'No earU}ly law 'was ever broken for them and ,no universal law was ever bent forthem, In faet, dl'~Y sweated more,thml thernr enemies did and bore heavy losses in the path of their' Lord, and thus in '~h,e struggle for survival t'h~ had 'the priority of steadfastness and victory, AUih (Bi) taught them harsh ~essons so, Ola.l they might not expect any favouritism from Pn)v.~de",ce in ,Hny elash, :aJtlloughtney\cverr,e 1:00 sharp-witted to expect such fS,VO:UE.~:U.sm. A~ ~§lh ,(.) says to His, Prophet (~):'

'And whe'll yoo: [M'uhammadi) are among'd1,em and ,3 1Ta:11ge' Uheir] 'wMlttp, 'for them, Jet only a parITy of tbel1 stand wi~h you 1:'10 wonh[;pl] and re,t d\em 'talke' t'iileir ,anns. 'Then when [th,ey' have perfoT1lled theIr prostration, ~et, tllemfilJro die re,a,r;, and: let another pany Gome' mar has: not 'worsh'lpped, and let them worshtpl wilfu JOU.~ amd '1ft '~em taike precaJudans and their' anm" those' who, disbelieve' fang' fo,r you fa negJea; fOII,Jr anus arndyomr baga:ge. that they may' ,alta,ck you once for .a1Jl~ I:,t 15, mlO s'ln for YOIi 'to' 131)' aside 'your ,anns ij( rain ~mpedes: you OT YOOi are sick~ SO'[ take' :precauuons. BeholkU A.mah rpre;paRS for me ,dlsooUevers, a shami!fr~d plJn,:lshmenL,) (Qur',w ,4: 102) ,

Look how they are M,dered'l' while standing in prayer before AHah ( ") to be extremely cautious and anentive, ,AUah, (Ii) did not allow any 'hope to diem inro '~'tID:inkJn,g that the angels w01!l~d descend and assist them, Ifthey d~d not protectthemselves, then no .. one would protect them. Thar is 'what Allah (fJ) said to Muhammad (~) and his Companions.

o 'When the Mus:~,wnls failed to heed 'this lesson 'in the Battle of Uhud, they we~;e deah a 'pain:fu~~ blow, whi,eD felled seventy of their heroes and made them taste bitt,er' defeat. On that day the leader of the unbelievers, Abu, S,'ufy~n"i S~OOd,llP and shouted "Long ~ ive Hubal l ,; (Their chief god). The Prophet (~) was severely I'ested,in b'is abi I ~ty to save. the situation: he' fou.:gi1t and ki~~ed. and was wounded ..

[01 A,ba, ,ijontjrah (, • .) narrales. '~hat 'I'be' Messenger of AJ~ah (;Wi)

"_J th d·' f'UIl.. d

SiUu on t ~e I.: .ay 01,' . ,nU, :

!i,Mo,y AIJah's anger be severe on the people, whO' do "hilS to 'rneIr Prophet I~Pofntingfro his 'm'seth]l. '!'·May' Allah's; anger be, SeIV'ere on ,Q man 'who is !k:'medby AUah 's M,es5enger ih the' path of AJrlh (~). I'~ u

Anas (.) said, that the P:ro:phcit,'S. (!Wi) front teeth were broken on ,tbe day of Uhud 8ndibis :bead 'W,a5 g,asbed.. He be,iarn wipfng aw,~y the b~ood from his face, sa.y.i,ng: "How could ,1:1, people be successful who ,gashed. their Prophet's (~) head and

. -

,11 '" .,'" A ~-I "fih - ,,,,,, ..... ,,_..I '''~ •. '1Jj·,.ll-kil!lii'T .... ,dl M' -I '_,

.n, ....... I.II:mI,>!JI, IT; ,il!Y!I'Y· n~, I ,"'11;\1 !i; J I,;I!'UN. ! All, ! ~;~!i,:I ')US_:!~lj,.

broke his teeth while he was calling themto Allah (.)1 ,! Upon this .Allah (WIt) revealed;

':.It. '15 no concem at aUaf YOO[5 [M1uhamma.d] wliledl,er He fe!lenit5; troward them 'OT :p:urnlsh them; 'fOr th~ are ev!ildoers,," (Qur~an 3:: 1.2,8)14.

Do you think that negUg,ence of ,the steps toward victory brought anything other' than defeat'? Even thoVl.g_h those- who, wer-e defeated were representati vesof tme t:awhliTl Even though those who gained victory were upholders ofpure paganism?

[1:1 Whenever the Prophet (~) wanted to' anack, he feigned otherwise saying: 'War is Deception"." In spite of'bis taking precsutioes aceording jo AUib' s order; and hi s respeet for the natural laws which regulate human Iife, some of the. Arab tribes were able to tri.,et him. They persuaded him to send a group of Qurra' of the 80Iy Our' an, 'who "verie some of 'U"lC choicest $a(Jabah,an.d they killed them aU to the Iast man at: Bi'r Ma'una, Only tbe birds discovered their place of d.eath and hovered in. the air above the bodies of these martyrs, These men who fel l vi CllmS, to treachery were some of the be st-loved of Allah "s creation to Him, yet He did not give permissi-on to any ofthem "10 fly without wings or escape his inevitable fate, is-to be thought bythe backward Muslims of today.

[) If ,pre,ca-uUon81nd care were the Prophet's (~) practice, then even more so were preparation and exhl,u.stw,o"n of energy .. How do you think. Muhammad (~:) gained, victory over the mrui_kind'?' He brougln hw s men to maturity with fai th just as, the summer ripens Us sweetest fruitswith its slowheat, Thus when. he dispatched them ~o all corners of'the earth, they went with a :roa.r IHo~ that or a v]oJ"ent stoan. Islam nom. the day it started 'was a battle led. by Revelation, 'thus its first flowin_g Impresslcns

I· ·l'L . ,. Il... ~. htni d' ·'1 d'

were. :1JS.:e a storm '11;V.I.'~w:~ u .. g " tmng an •. , t IUD, er:

14 A sound { adrth l'lM,rn1i:ed !by Bu·thlt and Mu.s]im ilm Ilt,e same c1l1afl~er.

!~ . d' 1·)·' ...... ".. .. · ; .,j I. A" 'D d fr .[;'. Ib·1... M" "-. n.li...;I

A SOUII1-! : ~ IU'U narMhiel.!, llJi}i riaJIII _S.W(L rom ,ri.:ii . hlln . r . jlik (~), B,lIlr...Ji2rli8in,l;jl!

Musl im lfl!iUralW!iQme&.iing simiil!~r"

(Or m~e a 'r,aiMlOrm from the !ky~ wlhereinl in! darkirnes5, drundJe,r and 61,f!' lash of 1:1glltnijfl1g~ They (hrost, d'lieir filn:gerrs ~Iii the.lir. ears, 'by te350n ,o,f tbe th.rund~rClaps, 'mr fear' of death. AU3h 'encompassES the d~s'believers [inl 'His auldante];) (Qurr'i',liJlJ 2": 19)

Do you dIm, that relaxation ;aDd negligence 'would have left ;my opening in these. crowded r,ariks? Shame: on t'be Muslims of 'today 'for expecting miracles in a world which has bared its fangs toannihilaae them from 'the roots,

D, I do. not deny that miracles happento people. However they happer:!! to th,e 'believer and tbe unbeliever, the :fj,ghleou:s, p~r:s,o:n as, well as ~he sinner, If a man walks on, water \v,w.thout his, fled ge'ttiog: wet; this does. not prove he is. righteous .si nee

iah L. d ." lvb "C:"~ d .

r,i:g"l,eoU:S:liless can ee determined on ylb.y one' s lial:t~-~ ian ~_, aenon

as ,A1Uih (Ii) prescribed, Stories that certain people plerfol~med miracles :i;s: ~, pureilly h~.s~oricam matter fO'fwhoever feels so jnclined, and it has nothing '~O do w.mth faith or responsibili ties, This is, of course, not speaking of UlIe: miracles o:f the prophets, which emphas,'WZledthe trult)b, of what they conveyed from Allih (iii). Nevertheless, even those. miracles which carne 'with, prophetaood are 8. ihin.g ofthe past and there is no benefit in ,ugujng over Utem.We also ~'eam ,tha't the miracle of Muhammad (i\tS) was not like those which preceded, his era. U 'was a, human, rational ,and perpetual m h',acl~~ a:roundwhich A~ lab (~) organized his life and mission according to the Iaw of cause and effect, as you have seen.

Cli Mubrunmad (.) dld not know the unseen, He was like any otherhuman being not knowmg what he would earn the next day, ·No~.hing of the sort should be expected of him after the cleat command of Allah ( ~) came to him;

'Say:: li-fDr myself ~ hJ\I'f. no 'pc~wel1i' to b@ne;mt, nor 'I;l-OrW1er to hurt, sa:ve~'ha.t wbii'ch Anmh '¥1m so" Had I knowledge of the unseen,. J should have 3lDUlndalf:1ce' of w'E'ald1~ ,and advers:ity wO:Ul~d not t-ouclh nne. I ami ;b~;t 3J wamer, ,and a ,ilea,rer ,of good ddf1ngs: to 'folk who, beljeve',~.: ' (Qur"'~, 7:: 18,8.)

He m~,gh~ be. approached by someone whointended evil but expressed ~ove~and he knew' nothing of that untru~, the manwas exposed by his actions:

,; -And among the' tiOW1n peop!I'e ,of AI 'Madrl11.3Jh [the~e ,are' someWRO] ,P,ersist inl1ypocril's)l" wham you 1:0 Muhammald] do not iklilow~ We iknoW' tllilem.,, ,(Qur1in 9: 101)

On the' Day of Judgement be will be' confronted by men who:m he left ,tllLriking that tbey were staunch bel i eyers but were later exposed. aJS, to 'their black beans and evil intentions .. , He' wiU 'then say; as JrfSUS. said:"

~ il 'W3rSi 'wii'tlil@-SS ioverd'tem while I' drwert amongstthem, but when you took me wp, you w'ere thE! 'W'a;[clher' olVer 'd'I'em.?-' (Qur"'!'n ,5,: 1.20)

Cl AUi.ib (~) ,mi~.t have given, him knowledge of some unseen 'things fbr specific reasons, like the prophesy ill '~he Qur'in of the Romans defeating the Persians, after the 'victory that the latter had gained over them, This gladdened the pagans and saddened the Muslims for they supported, the People o:f the: Book.

C There are msny a~'~heutk: b~dlthS 'wh~ch apparently suggest (lha,t the Prophet (.) was aware of '~b,e fli.tur-e. 'For example. there is, the ijarulh of ~ Ad, ibn ij!ti.m" in which he said:

'~~Whae I was 'with tb.e Prophet (M) there came to him a man complaining -of famine. Then came another comJ'~airuing of ,highway robbers. 'Upon this he said: ""AliI, have you seen Hirah?" 01 said: "No, But I have been told of it"

OJ He said: ~":[f y.our ~H~e is prolonged; y~()U w~n see womenon camels; 'uaveUmng from Hirahto '(h,e Ka'bah, not ::feariIllJ,g anyone but Allih (fl;),.~~'

D I said to,my:se:~f:: HHo where 'win be 'the homes of(~he tribe of) Ta\JrY who have become high ranklng in the Jand?"

o He said: "And if your life, is prolonged, you wiU see tile treasures of Khosrau being, opened up,"

._--

I!~ Th' . r 1... •• 'I~ d h f"Jib. ..... il:..ii..' ~ri . , - - ih 'D"

I e meIUlilllig 0' t!!,ts IS In a ,va lit , .. 0'· Ion .i--k!1!J.LJlII$ as nIDiFalii;;U by Bun.!.!aIT 'In ~ ,-e- Cijap1:er

QQ "F:als,"·

! I .said '~O myself ,I,. Khosrau son of Hermuz?

I:J He sa~d: '~Khos'II'[3iU son of Hurmuz And J' S,I'W the women on. [camels travelling iji:r,ah and eircumambulating the K,a,ji'baih fearing none but Allah (~)'I and :1 'was among those who

"'0 ue red the Ii' - __ ('.!UI"S~ 0' f' Chosr ..... ;::o;:; ,. 'illi' "".,nqN.II".·"'-'_1JIi ILL~ lli,l[ea;j ,u .. .:J, "" •. n _.;:ij ,V!Iii',,;J.,, -

In tnI~h these. biidiths and others like them were not information of the unseen. Ie They 'were (1, l1e-s't:lment~o the tm~b of AUah:- s promise tbart the future 1be:~onged 'to Islam and that this religion would become' supreme in III comers [of'th,e gJo:be,.Th.e(Y were thus [an explanation by the Prophet of A] ~ah'j' s (~) words:

~:H[e it j's 'who ha,s sent Hismes,sfrnger wmlh th,e[ guldan,ce ,and mhe' reUgfom o,f tllu.~!h, 'tlh,a~ He may cause ill to prE'va:i~ over ,alii R!lngf~()ns. Aind ,AUBlh ,51iJffl.CfS: as a wl'tm@ss;,,;' (Qur' i1n 48 :,2 8)

.AUa:h has p:rnm~Sied ¢l1;0H' oifyou who, be![I~e've ,31n,d do goodw'om that: He wUi .w!re,:ly ma,ice ~heimi 'to sueeeed [the p[,reSeJilit rul'ers:]' ~Iil 'the e',afth~ evelll as He' causedm:ose wtlo 'were before' them ,~,o, sUlc'[Jeed :[,OdlE.rs.l; and that he wm~li :5ureiy' estal),l'Ishfllf 'them ~heiir ire'~liom whIch H,e a;pprowd ~o:r' them ,and wnl ,ill~e ~h,em rinexchange, ,safety aft'@f' the~r fe'3ir'.,: (Qur'lan 24: 55)

U Similar to 'U~a!l [are the ~lIdrths whic:h warn of persecution. A person 'who knows the market forces will no,t hesitate, after a. brief examinationof the preva i ling: conditions, to issue a correct judgement of them, Someone who mn'~imately understands psychology will: after' a quick glance, fathom w:ha~ '~'ies beneath the surface, It is like. the poet s couplet: "A! Almttf who, is suspi'~ciO'us [of you as if h.eactuaUy saw and heard!"

1"1 A SQI.:u:td Hladlil:~ ,liJ;iilll'i[',lIl:ed, bv Buldmmf 8!ii'id ;('j,tiers_

-' . -. - . - - ~ _. -

1:8, Indeed, 'lltey '!;.\.ere: .information of [h,e UQS,{!eoD,. by. the tnowledge ~hi!U AmUw ~~) g,ave hi m, Ttrue :a~Q"'e~ment]o[iliedi extpmarna-ti;Q:n has no :5t1ppoil1 tor '~t ,M 'long as the author" ,May Alr~h (~). pr'orec~ him, :acc~pl'S me possiibiUt· ([If A;~~,tlh,'s i:rrformiing him. 1he'ijadlrl'm .i~'SeU' contai~th,e p,t().o.f of this:' fhe P~iPhct (~) said: ~~'[fyO[lll" lif;e WS Pli-Q~iqJYged,,~ C(lu!d 'IDhi5> precise 'temperal oefinhioo be IrnQwn by 3ily'expert" if Allah (~) did ]lO~ gftmrl, :lwim ~ha., inr:Om1atio~?

o M.l:l~i3Imm;ad (M) had a deep knowledge of people and. their qualities, of the world and jts stages, of time and its vicisshedes, of the ear lier :reli&lonsand, whal~he'y and their ,adhe:f~ts suffeeed In blazing their trail through, life:" the minds of tile prophets were unblemished, and sharpened and they had, clear inspiration, 80 :~magine' what the: lilighest of ~II prophets was I:Ut,e:, Providence took care of him from birib and brought him UP't so thar he n:tigln bear the message whose miracle lay in its method ,and, whose method was to, :pu~ify the natures of people and shaJrpen thea' intellects,

Q This. made hiru jbe 'best, person to evaluate the conditions of '('nJ..,,:> ti -1'1· '.:.: aud exsect 'wbli3!tt!L!..-"" fu '1Iu~' 'W10: ··~'~,d' I: 1 ,~,I'd- . 11: " * , .... i ~ ,-' ble I-'..

_.Ylb ... , ul .... '.J _ . y .Il. U~ .. _ ... ,,"'" _. w{h • .IlS ~lI! poS:SL!!!e lor

atraveller '~:n, the northesnregions to expect the sky to be clear of

h f~' ", '"m'· .. ·'bl ro'·· . t . 'i'~· ". .. he t ," . 1-'

•• _", _J • _ ,'._ I -: " , .," - ," I '. '-. -. -,'j _b~' . - _' :-.- ._ I _. '_,,,' _ l-__:" ,-~_ ",-, - 1- _. ." --'i -, -_ ,- '!. 'I -:-( . '-:'i .. ,-.

eavy og, or IS.l ,POISSru, e , .. r a. rave et In. t e eq utJItona

regions to expect a hailstorm? How 'thenrnSl it 'w'Ortby of ' the Prophet of i), great religion to forget,the persecution whieh affected his teachings and hi s fo~ lowers, vilheth.er' it w:a.srutl the

:'. Ii.·· d ", I·, I' . t, f:' ·1' "..:il.: . h . th ,:,. it . : :n...,[.'. k - 'i" .. ','. !.- id de .-

nearor .. ISI:am, nr ure, ano W . e. er L. was Ill. a. .. anr or ~llm"

o Thus '~lu:: Proohet ( .. , ~:)I 'talked much ab(iu~ ~irsec ' ti·,', . I ,d

. -Ir -. ,..., . . - .... -. .... . .-. -. .... .. y....... '. '. III em" an. ,

his aim was not to prophesy it but tncaution against it, suffering will affect people because oftheir different 'ways of~bin1d,ng' and their diffet',e:ni~ personal ines ~ suffering will oeene because

worldlv pleasures wl"'I!'11 atrractpeople whc '~'ii,':l'I'II" .. , ,11-.. . . ··t'!!..

...... ,.~ _;}·",L,. I~!J;""~_ n c .. "': ·._i_:,~ ,:.\"',~ ... ~(O""'U l nva~ one 31]j]j,o nfir

for them,~ and suffering,~fiU affect the ,Uml.na-h' after '!!lobe,lief' regains its strength. He cautioned his Companions :abO'l!li~, all of

'fil..'e''"'e "I ti"I; 'h~;I~rt:'" '"" t- .... ii"i; n u m erous to q. 'Ii,~ ..... te here I~~,~_ ~ .. :.,~.i . "~~l;,Wlu~ w~, ru ,~~.'_ I!,!I~ 'L I c '!(.I!,";,I_!I,.o: ,.J.:",;"'.

rli "T~',,,,, O'~V' '~' 0·· f 0;0'] .. '-l ,r~'i"'''''e··' sufferi nO!i;l ~ Q the d eeay wh ~ c hw , "IJ set

'...I ,,,W,~,.,., il;ii!I],i!-L .;:1'1._. i"I'" '~h",",.;!! . .:JU, ,jII,'."~"~'" ill.., ,_ ...... ~.~¥""" .. .IIh, .,.1. ,!i'l! ..

il1!tQ~he Ig~,!imicte~chings(hemse-[veis.

$alfln wIn lose' its spirit which :rns humility then H:s body 'Will be eroded and ,~twU~ become, absurd.

1:'~ =-~l '!IlI.ri:~I' J~' its 'i.::'Ii"i,jilll'i'li- ., •. 4..~ ... :1,.. ~'i.::' !Ci:iiI1""'~fiii' "" ..... .:11 ll'ift ~1'1. ""'..... .. . . ,t:'lJit.t J'Uu;n,»,d'V~ .~ ~¥,':will1, 'W.!JJli!iUl~· "".u.I,"o.oiW~.,.}· ,w.w: ~J.~ neeome a M;,e.U ~

:fl' . 'L......... and ... '11 .. ~iIl... "'"'~~ 1· "'. ....1..... ~,_..;iIL._· iL .. 1 ..... .,J

_or ~ty: .. _:. ;~ave:s;, U],e.o it \Vlh ose Its snarpness a1JlU be .s~.[e vea,

Fasting will cease (0 be perseverance in atime ofprivation and s,e]f~co.ntfiol, and win become II, 'time: of feastieg and double expenditare,

Government \\1il~ [change: from being: service 10 the people with their consent into :mWng ol1fseillfthe:ir god 'by :suppress~on and force, Then jt wiU fall and botb the ruler and the; ruled wiU be destroyed.

Even the Muslims ~ love for their Propherwi ll become:" afser his death, a marketplace around his grave fun of awe-i nspiring

1 • d' dr- •

c emounng an ... .aroamg,

01 'When I visited Madrnah 1 we]]Jl to the Prophet' s (~) grave, The :t:'eeUngs were flowing from my heart and, ringing in my ears, As r caugb~ sig.h.t of the' grave I headed for itt feeling very hllmb~e as, if I was a bull being rolled under the feet of some giant, 1 paid my re·spects, in the pr-escribed manner and did not: say ,anything else except one 'verse of poetry. :1 did not know how it csme 10 me

L,~"",!!:l;lIS-~ of 't'JL.·e emoti ......... ,;i CIf[IQte l' 'UJ'lJII:l' in MTy· _'. lips m··-··-:nI1't"Ifl1i·'· ...... ..:i ,~,t' but VO~ .. '. ".~ I. J, lll.[":: ~"'Ir'U'" lUIJ.4I, !;;:p11J,.~ .. ·, ,I, 'rP""!~.II.: _'II t· ' ".W. ~ I -1!j,UIlJI.WL!l!lll~, ,W", u. __ .

my ears did not hear: "'0 you, best of all ,creatmcID, whose bones are buried, in the learth, the fragrance of Which. has; caused the hills and

P'ii!!llI"li:'iIeo! 4- .... , 1i..~ fl-'OT,;;',n,.j n Th.:o,-- II 1,1""'0'1> ~'W''"'''y

, JlliibJd W !J'ti: . .:;~~:., ~~!!. ' vii: ,I .~.,!,"';: , Ii,~; • w ';,

.el' I saw, :hO\Ve'V,ef~W,3IVes (If people coming ill and shouting long phrases, Someone Wad reading, from a book, and another Uslenmg to someone who bad memorized much; this one was dwstuJbing that one, and e:Vlerybody was disturbing the people at ptayer. These waves wen: coming consmntmy and were never-ending,

Q Was i:~ not tba~: which the Prophet (a) meant when he said: !~Q Allah lr~~l~, do not' make my grav,e' alter me on ~dol to be w'otShii'ppeK~V"19,

a As soon ,SiS I became aware of the condition of the visitors and residents in the Mosque, I almost stopped praying in U for I

19' A ,sciilJi.ndi ~adn_fu iniffirr1i1ited by A~mad laJ1d ~bn Sa'd :tE:! his T:ab:aqa.'t 0[1 -nhe ,BllI:!florit,y of Aroo Huu3wra.h (") ..

cI,'l ;b>; .. rt ",'. st ·:'1,.""11' itl"·, ~,,, ''''", Qi,,,,,;,,'h,,,, " ,~ '''''''''''': .).

'. ,e ~I mos venem.e:n,.y ,![m~ Vu:d ons , C',' :aUStin,,,, 19l1:0rance. ]I,

remembered the story of 'Urwah ibn A] Zubair::

Wh '~,' ,.,1..,,.. b' illl ~ lt e e:a -rile !',.~ ~l.- ,. ,,~. of ".4 ,(';,: , ,',.:3 It .

en .t~ __ l' I" 3_-'_~_'~: m ,~J~:W: vase '01 nilq ana . cept aW,8.y

from MadlD.aib, the peo.p:~e saidto him; "You have, forsaken the mesque of the' Prophet (.)~~~'

He replied: ~"I saw YOlurmosCJIu.es bel. neglected, y'Our markets overcLrowded and lewdness. wide spread in YO'l,m s:1I!eets" In. the ·va.:~e isa s~cud~y from what yUlI3re iD.vo,~ved ill. :It is said. 'that when be was scolded ,about tills" he replied: '~Wbat isleft?

A' ll th" • 1- B'-' th 11";" h ";6' - f'-h

'"' .' _ j " ,"' •• ', I ' ,'." , . I I'. . . .• "" _ ... _" _ ."_ I I ,_, .. _ .... __ ,-, _.: - -:- ,'- '_- -',"_' _ - ,,',-. ",.. .

, _ . alit .IS .e,. are t .ose w. ([I Ie] o,~ce at t, ~.e mls On~De: o , 01 . ers

alnd. who are j ealous of the good fortune of others,"

o W,e ask, AI.lih:'s pardon and :refug~:,

Chapter Two

'FroRl Birth tOI Prnpbetllood,

Muhammad (M:) was born ofa :famiEy o:fpure linea.gTe, and noble ances.~IY whicb combined all the good 'CJ!,u.aHties of the ,A'-a'iIi.;.,;. and ';I.~LI::c:h, held 1·"· ... ~:I·'f:- .. Ioef "i:;.n~ tfL'~1·ir evil tenden .... ies Th '"""

~,I U~ 1~1. . -R.lU·· " ~'.I! ::._- 1oD\;,I' _ "Wuu ,.tIlll~U, _lllll.t;:· ,_~. ~. lU~ __ ~~ ~ill " .~-

Messenger of AUIb, (1M) said about himself

fi'Sur:emy AWlh nllj p'u\ii'fied the KinHnab from the chndr'91n of 15IM'ad: ~'Y]I i IPurifi.e,d f.h;eQuraish firo(ml a m.ong flh e Klnjjnah. purified the 18ana, Hms.hTmrrom omlongthe Quronsh olnd punijed me k-om' '~mong tihie' B,ont Hasihrrn,.' ,I, ,m

Noble ancestry does not ,grant status to dloseYibo are failures

1;1-" I:'L ste e'll hi 'en I"t Is l' eA to r.n~'" 'no." b BII!'II'~fi"t - - Le ..:I __ '!. ..I

I'; l:s.l!.~e ~I, "".II: w I_' :. ' ~ .. " I ,u. "" 'J.i~~ "',.' 'w.ili;;;, '. " 'can. II} _ UCtl'veu.

mom it, blllt when crafts pe.o:p~e utilize it tbey make it do 'wonders. Thus, when the Prophet (_), was asked who was the noll~est of pe~)pl[e he' replied:

"You ask me ,a;bout the qualities, of the Arabsi?~" They replied yes, 00 he s3id~ "The bes.tofthe,m, ,in (the days of)jahUipah are the bestof them in Islam if'tbey aeqaire knowledge. '';'i

I:J The' Prophef,s (.) biJ1h in such a distiI¥DlShed family' was, one of' the means to success whicb A]~1h (Ii) prepared for His Messen,lie'l'. Early Arab society was based on keen ttibalis.m which, led a tribe 'to extinction ill defe'Rce of i'ls. QiWJj] honour and the honour of anyone aUied to itF,Q,r a time lsllm fiemline-d under 'the p.rolection of these long-observed traditions. until it 'was able to stand on its own, feet, Just ,1lIlS, a plmt is no longer in mood of the pot when p"olws sturdy and taU. Even Lilt (~l' had wished, that such ttaditiorm were in existence when be felt tbe dan_Jer to his guests and could fwd noclan '1,0 ex:t,ood pm~ection to them, At, that po:int he .said, to his people:

.---

tA ~i)Wld f;ladnh nurated by M'!.!s~lim en mh~ a~dwJ'jfy oJW8!'iii'a. ibn Ai Asqa,'., It is d:l'o, decll1'e~ sOOImd ~:Y' A~ l'ill',midh],

::I:A-, ..... oil U .. A~II. _" ...... -..il ' .... ~ '1Iil, '1,4.;,.'-'Iir......,.,l jiiJ, .. ,,, ..... -"" . "';., ~' .. L...,._.hl f'.l a...., =H --- ..... ' .. f . '~

" '5.(!I~~ ~)Q!<lIIuJJli ~~!P.iw w.~ ,~'llIru,l!aI~ auy ,1¥,II~iliI~m m IlIiI~iiiU!ilW.n"l'o.' .l"l;VYI • iUralliilllWI'l~};'

(Arnd !hW5 :p,eopfe tame rushil1l 'towards him, ,and 511nce ,a,fo~edli'lemey' used 'W ,cottlmi,t crime' [sDdcmlY], he said~ '~O EtI,Y people!: Hlere ,are my' dau~mrs (:i.e. 'Eifl,e women of' d1lt! nadcnill~ '~hfe,' a~; [purer fo:r yom: :~ i ~y,ou rmjjU'ry 'tlhe:m l:aJWflUillly T. So f:e'(u AJI~aJh ,and degrace me not, wid1 re:ga rd to IiilY [guesU Is: tttJere not 2JirnOli1g' you 3J sIngle· righ['""In~nded ma.l1?t1· I (Qur~'an 'I'm: 7:8)

Thereafter he said:

'(W,olJld thalti~ II had strength to t,esi!St 'lOU or had some' strome ,sl!Ippon [almoFU~;YOIll]:t,~) (Qur''in I. I: 80)

01 In spite: of his, noble lineage, how,ev.er~. M:uh:amma.d (M) did, not b~.veg:realt w·eal't'b. It 'was th~,s laek ofweahh combined with m So DO bi~ imy which enabled him, to, acquir,e the best traits of ,aU classes of'people. The sons (If :n()blefmni1ie.s me led by theb wealth to, become htl'nughty, If they Iose thl s weapon, thaughjbey 'win still have tbeir noble traditions and status which they will sacdfice their utmost to maintain ..

One of'rhem says:: "Because (!If the vicissitudes of ' time which affect US; we 'resist ,any calamities for fear of being disgraced, Some 'of them nliiy find nothing shameful in annouoeing their poverty 01' letting the!ircircum;sta!l1lces be: known.Nevertheless, there are ombers who keep their grief to themsel ves and showa det i'" Ii 1'·1' I' d ,(; ". ' ...... ~Il.,'" ". '. ]'d'" rq. 1 . h- II .. , I'" '. '.. ~ A~ bd 1'11'l 'M .. \ 1 :t1' ni,'~'~:-,

.e~e~,m.m.e __ ,~.ace w I~ue wor.w ... LJ'UC . , ,131 o.ne w,as _;' .... _m:m~ , U!lt'\1aw!ll\J,

01 "Abdul Munalib was the, chief' of MaJtkah. :HQ\YeV'!e1'~ ·thi:s chiefdom which he inbe;rit,ed ended, with bimand was not passed on to his descendants ... Their ri vals for the leadership of Makkah vied fiercely with them and it seemed as. if Ihey would take it over entirely, Ina. few ye~a:Fs "Abd Shams came to power, Yet no sooner had another fe-w yeafs passed, thantheleadership fe~~, :~n~o the hands of Abo. S,~fy!n ,and remained out of the control of Bann Hashim,

Q! ~ A bdullah was Ule youngest of ~'Abd!u1 M~naU'b"5l .s;Q![IDS, and

,"""', . I

wasgreatly loved. by him. He marriedhim to Aminah bint Wahb

and, then~ieft him to, make his own way in life. After only a, few

months of marriage .~ A.bdullah left om a trading j ourney, and as. ~t was summer, be 'went with at car,avO!J], to Syria. He never remrned, The: caravan 'carne back. with the news of his sickness and, soon aft!!,! came the news of his death, Aminahwas awaiting her' strong, y'Outhfu] husband, to' 'tell him the news of her pregnancy and the joy 'they 'would soon have of their first ,chi~d .. However, fate for a higher :pW'1)J()Sle ended these sweet dreams, The 'wife who was once envied now became a widow, and she began counting the days when her only child, an orphan, wotdd

b bom i . thi , . d' .', h'll m',!C:'

e oorn Into ' u IS. unpre ncta me ute .•

o .A~. Zuhri. reportsthat '~,Abdul Muffa~:~b sent his son ~,Albd.ul1l!1llh to

'y' thr'''IJ..· b .. :L.. ,. f d , Ai h dl" d h 0- it.

. " a' 'j Ii} to I uy lueJf :mUon. 0', "" atesane .e,·, ~.'e t Jere.. .' .' tuers ;say

he was ill Syria from where he travelled to Yathrib with. the' 'camrvM. of tb.e Quraish, In .Madinah he fel I. sitek and died and. was bunted in. the precinct 0.(,a1 Nabigha. A:~ Ja'di.He di-ed at the age of 2.5 years and before the Messenger of AUah (.-"-::) was born.

01 Muhammad' s (M) birth. at Makkah was, ordinary. There WIlS notllilin,g in :it tCiaJUract: aHention or canse astonisbment, The historians have not 'been able to pinpoint precisely the: day"

'I!.. ' f"hi' " birth H . .. t' d

month or year 00',. us bmn '. owever, most sources are InC • .i.ne·

to the yeaf' 'when Makkah was. attacked by the Abyssinians, which corresponded to :570 of the Christian Era. The date ofhis b.i:m1ih is set at 12 Rabi 'i a~ A wwal :; 3 BH tlhat is, before the ij'ijlra,

o The exact date of the Prephet's (M) birth has no religious siB!1jfi.'c:aJl.tc,~ in b:~am~ and. 'the' celebrations held on this occasion

'Id ~I di " hieh h' , '1..: . d" ., 'h h' ('1:.

are a. wone ,wy tra mon w. ~,c~ w , ' 85., .not.Jung to" .0 W.~t; t: e oj::r~;ali

Ii an. Some sources report that premonltlons of his pro:p:hethood occurred ·w.hen he was born: fourteen balconies of Khosrau's palace collapsed; the fire worshi pped by lhe Zoroastrians 'went . out; and the ehurches around Lake Sawah crumbled after the lake dried up, A] Busiri saysr'

The event of his birth disclosed the purity efhis origln O'Wimt a good beginning and a, good. ,e(]Jd.~!

llmtday when the P,ersmns perceived

The premonition of'disaster and destructioo, Andthere appeared cracks :rn'D the palate: of Kho\sl,a!u~ Disunited J~sJt like the helu;mm,e:m cf'Khesrau,

And, die; firew1ent Olllt in. regret :for i.t~

An.dltbe: river dried. 'W;P'"

And S81wail 'became sad, at fhe drying up .of' its~ake,

And. everycne com~ng to it for a. dr,~nk fe~'~ an,gry with thm'F.st

These words are the \VfO.mlg: expression of at correct idea. The birth of'Mahammad (~) was truly a proclamation ofdl]).e- 'fan lof 'tyrarmy and the end of its reign, 80 also wasthe birth of Moses (.). Do you not see tlll)a.t: when AUilih ($I) described Pharaoh's ty.nmny ,owrbis.peap,~e and announced. His :i:ntentiiom ,of'ffeeiD,g the, slaves and ·the oppressed, He unfolded to us the story of fhe hero wbo would u1I1.defiaike tl1is task?' AUin (9') ,SifYS:'

(Andl W,e bupiredl the· mD~her' of Moses:.,) (Q!!lr",an. 28,: -7)

OJ Ml!1lhammad':s (iIti) mission. was tbe most mememous of'all :revolutw,ons :1a1.ovm. to thewo.dd,.wEdcll ~ndedook a. meatal and :p .. iiCM. UbemIDio.n of .mdin.dL 'The 'Qur'~in reemitedfbe most upright of men ever knownin bist,ory and d:~r-eCit,ed. their efforts tewards disposing of aUtlhe; dicmtors one by orne, After this ~jjJbetatiion from the yokes of dicm~ors:mp,~ when the :peopl'f:wished te outline what 3Cm3Uy happened, they imagmned 'Ihe occurrence

0- ,f'- these ·p-·re··m- ~·W· .""t';An~'IIl' arnd .j rnvet'llitpdl· ~""Ie'~ ·f\i'jj! ,~,t "~~m·,c c . M······ -··I·,I...,g·ffij·m- -'!lid I

~_n. "',.. .. . .... 1. ''''!',,", ',llQ c _~_·.c_' Mit._ ULII;,ol ._. !!;«,_; ;,l! 1i'V I.~ ,,,,W,t,... ,I".. !!U]_IiiU.II.l. 1i;lI ...

('~:) .is not in need of' any of fhis~ tile great :rul.e 'lhat he p:lays now in. 0'. pr,eremt ,D,ge makes us 1'biDk lUtJ!e 0.(' suehtales

CJ ~,Abdul :MuttaUb reeei yeo the: news of his grandson I sbirth wi.th e:x:uoor,arnce and J':O'~ •. Mavbe it comoenset -d.~l?m {o-· h!s~(r,

---- ------------- -----,-J ---J---- -----l"'· ....... e,-1 ..... r, 1 ,s n

w110 had died. in tile. pri.me of :Iife and. so hemmed his ,affection.

fromtb.e :,ast:~() the newcomerand showed pride and coneem in him, It was ~azingthat he shou]d 'be :1·ns,p1ired. to' name his

grandson Muhammad {M),'~ a name probably ins:p:i~ed by a. noble angell The Arabs heard this name for the firs,t time and they asked the gr,andfather 'why he did not choose the nsme of one of his ancestors,

He r-epUed.:, '~'I wanted. Allah (It) to praise him in the heavens and mankind. to p:raisc:him on 'earth .. This, wish was apereeption of the future" for :0.0 one of AUah 's (II) creation is so deserving: of the senti·me!:ll!ts. of thalllks. and praise :far 'wha!t !he· aceemplished as mueh as that Arab P'fophe·t, Muhammad. tM),.

a ,Abo. Hurairah (_) nmra:ted lhat the Prophet (M) said;

"100 you not wonder at how Allah II:.) diV·erts nom me, the curses ,and! obuses of fhe' Qun::3i'shf: They obuse Mudhammam olnd II om ,MlIhOlmlmad ~'~_)I!'i,jI

QI Hcwever.jhe barsh reality st:run remained i:n ~spi.te of the ~OVhlg grandfasher's aUentioD .. , Muhammad (~} was an t)r.pbao;. bom afi,er his father had left this wodd. So be ,id If we: ;suPPolsed that 'i .Abdu:~lab bad. remained alive, fhen 'what 'woldd he :hav'e: done for' bis s()n? Could, he have trained him to become 8, Prophet? Of

"",:n,1111"~e·. net '·;h"e· fio;!;th··.e', Is o n',-ly 018' .... ,o"r:' 'i'jI num .L.~, '0- f ~noi"!rit·nr·~ W', "b"I~,iI"I:b !Ji.iULUIi.:)'·· . ~'"'!" "'_" !.J,g/l ~ ~ '_', '_'.' . !!w -'" a. '_ -_=_,l1eJj . J.~LU .11:11 . !I,~,_"

determine the: mtut'f: of a cbild.Even if prophetn,ooo could. 'be ,acquired througb effort, his father' s 'being, alive would not make it more achievable, so what about when . lt is in facta selection [:mooe: by' A.U9Jil 01)]1

,01 While Y,aqob 'w,8saUve' be 'was provided (or. He reached old. age' and acquired experi-ence and wisdorn. In ,fact·~ be was granted pr·o:ph.ethood.. QDe day he looked round and did not see Yus.uf (~) next ~o him: ·he. had Jost bim. in tb.e most 'cmcial period o:f bis U:fc .. YUsuf(ltiil) was a yorun,g lad fun ofzeal ,aod energy, and in. spit,e of the corruption 'wbicJrn prevailed inthose

-

.jI].1i -. ,I.' . ,t., _,",u. .ill I ~ 111.... b' I",.to. • 'hi

ie: give hllm ~lIIl'IS lla.rJ1l.eon ~~;ie :se.y.el~I!!II!1 'lj,I)a.y ,ilhliI1iF' ~,!~S! 'iltn iI,IIU~1i CI~!(;lI!mOJs.llli1g 111m.

:j: - ..II " ....... '1.. d b '8 1L.ib. ''II''Il.. oifh. "I!.. . __ . ..l' .. ji •• ..I1i. ..

A OOUQu.:,a.!nUI il'ePQlite: -,y ~ 'Uil\,nlli1'. ~ ICiC '~lIlJr,EIIl!llili 1\lI~' 'to !>ia1~Vi8tu:I!;Qll1iiJi:m Ol'le:

rD~.am:el{¥orthy). ingcad of M'UJliarru~ad. (., (the pmiseworihlY) wbem R'fmij:i'ilg 'to ~be· Pw,bet (": •. ) >(TrdfiSlal1or}.

soc;~edes '~~OlJgh whieh he passed, his, inner being still .·i ..... ! ·ft.·,;'\I\f ·~.d-I withnietv 9".-111 d·1.,leJ,~,ti'[y t » H. e 'Wi8J;~ 11'·II~'e~.a. bi-'~ip~'~. ~a~lp'" on

over [) __ e _ ... hu pLj_;lj,~'y~,L"' __ .. __ _'-11 _,Ji'ii., __ . hlj::l~h L_~,u .. 'V.,

a dark night..\Vhenfa.the:r and sonmet again.Ya ~ qub SaJ,W his son as at St3!UUcJl prophet

QI ~'Abd!!1Ual1PaJs~ed away; 1eaviog: his $,100. an orphan. Nev,e;rthe~ess" this crphan was being, :prepar-edfium, 'the: fi-rst moment fur ,8) noble task, He 'was being; prepared as 'the :~eade;r of ,aUlhe: :[~.g,hteous 'people chosen, by ,AUih (fi)., FarJtber .m~d grandfather, .~e~at~"ile.s and friends, heavens andearth were no~hing: but meanswhich .AUih (~) utilized. toaceomplish His decree ,and to shower His bounty on 'the one whom He' himself fashioned,

01 All1~.nab showered her ~,f[e-Ction 0.0 her son.patlenrly awaiting the best nurseswho 'wouldJ come from the: desert, seeking to be the g.uardians of the chi kiren of the ~ob.U~:~y," These bedouin women who went ~o Makkah forthispurpose were mookiI1,g fbi~' sustenance and good pay. Muhammad (~) however, had no father' from whom gifts could be expected, nor did he have weal th to attract them. 80 if i s ne wonder theft thesewent nurses turned away from him mild sought other chi ldrea. Haltmah, daughter of Abu. Dhu'aib ,of the tribe of the Banu Sa'd, was one of those who came to, M,akklh, wi shingto return wiih an infant who would 'be her 1l'l:e(UIDS of sustenanee ... A:~first she' was n.ot pleased to take the orph~ll~ ill though when sbe 'could not find any other ch i ld 81m,!;:· felt ashamed of return] flg horne empty .. '-1" ded s~, .sh ..- i'~' back · ... n, A""· mina and took Mubammad ·('-4tl;;>·)1

_lanUJO . . il s"e went liJi" ....... _ VU' n_ _ _ _ _ _ .. __ ., _ v _ _ _. , iUl ~.,,,"_ __ .... ~

from her.

01 These was untold. blessing inhiseoming 'with her, Before that, her life had been one of hun,ger and hardship. Now A.~l~ (it) showered His mercy on her and bestowed on her :m~ny benefits: :[b.e ,anima~s started giving p~~enty ofmilkafter 'they :hildbeen dry, and h ,,,",ill' ·t ife b eeame one of ease andfertil ']"~'y.. H-a]~1 n .) ah h er

!QU~,w~·_, ,:,,~1'1I( , .. Wi,', ',.'~l~~ : ~ ."" .".:' 1'U'l, .~~i~! RIl,~, _' ,W,~,~,,'- w .ll~· r '~.,. , ':, I~",~ ,,~.~'

husband and. her son fen that thei rretum from Mekkah was one of the bl.essIn,g;s. and gai n, nO~·IJOv,e'rty and orphanhood, They thus became very attached to' the child aJnd were proud of him.

QI The upbrin,gi.ng of children in. the' desert- where they can. play in ,the pastures of nature and ,enj oy its pure air is best for the natural development of 'Ibe:lr bodies and minds and, the freeing of their '1 h.o'Ugh ts and feeUngs from prej udices U is unfortunate thwt Sandi children should ~ive in suffocating apartments in build rungs all crammed together as boxes, sealing in their inhabi tants and preventi ng them from enj oying and breathing the refreshing air, Thereis no doubt that one of the causes of the D .. eurosi s whw.'ch has affected modern civil ization ] s its be] ng so unnatural and steeped in artificiality. W'eru:~erefo:re: appreciate the jendency of tile people of'Makkah to make the desert and its wide expanses the nursery for 'their chiklren Many educational p5y,cbo~ogis.ts would like to see nature aJS the first cradle for children ;00 that their faeultiesmay develop in w[th the realities of creation :~n which they 'find themselves, However ~ this seems 110 be a dream :hatrd '~O realize.

The O,p,e':lling' 6f,t',be Propher's l(~) ,C'hes,t

Muhammad (~) spent five' years with the, Banu Sa'd during which time he' developed. a healthy body and grew fast These were the first five 'Y,e8!rS of his life so it is not expected that anything strange should occur in that time. The authentic accounts of his. life, however" 0,0 record so incident which came '~O be known as the opening ofhis chest, Anas f'-) reports:

~'Jibr'il (~) came 'to Muhammad (M) while he was playing with other' bOY8, Jibrrl (~~) :beld JhJm,. threw him down, opened his chesttook out his heart and removed a lump from it.

He said:"~T\hi8< is Satan's port jon. ofyou"

Then he washed h~m h1 a basin msde of gold with the water of Zamzan1., Then he sealed bis chest and returned him to where' he was, The: boys. ran '~,o his, mother (meaning his nurse) and shouted that Muhammad ('~) had been killed, They came to

him and found. him pile.'!!

10 111-· "·d hi 'Ill.. d U' m- ",,1.. ..:II 'I:,.;. 'I!. b ..;II

. . ilS :~nCic. ent, 'W "~C-u searec ,l,.lilw'Lmw.l ,on", .. w.er JlLUSI' lanU" we

fmd. recurring when Muhammad (M) bad become a 'Prophet iud was over' 5:0 'Y',.ears old, M,jHk ibn Sa'sa'ah reports that the:

" II.,

Pl': ,j·h· st (~')I ·t··· nld, the 'b" '. t' rih··· . igh 't' .. ,f-·:th: .' I' - : .... , . ··:1.' _-" .. '- •

op, e., ,~, OUl_ _. __ c.m ,a. all. ,~ .e Dl,., . '. 0 . e. sra , saying.

"~Whllle I was in ,AI ijatim perhaps he said ~:n AI I:Ia.jr recliniag between sleep and wakefulness, someone caine to me ..... ,,..,.A spllt m ie from h--~,1'I~ '~'ii"iJ1 her l;!>' (m """~""'~iI""l'lJ fro am the hollow '. of'his

W,W '~._. _ ' , ",. .tIll[l. a- .... ,1 rw ',"v" ._. ~ . '. J ,,¥~,LWJIJ.We ' .~"" _- w . -,w_ . . .... .JIJ. ,lIJ] .i:ll

neck Ito his stomach) and extracted my beart, I was brought a basin of goldf ned with €aith, myheart was washed, then filled

., '., ,. dl ... ' -:n'

WI,tb. It" then It was retume to l,tS posmon,

O If "11 . h .' f ,.,,:m, d i th b d d ld l...""" ~ . - ,ev~ ~ welle t -_Ie secretions 0', a &flIl_ In'' . e - o,_y ,an_ IC~OlL'_ ~

prevented by stopping the secrerions, 'I):F :w f ,g'ood were a substance 'which c~ould 'be poured into, the he a'". as fuel is PIJW'ed into an aeroplane to make, it fly", 'then I should say the ,~.i~e['aJ sense of the words should, be taken, Evil and good are beyond the physlcal, however, and. in. fact it is, obvious that il has, more to do 'wilhthe spiritual s.ide of people" If it LS a matter

.' tho 1" '. i thi 'b" 'b . iI.., •• '111 h i

coneernmg tne Imuts 'Wi'I: .10. W ;!lCl-, '~[OOe: SOw ,II as to operate 'OF, In

other words, if the :study takes us to tb.e polnt where WIt: must discover the means by wbich. the: seel motivates its o'liter

i i/1' ,l1l:'I '!1.....:iI 1!..1 d' ,'I.., '.' .' .""

COVI~J'lng 0'1 nesn ano U 00 " the.n It IS, :00' useparsumg Jt Since

thi s is beyond. our capachy of discovery.

II;;JI There: is Oll'e thing which we can extract, fromthese badi.ths: that the Providence does not Jeave ,im outstanding human being like Muhammad (~) to be the target of subtle whispenngs which cause confusion among other people, If there are W,3;V''eS of evil fining, the aonOs.pb,eft and if there are hearts quick to absorb them, or are swayed by them, despite thiis, however; the bems of fire Prophets, (~:) by A111h~s care of them. wUI. not receive, 0(' be

affected by thesecurrents, Thus '~'he effons of theprophets will be dj.roclled towMdsoomstaJlt,progre~s, ,md not resistance '~O ,evU;, 'towards IMJtifying the people from evH~ not :SJe\lf-pUJrifica1don~ since AUIh (~1bas a1re'ady cleansed them ofp~),~~ution,.

g ',A,bdulllh ibn, ,M'as,~[td reports, tbat tbe Prophet (M) said;

i"Ihe'r'9 ~lS, nobody o't aill wlh;o 1~11'!JS not been 'ClSS;i:griH;!d a

CClmlponion from 'the J~nn and COlm;PCIn:non frorn 'the iainglel~,. 'lnhey Q,sked: Ii And YOl! too, Messenger o~ Ailialh, h~fid~~i!i

IHe replied, Ii And me ·~'oo., S,ut AII~h f ~l hos helped me .~:o overcome hi'lml and he has s ILJbm~'lh~:d. Now he orders me to ,o,nly ,good f1hin 91$. !i'8

J:n. another SadHh~,A~ishah reports that t'he Prophet f~) asked her:

"Wete youjealous?"

And she replied: "~Wb.y shouldn't someone Hke me' be jealous of someone Uke yO'u?"'~

'The Prophet (~) then said '~O her: "Your devilhas cometo

Y· -u "t. 01•

She $aid::'~ls the.itt\e a devil 'within me?i"~

i"f' '~'h d "'E 'L,~ d'l "~ '. '1:.." 'Ik, '. '~' ne're,pw:ru,e; :: '. '., I. ·veryone ImS 21. " evu WIltr~~n, JlilD1" '.

She said; ~,~ And you?"

'He said: "Yes, But AIJ~ (Rf) hasheiJped me '10 overcome him

d 1!.. 'l!..~ ... 'd' d'I" 9

an. .ne nas surren ere.' ,

Perhaps the sm,g~ificance of the ,ijadith w:bich tell sof the incident of 't'h,e opening ofthe Prophet's (M) chest is 'that they high~.~"gbm: the care 'wj,mh.wh'~ch AU,ib (Ii) ,Dortmed His Prophet (~) .and. made him from childhood free frern the a.erects of human nature and worldly '~empta.tio.ns\.,

n A'J V''Lt'':'"'cc'i I" ' " 'Ii, d th . L':;, .... t· .. ·· ",.'. ,j!.~', '.". 'd' ineid ... r;t that i ~;h':, W ,."" hflazllll. q uo"e·, ie rUS. men,lI.l.orne, mDC'l. en .. ~ um ISJ. iii. ie

ope/nint: offhe Prop:het~s, .eM' dlest during chiMhood" in his commentary on Chapter '94 ofthe Qur'-'ttn:

Ii A'.· AI ffi"m . A)",,!Ii. . . , ... .111 II.. 'M 'I"

, '. $[Jllll'!i.ll ~.~3l(J1~!l!!ln!mlt~ 11,Ii.f '.'cm<.! 1m •

• !jI,ii ... -.II D' ,.IIr;1.. "",,,_..,..,_.d: li..y' ~.iI"I .... I,'"

,M, SlOIIQi!!!.YI"J;!~!,1lI1 ~~:~~!,'!;>J;!!: I.!! .. ~~jjJlOI!;:jJlm ..

'(H.ave W,erIDot c.3iusedl your diest to dUa'(e) (Qm::',~~, 94:: 1.)

The' dilation of th,e chest '~O which nlJese iy,alt (verses) refer arenot the result of a surgicaloperation carried olWtby an a:mlgem or a doctor, The metaphorical expressions in the: Sunnah deserve some attentionat thi s point, ~ Ai'j,shab. reports that some of the Prophet's (~) wives said:

o 0 Messenger of AUih, (_), w:hidl of us w~ll 'be the quickest to catch upwith you (thatt is, die after you)?"

o He replied: "That one: among y,ou who has t'he~;ODg~st band," So theytook a reed 'to measure their hands and it W,IlS Sandah who had '~he ~c,"gest hand. Afterwards we learnt that ,(1 ~,o,n:g; hand meant the !ch.arlt'ywh~,e:h, sbegave out She loved to give charity and she was the qulekest of us to catch up 'Wru,'~~l him i 10

011 :Mubanmnad (~) reterned 'to Makkah iafte~' spending some wonderful yc,ars ilrn the desert, He returned to find a :~'!Jvjjng

,:I!;Ifi.,,·· - who ,-Ii .. d,,·,·' .. te d herself 'to" i him-and an aged o'-,-'I-,.:Il,c;s···t'n!..er

m,o,~w,wer w., CD ue,~ca, e _r~", ." C ',_, n a ~FanUlL~JL ~

who sought consolation in him for his SO"~Il1o hadpassed aW:aiY in the prime of H fe. However t days refused to al ~:ow him trancn i'~ l ~ it 'IU" ,;1I:nl0n·!DF.·. th Q;['~j:t; tend .. ler hearts ,arn:d'i AI"Ii:e by ,i!"IIi~"I."f;I; denrived

r~U!'''''J.'"!.Id,, ii.,,) """'" ,0' ..,..""'''''. _U ,"", ",- _,J!!'~'"' -, - ..... ,,~- " .... -~"". ",i?", ""_.

him, of them, Amn[]ja]it~h,ou,ght of visiting her husband's grave in

'Yathdb in faitbfnlness m his, memory ~ 3Jod so s'he left: Makkalt on this jOlmuruey of 500 kilometres, 'tal~dml~2 'with her sun. Mu h am nnad .(~.)c·'1 and her msid U'. '1-'1"'1'0"1 Aim ·~ift' 'Abdullsh did not

" .,.",.". ~_, _' .. '. ',-' ~,dltU. l:W~ ~~IL~~, U, ", . _,,1,,1. "_" ,PJ,~.!!, , , __ '~" W,J, U,Il._ ~ Iii.

die 'm a. strange land '!bul: it was theland ofhis n1a'lt,ema] uncles, '~heBamliuN aljj ail". IbnAthir reports.

Hashimw,en'~ on ,atrading,nri p to Syria, OIl his w,a.y he:

!Q Atl a.n'lhendc ij~di[i:h DiW11l~'OO O.'Y 'B1jjk~4tU w«u,iligh 'M;~.rll'lqJ fron1 i A~t5ha!ll"Hlis, V'fifSio.l1i. :lInm\"C,'v~r,'. reads: "She was the Glui(;~ of iUS to ca!{:h 1II1P '\l,i'ith him atid~hell)ved III) giv{l: chariqr, M~im alse !wralted lhisl:1':a.dmth '~hmugh 'A"is:t1~: billilt r'-llih~ru:Jd AI HWm 'lhroLl.~ j Am~M. 001111 ,i))fw:~(lim :F'!;>POr!1e'd i~:frQ;i:n ·'.A,~ ishM, :1 ii'iI d~e']U' :fil:att:i3~i~n,~h£!ll~IThJ 'tHae~y say: "the ;Qn~'IlIj,ri~h~h~ looges!' haufld ,amno:ng: us 'was Zannabi because :s11ii,e used ~:oW'Or[1k with,

.h~' litmds ,tuld give, chrnity. This iI)][I~rndlict$ BiUkhM,t; r'~lt :tom ~-c:h we ~r 'dw~ ""~.",.I":l" ," . .b,~, 'fi ,M' t,.· .-I:',. ,I£i''''f' 'Ihe '11ilN' ni.fil i4d1ii:i>'). BiliJt:liliiii - ] -. :!I ,tl·"'.. ',:i"" .. ,i~fi: Jl:rn.n

~Ll1.ll'WiU WM 111/1;; .lr::!!I, '10 !I;.!I Ltil a~,~~_ _ _ _ ,_, ~,,Jr~,-,' \~, ~ __ ' . 5 .5 _,' __ !!il!!!!!l m_;;!~._ ='0_ ,~!bI_,~

~1~:ruJ:"~S: iil1:'i;'es~:iig;atiQI1i ~I!J'I;N'S tl1l~~:M'I!II:dim':s '~!:C(J'r! lS '~he. ,a1!!theID1~ic eae, 'Wboi ever wi~e.s to see 'lillie fiJ~I~ iirm'!Ji~Ngat~fl:}r! C~ fefret l.Q ]b~, ljlajarP$ F'(lfi!l ffl BarL The' buirmsib' rererrn~~:o ~efCi's Dil1t. Jahs'll" :1101: Bm[1~ KtnJUVil!OiIil ~ sr!)m~'poopie~ave mistlndersiOM

slopped in Madtnah and stayed with ~ Amr ibn Lubaid of the Khmzraj '~ribe" There he saw' Salma, daugbter of 'Amr em_rl fel ~ in love with, her. He married her under' a. stipulation made; by 'her :fai~be:r: 'that she should givebinh. 00' her children only in the home of her relatives, HaShim went on. his way, and onhis return he consummated the :mmiagc with her, thentook her to M',akkah where she conceived a child, 'When the time for her delivery approached, be took her back to her relatives and went 'to 8yda. He died in Ghaza and Salma gave birth to ' Abdul M uttalib, who remained for' seven years in Msd.inah.

01 Muhammad <_) spem about one month among hJs mother's relatives. near his fa~her"s. grave, andthen he set: out to return to Makkah . From '~be start of the jo'Umey~ however" his mother '10 'I' "'1' Sh dO' d Ab I . himal . h l~ecam.[e serious Y ill" :e·i:m.e:. at .··~:wa, eavmg mm atonewrtn

the bereaved maid, He was then .5 years 0 f'age This new mwsfbrtun[e caused. old scars to reopen and sharpened the feelings of tendemess which ",AbdillJl~AI~JwtaHb had lor '1 he: young boy, From then on he never left him alone, 'but. took him along to all his public gatherings, When he sam on his mat beside the Kaba he :heID.d the 'boy close while an the elders sat around him .. Abdul Mu~taJ_rub lived [a. long time , and it is said that he died at the age of 120 years. Nevertheless, when he dl~ed, Muhammad (~) was only nearing his eighth year .. Before he died, 'Abdul Muttalib thought it best 10 entrust the bOy':S1 uncle Aba Tilib with. the care oftbe boy.

D Abo. TaUb carried OMit his, duty toward his nephew to, the best of his ability, He included. him among his sons and even preferred rum to them. For over forty y[carrs he' continued to sUP'PO'l1 and protecthim .and to befriend or oppose on his behal f~ Mnhammad hJa) grew up' in Abu Tililb"[s horne and. acquired a deep understandiag of his environment, Heinsisted on slba:r~n,g 'the - burdens of life wl~h his uncle since Abu [.ilib was not we.a~.thy and bad. maul' c"hi]:dren. Whe,n .Abo Talib decided, 'to tnve~to Syria for trade, :Muhmnmad (a) :~nswsted on goi:ng, wi til him al though he was only about. :1.3 y,ears old.

BabJra"th,e Monk

There are no authentic accounts of the dletaJ~;s of this j ourney, Travelling is one of the most fertile gateways to knowledge and has th.e deepest effects. The lessons would. not have escaped OJ. person like Muhammad ( .. ) with his keen mind, and pure heart in all dutt he saw at home 0.[' on. I'd 51 travels It :is certain, however, that be did not, go, out '00' studyreli,gi(m or phUosophy nor. did he meet anyone w.i.tbwhom be: CQu]J.d discuss these maUers." The histolY books relate some strange occurr-ences which happened to him, such as Ills eneoumer with the monk Ba1)[ra. This mao, saw in his face and on his, back the signs of pr:opbetbood,

He asked. .Ablllilib, ~"Wbt is ,this boy to you?" Aba TIHbrGpHoo.., ~~my' son,"

He ~id~, nHis father sho1J~d mot 'be :l1di'v,eP'

Abo TaJib then sald, ~~Infact be is the son of my brother who died. when the child's mother was still pregnant, with him,

TIle monk said: "Now you. have spoken the '~ru!th" Take him back tLO your- country ·and 'be [careful of'the Jews over him, ,',

CJI This story may be authentic since the _~ews of a Prophet .after J esus is to be 'found. Em the Bible oftbe- Christians, Ever since they :[ejected M1\IbafJmmad~8 (~) message they 'have been 3w-mting the expected prophet but 'he wi] 1 never come because he has already come .. V\l11etb.er ~lbis, story of Babim, is authentic, or not," the fact is 'tim! it .Ieft no after-effects, for neither' did 'Muhammad (M) start to aspin, to or prepare for prophet hood, after hearing the monk nor did. the 'uaveiner.s in the caravan spread dds mews. It was for.gott,e'n IS, if it never happened, and 'dds makes it-more ~jjkely to be w3ui:hemtcic."

--

1.1 It ]!j indeedlsu!thenJtit booause All litinnidbli nmTatmi! on tile authority of Abu M_

A~I ,A_/.!I..'~, ... ~ .. nd L .. .........;:l!!~,,;1 'I't .",., ,--,- 1:1,--":'..:1 U .. ,.t,n'I., ~, • ..011.. ... """""l'-"'" )' '''-<11',., lt h"" . ,,,,,,,,'1"'..1 ..,k--"-

~ .MiN1,;;UW W.L 1.1 ... ~'I!IU~ ,,4lIiilJ:iI. ='IJI'IjiIU ~ . .rg,yilil,l~. ~"WI.!!.!~_!!!!L_~""1 . ~_., I_~ a,,;;1"'''''''~~ 1I,.'1 .• m;n,

as Allami said, Th_ la~ 81150 ,swd ~"Ih;e memri;on ,of Aba Baki' (~ ) Mid BUill (., ~n ~t :is :mm :moo.aDedJ (i.e. Do.t a1!Jtrnmtic),'" I also add -bt AI Bm:mr narrated. it with tbe rti!J~,owmg 'WQrds::: '''His ll!i!1d~ ,~Iid 'ii!!:1!JUi.!!iI willh b'hn.,ii'J

Q It is. also repO:d,ed that 8! pad.y ,ofRom.anhor,ge_mem came to :B.aJ;dra. as :if'they 'were' SCM"1}hiol: for 9Ometlrlng.

When he asked fhem what they [came :fa,r, they said, "'We hav.c come because a ,Pfopbet wiU appeal' tlhls, month and men have been. sent in.aU. directi.o.ns to arrest him. ]J,a]lJta ,qued 'with them until be 'was able to convince them dlat their search was fuitil~.

a The investigators! Who are these invesligmtors.'? And where did 'the: fabrieation come from?' This aooolUrmt is jn the abovemendon_ro Hadnb, narrated by .Aba 'Musl (.)an.d you :h.ave seem that tbis, is authen.tic.. 'What. is wrong in this, similarity to. the Cbrlstims. if it is preved to be authentic'" Does mot the sto:ry of

'Dh 1l..'~ 'I)..,~ M' • d-' 11··:ll 'I)., ~....... L.~ 'bl ,

.t I_arao.u;iii searen :".O!' ", ,,'Io\ses m or,· er to 1(i!,1. , JJJ.iUliw~. WIDe - comes, In

the Qur'an, resemble what. the Bible-writers :saJy? Should we: then. reject. this SiOllY because of'fhis resemblance?

No. Altb,Oll,gb E appreciate 8:beikh N,~iruddln~5: commests, I shan quote here what some of the scholars ,[Jld :mvestigatO'r8 say about this story:

I:JA] Jazari !il,tates; as ,alr:l;:ady iqUOted by Sheilldl.N~';mddill: "Its chain is, sound and its narrators are those of tile: aurlhenti,c tradition Of' ODe of'them .. But the mention of AbU Bakr (.) and Bi]a~ ( .. ) In .~t is not ,aJDl~h.enti[c accordingto ,our im8mS'~ and this. is true. The PMpnet's (M) ,age ,at that time was 12 years ,and Abu Bw (.) was younger ·than he by two year-s, and perhaps BUil (_ ) was not born yet l"

[] Al Dbahabi says. fn Miz:anul' J"tida'l;' "It is said that one of'the 'proofs that this Sadltb is not .Quthen.ti,c is the statement ~!iAnd Aba Bakr (.), sent Bi]li. (.) with him' BUi] (.). was Dot yet created and ,Abu Bekr (.) W,aJS onlya :yaullgboy.t.t

1:11 The ,aD~bor of :l'uhfillul Ahwadhl :s:ays: ~'~AI Dhahabl considered this ijadnh "0 be week because of' me statement; 'And ,Abo Ball" (.r6) sent .B~lll ( • .) wi'd~ him/ since AbU. Bakr (.) bad not: at that time purchased ,B.Hi~. (.)..

01 Ibn Ijajar says in his, Al Isabah: ~'Iitsnarralors, are tr-u.stwodhy and i:t loontains notbing q1l1'estiol1a])le except this point It is

82 From Hirth to' Proph'eJhood

possible that this piece was talken. from another' HaJdIth and insened here' by one of its narrators unintentionally.'

There is a. similar statementto this in Al Mawahib A.I La,du"fi'nt.)NJh.

n Ibn al Q" , Z-:-:·1!::.l /-'11,1 .'#~~ "I Alii T" "'dil..' 'i Ib 'k' ~ . ulil. aw I,. a;,YYlm. says. In "'eUU-U IltJ(l ~: .'. n·; .w .. _. ~m1t' ~_~I s 100,·.,

as well as others :wt ls stated that Abo Bakr ,(.,) sent Bila~ (.) wffi.th him ... This is elearmistake .. , Bilal (.) was probably not in existence and even if he 'was. be rcertainly was not wIth the Prophet' s (~) unc~e or with .Aba. Bakr (.).'" See T~lIIf(l'lul .Ahwndhi.

N·O'w. Ibn Katlur says in his s,jfrah,: ~'~Thi s ij,adlth is narrated by

All T" idh A] l·'II:l'1:~l~"·, A- 1 B' "i1J.. ,. ,.11 I1IL 'A' ,'II .. ' II' ("

_w. -.Il1nn~ ul,:. ~.IlI:~lm~ .c . .."B'b,II)RqlanU:.vn -~s-aJ\,lr, Jl say,. I,.l"e.

Ibn .K,aUlIr says) tbls Hadlth is unu.sua~:: i:1 is mursal (i,e, the $a,l,Jab r who narrates it does not say U comes from tbe Prophet (;fi) btU this may be und.erslood,)., Abo :Mus9J AI Asha'ari only came to Madrnah in ,the year when Khaybar was conquered (7 A:H); so in any case it is. .mursaL

n Theref .11. H' d,·:i· 'Ill (conta 's_, "

'-I rnererore the r.~aL',iiQl is mU'(JI;a..tOinta~ms. a! weaa pomt

according to the principles of the I~:adrm, scholars) asserts: that this Ij,adlth is fabricated, similar to' what the gospel-writers say about some peop,~,e wiho were looking For Jesus soon ,after his bir .... l in ord ,ail" '~O- 1~::M him, Th e Christians '1"0"0' k ~,:I!..~ri:!l from the

,w U,I , ~, :'_ ~llJ IU. JU w.~, ,wow. ..... - , \~:W, ..-. .u ili I~. _ .~ :......:: UJ,~,..;t ,JJ ,", " , " .I~W~

Buddhists who say that the Buddha, when his virginmother gave birth to him" 'was sought 'by his enemies who wanted. to ki ~] himl

r:J The. scholars ofthe SUmll1ah. ~n.vesti2,a.lJte all statements from both the poim ofvi.e\-:V· of their meaning as well as their chain of narrators, and if they are unable. to veri.fythe:ir 8utltenti.city they set diem aside, ,Many In)1hs have become attached '1..0 the biographies of the prophets and if they were: to be scrutinized accordj.flg tothe rules laid down infhe I:Iadlth scienees, they wo'U~dbe proved ooautbentic and '!they couldbejustifiably discarded,

A- 'L'"#: f'T"1 ,be 0:, ,OL

M'Oh,arnmad (M) returned from '~h~s I:dp to resume his lire of toi] wi vb his uncle, for itwas not the habit of men. to sit :~d'~,e. The prophets, before llid'm used. to eat from 'tl]we labour of their O'\N11 handsand th,ey did different crafts '~O earn their 11 ving, m:t Is. correct

thaitMuihammad (~)wDrked as a sh ~. d in his early life,

Of this he said: "I used. to graze sheep foe the p eople of Makkah in return fora, few carats, n, is alsonue thaJ.~: a number of proplle~s wed 'to gra,lz,e: sheep, m:! Perbaps Ibis was: what, accustomed them, 10 Ieadership ofthe people: gentleness to the we8!k ,and, wakefulness, £:0'[' their protection.

Perhaps t'~is. was 'what accustomed them to leadership of the peop~e: gentleness to the weak and \cvatemlness for their :prtlleoUofIJ". 01 'You nUIY wonder if all the reaUli.es of the universe and what is heyond it: and knowledge of the mankind and al 1. that they are eencerned with were suddenly po-ured into the hearts ofthe prophet wl thcnt prlor ami s:ysfJemaJ.t:ic preperation? The: answer is, of course not .. Even thc:u~Ih, the prophets did not acquire knowledge by the same means and laws as 'we do.fhey had a .SIOlllW:rud ability to thinUk and reason, and this put them in the forefront of all educated people. Whet is. theknowledgethat elevates 000"8 sotd?Fs itthe memorization of lessons and the absorption of principles and l aws? There are many parrotswho rep ea t <:11-1'· th .Q~'IjJ he ar ··w:· ith ,oi"io;111~ understandin fi Attimes '~.:U·O:>; w: ··l'·,;t··n·ee.~·

.i~ :, .. '\i;i , ~ ',' . '\i.oJ ,~,I,. g ~'. ,", " UI~Iil. fI:rI, ,'U<. J,~:~.~,IU~,_ ;!5:i~ .. ~ .21 tL . \;;,i1LJ1 .~1''''''' " .. '. IL, .:.r~~~

small ehlldren '~r'ho memorize :perfec:Uy and are able to recite the: speeches of the' most famous po,~ iticiens and leaders. Neither' do the chUdm",e.._n become great men because of 'w:hat 'they memorize nor do theparrots become humanbeings,

I"

" Brukhillrf' nsrrates (lI:n.I1i1e'f1U1t'~,Qli'~ly of AibO ,~,ulI'ai:ralliI (~) m!a~ the r.rojphei (~) ~aJdI:

"'Th~Wie i~ no 'riJ[ptielt Slerni~, b>" ,AUlIih (:it), li~ihiJ ,cUd: no! '~end sheep,"

His COI1i1l1,parlii,o:rl'S as:~«I: '~And did )'ouT -

rn~~e repli~d:: "'''i'C~,,[ used to :g~ t'h~ln for th:e pe(ti~~e of M~Jkk;~~:ih ~dUim '[or a, 'fe!ic': cants,"

CJ: You may find. :s,'O!m.eoDewbo, learns and un.d,e;rstands" ar,gu!cs·

d""E 11.,._ 11 ,..:II • • '1If-" I"~~ , 11!... • ~'ld

an _ wms, ,even so, AJJJowleu.ge in 1 met 1~,' i)Le: 'b;-~e vems ot go " ,- •..

in a neglected piece of rock, 'II. n.e;jitl1~m:' plr,omo,tes good nor prev'eot'S evil. The; 'Qoc'~in likened to donkeysthe Jew~sb rabbis, W:tlO carrythe Torah and, do not discip'Unethetnselves by it

~:Tlbe' ,Illkeness; of dlOS! whQ are' IU1UUiUed wl~,IiI, die [Law ,or MOSts, 'yeit do 001·31I;)p[I:, ~tl iis, as· die ~ikenieg 'of'dne dornkty carrying boots.', (Qm"'an 6,2: 5)-

Those people; 'who havet_nowledg,e' but do not re.t1o:r.m themselves by it are a.cluaEly doing: itan i~j ustiee, Thus it is good to w~.tMlold it nom such p~IJP,1e" A F:ladnh. says:

"The QIr1e wf]logives tnowledgeto ~h:C:JISte' who· do not deserve it' is; IlikJe, fh,e, person who 'adorns p:~gswi*h jewlells~ peorls andi gold.l!'~ll

(J Then then!; are those pooplewho believe i[D] fables and :re}ect leaUdes" Their brains 00"e like a pair of scales, ene side .of which, ',.- heavv &ie, '1111"", reason and thus cannot weicb'll ,-c,li-c,t-:·~~·. Tb

IrS ,,,,,,a.,,, 11(Di[ .~""" ,~""'_ V~·~,_.__ _~ __ ~ __ '_~y" "",._ ~g 000'0C.I)", , .uey

freely ,accep~ the impossibHities, and attack therealities, I barye seen people who have studied continually,. but when they' aee confro.o)ted, wilbprobi.ems they grope around. blindly. OiD the other :boooo:t.w'heJltbese same problems are presented to people in the street who remain, unblemished in their naluf1e and Rasll)m:iDlg~, they immediat~,~.y hi t the nail on the head, 'The signi6eooce of this is tharo:, there are people who spend 'tweUity years trying: to sf[[,mgbtm their intellect, study and research, yet 'they are unable to reach the status of SOmeO[Ul!;; who was granted 'Wlprigbtne.ss. in thoug'bt: 'by mother naltUfe"

iO I am convinced; by my reading;s. of'the Ji{e~ o:fM:uheJmmad (M), t'lli.lilt he was of I, spechd.c~,te~gory of people who me clear-

u~ .A !i~ery 'weak ]~IIadm:liI. Ih~. !Abdu'i Bm'l~i .il. IIM~:d~in his .J~J I'~~ td=;~ On!i'! :Wildl alSO! Urn Maj~. I'n. ~lS maim .of.llJma~~, .ijafs :ib:n ~\aim.3n a] Asadi~ sMut whom ~b~. Kh~h SilfS;:. IJIiHe lis a ~iffi' 'who i:nI.venlS ~'ildnh, om~i'Si ,~---claJ~ Ibmmw· be 'weak. ,Ahna Hali'm S8;1Il'il! heis :rn,1\1l:Ct;,y!. and a is'i:miJar .,j, ... , .. ..,....- t, ls , .... ad .. ,- ~l: T .. ':;i.. IL '. [00 ~"f , •

. ~ _. - . _ ,J""'" ~.' -'{I-'~ .. c __ '~ • -- --' 1,l1..:i.!,'I".I'!."",]I!!.! .. ~!KL'" 1111 .... : . .J_,tlql"iU !I!J,~. " ![::dl.war~

th.iwdn,g md of keen perception, He was living with an open and wak,eful heart ill. tbe depths of the desert; sober among dlunk,itJds, and negl.igiemrt people, befoee and aiterkm.dm.g, sheep, and before and after going into trade,

~r:Ji The .atmoiS:pheJ'e of the .Arabian peninsula was such that: it. nurtur.ed the .le1~bar'gy of the lethargie and ·the keenness of the keen, just as 1he :sun"s ray,s nurture the: 'thoms, side 'by side ,,11th the :r05e-S. Muhammad (_) sougbt the assistance ofits long silence which. stretched across the days and nights and acro,ss the· sands and oases te thmk long and deep and, seekout 'the 'tmdt wbere it lay. The degree of mental development wbich one reaches from constant >0 bservation rus undoubtedly much higher than fhat of memerization without unde'fst:anding or lIIili,d.e.i:'istarndjng without discipline, Moreo'V'er~ someone like the Prophet (M), who respects the :~1cI1IilUral laws of life and the universe, is, more worthy of being selected than any of those who believe in superstition and live by .il

o There is no doubt tbat Providence surrounded him with prDtection. so- t.hat he: might. b.ep*o 'this uniqW1e orientation, 'Whenever he inclined to·wards. some worldiy enjoyment, which was really no' serious cdme, .Prov.idence came bet-ween him. and. the fullUm.en! of it. Ibn Atbrr' narmles thatdte: Prophet (~,) said:

!li'On~ twlce du'd ~ ever attemp~ to do sometlh!jng wh'ich 'the people of ianiliyoh' used 10 co land on ooth 0 cCQlsions, .Allah HI]I prevented me from doh119 it lhereafter I never 'aUemlpted such thingls: until Alla.h (-tIl:) I~tre's,sedl me with1he rome, ,o:f' His Messeng,er (Ml. On~e night' II saJ!d "t-o the bOly wlho w'os gra~ilng S.ht:;H~p with me wn upper M,okkah:: "~Wiil YIOU wcdch m!y ;she'ep for me so Iho't I eon glo in~(), .Mokkah end ~pe,nd '~he rli"ghlt cs the youf.hs: do. II!

He, ,agreed and i ward' 'ii)<ff. When !I reached the 'firs;t house lin Mcd:tah ~ heordsome mVSmC." andll,cslQed:!! W,hot is: thas ?'i! They S:cli'dlJ II! So~olnd~o! 5: weddlngl M'th so-end-so,"

sat down to I~d[en but A~I~h t~] sleoie'd my hearing a:nd ~ 'fell osleep.jt W'OS 0:11 ~yti~~' heal of the sun which woke me, I went 11'0' mry componlon and he asked me (CllboJ~1'1 the nlgh~) cmd Ito~d him, Anol~her riliglrlif I didl the some (lind wen~' ~nto Mcd::talh but 'H1iie' some I'hing hoppened 'fa me CIS; on 1he previous li'lrllght, AUer 'thcl'~ I ne1ver o'Memptedi to dc, ,any~hin9 Wirongl,,!!!~'i

[J The various :~ey,e15 o.f edJu,cation are stages :~liJ ill confrunua.Jl smiggle to' discipliae one 's mind. and strengthen its 'fucultlifs aad to' correct one's oll1.fdook on. the lmive[se~~il1e and Hv,run:g: thmn_gs" Thus e~very educational system wbkh, fails 'to take its students to this peak is not werthy of anention in spite of mts bemtUbl [certificates, \Vhat~;s, much more wonhy of'beieg honoured and much .. nearer to the 'ulti~1I'1alte goal js that people shO'u1.dattain a high level of intelligence, and the cS(pacit,.ywthink deep~y~ and have aic'~.e~r vision of In~;OO1S and ends, The: Qur' au, :fil~~;fen,edl 00, ,Prophet Ibra~j111~'S, (Abraham) (~) abundanee of t~:U!'S~ qualities when. it said:

~,And indeed W[e' :gave .Ablraham of old his pro;peli ceu rse, and "yt,e wert AW'3rfiE!' of hi:m,. Whenl· he $3Jiid to hrns fiiJl~iit~r allfld Ills peo;ple::wlhlat are '~fl,ese' j'nl.3Jges lQw\hl:ch 'you devote yOt!!Ir:sell'!le~?:)

(Q'Ur't~fl 21: 51,,52)

(J In this, respect Muhammad (.) was like his,£o're:father IJbrihim (Abraham), He; didfl:O~, acquire knowledge from any monk or sorcerer or philosopher' of hi s agJe,lnst,ead he scrutinized the pages of ~ ife and the condition of people and groups with his fertile intellect and pure nature, rej eeted all supersd:li.on and evil thmgsand associated with :peopi~e on the basis of lUlderstandin.g .. Wba'b~vier he found good, hep!iU1.ic~.pa!red\ j IJl :i t to some extent, otherwise he would wlthdra w into his accustomed seclus ion OOJd resume his, constant <C~)[lj~'em,p'lation of

the 'k""!iIi'lill!ll"-di om of '11,,,,,, ],,""":11:\1' ,9111-1,<:l :.t'II,,,,,[,.:j ~11.'-e--""..::."""1r This .... 'a- ~ better ,~ ..... ,,"

•. "'~ I _1_~\~._'~"I'~' VI .. ' ~ ,,,_,~~, ~~IUII~ Q.l.l!U. ~~,~ ~·QlIJ,U.~~~!! _ ''"''''''~~ Y1!l."_:-':'" _".w JII.,..Jj ,lIU.1IJ

him than those kinds of knowledge w:hicb :may be termed as compound ignorance, and better lhan a society w'hiich bad had no' gu:~d-e 'For centuries and every day was thus adding, a, new form of corruption to the o,ld ones, He ,S8.W nothing wrong, in taking part in the generalaffairs of his people", sucb as the Sacrilegious War in, which he assisted his uncles and the Alliance of the Virtuous which came in its aJftermath"

Tlu.~ SacrilegiQus W'ar.

As far as the Quraish were coneemed, this 'war was in defence o:fdrue sanctity of the sacred months and the Holy Land, These symbols werethe remains of 'the rel~,gion of 'l'br'inrm, (Abraham)" which the Ar.,abs stiU respected, The respect shown, to these sanctuaries was the source of great benefit forthem, and a guarantee fur the protection oftheir interests and, the settling of their disputes A man would meet his father s murderer in the: sacred month and his consciousness of this sanctity would restrain him from seeking revenge, When Esle:m came, it approved of these heritages of the :r'e~igion of illbral'lfm (Abraham) (_)::

, ,B,elitdd!. The numlbe'.r Q:f :m,orntfu wi:th AU31h Is MemVE mOn~hiSb)!' Ailialil':s: onjl'in,ClIi1ICe on the day' that He' cre',at'@d the, be,aV@W1:5: and the ,e.:allJ1Jh., :f'our of them are ,5ac"d~thaJt Istffi'i,e' rigni[ N!~~lion. ,So' do no\[ h1:dulge ~m WOOing d\o\l'n£' durhilg d1,arf tiME'.,)' (Qur'!n 9': 36)

Cl However, the people of JahilijaJ1. soon encountered those' people who violated 'the sanctities and indulged in wrong doing. The, Sacrilegious W,ar was. one of the consequences of this blatant violat . on, There Me' no details about this war except dus,t it lasted four years, M1lllhammad~.s (~) age at UJlattime was between 1 s: and 19 years, Some soarees elaim that be himself fou,gbt, and others claim that he only assisted the fighters,

'The' ,AJlia:oce Oir f.b,e; Virtuous

This aU~anc~e is proof (haM, no matter how dismal 'the pages of '~ife become and, howwidespread Ute evils, it will never be devoid of those noble' souls woo arouse jhe :sympII(hy and kbldness of soeiety. Mn. that sterile iahil~h there arose some p~om,ote[s of good,aItdmey made a pact amongthemsefves to establish justice, fh~ti1] oppression and revive tJb,e virtuous qualities which, had been, obUtef,at,ed in, the: Holy Land, Ibn ,1\ thI~' said:

"Thereafter some of the clans of ~ihe Quraish cal led for this ~1~1·-''''''n···.;'!I,. ~ and thev .an :s,'Wi()~,'e 'COl it in '~:I!,"" ho I 1- of ~'A-·-··'~d·",'1~~'~:"~' " " l~ :II"ie" an. 'l,u'I;"y ~ ~_ _ _ _ _ ~ _ ,!!, ~ _"'!l~,!!,!; ~_Y'iUse 0, ", 1V .. 1l.iIna_u ,~I!1}.Ill

Jad'an because of his 'virtue and ale, They were: the Bana :ij,9sbim" BanD M:uU;alib" Ba!.n.n, Asad i'bn. ~',AbduJ "Uzza, Znhrah ibn K~[atJ, and Taym Ibn Murrah .. They formedfhe alliance and pledged to one aJl'o:th,er 'that if ever tbey found a wronged person in :Makkah; whether fvo,m their 'Own people 'or from ,any other tribe, they would stand by Jiis slde and defend, him so that the 'wrong. done to him might be redressed .. This pact was caU,ed, 'the Alliance of tbeVirruo'l!ls,by the Qur,sisb,., and, was witnessed 'by mbe :Mes;sange~' lOr Al13ib, (~).'~

A· ,n: I'e"'r-- A.····U,"":hC·1 ("',~:iS)'.' eh oli:le hhn , as Proe lh~~:" lr,,,,, It'i<:il,.~ ... J.. WII' w'!* i ',~ it.: d .

, . __ a. '" ~." 'II< __ ..,. _~. ii,lI __ vp __ ,,",I~~ 1111"'-' ,;;!!;'ilu. JJ... hne~",e

an ~Uiancewithmyoo,c1e:s, in tbe home of~AbdniJllih ibn Jad'an and I: should, not like: '~O exchange it :€or the ehoieesr laxurles, If I were called in hdmnto participate in it, I should respond .. '·s

o Due coo see Ic~,ea:rlym 'these 'words. of the Prophet (~)h_i:s,

,~I f' this P "'. V 'h . .. . -

approvatot u u; atnanee er 'emencf'agm.nstooy oppressor, no,

matter how- pewerfnl he or she may be, and sympa:thy for any oppressed person.no matter how insignificant he 'lJrr she may be, are me spirit of Islam. :r slim le[lJj oins good and forbids evil, and

j s Na~;a~ed by Ibn! l:s-ijaqand: ]I!lm :rnjfisMmim '!JI¢j~ ~ij'o,~aphi!es c,f'tt:le P.riopil1et ('.>.

Their 'COOMr1JS, ·of llmT~~:rS are SOUlmd! 'exoep:l that !hey tare m'~f~at [i,e, [he 8aba'bl' who :repOrIJed .Iit dmd ftiJilllt say he' hen!rdi~ Bom t~e P.m!pbet (-.)];. H(!J!1!!o'e'll'I,'1U'. comes from !oliter OOIU"te5 ~oo wtiic!h ~t;eligIi9 its authefliticity.. Abma:('!, nar:tUed .i~, :flllJm ~'A.hdull Rahmbl. i~n '~AuJ: who :sa~:~! :m.e heard! wl f~om, tl1,efroplilel ,(~:); ,al1fllOugh WE does net cCliuain til'" ,"'tEl!l'OMe""t ,!~ mn weil:,e caUe'" ,im rn',\>I:mmn ~"'.-CI",~"',~·~~~ ,"~ '~' I ~··'Il_,:l .' .'. ..filIi

~ _~ ~~ __ ~~ ~ ~~ ~'" "'_~~_ ~_~.~_-!~ _ _'", _'. ~~ ~ __ .~ ~ 'I!! ~"~ _"'~ ~_ e-e lIN' iJlti!<ng,C~p:a~.,;; 1m 1:"'1; " ;:tJJIOUI.U lieSpOll!!Il •

Its cJ!iall1li;s: au~llenlic,

confines itself to the limits set by An~b (ti)., 1:'11:9 Islam's d:uty t-o fight ,it[njjusd.ce in. the polities of .nifi1tlons and, tbe r'elatio,nsh:ips between human beings \vicb the same fervour,

ell U is said, of the cause oftbisalliance thalt. a man, from, .zubayd" who came w~t'h some merchandise and sold it to ,AI 'As;, ibn Wa'il am Sahmi, but the ~at~e~' refused to ,pay for them, Although the man pleaded w,ith the dans ofthe Quraish and ,their allies to help him, no one paid him BIn.)! attentkm, So the wronged stranger stood in, fron.t, of the Ka' bah and repeated. some couplets of poetry bewailing his misiortuDe.

Q On hearing this, Al Zubayr i'bo, Abdul Muttalib got up, and said :~rs there nobody to assist him ?(" He gathered together those whom Ibn Athn" mentioned above, and. after concluding the Alliance of the Virtuous, they 'went to. Al ASi i'Dn,Wl?Ciill and demanded jhe man's due from him. A[ Asr seems to have 'been an unsavoury, evasive fellow lor be had also made a deal. with, Khabbnb ibn"'U:~ Aratt, Khab'bab 'was a blacksmith who had, made a, sword fo[' .AI Asr,

'When he: wenr to him and asked fQ~t payment: for it, Al AS[' said: , I shan not: pay you unt~] you disbelieve in M'uharnm_ad (M),

Q Khabbab replied! U]: shall .DOt: disbelieve Wlti~. AIUih (tI) causes. you to die and resurrects you."

10: AI Arsl said: "Am M' go~ng to. die: and be' re.'smTec,'tled?.'~· Khabbiblrep,~.iled yes, So Al ASI said: "Let me die and be resurrected, then I shall have great: wealfh and many children and I: shall pay yo !!I. For the sword, ;".

101 The fun~nvitl;g ayat (verses) werethen revealed:

-"HI ' i ... .41' - I· m 0 h.... • ..

it, .. 3:ve' yeJ,U' ,seen hi m WII iO luilSbe liew!5 ~n,. ur Mve~atrtl!n 3nd says:

,Assuredly '~ sh.al~ be I1v,e!n wealth and children? Has he perused [he U[liseefl., er has he mad;e al :Ilaclt. witb the Ben;@'!1c-ent? No,. bu[ Wei shan record whit he says and PliltdiOJ:'lIg fOil" hbm :a $p13ifl off w.nnem~ And' We sha~' inhen't from him! that O'f 'which hi' spoke", and hil' shall carne ItO Us a~Dl!1e .[Without, 116 we1lirb .and chnd'rellll:I~:.'

(Qur:',b 19'~ 77'-,80)

Theirewe~,eman.y like Al .AsJ in trade andpolit~cs~and.

Muhammad (~:) was the 'best man to oppose and confront them, .a.ndthe best men to' be were Mnbammad's (~) Companions, 'those who helped him against such people and. pledged 'wiU], him to fight 'rh.em"

S -. . h dI A .-" ,Ii

trengt L HJ.Ii),; __ _ eUVI'1y

When the Saeri legions War ended amid. the Alliance of the Virtuo'1US~-fas· concluded, Muhammad (~) was entering the tbi rd stage .of bis life. Th:i.s\¥as,~ffi1Ieperiod of zealous youthfulness, active instincts and far-reaching ambitions, Muhammad (~) was a. manwith a . .s~n:mg !body" tall stature and. determination. His amazing streagth W1}lS noticed even fony years afterwards. Abu Hurairah (.) said:

!~i never sow onybody more hcndsomethon the' M ess,enge'r ,of A~~~h (Zlli:), It' WCIS as lf ·the sun W(lS shilr"~ng in his tocel Andlll never slaw anyone wOlik more qU~Gk~y than the .Messeng,s[' (:rfA~IDh t~~d .. It- was os if the, €'HJrth '~;,olde·d i'1'siell'f up for ih~m!

Whe r1Ie,ver we wall ked WIU1 hiim, 'we WO'LJ lid e:x!f!r-j' !OlUrse'~Vle:s while he' steve d cool," It)

Cli Such a man attracts life to himself even if be is not anracted to ~H7e,. Beside him. who should attract' life? ShouJd life 'be attraeted jo dreamers introverts aJ:md. pessimists? Muhammad. (~)~ however ~ in spite of the means et his disposal to ~nji,oy life, was not swayed. by fleetlng lusts or burning desires, andi.1I: was never recorded of him thar he made ,any H:t~,em.P't to attain positron or wealth On the contrary, his Iife began by illuminating Makkahwith the qualities \vbich, distinguished him ever his contemporarles: fl. sweet disposition, a. noble chasacter, deep thought, sound reasoning and attustworthy attitude.

t6 Th,v.s Hooiilh has a weak !O'hili:~, :~1: is maJ'Tal~-d b:y A~. Tirn1!idlhV i:ij :h:!:s SUI;I~~ ~d Sha:miil't,l .. ll,e declared I~t to be '!"i!e~k becaase (lime: iID[ i~s lli~fimtorsW:8iS, Ibn 'Lllihar:alh., '!'.1110 is weak ioo'CIlI!.!!~e his mem.QFy i;\I,;t!!S· badiiiti!d lis; boob W~! oomt

[CI It is not nobi~~ty that human desires for the goodness in life should 'be non existent, or exist,ent 'without the means to satisfy it. Nobility means dlai.t 'the power of chastity should be stronger than jhe :po,wer of desire Thus if ODe s scul remains in a state of t[arnquilli.ty~ ]1 meana that the h1~fmaJ negative and positive forces have balanced each other. We may see: iHgbly people who cam never keep their desires or instincts in check, yet if they are compared with the 'coin~~olled desires of others, th.ey would mot reach one-tenth of their :s~r,engdl, The facti 51 that the latter have found, the strength of character to control their desires, whereas the former' have no intelligence to warn. thelU nor the strength of ebara-cler'to stay .a.~'3y~, so. their desires rebel and overrule them. rill AI- b h' M' "II!.. .. . d' (~C). __ 1. d f' h h h '

1000II .'. t ougn . uJJj.~.aJmma,l, s .~' nlmU100_ was 0' '. tl. e . '. 19~iest

P,,",~;"'C'~l·· on hi !:' m iota I and spiritual 'p' "'~Ii"'li ,loy'. end o we d, ]~ Ii! w·· ith .t1. ae

. "",~ .. I.'I,,.. 11..' ,. U. iJ! !U'.. ~.u .,;I'y .w_.~!!e!._~ .:'Wl,!I, .". . • .~, ",.,

good qual iti.,e s of discipline, up rightness and contentment, Moreover, be 'was free from those hateful pl5,y'choJo,gica] complications which affect the: youth: they Iovegreatness with pomp and show and they seek leadersbip with. flattery and the purchasing of sentiments . If we add to that his, fierce: dislike For the idols whlch were worshipped. by his people, his contempt for the vmyths and superstitions which prevailed throughout and beyond. the Arabian peninsula, and his awareness that truth ,"1"&S something totally different from all d:llat~ it becomes clear to ~s. why he preferred the mountains and the. open air, why he felt ,comfon :in grazing; sheep in these far-off'places aJnd was content wi~h the Hltde earnings he gained from them.

101 Is this abstention from wealth .. and worldly life? Of course not m~, is engrossment with the higher realities with which worldly

1 i.~'. fu' d d t L· h .. ~11' h m b- . d G

be IS re orme an! '10 wmcr wean ws SU!Jug~te., .... : reat men

are not satisfied. with treasures of gold and silver when they are '('-h' irst .e '. th , t·· 1 ~~j Th·'·· do not .r.:· .. I: .j- .... ofit in beine t.··.,:. ':

.. Irs. y 10[ .. e nJ.I~Ui . ey :.0 no _ ,L,ee.~ any pro r m eemg s lngs

over their people when they see' ev H dragging everyone's .~ W Fe into an abyss and stripping them of al I goodness and. uprightness,

C 111 this :mannm:'Muhmnma:dl (M) entered the third 'phase of his Ufe. It, was th,ephase in which hebe-came aoqumnted with, bis,

t'li "'.t:'_V'iIl..,_~· - t.. b i, V to. ]-1 "d-

nrstwtte, ,NJ1IllUJ!jlWI ,lint I\.JJllilw,ay l" •

Khadljah

vh .... ~,ii~ ":"IL 'w, ';-;o;JiIS-' ,;o;Jiiill"!l' excell All'lif[ ~"":;o;Jilm,pl1:e," '0',,_-' f: '!Ill W·: ,\i"ilm-, ';fI)t'I 'W' - ho

,hlIln,U':JIIW.II "g _ QIII.W. ....,1\1,,"' ... ], ,00000JlI,!!!· 'I;o,".l!Ii!!Qi ,1,.Ii « "v, _~.!. "niL

completes the life of a great man. Thesemen wj:tb gl,eeJ.t :r'o1 es to. ,pblY are endowed with eX'~I1em,d.y sensitive hearts and 'iw:y encounter t-euU"le stupidity from the environmem they wish 'to change, ,md. undergo a tremendous stmgg~e on behalf of the; good they 'Wish '~O establish. They ,are'tile people' most [D, need of someone to shewer the,iI'pdv,ate~ lives with love and 'Oo.mfOft" as '\Ve,n ,IS, Windterstandimg: and asslstance, Khadiju was foremost in. these tl,QttOrbures and she had a posimve effect an Mililiunmad:' s ,(_) Ufe. Thn, AdIrr said,~

~~KhwJJ[iiah was merehsntweman of nobiUzy and we-al'~h.. She used. to ,e'i)]]ploy men to run 'her business and shewould agree 'Qin

- . f ... -'1.. fi" 11.:m. ..... , L 'Ii.. __ . ..:111 f ;I,L n... Ii. '-l .)

ib,edr porti:Oll O."mf: pro' :~t ","Mll she Ile~ OJ we ~.[OpMt's \..M

t- ""i', .• ci';~..c.·I~' . "-. ~-. 't-~~,f-i'iC'.~'.iii.,rrjb--'m':~~J(l: and noble ,ciba:m.eter:- sh e ;!il:ent: ~Of'

~"II.IJL-I!lIl.U1~.neSSIj; 'L" 1.lWl" ~'!..!',Ii.'~ _"'~~ __ uy __ _ _ _ _ _ " h!1 _ _ """ _ _ _ ,,11~ _

hlm, Eking him to' go as ,I trader 'for her to Syria,. She gavemm better w,ag~~, tharn, she used! to ,live others\!, and he had witll.him, her slave :Maysu,sb,

o M'Ubrunmad (~) accepted 'lbis, offer and ttarve:Ued 'In Syr.~,a, as a trader for :U:wmis:lJess who had sel,ect,ed, l1im i It ,atppearsthaf. he was more suc~essml on this trip 'than on :his previous one with his uncle Abo nUb,. KhadijdiJJ.'s profit 'was greater and she was pleased 'with his performanee. Howeves, he,r admiraden for the m.a:t1 whom she tested wasmuch deeper.

QI S.he 'was a woman of ,mo:bIDe~ I~neagle and 'V3:St. 'wealth, and she was known for mer'detennioati,o'J] and intelligence" ,Althcrogh she was d,estNd, by the leaders of th,e' Quifaish~ wham: she despised, in most men was tha.ttbey were seeking her wealth and not b.erself, When m,e, saw Muammad. ('M)!!hO'Wever~ she learnt of anotbIe:r

brand of meu She had found, a. man who wars not ,swayed. by 'want. P'erhlps wben ;!dle settled her tr,ading accounts with Giber men she found greed and trickery, In Muhammad (~), :she saw a! man whose character was spotless and 'who ,didi not desire her wea'ith. or beauty, 'He handed over. all that he bad for her and went away weU .. pleased and plleasing;,

Q Khad~iah found in him, what She 'was I.oo:king fur. She spOke her mind to, her friend N,aBsaih bimMunabbah~ \"Iu) wem, to, Muhammad (~) and spoke to him about mmying KhadIjail& He did not delay in announe:ing, Iris approval, then he ccmm1ltedl his uncles, ebout it, and, Abo rIUb., ijamzah and others 'went to Khad~iab,'s 1Wl~]e: 'Amrr.' ibn Asad since herfuther h.ad died in the Sacrillei~'o,gs War and[ sou,ght her hand in marriag,e on bebalf of their nephew. They presented her with, '~'he OOWl)' of tw'en,ty camels,

,Abo Tilib stood up and, spoke 3Jtthe wedding ceremony. He said; "If Muhammad (as) were weighedwith ,any youth of the Qurals~, be w{lluIDd outweigh brim iDl lineage, nOI'bHity,. v,irtu,e and inteUi.,gellce:,. If he bas little 'w:ealth then, Om it be known that) wealth is a fleeting shadow and a, borrowed, thlnS: wbic:"h must be retnm,ed., He desires Khadljah bmt Khuwa,ylrud and she has the

<it"illIiH'li,i'i ..c"""""ll·Og· &.0' 'r' I!..·:m ~, ;;!l~II'" ..l'"' .... _x.· .. ',J,'I.I: ,Ull,' '.

OJ ,Khad:Ij,ah ~ s uscle, '~Amr replied: "He is 'the: smllion whose nose cannot be ringed," And tnemarria;ge ceremony was eencluded.

It is said llhmt this last statement was made by Abo s,ufjrln 'when Muhammad, (~) married :Ius daughter Umm H,lbibah. At that time the war between them, was ,at its fiercest Abu Suzyan, made an eX,CUSle for that, ,sa,yirn:g 'that M'uhamm,ad,'s (MJ status 'was such that [obe.cDm,chis· father~in-la,w was ,8 great honour!' 'The enm.ity' 'between th'.etn d~d not dek,act in lIIlyw,ay' Dom

M'~~t.. ... ,-·-,-..I"· (. "c, - .), Ci""''''~''C; and bi--~'Cl' :ft':Ii'!'lIIm.:lIO'D WI'",L., AL.n- '8· fy- 'lII:'_"il:IJ Jm'wu.liJ!!lH~ s: I . ,'I ~~~iYo." ~.~ .• '_ . ;' ;j l.illAou-J.-.II~~:~~U. ··u I,U'.'i:UI'L:I

dattrllhte:~' did m)t disgrace Abo S~u(yln '. all, even though he 'was at that time his most ardent enemy!

g Muhammad (~) was 25 years old, when be mlrd,ed KlutdTj (lh and ber age was then a:ibout 40 y1eam. This marriage lasted umil KbadWj·ah died ,3:!t the age of 6:5 yeir8,. Throaghout 'this: time she was th,e source of honour and, respect and she bore aU the PropheC:s children fOT him excep~ [hrihimi F~:rst she gave b~rt:h 10' AI Qms,i:nl, and this is the Kurm'iytl by which he \\I,as known Im1dle era of ,prQpheth,Qod. Then crone Zaynab, 'Ruq.a,yy~~ Umm Ku1.m'UEMl, Fil.hnah and A'bdullah~ who is also :tno1wmlJ, as Tihir + A.1 Qasinl died when he was old enough 'to, ride, snlmals, 'Abdlllllh, died. es a baby, and aU daughters of M:ubanunad (M) died, during his ~ifedmewith the exception ef F~#mah) who died! six months, after him, :M'uhBlmm,ad' s (~) unionwith Khadij aih, was a blessing for both of them, and there is no doubt, 'thmt~ that. house: was touched by 'tile spirit of its masterrthe spirit of pnrlflcation from the fil t11 of ,Jahil~},aJ1 and eoetempt for the worship of idols ..

10; After mardageMuham.ml1ad (M) resumed the mi't7e of contemplation I9Jnd. seclusion which he had known before He kept away fromallthaa in which the Arabs indulged during their boisterous parties such as alcohol, showing off" gambling, rivalry etc, However, this did not prevent hhn from conducdng his 'trade, earning his, Ii ving, '~raV'elUng 'run the land or walking in the market-places, An Intelligent man living among a frivolous group ofpe:01plern s required 'toexl!tcis!e great care and consideration, especiall y if he bas, tbe tendency to be softhearted and pleasant

There was nothing ~la this successful marriage to raise concern, except tbe fact that K:hadiIj ah was grieved at 'the death of all her sons. in. th.at society where SOfi;swere given a high status, and daughters were buried alive; and the fathers ~ faces were dark with anger and gloomy on receiving news of tb.e birth of a daughter, I twas strange that the Arabs, after the Prophet' s ministry ~would j eer him forthis and announce expect~uidy that his p]"Dg:enywou~.d be cut off and he would have none to remember him, Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Qurafsh pledged

runong 'i-t,emse:m,vest(l'pers~:st in disbelief

They said: '~What we are doing is morelasting than what the amputated .$unb fir is doing," The $u~b tir is a datepalm whose: roots are bro.ken"By '~bis they meant that when he died, ]\ifohammad (~) would :~:ta!.v,e no progeny '~O ,inberit him or carry

h 'Ii '1i;J,

on IS mlSSJJOn"

.ar 'th:ey say: 'is li1e, 3: :poel, [om1:e'l 'rorwhaml W(!' Imay' mIlpea 'thE' acdd!en~ Qf' dme'?' Say:( th~ml,= u bll@C~ '[you:r fil~]! :BebohU I am 'with YOII amorngthe expectant.:' (Qur'an .52: 30 .. 31)

ICl: Muhammad (~) and, :his mission were above these peUy desires, Nev ertheless , as a father.hisbeart grieved when helost his sons. and ,tlu~ oWd pains 'Of hls orphanhood, 'were revived 'by' this loss", He' WEtS able to survive and gr,o!'w' upin spite of his

narents dvin ','11'7. 'w'- '-h:J'I',Ii,,";' h ·e··~'·'o'l .... ' I'~, ,!OJ; bab v N··· €'II .. W'_ ho '_'Hli!>iI!tI'oR .. _I.i!I"_ he 'W' .... ~.Ill,

,FIIiIkL .... iI,.!.... Y,.,l u,~~ __ w"'" __ _"'''''''ikiI '!iii UgJ > .... _ l' U 'l''l' ""''I!''''''~ '- . ,. ,,,,", _ elia

seeing '~h.os,e fI.'I)Wle-rs wi'the.rlng which heand his wi fe had longed to see hl 'full bloom. It was as if Allah (lJt) wanted sad, tenderness to be a pad, of'bis ba~ng!~ TIle men whorule nation ,luJ1o,pthalughtrnne.ss only wheu jheir hearts are: :nu:r(lJ]J~ed on htarshness and ,ego'll sm, and whet" they I iv,~ in happinesswi thout at touch of sadness. On the other hand, those who have experlenced pain will be the quickest to sympathize with those who are sadaedgri ef-stricken,

The ,K-a"'ba,b

The Ka'bah was one of the vesnges of Ibrahtm 's (~) reJ ~g;m.on wbi,c:h the Ar,alls,injai1i:tJ;ah: stH ~ respected. n resembles a large room. built heavy of stones and its ceiling is supporte-d, by expensive: woodenp~na~s. U: was first erected by the father of ',prophe~s" Ib[~hTm. (~),' and, hi:s, son Isma.~:il (~), The purpose of buildmg was that, it should be a. place 'fio,.r the worship of A,~lah (f') and. a mosque m which only HIs name would be mentioned, 1b.r9hrm, (~) underwent, ,apain:fiwl-strug~le' 'to destroy the jdols of his people and the temples inwhich ~hey

were wOI,s:bi:pped. 'Then Allah (Ii) revealed '10 him that be should build this house to, be a :p'i~~lu' and cemerstone of taw.hfd and a place of Ilefilge: and secur.ity for' everyone" Of course, since not ,aU tbe pi~grims. could fit. in:sj.de;, the land sutroun.d1ng it was annexed and considered a smctuaryfor '~nem.,

[] The implication of this is tbai: the Ka,~"bah itself is, a piece ,of ;swnewbichcan neither benefir nor harm, The sanctity w:bicn it ,acq·· uired was on account ofthe :i's:!S'oci81ti,ons and aims which lay

, ~

behi d i P .t.,!; th m. h ( ... ~). h· d th

-_L~ln. mt ror IJJij:$, Deason tne Prop et • ~:, lemplas~:ze'at

people's honour, wea1'tb. and 'blood were; :holier in the sight of AllD.h (Ii) than. tb,e'KSb'ah and mote worthy of'm:,espect. To think that~ the Kab-'ah or ,il! pi,ece: of it has 'the power to hann or benefit

., .'.J -'1- L~ 'i!.. I' 1 .. 11 .') .. ( .j..1J.. d f 'I

is iu.o miry W.W,C.Ill So am WI __ . opposetn uie en ••. · {)ol- time,

o You Me well ;8wate that 'when the rulers" leade:rs and soldie:r,s salute the:fiag -ofnlle.ir CQ·untty and strugg~e fo'r i't~they Me not :jn. fact, wor,shi.p.p~n,g; a piece of c~odl. It is, :actualJy ·a show of'respeet

.... , .... .li I, 1::' l\. d- '. - h l' , ·b-II..,,: d i i' •

mw veneralt~.oo. lor t.!Jd3 1 _ eeper m\eaolllgS t~_at. -,Ie ~ e.ron· . lit. JIlts,

easy to understand that the first mosque ever 101 be built. on the: face of'dDs 'earth sihould.l).a:v,e a :spec.iaJ bis:todc!II status and be the qiblan (direction faced) of the mQsq;ue.s, which 'were built later. N'ev,ertheless" the :real goal of any p'rayer or show of .humili.tu is A]~1h (Ii:) •• · alone, Abu. Dherr 1(.) said:

~,j " r •

"I asked the Prophet (a) ,,,bieb was 'the, first~ mosque to be built on the ,eadh?itt

Hereplied: "The Sacred, Mosque" (that is; Al MtJSiid'.Al HarlmJ. Them I QtS:ked.:: "and what next?"

-8--- .' ld "''''h' Furthest 'M"" . ..'U· ,(·th- t. -'Ii ,~, -,jl' I,~:"'jd' ·..1/- A·' .):

.' .e ;S81.:c_: 'l! e: W.UJiCilI'" _ osque .' ,_ H"" IS" ./'Ji_ MJa!!;},' . .tJ. , Iqaa •

.I asked:. IUHow' ~ong was 'it between ·the~ two·?"'-'-

He said:: ",Forty years, and wrtnermore", the ,eartb .is a mesque for roo. So' wherever the time 'lor pr8l,y.·ers, cakltes yO"U~ 'tbe.n. offer pm.y,ers:, fur there is virtue in it ,,'n'

a The Ka'bal1,being an,ilmdent,monument'~ 'was exposed to '1hJ: vicissimdes .of 'time,wwch weakenedi,'ts, stmt'1Ure and cracked :its, w:IJl'b;, A few yems before the 'Prophefs (~:) rrtimSiry a, heavy flood s,wept 'through, M'akkah aild 'the Ka'bah was mmDS't destn·)'ed,. The Qmmsh, :Felt tlu!I!E iliey ,must, renovate its Sltmtt_e 'to protect its sanctity. The: ~eaderg, and. great pemonaJities of 'the !Qumish a]l'~ook partin the renovation., They pulled dDiWDtheweak

'nnr .... '~ ..I'i.Ti,-' ,"i:j ," ";'1..1_ ," ','iI'll'ii!IiIt"I"I~~;H'""f!I!lIlIIiIid; ~,,,,,,,.:I!, ,'ili ''I'fI2',~,: ,n. ' , ~""""'~'''r'''' ~in tiL, ";iJi'I' 'Ii''' n1lo1Jjl"l;Q;

Jf'""''''I~I...,,~~ u~, ,!!l'!;,;.lJ.RUIII.IrOO, UJlIl, VJ.I!.Ai'UXl I,l!. J.il!io"1!!1!' ou.~~UJi'Y.ll .m ..... ,.II, ,r.l!-'I;;.

Cl A sU-!!lc~ure 'whose i"buu.datioI18 'were bid fb:'y Ibr,nlbIm, (~)and. IS1ll~1 (~) :~n 'the disum~ past could l1,Ot be emmsted 10 ordinary labourers, So it~s not surpr.~:smg th~t the leaders and Sheikhs of

h "beL "':~'"",I'i.lld ... 1""., ,. '1)'" . '" ,. d h

t e tnee ,MJUIW": 't~ pert to t__;lS acUv [I.y,., anc run,Ollg tllem 'were

Mohammad (-J and his uncles,

01 ~Amr ibn Din.k reports, ,"hat he heard Ji'bir' ibn ~AbdluHih ('." :!Ul(.yi,ng:

"'!Whe~i ~he Ka'~bah was bei'ngreibuilt 1he Messe"nge:r ,o,f A!lllh '~:J' ond ~.Abtms wentto camy :s1'ones.,

I A'bbas I'.) said flO 'Ina Propnet' bws,~ ~ ~'[iH' 'yo~r IN ~~oin cl0111eJI ol¥'e.r you~ shoulder (:lInd it Wi[!' pro1ecfyo~J firam '111e' stones, He df.d so thiS, was OO'V!(lr!e prophelhood and he f,ell 1.0 the ~grioundl in o faint

His: ,eY,f!ls 'f~ash€d towards the he.(]ven:g: and he ,sai'd~ "My IlIrt My IZoA" III 'wasfols:~!ened bOiCk in pi:clC;:,e Olnd a;n'€!f ilhathi~ W(JS

_. _ ,. ..... . ...... d ",,!.ill,

nev,e:rr agolln seen IlnM'Jfi.:~' .,

I[:J' Theclans v]ed whh each ot'h.eT in :~ebuildin,g the Kab'ah~, each of them, wanting 'to be foremost and gain the prestige 'f'om. it This !c(liD'~est,a] most turned into a 'bl:ood,y w:ar in. the 'h,tdy Sm1t.tlll(Jrry.. Enmity :sp~ead, 31R1JJOng the builders wheI1the~y prepared to, replace the b~,a"ck stone in t'he s~de of~h~, Kab ~,ah. Abu,Umayyah, i,bn ,AJMu~ (Iif the Makhmmid_ s"v,ed the s]tu.ati,on by suggesting lhat 'lh,ey should, settle !the mat~er by asking 'tire first person '10 ell';,ei 'through the ,galle of 8afll, to decide between them,. AUIh, (M) wi ~ led that, M'mihammad (tIM:) should,

b . that .", " '.. ',." 'd' , ih '-'''~.,." '.', hin -, th ' .. sh "'1'1 d: "~'H .-'1 ' .• ' Ail . ',e' _- J~;~,person~ .an, ~ en IIJI.ey saw : un ' [[ey SOthe,.~ .. ,e.ffi!e ~s .... 1.

Amln (the 'h:ust1Nonhy) '! Wi~: aeeept him . as ad) itrator '! .,.~

01 Muilanrmad (;l~) caU'ed for a !clothan.d. he placed the. black

OJ - L I

stone in the middle of :it Then he called the heads of t'h.e

disputing, clans .altd all of them held on to. an edge ,of the cloth, They U.fted it and tno:k ittothe Ka'bah and Muhammad (;Wi) himself putit inits rin.htfu",'-c, ~ place '~9

,[ ,I .;I __ .W - _._ ,~,_ " ,,_~, .~} .1 ~" "~~.''IP""-",,I'

This was the solution offered by someone endowed with sound. Judgement, at w:fuJo~e sight the people were 'filled with op6m.~ St1.1 ,ande~se ,;i~d.wh.omlliey'Willing~y accepted as arbitrator a. TIll s shows U~.e 'high status w:ll1ich he had attained in

th .,

. . '.' ' ; '-~""

t teu e} es,

o mn. spite of ~he effort made by 'the Quraish to rebuildthe Ka' bah, they fel I short. ofthe foandations ~ aid 'by IbrAhIm. (~)., Nevertbeless after' the Prophet (_) hadgainedsupremacy in the Arabian peninsula he d.~d not: see ally' need ito adjusl~Thl.e buildrnng but chose to leaveit as it was,

~A'jish" 'M~.y A~1iU~ be pleased with her, reported that the Prophet (~') b)~dber:;

"Don't you see that when your people bun'~. the Kab'abthey rel~ sbaf1: of the f«undatioins ,~,aid bylb.ralhTm. (8?8!)?!t'

'S-'h- - S -,.' ;J,;, -M' - - -- --,--.(,' A'· 'l~I;i'i-h" (. 4~:\ will e···· , ... ~ h-' ... '. it r. e,a.I.UI.,. essenger O.I._],a.~.h Wh. you not ave ~.'

extended to the foundations o:fIbraihrhl. (~rr~

He said: HIf it were not forthe fact ;hi3Jl: your people were' recentl y unbelievers, I Sh.Oldd have done SQ.~'

If'I,,.,- '·U··- .. :"'-.'·(··oIl,)···· said: "If '!'A- !I.', hah ·'M.·.····,··, A_' 'l'l'~1", b ':·1 'I' ied

.u~n _.ITI,al[' .. ~." :SaL_.iL= .' _ IS .. ,au . ;a,,Y iirlIJ_e p eas~_

i"~Ii!'1.,. :hl' ".-C h',' :~.....JI th 'I~ fromthe -M····- ':'-'.-c- '.'J - ofAl ]:I'I:~I (. ~J;::::,), '~'~£f!;n" .~ do Wbn ... er~ .... e;(J.m.u I ... ~ .. _m. !lU!.e ., e:s:s:emger 0 ... ~I_~ ... ~., Ml .... ~~ ,LI _0

.1i1:0~ think that he ignored greeting thetwo comers next to the 'black stone except for ·the reason that they were not completed on the foundations of~brahlml (~). n

g The scholars say that the Prophet's {~'J statement mentioned

~ II A. good l"[aJdJil~ narrated by A~ mad. .it~~'ou ~d ~U!'~ii;l b~r! bctlie'f full:' the allil.~ih(lr t@ qlllQ.)lle the' lex.: of lbe~J.aijnh HseJf ir.~.b~rlh:af!! use [h~ l,!,.·,ard~ ofl~c: book. of;s'.Jruh.~ l"fJiuch ~a"~ niO Sll!ppcrt ..

above 'meant that the people hadjust come out ofjahJljpah' and faith had not )'let tal:en a eo,mp~.de hold of tbem,~ whi'ch madte 'the .Arabs averse to demolishing the Ka'bah and redesigning it; If it 'was co.mpulsory to rebuild tbe Ka'bah ss :[brihlm (~) had built it, the Prop:het (~) would never have .~.le1i: it: as it was, N,eve.t1he1ess.~ the matter 'wag, nat so Important as to provoke

~. >f'~

oO.mplLloa·YODis.

Seeker,s o,r tru.'t'h

'We have said that paganism adorns its fidsebood with veneer of truth to, make it ,easy for people 'to, swaUow its bitterness, It claims to btdieve in. a 'God. who created the heavens and earth 1nll at the salIDe! time· :it; assoeiates w~th Him Qither gods ''!ivho are ·dl.e means and intermediaries to approach Him .. Now" since tbe lc:re~tjoD of the heavens and the earth, W·8S far removed from out si,gbt, the smbbom idolaters take comfort in the G:Od8, mbal are close ,at band .. , They vis\~.t them day and night 'until 'their :re:lati,urnshi:p with. these gods, 'becomes much stro,nger '~ban til}ewr ·re:la.ti.omru:p with the True God" and mention ofHim to WhoDl. they appeal through the agency of o,the~s is made only when arpin.s 10.r lapo~o,lizing.,

(AJld .If' JOU ask ·tnfm wh.o cr;eartedthem, 'd1e:yWli~~ sUliieJy sa),:= AI~lbl why' ·d1e.R: ,do ·they tum :a'way? .Ann he raId "~'my .bba took Tho.s'f all!' [pe(lple WilO a'o not l)elleve~ II' l1he'm bear wiU1l! tbellil [M'uhamlmatH a:nd. say.: 'eace! Burt 'they will come to Jmow'.) (Qur'ln 43: 8:7'.:891)

WI Persistence in such nonsense, however, went beyond its U.mits: and the .mu.sesbecame to'tmlly absorbed in what tb,e;y had. imhe,rilt,ed" They ~ost 'the blessing ofa free mind even. a, perceptive mind and . lived in praise of that of' which dwey had no b.Dwled,le" As for.' those who were endowed witb the abilityto 'thiIlik" their dlinlOng conidedwifh ~he 'boundaries of their ,imcJinatilOM and desires, and maybe t-b,ey IOQD.~e,aJ,ed w,hmt 'tihey knew or even fou.ghtit On1y a .few people dared, to. oppose: 'tile

tr,aditioms which 'had taken root j,n society and voice' the truth, and even fe,weI Ii vied for it or sacrificed tllemse.I"'\e.~s on il:s, behalf lJ Before theProphet's ministry there were those. who, looked ,at the paganism of ' the Arabs, 'with scorn, ,and ~hose 'who knew that th,eir peo':pl'e were ~:ndul;ging in superstitious behefs but could not find, tbe means 10 prevent them, B:ukharI.l'O narrated from Ibn "Ulnar (,~,) that 'Ihe Prophet (~.) said, Hemet Zayd rubn ~',Amr ibn Nufa,y~, in lower Beldah before: he became e prop'het and offer·ed him some food, coateining meat, Zayd ( .. ) refused to eat it, Saying:

UI de no'l eat from 'what you sacdflce on your' altars; 21

I eat ,only that, one en 'which Alhth";s, (,:M)flame basi 'been mendoned." He 'used, "to condemn the wa,J":, the Quraish sblug'llterled '~he'ir aruma] s by saying: ,'" I he sheep, was created by A~llb (113) and it, is I-J['e who caused, the water to. descend for "w.'~ from the sky and who caused the pasture: to grow' for it from the earth" But you slaughter in. someone's name other dnmAllih'sl

nIh' """ ,. d f 7,.,. d "b 'JI '. (' ) 'I. 'L

!UJ ,i'n anot ~ er narration :~.t I.S, sal" ,0 , ~y~ :wI:n '. Kmr .. "tu,at ne

wentto Syria and asked about religion ill order 10 follow it.

Hie met ,tt Jewish scholar and asked him about hi'S religion, ,sa;-ying~ "Perhaps ;"11 folio",' your' religionl"

The Jew' said "You win not follow our 'religion unless you

ta ·.,'IIII~., ~ 'i' our !:';'k,~_rEJi, of ~ G·"' o d 'i' ~ ;<JIn- ger 1r,

1U,ttJA.;'Iii.;o . '. . j ~ • .I.J.ru l~ '. ._ ': .' I ,~g ,'. !W.' !I!

Zavd (.-~-) id "I _··,C fl '., . 'I" .t:',c··· ·0- od's _."'."" nd l _aty.l, '~' :sat: . j ,aID . ,eeln,g on y JIlTom ..... 10' g, anger~ an' ...

shan not bear any of 0'0(1,1:5 anger ,at all while I am, able. 'Wnl you show' me something else?"

The Jew said': ~<41 know' ofnothing e:~~e except dlat you should be . Ha' . ;r''''

ne Q, ,.~ n'g.

lQi A!I~o :I'Ia:I11ated !b, Abmad en the a1!!ifbor,i~1Y of Ibn ~Umarr (~,). Tke ijladnh eemes from mn"ottiaer seuree teo willh aiD additiofl [hat eontra.(l'icts, llhe ,a.mbor:':s: expi;arnaUon bei-l)w" Th~s, addit,i;nn iIs, nn~ a!l\!I.1.hent.i~ ih,o'We1!fcr.

~I ~ ( " .. ) t'ho1!.lp~, ~.h.at ~he meat offered ttli :him was oUne kind p:rohi'bi~.ed by Al1lh fJi). NeveliGind~j it, is C(rtlj,n, dlliat [he. Prophet's eM) house. never :arte the sacrifices lilladetoidolls. ~d (.)warrnJl~ to bc'sU!re,ofhimseilif;;;mdl sodec~Mtdbis rrr~iigiolt The ~p:litel (.]1 :mne:m'be.wed Ilis ,md w~ pl~cj wi:'llh it

Zayd (.~) said: ,~~ And what is a /fon,l

The Jew :~ep'lfed: uAb~aham '5 (~) religion. He W8JS ,neither a Jew nor a Christian. and heworshipped none beside God."

o Za.yd, (~) left and he· 'met a Christian scholar and asked him the same,

The ChrIstian repU,ed: ny'(1IU wmU not follow our religion unless youtake your shsre of God'scurse,"

ZElJYd. (4) said: "I shall always flee frem God's curse while I amable, so will you sb.ow me something else?

The Christian replied; "I kn.QIW o:f nothing else exceptthat you sbou][d be a ijaru"i'~~

laid (~) asled ." And what is a Han,if?,''i'

The: Christian replied: "".Abraharm"s (~) ·re.~i,gi.on, He' was, neither' a Jew nor a Christian and he worshippednone beside GodH

a When. Zayd (4) heard. this about Ibrahim (Y)~I be left, ,and when be was outside he raised his hands and said: "0' God, :1 call

V"""" to ' ,. *' ... ."" th .... ,.. 'I have -..:10 -- ~_..li ·;I.'L relig . - . - f'- Ill.., ~'L,=,L_'VM' W1w.~SS·~u~ Iu.:~.. l:.U.W:p~'~, Ul ,1I.......I.Qn or teramm

(Abrahanl) (~),'~

WI These narrations show 'tbe' great amount of cODfus:~on wbich had, spread throughout the world. and observed tbepfevaiHng religions, The Jews felt that they were beiag persecuted in 'the land and. were rejected in every re·gio!J1,. and so anyone who accepted their (e,tigi.o.n had 'to bear '~be burden of God's ,8Dg'ef against them, The' Christians dis.pufied arno,Dg themselves the nature of Chd s1' and his .mO"~'herJ sre~ationshi p t'O the Supreme God, These dwsputes, led them iIDi.~:O violent wars among themselvesand divided them ini~O sects each aftll.'e.m iCU.rsing the others, The Christians: of Syria, who:m Zayd (.) askedwere the J aeobites and tbey differed with. the: offid,ai creed of the Roman Catboli,c Church. Thus it was, .DOt strange fum they should. Inform Zayd (.) of the: curses tbalt would be heaped upon him if h,e entered their .relitgi,on" Or perhaps ilihis curse was the consequence of'fhesin committed bY' Adam (,Y) and. passed. on.

b) all his progeny, as claimed by the ehristians~who Justify Jesus's crucifixion because of this" n, 'was Za.yd~$, (.) right tn, abandon a'~~, ofthem and. return to the rel i,gi:o,n of lbtihim, ( .. ) tol look: for·l~.is, roots,

101 Itutha.ti narrates from Asma~' hi:n~ Abu Bakr (.):

ill saw z.arye 'iibn i A.mJr~bn NUiforyl f.IIJ.:I' sh'Jindlng Y<IIiffih ih'is back lea M~ngl a,gains.~thre Ka" bah (lind he, was say~'ng:: !~!O ,olSsemb(liy' of Quraliish. by' GoOd. none ofyolll 'tlsff·dl~oWiingthe r:e~igion ,o.f IbrahIm (~)< but mrys;en,,!'i! Hie used m'o, rescue '~he blJMedi baby g1~iS ,end say 1(';1 ·t:l1ie:~r '~cd'l1leirs whenthl@iY wonteo to kilill 'Ihei'r !baby daughters,;: "l shell ·to~e. core of her for 'lau,'!~ Hie 'would '1cd::e 1he g1'rrl andwher~ she w'os blg encvglh he, w,ou,l:d say to her ',oither: '~If YOliwish I s;halll giv'9 her bock fo you, Olf" i'f I!1l 04, ~ shal'll conffiill1ue b:ri:ngin 91 her up.,lJ:

Q Zayd (~) was one of '(hose rareth~nke[sw~o despised the wron,~s of JethU ~a.h,we[,~ thankful f(u: their abi H~y to see 'Ibe; truth and did . notunderestimatetbeir value in. tbeir society. Fate,

h owever had selected a men '!ilLI~'t'O nereeived fhe ~'m,nflbl .":ililil"ll'dl

U'rwt,,~ '111'\;,,1, 0' l AU ~~, ,~~._r~UI .. ,g~"LIj, ''''![.W,~V ,r~J.~~,~·" V" _ !L.Ill~ t. J' •• )~_ J ,~:~ •• '

possessed the ab~n~y '1)0 disseminate it: drr-oughout all pads 'of'the globe in spite of the efforts to preserve :fa~ sehoodat the cost ,of Iives aindpoSSe{S,B~,onSi,F,aib;:: 'WI3JS in the process of preparing tha~. to'we[ing personal ity '~O fuU11 this tremendous rcle, and grea~. tasks aee equalled. onl y by great personalities.

In the Cave o,f81r:ili

Muhammad (~) was :ncarring: his fon.ies,. His, previous dedication to, co.nt,e:mp,j;a.tion :hiilldwidened the mematgulf between himself and hispeople, Hi 5, op1il1ion efthem bad come

t - ~'j!j;'ce· m bl ~ ,~,l..<!i op J' nion of scien ''''I';C!f n,t a m . 0·· dem 'W' orl d'- toward C

10 :[i~~:: :~;:O I~ I~~,~~' lV, ~:,~,- - .~V',' I :.--', , J~'.I~, I I~ ~I'l 'uJl I'::, i~'. ',_'I~ u~: -, _I: - _'_",·V,I!.-;',,·_ ';~ ,', ,~,~~,\,,_,~

those who. 'believe tllam the earth :rus ba·~,a:Iil,ced. on the horns. ora bul l, or thet of an atomicist towards those: 'wllilo pelt '0:",0 another ·w~th. stones when they fight and travel on horseback,