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FINAL PROJECT

SI-4099
Planning of Drainage System in Old City Ujung Pandang
An academic research as one of the criteria
to obtain the Bachelor Degree from
Bandung Institute of Technology

ADVISOR :
IR. IWAN KRIDASANTAUSA, M.SC., PH.D.

BY :
VITTORIO KURNIAWAN
15007062

CIVIL ENGINEERING PROGRAMME


FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
BANDUNG INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
2011
ABSTRACT

PLANNING OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM IN UJUNG PANDANG OLD CITY


By
Vittorio Kurniawan
NIM : 15007062
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme

The final assignment will analyze the flood problem in Makassar City. Makassar is the
capital of South Sulawesi Province and the biggest city in East Indonesia. By the description, we
already know that the city is very important especially economically. If Makassar is stroke by the
flood, the economy activities will be halted and disrupted. From the stated reason, it is very
crucial to protect Makassar from flood.
Most of the data derive from the project data from consultant. Demographic condition,
economic condition, location description etc are provided by the consultant office and the report
itself was made by Habib Wijaksana. The author himself didnt come to the site thus all the data
is either from the project report or from the internet.
The final assignement analyzes a lot of aspect, starts from hydrology, tide, channel
dimension, modeling etc. They are very important as the solution must be accurate, relevant,
safe, economic, and efficient. The drainage planning starts from hydrology analysis to determine
the peak discharge. The channel will be designed based on the discharge calculated. Then tide
analysis will determine the elevation of dike in estuary thus affects all the dike elevation at
upstream. Finally, the drainage concept will be run in software to simulate how the channel and
the water works, either the flood will happen or not.
.
ABSTRAK

PERENCANAAN SISTEM DRAINASE DI KOTA LAMA


UJUNGPANDANG
Oleh
Vittorio Kurniawan
NIM : 15007062
Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Lingkungan, Program Studi Teknik Sipil

Tugas akhir ini akan membahas tentang masalah banjir dan penanganannya di Kota
Makassar. Kota Makassar adalah ibukota dari Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan dan merupakan kota
terbesar di Indonesia Timur. Dari penjelasan tersebut, kita telah mengetahui bahwa Kota
Makassar adalah kota yang sangat penting terutama dari segi ekonomi. Bila Makassar terkena
bajir, kinerja roda ekonomi di Sulawesi, atau bahkan Indonesia, akan terhambat dan terganggu.
Karena itu sangatlah penting untuk melindungi Makassar dari serangan banjir.
Hampir semua data yang dipakai berasal dari data proyek sebuah kantor konsultan. Data
kondisi demografi, kondisi ekonomi, deskripsi lokasi dll sudah disediakan oleh kantor konsultan
dan laporan tersebut dibuat oleh Habib Wijaksana. Penulis sendiri tidak terjun langsung ke lokasi
studi karena itu semua data yang dipakai adalah data dari laporan proyek atau dari internet.
Tugas akhir ini menganalisis beberapa aspek, mulai dari hidrologi, pasang surut, dimensi
saluran, pemodelan dll. Aspek-aspek tersebut sangat penting untuk mendapatkan solusi yang
akurat, sesuai dengan kondisi lapangan, aman, ekonomis, dan efisien. Perencanaan sistem
drainase dimulai dari analisis hidrologi untuk mendapatkan debit banjir puncak. Lalu, dimensi
saluran akan didesain berdasarkan beban debit yang ada. Lalu, analisis pasang surut juga akan
dilakukan untuk menentukan tinggi tanggul di muara. Ketinggian tanggul di muara ini akan
mempengaruhi ketinggian tanggul sampai di hulu. Dan akhirnya, semua itu akan dimasukkan ke
software untuk mengetahui bagaimana kinerja sistem drainase tersebut, apakah terjadi banjir atau
tidak.

.
PLANNING OF DRAINAGE SYSTEM IN OLD CITY UJUNG PANDANG

FINAL ASSIGNMENTS
By
Photo

2 x 3 cm

VITTORIO KURNIAWAN
NIM : 15007062
Civil Engineering Programme
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Bandung Institute of Technology

Approved
Final Project Advisor,

Date ..

Ir. Iwan Kridasantausa, M.Sc., Ph.D.


NIP. 196707021993031001

Acknowledged by,
Water Resources Research Group Civil Engineering Programme
Coordinator of Final Assignments, Principal,

Ir. Iwan Kridasantausa, M.Sc., Ph.D. Prof. Dr. Ir. Herlien D. Setio, Ph.D.
NIP. 196707021993031001 NIP. 195705081982032003
GUIDANCE OF USING THE FINAL ASSIGNMENT

The final assignment which is not published is registered and available in the library of Bandung
Institute of Technology and is opened for public with the provision that the copyright is on the
writer based on the regulation of Intellectual Property Rights, which is applied in Bandung
Institute of Technology. The literature references are allowed to be noted , but the quotation or
summary of the final project may only be done with an approval from the writer and the source
of the references should be mentioned according to academic tradition.

Reproducing or publishing part or the whole of the Final Assignment should be done with an
approval from the Dean of the Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bandung
Institute of Technology.
PREFACE

First of all, author is very grateful to God as because of Him and only Him the final
assignment is done. You are my sheperd, You guides me along the the right paths even though I
walk through the darkest valley. You never forget me while I do and You always forgive me
while I dont. Thank You. The second thank goes to my parent, both my father and mother.
Such line cannot express my gratitude to their life-long affection. Then, thank you, Mr. Habib
and Mr. Iwan K of their guidance the final assignment for without them the final asignment
wont be finished at is should be. Then, thanks to all my friends Dina, Faizal, Fian, Frewen,
Fiona, Henri, Nana, Yudha etc and for all of them who cant be mentioned, thank you for the
sharing in final assignment hardship and our labour class lecture.
Imperfect this final assignment is, but the author hopes it brings many benefits for myself
and many people. Any critics, feedbacks, and suggestions will be gladly accepted.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT (ENGLISH) ................................................................................................................ i


ABSTRAK (INDONESIAN) ........................................................................................................... ii
APPROVAL LETTER..................................................................................................................... iii
GUIDANCE OF USING THE FINAL PROJECT .......................................................................... iv
DEDICATION PAGE ..................................................................................................................... v
PREFACE ........................................................................................................................................ vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................. vii


LIST OF ATTACHMENTS ............................................................................................................ xi
LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................... xii
LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................................................... xiv

Chapter I Introduction
1.1. Background ........................................................................................................ 1
1.2. Purpose and Objective ........................................................................................ 2
1.3. Scope .................................................................................................................. 2
1.4. Problem Limitation ............................................................................................. 2
1.5. Location .............................................................................................................. 3
1.6. Report Organization ........................................................................................... 3

Chapter II Literature Review


II.1. Rainfall Analysis................................................................................................ 5
II.1.1. Completing The Lost Rainfall Data ...................................................... 5
II.1.2. Regional Rainfall Analysis .................................................................... 6
II.1.3. Rainfall Frequency Analysis ................................................................. 8
II.1.4. Distribution-Match Analysis ................................................................. 11
II.2. Rainfall Intensity Analysis................................................................................. 11
II.2.1. Run-off Coefficient .............................................................................. 11
II.2.2. Time of Concentration........................................................................... 12
II.2.3. Syntetic Rainfall Intensity ..................................................................... 14
II.2.4. Realistic Rainfall Intensity .................................................................... 14
II.3. Design Discharge ............................................................................................... 15
II.4. Channel Dimension............................................................................................ 16
II.4.1. Best Hydraulic Section .......................................................................... 16
II.4.2. Channel Dimension Design .................................................................. 19
II.4.3. Dusaspun Channel ................................................................................. 19
II.5. Tide .................................................................................................................... 20
II.5.1. Tide Components .................................................................................. 22
II.5.2. Tide Type .............................................................................................. 24
II.5.3. Design Level.......................................................................................... 25
II.6. Hydraulic Simulation ........................................................................................ 25
II.6.1. Background of Hydraulic Simulation Usage ........................................ 25
II.6.2. Equation................................................................................................. 26
II.7. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) .................................................................... 27
II.8. Snyder Synthetic Unit Hydrograph.................................................................... 28

Chapter III General Description Of Makassar City


III.1. Demography Condition.............................................................................................. 30
III.2. Social and Economy Condition ................................................................................. 31
III.3. Description of Makassar Sub-district ........................................................................ 32
III.4. Flood Zone in Makassar............................................................................................. 34
III.5. Topography Condition .............................................................................................. 38
III.6. Hydrology Condition ................................................................................................ 39
III.6.1. Rainfall Condition ......................................................................................... 39
III.6.2. Climate Condtion .......................................................................................... 40
III.7. Tide Condition ........................................................................................................... 41
III.8. River Network ............................................................................................................ 42
III.8.1. Jeneberang River ........................................................................................... 44
III.8.2. Tallo River ..................................................................................................... 45
III.8.3. Bonetanjore River .......................................................................................... 46
III.9. Drainage Condition .................................................................................................... 46
III.10. Master Plan and Makassar Primary Channel ........................................................... 43

Chapter IV Methodology .................................................................................................... 45


IV.1. SMADA.................................................................................................................... 47
IV.2. Ergtide ...................................................................................................................... 49
IV.3. Analytic Hierarchy Process ...................................................................................... 54
IV.4. Drainage Design ....................................................................................................... 55

Chapter V Analysis And Result .......................................................................................... 59


V.1 Analysis, Prioritizing, and Selecting Location ......................................................... 59
V.2. Regional Rainfall Analysis ........................................................................................ 64
V.3. Rainfall Frequency Analysis ...................................................................................... 66
V.4. Distribution Match Analysis ...................................................................................... 67
V.5. Design Rainfall .......................................................................................................... 68
V.6. Rainfall Intensity........................................................................................................ 68
V.7. Rainfall Distribution .................................................................................................. 69
V.8. Time of Concentration ............................................................................................... 70
V.9. Design Discharge ....................................................................................................... 73
V.10. Tide Analysis ........................................................................................................... 75
V.11. Channel Dimension.................................................................................................. 77

Chapter VI Hydraulic Simulation ....................................................................................... 80


VI.1. Hydraulic Simulation Background ........................................................................... 80
VI.2. Network Defintion .................................................................................................... 80
VI.3. Node ......................................................................................................................... 82
VI.4. Section ...................................................................................................................... 83
VI.5. Cross Section ............................................................................................................ 84
VI.6. Boundary Condition ................................................................................................. 84
VI.7. Hydraulic Simulation Result .................................................................................... 87

Chapter VII Conclusion And Further Recommendation .................................................... 91


VII.1. Conclusion .............................................................................................................. 91
VII.2. Recommedation....................................................................................................... 91

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ATTACHMENTS
LIST OF ATTACHMENTS

Attachment 1. Numbered Channel


Attachment 2. Cross Sections
Attachment 3. Level Boundary Condition
Attachment 4. Network Defintion
Attachment 5. Nodes
Attachment 6. Sections
Attachment 7. Structures
Attachment 8. Population Pairwise
Attachment 9. Flood Pairwise
Attachment 10. Land Use Pairwise
Attachment 11. Infrastructure Pairwise
Attachment 12. Land Function Pairwise
Attachment 13. Output at Node 150, 40, 41, and 43
Attachment 14. Output at Node 150, 50, 52, and 54
Attachment 15. Routing from Node 23 to 20
Attachment 16. Routing from Node 43 to 20
Attachment 17. Routing from Node 54 to 20
Attachment 18. Routing from Node 93 to 20
Attachment 19. Routing from Section 96 to 20
Attachment 20. Routing from Section 123 to 20
Attachment 21. Routing from Section 126 to 20
Attachment 22. Drainage Layout
LIST OF TABLES

Table II.1 Normal frequency factor table ................................................................ 9


Table II.2. Log-Pearson III frequency factor table ................................................... 10
Table II.3. Run-off coefficient factors..................................................................... 11
Table II.4. Table of freeboard .................................................................................. 19
Table II.5 Tide components .................................................................................... 21
Table II.6. Tide type ................................................................................................. 24
Table II.7. Important parameters of sea water level ................................................. 24
Table III.1. Population of Makassar from year 2004 until 2006 ............................... 28
Tabel III.2. Number of poor head of family in each sub-district ............................... 28
Table III.3. Table of Makassar topography ............................................................... 35
Table III.4. Table of Makassar rainfall in 2006 ......................................................... 36
Table III.5. Data of Makassar temperature ................................................................ 36
Table III.6. Data of humidity, solar radiation, and wind velocity in Makassar ......... 37
Table III.7. Table that shows the relation among date, hour, and tide level............. 38
Table III.8. Table of rivers in Makassar with their watershed area and length ......... 39
Table III.9. Division of Makassar due to drainage master plan................................. 42
Table V.1. Sorting of sub-districts on each criteria .................................................. 63
Table V.2. Influence area and percentage of each station ........................................ 65
Table V.3. Makassar region rainfall ......................................................................... 65
Table V.4. Rainfall distribution ................................................................................ 66
Table V.5. Distribution-match table ......................................................................... 66
Table V.6. Design rainfall for various return period ................................................ 66
Table V.7. Rainfall intensity .................................................................................... 68
Table V.8. Rainfall distribution ................................................................................ 69
Table V.9. Table of overland flow time ................................................................... 70
Table V.10. Table of ditch flow time ......................................................................... 71
Table V.11. Total time of concentration and design rainfall intensity ....................... 72
Table V.12. Design discharge for each channel ......................................................... 73
Table V.13. Forecasted important elevation in 20 years duration .............................. 75
Table V.14. Dimension for each channel ................................................................... 77
Table V.15. Elevation of dike and channel bottom .................................................... 78
Table V.16. Elevation of dike and channel bottom of tersier channel ....................... 79
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure I.1. Location of Makassar City ........................................................................3


Figure II.1 Example of Thiessen polygon with black dots as rainfall station .......... 7
Figure II.2. Example of Dusaspun 400-600 dimension ............................................. 20
Figure II.3. Figure of total head of water at open channel ........................................ 26
Figure III.1. Makassar administration map ................................................................. 33
Figure III.2. Map of Makassas flood location ........................................................... 38
Figure III.3. Map of river network and road in Makassar ......................................... 43
Figure III.4. Watershed in Makassar City ................................................................... 43
Figure III.5. Long storage at Jeneberang River .......................................................... 44
Figure IV.1. SMADA display ..................................................................................... 47
Figure IV.2. The data has been pasted into SMADA ................................................. 48
Figure IV.3. Result of distribution and return period prediction has been obtained ... 48
Figure IV.4. Example of Dishidros tide data on Microsoft Excel............................... 49
Figure IV.5. Example of first input ............................................................................. 50
Figure IV.6. Ergtide running ....................................................................................... 50
Figure IV.7. Output of Ergtide.exe ............................................................................. 51
Figure IV.8. Example of 3.txt (input of Ergram.exe) .................................................. 51
Figure IV.9. Display of Ergram.exe ........................................................................... 52
Figure IV.10. Output of Ergram.exe and input of Ergelv.exe ....................................... 52
Figure IV.11. Ergelv display ......................................................................................... 53
Figure IV.12. Final output ............................................................................................. 53
Figure V.1. Criteria quality ........................................................................................ 59
Figure V.2. Population criteria .................................................................................. 60
Figure V.3. Flood criteria .......................................................................................... 61
Figure V.4. Land use criteria ..................................................................................... 61
Figure V.5. Infrastructure criteria .............................................................................. 62
Figure V.6. Land function criteria ............................................................................. 62
Figure V.7. Chosen area............................................................................................. 63
Figure V.8. Sensitivity of each area ........................................................................... 64
Figure V.9. Thiessen polygon diagram in Makassar ................................................. 65
Figure V.10. Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Graph ............................................ 69
Figure V.11. Sea level due to MSL from 15 to 31 December 2005 ............................ 75
Figure VI.1. Figure of design network and Duflow network ...................................... 81
Figure VI.2. Nodes of the network .............................................................................. 82
Figure VI.3. Section of the network ............................................................................ 83
Figure VI.4. Example of cross section ........................................................................ 84
Figure VI.5. Tide boundary condition ......................................................................... 85
Figure VI.6. Additional discharge at node 54 ............................................................. 86
Figure VI.7. Output at node 150, 20, 21, and 23 ......................................................... 88
Figure VI.8. Output at node 180, 90, 91, and 93 ......................................................... 89
Figure VI.9 Long section from node 23 to 20 ............................................................ 90
Chapter I
Introduction

I.1. Background
Mamminasata metropolitan region, consists of Makassar City, Maros Regenc y, Gowa
Regency, and Takalar Regency, in South Sulawesi Province has developed into development
center among Sulawesi and East Indonesia region especially at industry, transportation, trade,
social service, and other sectors. As Mamminasata region develops economically, especially
metropolitan Makassar City, the problem also grows as the time goes by. One of the important
problem that often been overlooked is drainage problem.
Flood occurs frequently in Makassar but the solution is yet to be found. If Makassar City is
struck by the flood, it will disrupt the economic activity. As stated above, Makassar is the center
of economic activity in East Indonesia so the effect will be felt by all regions in East Indonesia
even the whole Indonesia. Besides, flood also damages a lot of infrastructrue that has been built
with tremendous amount of money and even it demands the peoples life. So, in short flood and
drainage problems must be solved as quickly as possible in correct way.
In most cases in Indonesia, drainage problem is handled partially so the problem isnt
solved completely. Urban drainage should be handled holisticly from the level of planning,
construction, operation, and maintenance, with all aspects of society participating from the
society and all levels of government bodies.
The first drainage master plan for Makassar City was made in 1996. Considering how fast
Makassar has developed, the master plan is now already obsolete. Due to rapid land use change,
the soil losts its capability to soak the rain water. So, the flood discharge increases and the old
channel cannot contain the discharge anymore.

I.2. Purpose and Objective


The purpose of the final is to review the exixting condition of the drainage network in
Makassar and giving the best solution for the problems that exists. The points that will be studied
in this final is :
Hydrology and hydrometry condition that will affect flood discharge and channel design
significantly
Design of optimal drainage network to drain the excess water so the flood wont happen
Design of channel dimension so that the channel can drain the planned discharge

The objective of the final is to design the optimal drainage system to prevent the flood
happens in Makassar.

I.3. Scope
The scope of the final are :
Identification of flood in Makassar City
Identification of network system and channel dimension
Hydraulic dimension
Selecting 1 most crucial spot in Makassar which flood will be solved
Designing of channel dimension
Tide analysis
Hydrolic simulation for channel dimension checking

I.4. Problem Limitation


In order to keep the study focused, the problems that are studied must be limited. The
boundary conditions are :
The region that will be reviewed is Makassar City and bounded by watershed of Jeneberang,
Tallo, and Bone Tanjore
The area of study will be narrowed to a specific region that has most complicated problem
Hydraulic simulation only will be executed in 1 dimension

I.5. Location
The final will study the drainage problems in Makassar City, South Sulawesi. Astronomically,
Makassar is at 58 South Latitude dan 11925 East Longitude. Makassars location in
Indonesian map is shown in figure below :

Figure I.1. Location of Makassar City

I.6. Repost Organization


The report organization of the final is :
Chapter I Introduction
The content of Chapter I is introduction that discusses about the background and objectives
of the final. Furthermore, Chapter 1 also discusses scope and eshb
Chapter II Literature Review
Chapter II contains the theories that will be used to analyze and process the datas.
Chapter III Location Description
Chapter III will describe the general description that will be reviewed. The description
consists of location, existing condition, problems etc.
Chapter IV Methodology
Methodology will show the process how the data will be analyzed and how the result
obtained.
Chapter V Analysis and Result
In Chapter 5, the datas will be analyzed using the theories from Chapter 2, decription in
Chapter III, and analyzid with order explained in Chapter IV.
Chapter VI Hydraulic Simulation
The analysis result from Chapter V will be simulated in software.
Chapter VII Conclusion and Further Recommendation
Last Chapter will conclude all the writings from first Chapter until Chapter 5. Furthermore,
this Chapter will gives a recommendation on how to solve the problems with the theory and
analysis within
Chapter II
Literature Review

II.1. Rainfall Analysis


II.1.1. Completing The Lost Rainfall Data
For some cases, we often find the incomplete rainfall data. The causes are damaged
instrument, the absence of the observer, relocation of the instrument etc. Of course with the
incomplete data, the drainage design wont give the best solution so we must seek the lost
data. Based on the lecture that were taught by Wangsadipoera in the Hydrology and
Drainage Engineering, there are 3 method that are commonly used :
Algaberic Average
1
Hx =

Hx = the lost data


Hi = rainfall data that was measured around the station whose data losts
n = number of rainfall station

This method is used if difference of the annual rainfall with the nearest station is less
than 10 %.

Normal Comparison
n
Rx Hi
Hx = ( )
n Ri
1

Hx = the lost data


Rx = annual average rainfall at the station whose data losts
n = number of rainfall station
Hi = rainfall data at the stations around the station whose data losts
Ri = annual average rainfall at the stations around the station whose data losts
This method is used if the difference of the annual rainfall with the nearest station is
less than 10 %.

Reverse of Distance Quadrat

Hi
n1
(di )2
Hx =
1
ni
(di )2

Hx = the lost data


Hi = rainfall data at the stations around the station whose data losts
di = distance from each station to the station whose data losts
n = number of rainfall stations

II.1.2. Regional Rainfall Analysis


Arithmatic
Rainfall analysis with arithmatic method is the easiest way to calculate the regional
rainfall, but its accuracy is also the lowest. Usually this method is used for the region with small
variance of average rainfall. Arithmatic method also suitable to be used in at flat region. and the
watershed with the rainfall stations distributed evenly.
n1 R i
=
R
n
= average rainfall
R
Ri = rainfall at the certain point
n = number of measuring point

Thiessen Polygons
This methos is relatively more accurate than aritmathic method because Thiessen Polygon
method include the factor of area of effect of the rainfall station. Moreover, this method also can
be applied for the region which distance of the rainfall stations distribute unevenly.
Station Area
1 AGB
2 AGC
3 BGC

Figure II.1 Example of Thissen polygon with black dots as rainfall station

Here is the step on how to make Thiessen polygon.


1. Create a triangle among 3 rainfall stations
2. Draw a perpendicular bisection line on each side of triangle
3. Note that perpendicular is prioritized over the bisection line

The example is on figure above. The watershed is divided onto 3 regions. The area that is
represented by station 1 is AGB. The AG line intersects side of triangle that connects station 1
and 2. The process goes on until all of them connected and the watershed is divided onto the
certain number of regions. The average rainfall is obtained by summing up the multiplication of
rainfall and the area that is represented by the station. Then, divides it with the area of watershed.
n1 R i . Ai
=
R
A

R = average rainfall
Ri = rainfall at certain station
Ai = area of polygon
A = total area

Isohyet
Another method is isohyet method. This benerfit of this method is it includes topography
factor into calculation. But, the disadventage is it takes a lot of interpolation that risks big error.
To calculate the regional rainfall using isohyet method, draw a line that connects all the
region with same rainfall. Then, the regional rainfall is obtained by summing up all
multiplication between rainfall and isohyet area. Then, divide it with the total area.

II.1.3. Rainfall Frequency Analysis


The objective of rainfall frequency anlysis is to obtain the design rainfall for different
return periode and different distribution type. The common return periods which are used are
5,10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 years.
Normal Distribution
X = x + k . s
X = design discharge
x = average discharge form maximum annual data
k = frequency factor
s = datas deviation standard

Based on the lecture that were taught by Wangsadipoera in the Hydrology and Drainage
Engineering, here is the frequency factor of Normal Distribution.
Table II.1. Normal frequency factor table
Exceedance Periode Ulang Exceedance Periode Ulang
K K
Probabity (Tahun) Probabity (Tahun)
L
10-4 10000 3,719 0.5 2 0
og-
0,0005 2000 3,291 0.55 1.82 -0,126
Norma
0,001 1000 3,09 0,6 1,67 -0,253
0,005 200 2,576 l
0,65 1,54 -0,385
0,01 100 2,326 Distrib 0,7 1,43 -0,524
0,025 40 1,96 ution 0,75 1,33 -0,674
0,05 20 1,645 T 0,8 1,25 -0,842
0,1 10 1,282 he 0,85 1,18 -1,036
0,15 6,67 1,036 formula 0,9 1,11 -1,282
0,2 5 0,842 that is 0,95 1,053 -1,645
0,25 4 0,674 used to 0,975 1,026 -1,96
0,3 3,33 0,524 determi 0,99 1,01 -2,326
0,35 2,86 0,385 0,995 1,005 -2,576
ne the
0,4 2,5 0,253 0,999 1,001 -3,09
design
0,45 2,22 0,126 0,9995 1,0005 -3,291
dischar
0,5 2 0 0,9999 1,0001 -3,719
ge with
Log-Normal distribution is :
log X = x + k . s
X = design discharge
x = average discharge form maximum annual data
k = frequency factor , the same value with Normal distribution
s = datas deviation standard
Log-Pearson III Distribution
Table II.2 Log-Pearson III frequency factor table

Return Period (Year)


1.05 1.11 1.25 2 5 10 25 50 100 200
Scew Probability of Exceedence (%)
Coefficient C 95 90 80 50 20 10 4 2 1 0.5
3 -0.665 -0.660 -0.636 -0.396 0.420 1.180 2.278 3.152 4.051 4.970
2.8 -0.711 -0.702 -0.666 -0.384 0.460 1.210 2.275 3.114 3.973 4.847
2.6 -0.762 -0.747 -0.696 -0.368 0.499 1.238 2.267 3.071 3.889 4.718
2.4 -0.819 -0.795 -0.725 -0.351 0.537 1.262 2.256 3.023 3.800 4.584
2.2 -0.882 -0.844 -0.752 -0.330 0.574 1.284 2.240 2.970 3.075 4.444
2 -0.949 -0.895 -0.777 -0.307 0.609 1.302 2.219 2.912 3.605 4.398
1.8 -1.020 -0.945 -0.799 -0.282 0.643 1.318 2.193 2.848 3.499 4.147
1.6 -1.093 -0.994 -0.817 -0.254 0.675 1.329 2.163 2.780 3.388 3.990
1.4 -1.168 -1.041 -0.832 -0.225 0.705 1.337 2.128 2.706 3.271 3.828
1.2 -1.243 -1.086 -0.844 -0.195 0.732 1.340 2.087 2.626 3.149 3.661
1 -1.317 -1.128 -0.852 -0.164 0.758 1.340 2.043 2.542 3.022 3.489
0.8 -1.388 -1.166 -0.856 -0.132 0.780 1.336 1.993 2.453 2.891 3.312
0.6 -1.458 -1.200 -0.857 -0.099 0.800 1.328 1.939 2.359 2.755 3.132
log X = x + k . s
X = design discharge
x = average discharge form maximum annual data
k = frequency factor
s = datas deviation standard

Gumbel Distribution
Here is the formula to calculate the design discharge with Gumbel distribution :
X = x + k . s
X = design discharge
x = average discharge form maximum annual data
k = frequency factor which value is 0,78 * (ln |-ln q|) 0,45 while q is non-
exceedance probability
s = datas deviation standard

II.1.4. Distribution-Match Analysis


After the design discharge is already obtained, the next step is choosing the most suitable
distribution that suits the data the most. Here is the step on how to choose it :
Assign discharge value for each distribution
Deduct the value with the value of maximum annual discharge in the same year (note that
the difference must be in positive value)
Sum all the differences
The most suitable distribution is the one that gives smallest sum

II.2. Rainfall Intensity Analysis


II.2.1. Run-off Coefficient
Run-off coefficient is a ratio between the discharge that flows on the surface (run-off) and
the falling rain. The table below shows the value of the coefficient for different type of surface :
Table II.3. Run-off coeeficient factors
Type of Surface C
Dense urban 0.7-0,95
Side of dense urban 0,5-0,7
Sub-urban 0,25-0,4
Apartment and flat 0,5-0,7
Small industry sector 0,5-0,8
Heavy industry sector 0,6-0,9
Park, cemetery, and protected forest 0,1-0,3
Field 0,2-0,35
Around the railroad 0,2-0,4
Asphalt road 0,7-0,95
Concrete road 0,8-0,95
Pavement 0,75-0,85
Sand with 2 % slope 0,05-0,1
Sand with 2-7 % slope 0,1-0,15
Sand with 7 % slope 0,15-0,2
Hard soil with 2 % slope 0,13-0,17
Hard soil with 2-7 % slope 0,18-0,22
Hard soil with 7 % slope 0,25-0,35
Unprotected soil 0,7-0,8
II.2.2. Time of Concentration
Time of concentration is required time for water to flow from its furthest point to the
outlet. The formula used to calculate the time is :
Tc = tof + tdf
Tc = time of concentration
tof = overland flow time; time needed for water to flow to the channel on the
surface
tdf = ditch flow time, time neede for water to flow through the channel

Overland Flow Time


Here are the list of the formulas to calculate overland flow time :
o Japan
0.167
2
= ( 3,28 ) ()
3

the parameters are :


Lof = distance covered on the surface by water
nd = roughness coefficient for concret (nd = 0,013) or grass (nd = 0,2)
So = surfaces slope

o Izzard
1
526,4233 3
= ()
( )2/3
2,7559 . 105 +
=
1/3
the parameters are
K = asphalt permeability coefficient (K = 0,9)
Cr = asphalt roughness coefficient (Cr = 0,01)
I = rainfall intensity
So = surfaces slope
o Federal Aviation Agency
3,64 ( 1,1 ) 1/2
= ()
1/3
the parameters are :
C = run-off coefficient
L = distance covered on the surface by water (L must be less than 300 m)
S = surfaces slope

Ditch Flow Time


Below is the formula to calculate time needed to flow through the channel :

= ()
60

The value of vdf is calculated with Manning formula :


1
vdf = * R2/3 * S1/2

vdf = flow velocity (m/s)


n = Manning roughness coefficient
R = hydraulic radius
S = channels slope

II.2.3. Synthetic Rainfall Intensity


This method is used if the data available is maximum daily rainfall. There are 2 formulas to
calculate the intensity :
Mononobe
2
R Tr 24 3
ITr = . ( )
24 t
ITr = rainfall intensity (mm/hour)
RTr = daily rainfall in 24 hours (in mm unit) with return period Tr
t = rain duration (minute)
Van Breen
54 R Tr + 0,707 R Tr 2
ITr =
t + 0,31 . R Tr
ITr = rainfal intensity (mm/hours)
RTr = daily rainfall in 24 hours (in mm unit) with return period Tr
t = rain duration (minute)

The method is the result of the research in Jakarta so Van Breen method is very
suitable to calculate rainfall intensity in Jakarta. To forecast rainfall intensity aside Jakarta,
the formula must be multiplied by coefficient C.
54 R Tr + 0,707 R Tr 2
ITr = C .
t + 0,31 . R Tr

II.2.4. Realistic Rainfall Intensity


These method is used if the data available is in minute unit.

Talbot
a
I=
t+b
( I . t)(I2 ) ( I2 . t)( I)
a= n . ( I2 ) ( I)2

( I)( I . t) n.( I2 . t)
b= n . ( I2 ) ( I)2

Sherman
a
I=
tn
( log I)((log t)2 ) ( log t .log I)( log t)
a= n . ((log t)2 ) ( log t)2
( log I)( log t) n.( log t .log I)
n= n . ((log t)2 ) ( log t)2

Ishiguro
a
I=
t + b
( I . t)(I2 ) ( I2 . t)( I)
a= n . ( I2 ) ( I)2

( I)( I . t) n.( I2 . t)
b= n . ( I2 ) ( I)2

Here are the explanation of the parameters used :


I = realistic rainfall intensity
t = time of concentration
a dan b = variables that calculated based on rainfall intensity and time of
concentration

II.3. Design Discharge


The most common method to calculate the design discharge for drainage is rational
method. The method is used if the area of the is not too vast and the rainfall can be assumed the
same all over the place.
1
Q = C .I .A
360
Q = design discharge (m3/s)
C = run-off coefficient
I = rainfall intensity during time of concentration (mm/hour)
A = area of the place that poured by the rain (ha)

II.4. Channel Dimension


There are 2 types of channel, open channel and closed channel. Open channel is the channel that
has free surface while closed channel doesnt. The example of open channel is river while the
example of closed channel is pipe. For drainage, the type of channel used is open channel
because it can drain the water from the surface above.

II.4.1. Best Hydraulic Section


There are several types of channel penampang. The common section are rectangle, trapezoid, and
triangle. It is recommended as far as possible to use the best hydraulic section in order to have
efficient drainage.
Rectangle

A = section area
P = wetted perimeter
b = channel width
h = channel depth

A = b . h ..(2.1)
while
P = b + 2h
b = P 2h (2.2)
Substitute b from equation 2.2 above to equation 2.1
A = (P 2h) . h
A = P.h 2.h2
dA
dh = P 4h

dA
In order to have maximum area with minimum perimeter, dh must equal to 0.
dA
dh = 0

P 4h =0
P = 4h

Rectangle-shaped channel will reach its optimum conveyance ability if the wetted
perimeter is 4 times of its depth. Thus, if the equation is substituted into equation 2.2 the result
will be :
b = P -2h
b = 4h 2h
b = 2h

The best hydraulic sectoin for rectangular channel is when the width is 2 times of depth.

Trapezoid
h tan b

h

h sec

A = section area
P = wetted perimeter
b = channel width
h = channel height

1
A = 2 h [ b + (b + 2 h . tan )]

A = hb + h2 tan ..(2.3)

P = b + 2h . sec
b = P 2h . sec ..(2.4)

Substitute b from equation 2.4 to equation 2.3 :


A = h . (P 2h . sec ) + h2 . tan
dA
= -2h2 . sec . tan + h2 . sec2
d
dA
In order to have maximum area with minimum perimeter, dh must equal to 0.
dA
=0
d

-2h2 . sec . tan + h2 . sec2 =0

If both left hand and right hand are multiplied by cos2 the equation will be :
-2h2 . sin + h2 = 0
1
sin =2

= 30

For trapezoidal section channel, the best hydraulic section is when the angle between the
side is 90. In other words, the best hydraulic section is when it shapes like half-hexagon.

II.4.2. Channel Dimension Design


The common metheod to acquire channel dimension is Manning formula :
1
vdf = * R2/3 * S1/2
1
vdf * A = * R2/3 * S1/2 * A

After the dimension has been obtained, the next step to be done is seeking the value of the
freeboard. Based on Ranga Raju (1983), the value of freeboard depends on its discharge.
Table II.4. Table of freeboard
Q (m3/s) Fb (m)
< 0.75 0.45
075 - 1.5 0.6
1.5 - 85 0.75
> 85 0.9

II.4.3. Channel Specification


There is a difference between primary and secondary tersier channel. While the former is
made from the river stone, the latter is made from concrete. Thus, it affects the dimension design
tremendously. Primary channel can be made with custom design that enable any kind of section
or dimension while secondary and tersier channel is restricted to rectangle Dusaspun dimension.
Below is the table that shows available dimension for secondary and tersier channel.
Table II.5. Dusaspun dimension (width-height)
Dimension (mm) Dimension (mm) Dimension (mm) Dimension (mm)
300-200 500-400 800-700 1200-1400
300-300 500-500 800-800 1200-1600
300-300xx 500-600 800-1000 1400-1200
300-400 500-700 800-1200 1400-1400
300-500 600-400 1000-800 1400-1600
400-300 600-500 1000-1000 1400-1800
400-400 600-600 1000-1200 1600-1400
400-500 600-700 1000-1400 1600-1600
400-600 600-800 1200-1000 1600-1800
500-300 800-600 1200-1200 1600-2000

Note that exception must be made for secondary channel which drains big amount of
discharge. For this case, it is allowed to use custom dimension for the channel.
Figure II.2. Example of Dusaspun 400-600 dimension

II.5. Tide
Tide analysis must be conduct to determine the design water level, know the type of tide,
and forecast the fluctuation of water level. The input for the analysis is the data from tide
observation.
Water level evelation forecasting can be conducted with harmonic analysis method. Sea
water level fluctuates periodically and it is the sum of the harmonic waves. The formula to
forecast the fluctuation of the tide is :

= 0 + . cos ( . )
=1

Zt = water level
Z0 = average water level from the datum
1
= M . N
n=1 Zi

M = number of observed data


N = number of component
Zi = component amplitude i
i = angular frequency of component i
2
= Ti

Ti = period of component i
i = phase difference of component i
t = time
k = number of component

The other factor that determines the tide is the nodal rotation of the moon thus the
correction factor is required for the amplitude. The change has long period, that is 18,6 years.
After the nodal correction is included in the formula, the formula is :

= 0 + . . cos( . + 0 + )
=1

fi = nodal correction for amplitude


Hi = amplitude of component i
Zi
= fi

v0i = phase difference correction rate


ui = nodal correction rate for phase difference
gi = component i for phase difference
= i + (voi + ui)
Each component has its period and angular velocity with constant value and can be
determined theoritically. Each value and the phase difference cant be determined theoritically,
thus it must be calculated according to tide observation at the studied sea. If the place is
geographically unchanged, the value of the amplitude and phase difference will be constant.

II.5.1. Tide Components


Decomposition the components of the tide means decomposing the sea level fluctuation
into its harmonic components. The main component is the moon and sun gravitation. The others
is non-astronomic unit. The outcome of the decomposition are amplitude and phase for each
components. There are 9 main tide components :
Table II.6. Tide components
Tide Types Component Symbol Period (hours)
Moon (main) M2 12.4106
Sun (main) S2 12
Semi Diurnal Moon (effect of fluctuation of Sun-Moon distance) N2 12.6592
Moon-sun (effect of change in declination angle between
K2 11.9673
moon and sun)
Sun-moon K1 23.9346

Diurnal Moon (main) O1 25.8194


Sun (main) P1 24.0658
Moon (main) M4 6.2103
Shallow
Sun-moon MS4 6.1033

In this case, the method used to decompose the tide component is least square method. The
principle of least square method is the error between the existing data and the forecasted one
must be minimized.
Assume that number of constituent is 1 thus the model equation will be :
= 0 + =1 1 cos (1 ) + =1 1 cos (1 ) .(Equation 2.5)
If the observed data is D then the error equation will be
2 = (Zt D)2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(Equation 2.6)
or
2
2 = (0 + =1 1 cos (1 ) + =1 1 cos (1 ) ) . . . . . . . . (Equation 2.7)

Due to the number of constituent, the value of k is 1. Thus, the equation above will be :
2
2 = (0 + 1 cos (1 ) + 1 cos (1 ) ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Equation 2.8)

To obtain the minumum value, equation above must be differentiated partially for each
variable.
2
0 Z 0 A1 cos 1t B1 sin 1t D . . . . . . . . . . . . (Equation 2.9)
Z 0
and
2
0 ( Z 0 A1 cos 1t B1 sin 1t ) cos 1t D cos 1t (Equation 2.10)
A1
and
2
0 ( Z 0 A1 cos 1t B1 sin 1t ) sin 1t D sin 1t .(Equation 2.11)
B1

If q is the number of the observation and p is the order of observation, 3 equation above
can be displayed as follows :
q q

Z 0 A1 cos 1t F B1 sin 1t F DF
F 1 F 1

q q

Z 0 A1 cos 1t F B1 sin 1t F cos 1t F DF cos 1t F


F 1 F 1

q q

Z 0 A1 cos 1t F B1 sin 1t F sin 1t F DF sin 1t F


F 1 F 1

Three equations above will be displayed in matrix as shown below :


q q
q

q cos t 1 p sin t 1 p Dp
p 1 p 1 Z 0 p 1
q q q
q
cos 1t p cos t 1 p cos 1t p sin 1t p cos 1t p A1 D p cos 1t p
p q1 p 1 p 1
B1 p q1

q q

sin 1t p cos t 1 p sin 1t p sin 1t p sin 1t p D p sin 1t p
p 1 p 1 p 1 p 1

The matrix can be solved with Gauss elimination thus the value of Z, A1, and B1 can be
obtained.

II.5.2. Tide Type


The characteristic of the tide is determined by its most important components which is M2,
S2, K1, and O1. Defant (1958) classified tide into 4 type based on the value of form number
(formzall). Formzall is the ratio between the sum of K1 and O1s amplitude and sum of M2 and
S2s amplitude.

AO1+AK1
= . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Equation 2.12)
AM2+AS2

AO = amplitude of componen O1
AK1 = amplitude of component K1
AM2 = amplitude of component M2
AS2 = amplitude of component S2

The classification of tides type based on formzall can be seen at table 2.7.
Table II.7 Tide type
Formzall (F) Tides Type Explanation
F < 0.25 Semidiurnal Spring and neap occur 2 times in a day pwith almost identical
level. The period of the tide is 12 hours 24 minute.
0.25 < F < 1.5 Mix, rather to In a day, spring and neap occur 2 times with different level
semidiurnal and period.
1.5 < F < 3 Mix, rather to In a day, spring and neap occur once with different level.
semidiurnal Sometimes they occur twice in a day with big difference in
term of level and period.
F>3 Diurnal Spring and neap occur once a day with 24 hours 50 minute
period.

II.5.3 Design Level


Water level is determined by the calculation of the components that conducted above.
From the calculation, we will get some important parameters which are :
Elevation Explanation
HHWS (Highest High Water Highest water level that occurs when full moon or new moon rises
Spring)

MHWS ( Mean High Water Average spring level when the phase of moon is full moon
Spring)
MHWL (Mean Hight Water Level) Average spring level within 19 years period

MSL (Mean Sea Level) Average sea water level

MLWL (Mean Low Water Level) Average neap level within 19 years period

MLWS (Mean Low Water Spring) Average neap level when the phase of moon is full moon

LLWL (Lowest Low Water Level) Lowest water level that occurs when full moon or new moon rises

Table II.8. Important parameters of sea water level

II.6. Hydraulic Simulation


II.6.1. Background of Hydraulic Simulation Usage
The type of flow that Makassar drainage system is gradually varied flow because the
influence of the tide. So, the channel design cannot use uniform flow concept like Manning and
Chezy equation. To obtain the correct and optimum channel dimension, the hydraulic simulation
must be conducted.

II.6.2. Equation
The equation for total head at cross-section 1 at figure 2.2 is :
v2
H = z + d cos + . . (equation 2.1)
2g
H = total head
z = distance from channels bottom to datum
d = depth of the flow at observed section
= angle of channels bottom
= coefficient of energy
v = flows average velocity
Energys gradient

d cos

Water surfaces gradient

Figure II.3. Figure of total head of water at open channel

If equation 2.1 is derived against y axis then :


dH dz 2
= + cos . + . ( ) . . (equation 2.2)
dx dx 2
dH dz
Because Sf = dx and So = dx then equation 2.2 will be :
dd S0 St
= . . (equation 2.3)
dx 2
cos + . ( )
2

The value of dH/dx is negative because the head loss dH is always against the direction of
the flow. The value of dz/dx is also negative because the elevation change of dz is always
negative (because the water flows downward).
If we take the assumption that the slope of channel bottom is constantly almost 0 so
equation 2.3 will be :
dy S0 St
= . (equation 2.4)
dx 2
cos + . (2)

II.7. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
AHP is the method of rational and comprehensive decision making which details the
problem into components then organizes them into hierarchy. The method is known as the most
comprehensive method yet it is easily understanded and easily analized.
There are 3 main principles of AHP, they are :
Hierarchy organizing
It means steps to define the complex and complicated problems into the more
understandable details. The objective is to help decision making in analyzing.
Priority determining
Each of the components is given a weight and it will be compared each other with pairwise
method.
Inconsistency ratio
The comparison of each components must be consistent so that the either the output or the
result will be valid as the base of decision making. The example is, if the respondent says
A>B and B>C, the conclusion must be A>B>C otherwise it is wrong.

II.8. Snyder Synthetic Unit Hydrograph


Snyder said that there are 3 parameters required to obtain unit hydrograph, they are base flow,
peak discharge, and lag time. Furthermore, there are some watershed characteristic affects unit
hydrograph, such as area, shape, and topography of watershed. In this case, service area of the
channel is considered as watershed and the channel itself is the river.
Here are the steps to calculate Snyder synthetic unit hydrograph :
1. Calculating the parameters of synthetic unit hydrograph
If tp = 5.5 hours then the parameters are :
tp = Ct . (L . Lc)0.3 (equation 2.5)
tp = lag time (hour)
Ct = coefficient which depends on watershed characteristic (0.75-3)
L = length of main flow (km)
Lc = distance from watershed centroid to outlet (km)
2.75 . Cp . A
Qp = (equation 2.6)
tp
Qp = peak discharge
Cp = coefficient which depends on watershed characteristic (0.75-3)
A = area of watershed (km2)

tp
tr = . . (equation 2.7)
5.5
tr = effective rain duration (hour)

If tp 5.5 hours then the parameters are :


tr = tp + 0.25 . (t R tr) . . (equation 2.8)
tR = rain duration (hour)

tp
QpR = Qp . (equation 2.9)
t pR
QpR = peak unit hydrograph discharge (m3/s)
2. Convolution matrix
After the unit hydrograph has been obtained, it can be used to calculate run-off discharge
with different rainfall data. After run-off discharge has been obtained, the run-off
hydrograph can be obtained too. Run-off discharge for time series can be obtained with
such convolution formula :
n

Q n = Pi Uni+1 = Pn . U1 + Pn1 . U2 + + P1 . n . . equation (2.10)


i=1

P = rainfall (mm)
U = unit hydrograph
Chapter III
General Description of Makassar City

III.1. Demography Condition


In 2006, the population of Makassar is 1,223,540 people consists of 611,049 men and
612,491 women. The population is concentrated in Tamalate sub-district with 148,549 people in
there (it is 12,14 % from Makassars population) while the sub-district that has least people is
Ujung Pandang with 27,941 people (2,28 % from the total). The most dense sub-district is
Makassar sub-district with 32,093 people per km2 while the least dense sub-district is
Biringkanaya with 2,605 people per km2. Below is the table that shows Makassar population
from 2004 until 2006 :
Table III.1. Population of Makassar from year 2004 until 2006
Year Population
2004 1,179,023
2005 1,193,434
2006 1,223,540

From the latest update, as stated by Makassar Dalam Angka 2010, the population of
Makassar in 2008 is 1,253,656 and in 2009 is 1,273,349 people. The growth rate from 2000 until
2009 is 1.63 %.

III.2. Social and Economy Condition


Below is the table that shows the number of the head of the poor family in each sub-district
in 2006. The head of family is categorized as the poor if he accepts rasin (rice that allocated for
poor family)
Table III.2. Number of poor head of family in each sub-district
Region
Number Sub-district Area (km2) Number Of Poor Family Head
Code
1 010 Mariso 1.82 3,705
2 020 Mamajang 2.25 4,181
3 030 Tamalate 20.21 9,392
4 031 Rappocini 9.23 7,184
5 040 Makassar 2.52 7,075
6 050 Ujung Pandang 2.63 724
7 060 Wajo 1.99 991
8 070 Bontoala 2.10 2,652
9 080 Ujung Tanah 5.94 5,390
10 090 Tallo 5.83 10,438
11 100 Panakkukang 17.05 5,638
12 101 Manggala 24.14 4,721
13 110 Biringkanaya 48.22 6,061
14 111 Tamalanrea 31.84 1,946
Total 175.77 70,098

From the survey conducted by the consultant by spreading questionnaire, here are the
summary of the result obtained :
There are 87 respondents consists of 51 men and 36 women. There are 43 Makassar-origin
and the rest is immigrant. Generally the immigrants origin are around Makassar such as
Gowa, Jeneponto, Bulukumba, Takalar etc including West Sulawesi. Furthermore, there are
immigrants from outside of Sulawesi such as Jambi, Java, and West Papua
There are 43 Makassar-origin people that work as a businessman, entrepreneur, and trader
and the other 44 immigrants works as pedicab driver, entrepreneur, , civil servants, and
scholar. Generally the pedicab drivers come from outside Makassar.
The respondents that have low income are 35.3 % of the total, middle income are 39.08 %,
and high income are 25.28 %.
Their income is mainly allocated for eat and transportation that takes up 20-60 % of income.
For poor families that live on flood zone, even sometimes they cant afford daily eat let
alone the saving.

If the poor families are required to pay the retribution for drainage project on the flood zone, it
will add even more burden to their life as their income is barely enough for survival for eat and
house rent-. One of the solution to solve such probliem is people work together for the drainage
project.

III.3. Description of Makassar Sub-district


Makassar comprises 14 sub-districts namely Tamalanrea, Panakkukang, Biringkanaya,
Manggala, Tallo, Ujungtanah, Bontoala, Wajo, Ujung Pandang, Makassar, Rappocini, Tamalate,
Mamajang, and Mariso. Most of the subdistricts are used for settlement with the lowland and
coast topography. Out of these subdistricts, the vastest is Biringkanaya with 48.22 km 2 area
while the smallest is Mariso with 1.82 km2.
Some problems that faced by them are flood, abration, and sedimentation. Out of them,
Tallo and Bontoala subdistrict have the biggest risk of flooding because they are passed by Tallo
river. The subdistricts that have abration problem are Ujungtanah, Wajo, Ujung Pandang, and
Wariso. They have built the wall to prevent further abration. The region that faces sedimentation
problem is Tamalate thus causing the coast line advances further to the sea.
Figure III.1. Makassar administration map

Here is the table which shows number of people in each sub-district :


Table III.3. Population of each sub-district
Sub-district Population
Mariso 55,341
Mamajang 61,294
Tamalate 154,464
Rappocini 145,090
Makassar 84,413
Ujung Pandang 29,064
Wajo 35,533
Bontoala 62,371
UjungTanah 49,103
Tallo 137,333
Panakukkang 136,555
Manggala 100,484
Biringkanaya 130,651
Tamalanrea 90,473
Total 1,273,349

III.4. Flood Zone in Makassar


Here are the description about the land use, flood zone, and flood causes for each
subdistrict in Makassar.
Biringkanaya
The dominant land use of this subdistrict is rice field and farm while the rest is
settlement area. Biringkanaya has a potential for Makassars development. There is a flood
at the south of the subdistritct (check the flood map). Several solutions to solve the flood
problem are :
o Repair or optimize the existing drainage system
o Add new drainage channel or system if its not good enough

Tamalanrea
Most of the land are used for farm and the rest are for settlement, trade, and industry.
This region also has a potential for Makassars development center. Tamalanrea is risky
against flood because the meander of Tallo River is here. Also, Tamalanrea is heavily
influenced by the tide of the nearby coast. Nowadays, most of the outlet channels (and most
of them are natural channel) are heavily polluted by weed especially hyacinth. To solve the
flood problems, here are the solution suggested :
o Channel normalisation, cleaning the channel from the weed and other hindrance
o Dike building
o Dredge the main Tallo River and its tributary
o Build the temporary dam

Ujungtanah
The land use is dominated by settlement and trade. It locates at the shore and it is the
built up area so it cant be the development center of Makassar. The zoning law is needed so
that the region wont be too densed by the development and providing green spaces for rain
infiltration. There are some flood zone here and the causes are :
o The drainage channels are poorly maintained
o Lowland thus leaves the land vulnerable to flood
o The green space is not vast enough

Wajo
The subdistrict landuse is dominated by settlement, trade, and other businesses. The
subdistrict is an old city and quite congested with the building. There is a flood at the north
of Wajo although it has been the region that served by the Jongaya primary channel. The
solution to overcome flood problem are :
o Urban drainage system repair and optimizing to drain the flood quickly
o Keep the green space as a infiltration zone
Tallo
The land use varies from settlement, farm, forest, sea pond, to open space. Tallo has
potential as Makassars development area. The area that vulnerable to flood is lowland
around Tallo River. The condition of Tallo subdistrict resembles the condition of
Tamalanrea, those are both locate at the meander of Tallo river and the channels are poorly
maintained. To solve the flood problems here are the suggestion :
o Channel normalization by widening the channel
o Build a dike at riverbank
o Maintain the green space
Panakukang
Panakukang is the hilly lowland with elevation 0-5 m above sea level. The dominant
land varies from settlement, business, farm, meadow, to industry. The subdistrict locates at
the Tallo Rivers meander so it is vulnerable against the flood. The flood occurs frequently
at riverbank, national settlement, and part of Panakukang housing. The subdistrict has some
primary channel, those are Sirin Jala, Perumnas, Gowa, and Pampang. The recommended
solution to solve th flood problem are :
Build the dike at riverbank
Normalize and widen the outlet channel
Organize the buildings density and green space

Ujung Pandang
The land use is dominated by business area and settlement. Flood occurs frequently here
and at some points the flood level could reach 1 m. Here there are a lot of old buildings
which are Netherland heritage. Also the centre of South Sulawesi government locates here.

Makassar
Most of the land are used for settlement and business area. The subdistrict is the center
of Makassar city and certainly the area is congested by the buildings. Overall, Makassar
subdistrict is well-organized, no flood occurs, and primary channel Jongaya works well.
Mariso
The land use is dominated by the settlement and business area. The subdistrict is quite
well-organized and has vast green space. There is no flood here and primary channel
Jongaya and its tersier channel works well.

Mamajang
Here, 70 % of the land is used for settlement, 20 % for business area, and the rest is
green space and funeral. There are flood at the north and south of the area, the causes are :
o The drainage channels dont work properly
o A lot of hindrance at the inlet to the channel
o The area is lowland

Bontoala
The land use are settlement, trade, and business. This is the old town that has a lot of
buildings. There is flood at the north part of Bontoala subdistrict even though it is in the
Jongaya primary channel service area. The solution for the flood is :
Repair the channel and optimize the work of street channel
Keep the green space in order to let the water infiltrate

Rapocini
There are a lot of unordered ghetto which most people has middle-lower revenue.
There are still a lot of farm, wasteland, and funeral. There is the flood at the lowland near
Jeneberang River at the south of Rapocini. The causes are :
o The area is lowland
o Lack of drainage channel
o A lot of garbage at the channel

Manggala
Manggala subdistrict is the expansion of Makassar City which topography varies from
lowland to hill. The land use are settlement and green space such as farm, meadow, and
park. There are some flood in this area and the solution are :
o Build the dike along the riverbank
o Free the occupied land and make the infiltration area
Tamalate
Here, there are tourist beach, business area, and green space at the south of Jeneberang
River. There is no flood here and Tamalate is in the Jongaya primary channel service area.

Summing up all the information above, below is the map of location where flood occurs in
Makassar

Figure III.2. Map of Makassars flood location


III.5. Topography Condition
The topography of Makassar is the plane at elevation 0-25 m on the sea level with the 0-15
% tilt. The distribution of the tilt is shown in this table :

Table III.4. Table of Makassar topography


Slope (%) Persentage of Makassar City (%)
0-2 85
2-3 10
3-15 5

III.6. Hydrologi Condition


III.6.1. Rainfall Condition
To calculate design discharge and channel, the rainfall data used is maximum daily rainfall
in last 10 years from the station around the site. There are 4 rainfall stations that used in the
analysis, those are Hasanuddin, Panakukkang, Panaikkang, and Gowa. Here are data of the
stations :
Table III.5. Daily maximum rainfall for each stations
Years Gowa Hasanuddin Panaikkang Panakukkang
2000 197 90 399 391
2001 270 213 203 205
2002 148 204 283 187
2003 128 167 148 204
2004 139 117 107 116
2005 208 117 186 238
2006 139 178 174 255
2007 129 121 147 117
2008 157 200 195 184
2009 128 146 162 145
III.6.2. Climate Condition
Here is the climate data of Makassar according to Paotere meteorology station :
Table III.6. Data of Makassar temperature
Average Maximum Minimum
Month
Temperature (C) Temperature (C) Temperature (C)
January 27.7 30.5 24.9
February 27.5 31.7 25
March 27.7 31.7 25.3
April 27.8 31.7 24.9
May 28.5 33.2 25.4
June 28.1 32.8 24.7
July 27.5 32.2 24.1
August 27.7 32.7 24.1
September 28.3 33.4 24.6
October 28.4 33 25.4
Nophember 27.8 32.2 25.2
December 27.2 34.9 24.6
Average 27.85 32.5 24.85

Table III.7. Data of humidity, solar radiation, and wind velocity di Makassar
Solar radiation Wind Velocity (knot)
Month Humidity (%)
(%) Average Maximum

January 82 46 82 64
February 82 64 79 69
March 82 64 74 89
April 79 69 71 90
May 74 77 76 80
June 74 89 86 43
July 74 85 3.9 28

August 71 90 3.6 31

September 68 99 2.7 18

October 76 80 2.3 15

Nophember 83 66 2.6 15

December 86 43 2.1 19

Average 78 73 3.7 23.7

III.7. Tide Condition


Here is the tide data that was taken from Dishidros from 15 to 31 December 2005. The
station where the data was taken is at Makassar harbour.

Table III.8. Table that shows the relation among date, hour, and tide level
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
1:00 0.9 1 1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9
2:00 0.8 0.9 0.9 1 1 1.1 1.1 1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8
3:00 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1 1 1 1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7
4:00 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6
5:00 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4
6:00 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3
7:00 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3
8:00 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.3
9:00 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3
10:00 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4
11:00 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5
12:00 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7
13:00 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1 1 0.9
14:00 1.1 1 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
15:00 1.3 1.2 1.1 1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2
16:00 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1 0.9 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4
17:00 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5
18:00 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5
19:00 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5
20:00 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4
21:00 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4
22:00 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3
23:00 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1 1 1 1 1.1 1.1 1.2
0:00 1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1 1 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1 1 1.1

III.8. River Network


Below is the table that shows the rivers that flow in Makassar City with the area of
watershed and the length of river.

Table III.9. Table of rivers that flow in makassar with their watershed area and length

Watershed Area
River River Length (km)
(km2)
Tallo 407 72
Jeneberang 762 82
Bonetanjore 35 5
Figure III.3. Map of river network and road in Makassar

Figure III.4. Watershed in Makasar City


III.8.1. Jeneberang River
Jeneberang River is the primary river in Makassar. Flows from Mt. Bawakaraeng and Mt.
Lompobatang, it disembogue into Makassar Strait. Jeneberang River locates between longitude
1190 23 50 E and 1190 56 10 E and between latitude 50 10 00 S - 50 26 00 S. The length
of main river is 78.75 km and the watershed covered is 727 km2.
The river functions as the supplier of clean water for domestical use in Makassar City. The
water from it is the main supply of the PDAM (regional water company) for Makassar and its
regencies such as Gowa.
The other function of Jeneberang River is as transportation medium. The river connects
Gowa regency and Makassar. The region that connected by the river is the important one such as
Sungguminasa (Gowa capital), Gowa remote area, southern Makassar, and Tamalate.
Beside for domestical use and transportation, Jeneberang River still has one more use, the
river roles as long storage. The river keep the water and at certain time it flushs the drainage
channel at Makassar such as Jongaya, Panampu, and Sinrijala. The purpose of the flushing is
diluting the waste water at the channels.

Figure III.5. Long storage at Jeneberang River

III.8.2. Tallo River


Tallo River is the main transportation medium that connects the coast with Makassar
remote area. When the roads are congested with vehicles, Tallo River is projected as the alternate
route for transportation.The minimum requirement to sail across the river is traditional boat with
90 PK machine. It will open the access to Tamalanrea, Biringkanaya, Tallo, Sutami, and
Soekarno-Hatta harbour at west.
Another function of Tallo River is as an outlet of Makassar drainage channel such as
primary channel Sinrijala, Gowa, Antang, and other secondary channels. Furthermore, Tallo
River also fulfills the need of irrigation and fishpond at the downstream and estuary.
About the condition, Tallo River locates at the lowland where Makassar lies ahead.
Because of the the sloping nature (only around 1/10,000 slope) of the river, the area around it
suffers flood frequently.

III.8.3. Bonetanjore River


The river has average width 12 m and average depth around 2 m. The river locates in
Sudiang Raya sub-district. The river also acts as natural border between Maros regency and
Makassar.

III.9. Drainage Condition


In Makassar, the condition of the channels are bad leaving the city suffers flood disaster
frequently when heavy rain pours. The main causes why the channel condition is bad are :
Despotition of sedimentation such as sand and mud at the channel
There is no outlet at the drainage channel
Undiscipline behavior of the people that litters to the channel

III.10. Master Plan and Makassar Primary Channel


According to the master plan that regulated in 1996, Makassar City is divided onto 6 areas,
those are :
Table III.10. Division of Makassar due to drainage master plan
No Area Code Region Area (km2)
1 Area I Muara Jeneberang 10
2 Area II Kota Lama 8
3 Area III Kota 19
4 Area IV Pampang 45
5 Area V Tallo 72

Here is the primary channel that serves those 6 areas mentioned above :
Kota Lama (Area III) : Jongaya (6.57 km length), Panampu (4.94 km), Sinrijala
(2.37 km)
Pampang (Area IV) : Pampang River (11.2 km), Antang, Gowa, Perumnas
Tallo (Area V) : PTP, Daya, Daya I, Daya II, Biringkanaya I,
Biringkanaya II, Bonetanjore

Note : most of the datas are derived from project report made by Wijaksana, H.
Chapter IV
Methodology

IV.1. SMADA
SMADA software function is to calculate or forecast the rainfall intensity for different
distribution and for different return period. With SMADA help, the calculation of them is
simplified a lot because it calculates the frequency factor -that usually takes a lot of time yet
inaccurate- automatically.
Below is the example SMADA display :

Figure IV.1. SMADA display

Here are the steps in using SMADA software :


1. Block the data (daily maximum rainfall) from Microsoft Excel
2. Copy and paste the blocked data
Figure IV.2. The data has been pasted into SMADA

3. Click anywhere within SMADA cell and the result will automatically appear

Figure IV.3. Result of distribution and return period prediction has been obtained
4. Copy the daily maximum data to each available distribtuion and choose the most suitable
distrubution
5. Copy the result and paste it to Microsoft Excel

IV.2. Ergtide
Ergtide is Command Prompt-based program that functions forecasting the tide level for
certain years. The software itself comprises of 3 dependant executable files. One output of the
files is the input of the other files and so on. Below is the step of using Ergitde software.

1. Copy and paste Dishidros data to Microsoft Excel


MEI 2006
Tanggal/Jam 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
1 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.9 0.8
2 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9
3 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9
4 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8
5 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8
6 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7
7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7
8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
9 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6
10 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6
11 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6
12 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6
13 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.9 1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7
14 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1 0.9 0.7
15 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 1 1 0.9 0.8
16 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.9 0.9
17 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
18 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9
19 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9
20 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8
21 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7
22 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7
23 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6
24 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6
25 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6
26 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6
27 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7
28 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.9 1 1 1 0.9 0.7
29 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 1 1 0.9 0.8
30 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.9 0.8
31 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

Lokasi : Stasiun Suralaya


Lintang (Lat) : 05o52'.2 S (S)
Bujur ( Long) : 106o02'.0 T (E)

Figure IV.4. Example of Dishidros tide data on Microsoft Excel


Data dalam Satuan Meter

2. Copy and paste tide data into a column starting from first hour at first day to next hour and
ends at last hour at last day. For example, give the file name 1.txt. Note that the 4 first rows
must follow certain template. The example is below.
Figure IV.5. Example of first input

3. Run Ergtide.exe, input data is 1.txt and the output is 2.txt

Figure IV.6. Ergtide running

4. The output is the amplitude and phase for each tide component
Figure IV.7. Output of Ergtide.exe

5. Next, copy and paste the data to Microsoft Excel and transpose it. Then move the SO value
to the third row.
6. Copy the tranposed data into Notepad. At the second bottom of the file, insert the hour when
observation begin, the month and year the data taken, and observation interval in hour unit.
Each of them listed respectively from left to right. The bottom is number of the day the data
will be forecasted. In this case, the data will be forecasted for 20 years so the number of days
will be 7305 days. Give the file name 3.txt.

Figure IV.8. Example of 3.txt (input of Ergram.exe)

7. File 3.txt is the input for Ergram.exe and give the output file name 4.txt
Figure IV.9. Display of Ergram.exe

Figure IV.10. Output of Ergram.exe and input of Ergelv.exe

8. File 4.txt is the input for Ergelv.exe and the final output is 5.txt. At the end of the program,
Ergelv.exe will ask for the number of days input file. It refers to number of days in 3.txt
(number of days the data will be forecasted) and not the number of days in Dishidros
observation data.
Figure IV.11. Ergelv display

Figure IV.12. Final output

Note that the file name could be anything. The file name mentioned above, such as 1.txt,
2.txt etc, is only example.
IV.3. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)

Goal determining

Geometric Average
Geometris

Comparison matrix Comparison matrix of each


among the criterias alternatives based on each criteria

Weight of local priority Weight of each alternatives based on


among the criterias each criteria

Goal

CR < 0.1

Sensitivity
analysis
IV.4. Drainage Design

Data Collecting
Geography data
Temperature data
Rainfall data
Social and economy data
Demography data

Choosing Location
Using AHP method

Hidrology Analysis
Regional rainfall analysis
Rainfall frequency analysis
Distribution analysis
Rainfall distribution
Time of concentration
Design discharge
Tide analysis

Designing channel dimension

Correct and appropriate Wrong and inappropriate


channel dimension channel dimension
Hydraulic simulation

Adequate dike level Inadequate dike level

Raise the dike level

Finish
IV.5. Duflow

Master Menu

Input

Control Data Flow Data

Calculation Defintion Network

Network Nodes Sections Cross Strutcture


Definition Sections s

Boundary
Conditions

Level Q add

Save As
Calculations

Flow

Success Error

Time Related Output Definition Routes

Space Related Output


Chapter V
Analysis and Result

V.1. Analysis , Prioritizing, and Selecting Location


To determine the area which flood problem will be solved, Analytical Hierarchy Process
(AHP) method will be used. As solving flood problem in entire Makassar City is too vast, an
area must be chosen. With focusing on 1 smaller area, it is expected to have more comprehensive
and complete solution.
There are 5 criteria to consider in choosing which sub-district will be solved, they are
population, flood severity, land use, infrastructure, and land function. Each of them has different
quality and they dont have equal value to each other.

Figure V.1. Criteria quality


From figure above it can be seen that land function is the top criteria which must be
considered in choosing area. The order is followed respectively by land use, population,
infrastructure, and flood. Flood is placed on the last because flood is not a problem if it damages
nothing.
Now, each criteria will comprise of sub-districts which will be chosen. Because of the
limitation of the program, there will be 9 sub-districts out of 14 enter the list. They are Mariso,
Mamajang, Tamalate, Tamalan, Makassar, Ujung Pandang, Wajo, Bontoala, and Ujung Tanah.
Below are the pictures of the priority of sub-districts in each criteria.

Figure V.2. Population criteria


Figure V.3. Flood criteria

Figure V.4. Land use criteria


Figure V.5. Infrastructure criteria

Figure V.6. Land function criteria


From figures above, the summary will be concluded in table and they will be sorted based
on weight on each criteria.
Table V.1. Sorting of sub-districts on each criteria
Population Flood Land Use Infrastructure Land Function
Tamalate Tamalanrea Ujung Pandang Ujung Pandang Ujung Pandang
Tamalanrea Ujung Pandang Makassar Makassar Makassar
Makassar Makassar Tamalate Tamalate Tamalate
Mamajang Ujung Tanah Ujung Tanah Tamalanrea Tamalanrea
Bontoala Tamalate Tamalanrea Mamajang Mamajang
Mariso Bontoala Mamajang Ujung Tanah Ujung Tanah
Ujung Tanah Mariso Mariso Mariso Mariso
Wajo Wajo Bontoala Wajo Wajo
Ujung Pandang Mamajang Wajo Bontoala Bontoala

All the calculation is summed up and the result is :

Figure V.7. Chosen area


Figure V.8. Sensitivity of each area

Ujung Pandang is the sub-district which flood problem will be solved. The area is chosen
because of the importance of the land function and land use. It has a lot of building -either they
are historical heritage or modern entertainment center-, center of South Sulawesi province
governance, and center of South Sulawesi economy.

V.2. Regional Rainfall Analysis


Makassar locates on the lowland and the topography is flat. To calculate regional rainfall
analysis which represents Makassar rainfall, the method used is Thiessen polygon. Thiessen
polygon is the common method to calculate regional rainfall. Thiessen polygon is used because it
is more accurate than arithmatic method and easier than isohyet. The diagram of Thiessen
polygon in Makassar is shown below :
Hasanuddin Station

Panaikkang Station

Panakukkang Station

Gowa Station

Figure V.9. Thiessen polygon diagram in Makassar

The influence area of each station is :


Table V.2. Influence area and percentage of each station
Rainfall station Area (km2) Persentage (%)
Hasannuddin 35.34 17.34
Panakukkang 45.05 22.10
Gowa 23.94 11.74
Panaikkang 99.52 48.82
Total 203.85 100

The regional rainfall based on Thiesse polygon calculation is shown in table below :
Table V.3. Makassar region rainfall
Daily maximum rainfall (mm)
Year Gowa Hasanuddin Panaikkang Panakukkang Regional rainfall (mm)
11.74% 17.33% 48.82% 22.10%
2000 399 197 391 90 291.79
2001 203 270 205 213 217.8
2002 283 148 187 204 195.27
2003 148 128 204 167 176.07
2004 107 139 116 117 119.15
2005 186 208 238 117 199.95
2006 174 139 255 178 208.36
2007 147 129 117 121 123.49
2008 195 157 184 200 184.15
2009 162 128 145 146 144.27

V.3. Rainfall Frequency Analysis


The analysis is conducted to obtain design rainfall for various return period. The design
rainfall is necessary to obtain design discharge. The return period are 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200
years.
Then, the rainfall distribution is classified into a probabilty distribution. In hydrology, there
are 4 common distribution, those are normal, log-normal, log-pearson III, and Gumbel. The
frequency analysis is shown in table below :
Table V.4. Rainfall distribution
Calculation result
Nonexceedance
No R24 (mm) Log R24 Log- Log-
Probability Normal Gumbel
Normal Pearson III
1 0.09 119.15 2.08 118.23 125.46 119.54 108.90
2 0.18 123.49 2.09 139.91 140.68 136.74 128.11
3 0.27 144.27 2.16 155.35 152.63 150.30 143.41
4 0.36 176.07 2.25 168.34 163.47 162.63 157.50
5 0.45 184.15 2.27 180.25 174.07 174.71 171.53
6 0.55 195.27 2.29 191.81 185.03 187.21 186.34
7 0.64 199.95 2.30 203.72 197.03 200.88 202.86
8 0.73 208.36 2.32 216.71 211.02 216.82 222.58
9 0.82 217.8 2.34 232.15 228.94 237.21 248.58
10 0.91 291.79 2.47 253.84 256.71 268.70 290.50

V.4. Distribution-Match Analysis


From 4 distribution above, there is 1 distribution that suits rainfall data the most. To obtain
which distribution does, the value of each distribution and exixting data (R24) is subtratcted each
other. The distribution that gives least difference will be chosen.
Table V.5. Distribution-match table
Log-
R24 (mm) Normal Log-Normal Gumbel
Pearson III
119.15 0.92 6.31 0.39 10.25
123.49 16.42 17.19 13.25 4.62
144.27 11.08 8.36 6.03 0.86
176.07 7.73 12.60 13.44 18.57
184.15 3.90 10.08 9.44 12.62
195.27 3.46 10.24 8.06 8.93
199.95 3.77 2.92 0.93 2.91
208.36 8.35 2.66 8.46 14.22
217.8 14.35 11.14 19.41 30.78
291.79 37.95 35.08 23.09 1.29
Total 107.93 116.58 102.50 105.05

From table above, log-Pearson III distribution gives the least difference. Thus, log-Pearson
III will be chosen to calculate the design rainfall.

V.5. Design Rainfall


The design rainfall for various return period will be determined by using log-Pearson III
distribution. The return period are 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 years. The result is :
Table V.6 Design rainfall for various return period
Exceedance Design
Return period
Probability rainfall
0.005 200 456.33
0.01 100 417.16
0.02 50 377.85
0.04 25 338.24
0.1 10 284.85
0.20 5 242.60
0.33 3 209.04
0.5 2 178.78

V.6. Rainfall Intensity


To calculate design discharge, the value of rainfall intensity is necessary. The value of
rainfall intensity determined by using Mononobe method. The value of Rtr (or sometimes called
R24) is already determined above at chapter V.5. Thus the calculation of rainfall intensity is
shown below.

Table V.7. Rainfall Intensity


Return Time (Minute)
Period R24
(Years) 5 10 15 30 45 60 120 180 240 300 360 720

200 456.33 829.21 522.37 398.64 251.13 191.65 158.20 99.66 76.06 62.78 54.10 47.91 30.18
100 417.16 758.03 477.53 364.42 229.57 175.20 144.62 91.11 69.53 57.39 49.46 43.80 27.59
50 377.85 686.60 432.53 330.08 207.94 158.69 130.99 82.52 62.98 51.98 44.80 39.67 24.99
25 338.24 614.62 387.19 295.48 186.14 142.05 117.26 73.87 56.37 46.54 40.10 35.51 22.37
10 284.85 517.61 326.07 248.84 156.76 119.63 98.75 62.21 47.48 39.19 33.77 29.91 18.84
3 242.60 440.83 277.71 211.93 133.51 101.89 84.10 52.98 40.43 33.38 28.76 25.47 16.05
5 209.04 379.85 239.29 182.61 115.04 87.79 72.47 45.65 34.84 28.76 24.78 21.95 13.83
2 178.78 324.86 204.65 156.18 98.39 75.08 61.98 39.04 29.80 24.60 21.20 18.77 11.82

From table of rainfall intensity above, intensity duration frequency graph (IDF) can be
drawn. The graph shows connection between time and rainfall intensity for each return period.
The graph is shown below.
Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Graph
400.00

350.00

300.00 RP 2 Years
RP 3 Years
250.00
Rainfall Intensity RP 5 Years
200.00
(mm) RP 10 Years
150.00 RP 25 Years
100.00 RP 50 Years

50.00 RP 100 Years


RP 200 Years
0.00
0 100 200 300 400
Time (minute)

Figure V.10. Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Graph

V.7. Rainfall Distribution


To transform the design rainfall into the design flood discharge, it takes a parameter called
rainfall distribution in a hour interval. Because the observed rainfall data in a hour interval
doesnt exist, it is assumed that rain occurs 6 hours as it commonly occurs in Indonesia. Then,
the rainfall distribution is calculated with Mononobe formula for rainfall intensity.
Table V.8. Rainfall Distribution
Return Period (Years)
Hours %
2 3 5 10 25 50 100 200
1 53% 94.75 110.79 128.58 150.97 179.27 200.26 221.09 241.85
2 14% 25.03 29.27 33.96 39.88 47.35 52.90 58.40 63.89
3 10% 17.88 20.90 24.26 28.49 33.82 37.79 41.72 45.63
4 9% 16.09 18.81 21.83 25.64 30.44 34.01 37.54 41.07
5 8% 14.30 16.72 19.41 22.79 27.06 30.23 33.37 36.51
6 6% 10.73 12.54 14.56 17.09 20.29 22.67 25.03 27.38
Total 100% 178.78 209.04 242.60 284.85 338.24 377.85 417.16 456.33
V.8. Time of Concentration
There are a lot of formulas to calculate time of concentration of overland time. There are
Kirpich, Izzard, Japan method, Kerby, Kinematic, FAA etc. For this case, the formula used to
calculate overland flow time is FAA (Federal Aviation Agency). FAA method actually was
developed from data obtained from airport run-off but it has been succesfully applied to overland
flow in urban areas . The formula of FAA is :
3,64 ( 1,1 ) 1/2
= ()
1/3
The value of C is 0.8 because the area which is studied is urban area Because the contour
data is unavailable and the area is very flat, the value of land slope is assumed 0.0005.

Table V.9. Table of overland flow time


Channel Furthest Overland Distance tof
Channel Name Slope
Type m minute
Kapta Harun Secondary 393.21 0.0005 272.82
Sulawesi 1 Tersier 133.96 0.0005 159.24
Banda Tersier 164.26 0.0005 176.33
Muhammadiyah 1 Tersier 230.89 0.0005 209.06
Andalas 1 Tersier 157.18 0.0005 172.49
Sulawesi 2 Tersier 151.62 0.0005 169.41
Butung Tersier 126.55 0.0005 154.77
Muhammadiyah 2 Tersier 230.54 0.0005 208.90
Andalas 2 Tersier 156.59 0.0005 172.17
Kalimantan 1 Tersier 149.03 0.0005 167.96
Sarappo Tersier 131.83 0.0005 157.97
Tarakan 1 Tersier 216.35 0.0005 202.37
Yos Sudarso 1 Tersier 280.80 0.0005 230.55
Nusantara Tersier 81.10 0.0005 123.90
Kalimantan 2 Tersier 201.06 0.0005 195.09
Tarakan 2 Tersier 145.73 0.0005 166.09
Yos Sudarso Kiri Tersier 133.79 0.0005 159.14
Yos Sudarso Kanan Tersier 393.29 0.0005 272.85
M. Hatta Tersier 257.61 0.0005 220.82
After calculating overland flow time, the next step is calculating ditch flow time. The
calculation of ditch flow time requires flow velocity, but its value is still unknown. So, ditch
flow time will be determined by setting the flow velocity first. In this case, the flow velocity is
approached by the value of 0.8 for primary channel, 0.6 m/s for secondary, and 0.4 for tersier
channel.
Table V.10. Table of ditch flow time
Channel Channel Length Velocity tdf
Channel
Type m m/s menit
Kapta Harun Secondary 387.99 0.6 10.78
Sulawesi 1 Tersier 194.64 0.4 8.11
Banda Tersier 213.87 0.4 8.91
Muhammadiyah 1 Tersier 260.17 0.4 10.84
Andalas 1 Tersier 230.52 0.4 9.60
Sulawesi 2 Tersier 222.22 0.4 9.26
Butung Tersier 225.27 0.4 9.39
Muhammadiyah 2 Tersier 209.69 0.4 8.74
Andalas 2 Tersier 199.61 0.4 8.32
Kalimantan 1 Tersier 276.90 0.4 11.54
Sarappo Tersier 278.77 0.4 11.62
Tarakan 1 Tersier 314.79 0.4 13.12
Yos Sudarso 1 Tersier 275.89 0.4 11.50
Nusantara Tersier 438.89 0.4 18.29
Kalimantan 2 Tersier 383.81 0.4 15.99
Tarakan 2 Tersier 420.67 0.4 17.53
Yos Sudarso Kiri Tersier 397.82 0.4 16.58
Yos Sudarso Kanan Tersier 215.43 0.4 8.98
M. Hatta Tersier 257.61 0.4 10.73

Total of time of concentration is acquired by summing overland flow time and ditch flow
time. The total time tells the time required from water at the furthest point in a block to the
outlet. Then, from total time of concentration the design rainfall intensity can be seek by
matching it with IDF graph (as shown in figure V.2) that has been acquired.
Table V.11. Total time of concentration and design rainfall intensity
Channel Total Time of Concentration I
Channel
Type minute mm/hour
Ujung Pandang Primary 854.27
Sangir Secondary 96.41
Diponegoro Secondary 88.65
Tentara Pelajar Kiri Secondary 195.16
Tentara Pelajar Kanan Secondary 170.30
Ir. Sutami Kiri Secondary 138.39
Ir. Sutami Kanan Secondary 130.30
Kapta Harun Sekunder 283.60 35.06
Sulawesi 1 Tersier 167.35 49.84
Banda Tersier 185.24 46.57
Muhammadiyah 1 Tersier 219.90 41.54
Andalas 1 Tersier 182.09 47.11
Sulawesi 2 Tersier 178.67 47.71
Butung Tersier 164.16 50.48
Muhammadiyah 2 Tersier 217.64 41.83
Andalas 2 Tersier 180.48 47.39
Kalimantan 1 Tersier 179.49 47.56
Sarappo Tersier 169.59 49.40
Tarakan 1 Tersier 215.49 42.11
Yos Sudarso 1 Tersier 242.05 38.97
Nusantara Tersier 142.19 55.56
Kalimantan 2 Tersier 211.08 42.69
Da'wah Tersier 183.62 46.85
Yos Sudarso Kiri Tersier 175.71 48.24
Yos Sudarso Kanan Tersier 281.82 35.21
M. Hatta Tersier 231.56 40.14

V.9. Design Discharge


The design discharge will be determined by using rational method. Rational method
requires 3 parameters and those were rainfall intensity, service area, and run-off coefficient.
Rainfall intensity can be seen at table V.10, service area for each channel has been known, and
run-off coefficient is 0.8. So, the design discharge for each channel can be determined.
Due to the flat topography of Makassar City, channel slope cannot be too steep or else it
will complicate the construction of the channel. If the channel is too steep,
Table V.12. Design discharge of the channels
Rainfall
Service Design Design
Channel Intensity Channel
Channel Name Area Velocity Discharge
Type Slope
mm/hour
ha m/s m3/s
0.0004 0.96 12.37
Ujung Pandang Primary 133.21
0.0004 0.57 0.89
Sangir Secondary 8.26
0.0004 0.63 1.40
Diponegoro Secondary 14.64
0.0004 0.76 2.77
Tentara Pelajar Kiri Secondary 25.53
0.0004 0.75 2.58
Tentara Pelajar Kanan Secondary 27.58
0.0004 0.71 2.25
Ir. Sutami Kiri Secondary 23.11
0.0004 0.76 2.77
Ir. Sutami Kanan Secondary 28.41
35.06 0.0004 0.48 0.44
Kapta Harun Sekunder 5.68
49.84 0.0004 0.50 0.51
Sulawesi 1 Tersier 4.59
46.57 0.0004 0.46 0.38
Banda Tersier 3.67
41.54 0.0004 0.58 1.00
Muhammadiyah 1 Tersier 10.81
47.11 0.0004 0.44 0.40
Andalas 1 Tersier 3.83
47.71 0.0004 0.51 0.67
Sulawesi 2 Tersier 6.32
50.48 0.0004 0.55 0.75
Butung Tersier 6.71
41.83 0.0004 0.55 0.80
Muhammadiyah 2 Tersier 8.65
47.39 0.0004 0.45 0.33
Andalas 2 Tersier 3.16
47.56 0.0004 0.51 0.70
Kalimantan 1 Tersier 6.67
49.40 0.0004 0.50 0.64
Sarappo Tersier 5.83
42.11 0.0004 0.57 1.09
Tarakan 1 Tersier 11.62
38.97 0.0004 0.45 0.36
Yos Sudarso 1 Tersier 4.14
55.56 0.0004 0.48 0.46
Nusantara Tersier 3.72
42.69 0.0004 0.57 1.06
Kalimantan 2 Tersier 11.18
46.85 0.0004 0.63 1.49
Da'wah Tersier 14.32
48.24 0.0004 0.51 0.65
Yos Sudarso Kiri Tersier 6.07
35.21 0.0004 0.50 0.63
Yos Sudarso Kanan Tersier 8.01
40.14 0.0004 0.54 0.73
M. Hatta Tersier 8.22

V.10. Tide Analysis


Because the outlet of the primary channel is on the sea, the effect of the tide must be taken
into consideration. If the top of dike is under the sea level, primary channel will not be able to
drain the water. Hence, if it happens when there are water in secondary channel or tersier
channel, flood will occur where the channel exists.
From Dishidros data from 15 December 1.00 am until 31 December 24.00, the mean sea
level (MSL) is 90 cm, highest tide is 160 cm and the lowest tide is 0.2 m. The type of the tide is
diurnal. Below is the graph that shows the fluctuation of the tide.
Sea Level Due To MSL
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
Sea Level (m) 12/14/05
12/17/05
0:00 12/20/05
0:00 12/23/05
0:00 12/26/05
0:00 12/29/05
0:00 1/1/06
0:00 0:00
1/4/06 0:00 Dishidros Data
-0.20
Foreecasted Value
-0.40
-0.60
-0.80
-1.00
Time

Figure V.11. Sea level due to MSL from 15 to 31 December 2005.

The tide analysis uses ergtide software. From ergtide, the value of highest high water
spring, lowest low water level and other important elevations can be forecasted. In this case, the
forecast will be conducted for 20 years. The result of the simulation is shown below.
Tabel V.13. Tide Components
Constituent Amplitude (cm) Phase Difference
M2 7.85 -34.13
S2 12.49 187.95
N2 0.65 65.76
K2 6.49 256.35
K1 31.63 228.62
O1 20.23 238.74
P1 10.64 167.04
M4 0.26 265.96
MS4 0.37 219.88
SO 89.71

The form number is :


AO1 + AK1
=
AM2 + AS2
20.23 +31.63
. =
7.85+12.49

= 2.55

Based on Table II.7, Formzall 2.55 is classified as mix tend to semidiurnal. It is proven by
the data that once a day.

Table V.14. Forecasted important elevation in 20 years duration


Important Elevation Level (cm) Level Due to MSL (cm) Number of Occurence
Highest Water Spring 153.52 63.81 1
Mean High Water Spring 139.53 49.82 493
Mean High Water Level 120.08 30.37 10932
Mean Sea Level 89.71 .00 175200
Mean Low Water Level 61.43 -28.28 10939
Mean Low Water Spring 21.15 -68.56 493
Lowest Water Spring 2.04 -87.67 1

V.11. Channel Dimension


After design discharge has been obtained, the next step is designing channel dimension.
For primary channel, the material is river stone while for secondary and tersier channel the
dimension must follow Dusaspun specification. Exception must be made for secondary channel
that has relative big discharge. It must use river stone because Dusaspun doesnt have such
specification.

Table V.14. Dimension for each channel


Channel Width Height
Channel Name
Type
m m
Ujung Pandang* Primary 6.00 1.87
Sangir Secondary 1.40 1.20
Diponegoro Secondary 1.60 1.40
Tentara Pelajar Kiri Secondary 2.20 1.70
Tentara Pelajar Kanan Secondary 2.20 1.60
Ir. Sutami Kiri Secondary 1.80 1.80
Ir. Sutami Kanan Secondary 2.20 1.70
Kapta Harun Secondary 1.20 0.80
Sulawesi 1 Tersier 1.20 1.00
Banda Tersier 1.00 1.00
Muhammadiyah 1 Tersier 1.60 1.40
Andalas 1 Tersier 0.80 1.20
Sulawesi 2 Tersier 1.00 1.40
Butung Tersier 1.40 1.00
Muhammadiyah 2 Tersier 1.20 1.40
Andalas 2 Tersier 1.00 0.80
Kalimantan 1 Tersier 1.00 1.40
Sarappo Tersier 1.00 1.40
Tarakan 1 Tersier 1.20 1.60
Yos Sudarso 1 Tersier 1.00 1.00
Nusantara Tersier 1.00 1.00
Kalimantan 2 Tersier 1.20 1.60
Da'wah Tersier 1.40 1.80
Yos Sudarso Kiri Tersier 1.00 1.40
Yos Sudarso Kanan Tersier 1.00 1.40
M. Hatta Tersier 1.20 1.60
* Ujung Pandang primary channel is the only channel which uses trapezoidal section while
others use rectangle section. The width mentioned above is its bottom width and it has side
gradient with 0.5 ratio.
Table V.15. Elevation of dike and channel
Elevation of Channel
Channel Elevation of Dike
Channel Name Bottom
Type
Downstream Upstream Downstream Upstream
m m m m
Ujung Pandang Primary 1.44 1.90 -0.43 0.03
Sangir Secondary 1.90 2.14 0.70 0.94
Diponegoro Secondary 1.90 2.14 0.50 0.74
Tentara Pelajar Kiri Secondary 1.78 1.94 0.08 0.24
Tentara Pelajar Kanan Secondary 1.78 1.99 0.18 0.39
Ir. Sutami Kiri Secondary 1.60 1.72 -0.20 -0.08
Ir. Sutami Kanan Secondary 1.59 1.75 -0.11 0.05
Kapta Harun Secondary 1.46 1.62 0.66 0.82
Table V.16. Elevation of dike and channel bottom of tersier channel
Elevation of Channel
Channel Elevation of Dike
Channel Name Bottom
Type
Downstream Upstream Downstream Upstream
m m m m
Sulawesi 1 Tersier 2.09 2.17 1.09 1.17
Banda Tersier 1.99 2.08 0.99 1.08
Muhammadiyah 1 Tersier 2.02 2.13 0.62 0.73
Andalas 1 Tersier 2.14 2.24 0.94 1.04
Sulawesi 2 Tersier 1.91 2.00 0.51 0.60
Butung Tersier 1.82 1.91 0.82 0.91
Muhammadiyah 2 Tersier 1.87 1.95 0.47 0.55
Andalas 2 Tersier 1.99 2.07 1.19 1.27
Kalimantan 1 Tersier 1.94 2.05 0.54 0.65
Sarappo Tersier 1.82 1.93 0.42 0.53
Tarakan 1 Tersier 1.87 1.99 0.27 0.39
Yos Sudarso 1 Tersier 1.99 2.11 0.99 1.11
Nusantara Tersier 1.73 1.91 0.73 0.91
Kalimantan 2 Tersier 1.65 1.80 0.05 0.20
Da'wah Tersier 1.65 1.82 -0.15 0.02
Yos Sudarso Kiri Tersier 1.75 1.91 0.35 0.51
Yos Sudarso Kanan Tersier 1.75 1.83 0.35 0.43
M. Hatta Tersier 1.65 1.74 0.05 0.14
Chapter VI
Hydraulic Simulation

VI.1. Hydraulic Simulation Background


The type of flow that Makassar drainage system is gradually varied flow because the influence of
the tide. So, the channel design cannot use uniform flow concept like Manning and Chezy
equation because both of them are the equations for steady flow. Neverthless, both of them are
still used to approach the correct design result because calculating gradually varied flow
straightly will be very complicated. After getting the result with steady flow equation, the result
will be checked with hydraulic simulation program. In this case, the simulation will use Duflow
software.

VI.2. Network Definition


All parts of the design channel network will be represented by nodes and section in Duflow.
Below is the comparison between actual design network and simulation network.
Figure VI.1. Figure of design network and Duflow netowrk

The network starts from south and ends at north. In the figure above, south is below and north is
above. The blue line represents primary channel while green represents secondary channel and
red represents tersier one. Note that Duflow network only defines only until secondary channel.
It is .because of the limitation of the software which cant afford simulate sophisticated network.
VI.3. Node
Node is the point that shapes the network lay out. Node has coordinate, catchment area,
and run-off factor. Coordinate locates the node, catchment area will tell how much impact the
input will give to the node, and run-off factor represents ratio between rainfall discharge and
run-off discharge.
There are several condition when the node is made :
Start of channel
End of channel
The turn of channel
Junction between or among channels
At long straight channel, node is give every about 200 m interval (called dummy node)

Figure VI.2. Nodes of the network


The coordinate derives from Autocad coordinate, the catchment area is the service area of
the channel, and 0.8 run-off value is because the location is urban area. Node which can be
divided by 10 represents primary channel, even node represents channel at the right of primary
channel, and odd node represents channel at the left. The smaller the node, the closer it towards
the main outlet. The node that has 0 catchment area is dummy node.

VI.4. Section
Section is the line between 2 node.Section name is based on the node where section begins.
For example, if the section starts at node 20 and ends at node 10, the section is called section 20
and so on.

Figure VI.3. Section of the network

It is not recommended to have extremely short or long section otherwise it will cause
instability in output. It can be seen from figure above that the longest section is 301 m and the
shortest is 61 m. The recommended length range for section is between 50 m and 350 m.
VI.5. Cross Section
This part will examine the cross section of the channel at the section. There are many
channels in the network, but 1 channel will be taken for example.

Figure VI.4. Example of cross section

Above is the cross section of section 20. It means it is the primary channel which starts at
node 20 and ends at node 10. The shape is trapezoidal with 6 m bottow width, 7.87 m top
width, and 1.87 m depth.

VI.6. Boundary Condition


Boundary condition functions as the control of the calculation. With the existence of
boundary condition, it is expected to obtain the solution for the problem. There are several
boundary conditions that is available in Duflow, those are tide level, flood discharge, rain, wind
velocity, and wind direction. In this case, boundary condtion used are tide level and flood
discharge. Rain isnt included because it has been included in flood discharge.
Because the end of the primary channel is the sea, tide factor must be considered. If the
level of the tide is higher than the flow, water at primary channel will not flow and backwater
will happen. Thus, flood will happen even possible at tersier channel. Above is the figure of tide
condition.
Figure VI.5. Tide boundary condition

The peak of tide or highest high water spring (HHWS) uses the output of Ergtide and the
value is 63.81 cm. The reason why the elevation design uses HHWS is the dike designed will be
able to contain the highest water spring in 20 years after. If the parameter used is mean high
water spring (MHWS) or lower, flood will happen at certain time. Another consideration is
Makassar is the very important city and it is the biggest city in East Indonesia thus it is very
crucial to keep the city away from flood.
Figure VI.6. Additional discharge at node 54

The next boundary condition is flood discharge from tersier channel. Because Duflow
network doesnt include tersier channels it doesnt mean they are not calculated in the
simulation. Instead, they are included in boundary condition. The discharge addition will be in
time series characteristic because the actual discharge also doesnt act in constant way instead it
fluctuates. The fluctuation will follow hydrograph characteristic and the peak discharge is the
result of the calculation in chapter V.11. Above is the example of additional flood discharge of
Nusantara tersier channel into right Sutami secondary channel (represent by node 54).

VI.7. Hydraulic Simulation Result


Time-based Result
As the flow at the channel is affected the motion of the tide, the level of water at the
channel will fluctuates too. The result of Duflow shows whether the dike could prevent the flood
Table VII.1. Elevation of dike on each secondary channel
Service Design Dimension Elevation of Dike (m) Highest
Channel
Channel Name Area Discharge (b x h in Flood
Type 3 Downstream Upstream
(ha) (m /s) meter) Level (m)
Ujung Pandang Primary 133.21 12.37 6 x 1.87* +1.54 +2.00 +0.64
Sangir Secondary 8.26 0.89 1.4 x 1.2 +2.00 +2.24 +2
Diponegoro Secondary 14.64 1.4 1.6 x 1.4 +2.00 +2.24 +2
Tentara Pelajar Kiri Secondary 25.53 2.77 2.2 x 1.7** +1.88 +2.04 +2
Tentara Pelajar Kanan Secondary 27.58 2.58 2.2 x 1.6** +1.88 +2.09 +2.1
Ir. Sutami Kiri Secondary 23.11 2.55 1.8 x 1.8 +1.70 +1.82 +1.6
Ir. Sutami Kanan Secondary 28.41 2.77 2.2 x 1.7 +1.69 +1.85 +1.6
Kapta Harun Secondary 5.68 0.44 1.2 x 0.8 +1.56 +1.72 +1.3

* Primary channel is trapezoidal section with 6 m bottom width, 1.87 m , and 1:2 side
gradient
* The dimension are unavailable in Dusaspun specification so those are custom design

The dike level at Ujung Pandang, Ir. Sutami Kiri, Ir. Sutami Kanan, and Kapta Harun
channel are high enough to prevent flood occurs. But, the dike level at Tentara Pelajar Kanan and
Tentara Pelajar Kir channel are not high enough. The dike level at rest of channel, Sangir and
Diponegoro, have the same level with the highest flood level.
Figure VI.7. Output at node 150, 20, 21, and 23

From figure above, it can be seen that the highest water elevation, about 1.25m, are
reached by node 20 and 23. Both of them are the downstream and upstream of Kapta Harun
secondary channel respectively. The elevation of dike is high enough to contain the water
preventing the flood strikes.
Figure VI.8. Output at node 150, 90, 91, and 93

Figure VI.5 shows the contrary of Figure VI.4 as it shows the elevation of dike is not high
enough. With the elevation of water in node 93 and 91 (Tentara Pelajar Kanan channel) reaching
2.2 m, the dike either at upstream or downstream is not high enough to prevent the flood.
From figures above it can be concluded that when rain and high spring occur
simultaneously, the elevation of water in the channel will rise due to back water. From the
simulation of such extreme condition, some channel has inadequate dike level to contain the
water in it as it has been calculated in steady flow condition.
If the level of dike is inadequate (as shown in Figure VI.5), the solution is raising the
elevation of the dike. Actually there are few option to solve such problem, another one is deepen
the channel bottom. But, dike raising is cheaper than the latter and it is also easier so the former
option is more prefereable. Another reason is channel bottom deepening will trigger worse
backwater phenomena thus the solution will be useless.
Long Section
This part will examine the result of sthe simulation in long section point of view. The result
will be similar with Time-based Result point, only this time it will examine the highest water
level at the channel from the start to the end. The comparison between dike level and flood level
will produce the same result as shown in Table VII.1. Below is the example of long section at
Kapta Harun channel (node 23 to node 20).

Figure VI.9. Long section from node 23 to 20

The elevation of dike at the upstream of Kapta Harun secondary channel is +1.72m while
the elevation of dike at the downstream is +1.54 m. It can be seen that the dike level is still safe
enough to keep the water in Kapta Harun channel even when rain and tide happen
simultaneously.
Chapter VII
Conclusion and Further Recommendation

VII.1. Conclusion
There are 26 channels in Ujung Pandang comprises of 1 primary channel, 7 secondary
channels, and 18 tersier channels.
For time of concentration, FAA method is chosen because it suits the location condition the
most..
Because the rainfall data available is daily maximum rainfall, realistic rainfall intensity isnt
used.
Model calibration isnt required because the drainage design is the new one .
Designing channel dimension with Manning formula is accurate enough even for unsteady
flow. Only few parts of the channels which require few enhancements.

VII.2. Recommendation
The location should have clear border to identify which area is within Ujung Pandang
subdistrict and which one isnt.
The pairwise comparison process in AHP method should be based on quantitative data thus
the analysis will be objective and valid.
All of the data, either demography, climate, tide etc, should be the newest one.
In this assignment, the formulas used were taken from various standarts and references.
They should follow only 1 standart and since the location assessed is within Indonesia the
standart used must be SNI (Indonesia National Standart) for drainage.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Wangsadipoera, M. (2009) : Catatan Kuliah Rekayasa Hidrologi dan Drainase.


Wangsadipoera, M. (2010) : Catatan Kuliah Pengembangan Sumber Daya Air.
Kridasantausa, I. (2008) : Hydrology and Drainage Engineering Lecture Notes.
Hutahean, S. (2010) : Offshore Infrastructure Lecture Notes.
Chow, V.T. (1959) : Open-channel Hyrdaulics, Indianapolis, USA., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc.
Adityawan, M.B., Farid, M. (1995) : Pengendalian Banjir Wilayah Tengah DKI-Jakarta, Tugas
Akhir Program Sarjana, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Ang, A.H.S., Tang, W.H. (1992) : Konsep-konsep Probabilitas dalam Perencanaan dan
Perancangan Rekayasa, Jakarta, Indonesia, Erlangga
Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum. (2010) : Tata Cara Perencanaan Drainase Permukaan.
Fitrianto, Nur. (2010) : Hidrologi Hujan. http://www.geografi.web.id/2010/02/hujan-2a.html
Kodoatie, R.J., Sugiyanto, M. (2002) : Banjir, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Pustaka Belajar.
Pemerintah Kota Makassar (2010) : Kota Makassar Dalam Angka, 2010.
http://makassarkota.go.id/download/makassar_dalam_angka_2010.pdf 20/2/11
Berita Kota Makasar (2010) : http://beta.beritakotamakassar.com/index.php
Berita Makassar (2010) : http://www.kabarmakassar.com/sulsel /1518.html
Saleh, Arif. (2011) : Drainase Makassar Butuh Perhatian Pusat. http://digilib-ampl.net/
Chaudhry, M. H. (2008) : Channel Design. New York, USA, Springer
LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd. (2003) :
http://www.lmnoeng.com/hydrology/TimeConc.htm
Dewan Standarisasi Nasional. (1994). Standar Nasional Indonesia 03-3424-1994 Tata Cara
Perencanaan Drainase Jalan
ATTACHMENTS
Attachment 1 Numbered Channel

Number Channel Name Channel Type


1 Ujungpandang Primer
2 Sangir Sekunder
3 Diponegoro Sekunder
4 Tentara Pelajar Kiri Sekunder
5 Tentara Pelajar Kanan Sekunder
6 Ir. Sutami Kiri Sekunder
7 Ir. Sutami Kanan Sekunder
8 Kapta Harun Sekunder
9 Sulawesi 1 Tersier
10 Banda Tersier
11 Muhammadiyah 1 Tersier
12 Andalas 1 Tersier
13 Sulawesi 2 Tersier
14 Butung Tersier
15 Muhammadiyah 2 Tersier
16 Andalas 2 Tersier
17 Kalimantan 1 Tersier
18 Sarappo Tersier
19 Tarakan 1 Tersier
20 Yos Sudarso 1 Tersier
21 Nusantara Tersier
22 Kalimantan 2 Tersier
23 Tarakan 2 Tersier
24 Yos Sudarso Kiri Tersier
25 Yos Sudarso Kanan Tersier
26 M. Hatta Tersier
Attachment 2 Cross Sections

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 20


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00


1.87 | 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 30


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00


1.87 | 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 40


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00


1.87 | 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 50


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00


1.87 | 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 60


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00


1.87 | 1.87 1.87 1.87 1.87

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 70


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00


1.87 | 1.87 1.87 1.87 1.87

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 80


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00


1.87 | 1.87 1.87 1.87 1.87

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 90


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00


1.87 | 1.87 1.87 1.87 1.87

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 100


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00


1.87 | 1.87 1.87 1.87 1.87

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 110


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00


1.87 | 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 120


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00


1.87 | 1.87 1.87 1.87 1.87

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 130


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00


1.87 | 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.87
CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 21
Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20


0.80 | 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 23


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20


0.80 | 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 41


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20


1.70 | 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 43


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20


1.70 | 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 52


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40


1.80 | 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 54


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40


1.80 | 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40
CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 91
Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60


2.20 | 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 93


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60


2.20 | 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 92


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20


1.70 | 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 94


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20


1.70 | 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 96


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20


1.70 | 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.20

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 121


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60


1.40 | 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 123


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60


1.40 | 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 122


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40


1.20 | 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 124


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40


1.20 | 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40

CROSS-SECTION Profile SECTION 126


Depth to Flow width (m) Storage Width (m)
bott.(m)at begin at end at begin at end

0.00 | 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40


1.20 | 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40
Attachment 3 Level Boundary Condition

FLOW BOUNDARY CONDITION Nr 1


Type : Level unit: Meter
Node(s) : 150
Condition number :
Type of function : Fourier series
Start date (yymmdd) : 110701
Start time (hhmm) : 0000
Cycle 1th component (hhmm) : 2400
Number of sine shaped comp. : 1
Comp. Ampl. Phase(dg)

0 0.05000
1 0.58000 90.00
Attachment 4. Network Definition

NETWORK DEFINITION Press TAB to switch to node


renumbering
Section/ Begin End
Structure Node Node

S100 10 150
S1 201 20
S2 202 40
S3 203 50
S4 204 90
S5 205 90
S6 206 120
S7 207 120
20 20 10
30 30 20
40 40 30
50 50 40
60 60 50
70 70 60
80 80 70
90 90 80
100 100 90
110 110 100
120 120 110
130 130 120
21 21 201
23 23 21
41 41 202
43 43 41
52 52 203
54 54 52
91 91 204
93 93 91
92 92 205
94 94 92
96 96 94
121 121 206
123 123 121
122 122 207
124 124 122
126 126 124
Orientation of network:
0.00 from N to Y axis
Attachment 5. Nodes

NODES general and flow related parameters


Node X-Coord. Y-Coord.Catchment Runoff
(m) (m) Area (ha) Factor

10 829 2079 0.000 0.800


20 835 1974 5.680 0.800
21 1003 2036 0.000 0.800
23 1024 1829 0.000 0.800
30 633 1793 0.000 0.800
40 647 1622 28.400 0.800
41 798 1615 14.320 0.800
43 1049 1612 14.080 0.800
50 586 1618 14.900 0.800
52 487 1625 11.180 0.800
54 298 1700 3.720 0.800
60 597 1418 0.000 0.800
70 607 1218 0.000 0.800
80 617 1018 0.000 0.800
90 622 925 53.100 0.800
91 840 876 20.270 0.800
92 513 944 12.540 0.800
93 1161 883 7.300 0.800
94 287 982 6.320 0.800
96 216 993 6.670 0.800
100 626 726 0.000 0.800
110 631 526 0.000 0.800
120 633 428 22.900 0.800
121 930 400 10.810 0.800
122 419 490 3.670 0.800
123 1228 439 3.830 0.800
124 186 559 4.590 0.800
126 71 600 0.000 0.800
130 608 365 0.000 0.800
150 829 2080 0.000 0.800
201 835 1974 0.000 0.800
202 647 1622 0.000 0.800
203 647 1622 0.000 0.800
204 622 925 0.000 0.800
205 622 925 0.000 0.800
206 633 428 0.000 0.800
207 623 428 0.000 0.800
Attachment 6. Sections

SECTIONS general and flow related parameters


Section Length Direction Bottom Level (m) Resistance (C or k)Windconv.
(m) CW fr.N Begin End Pos. dir.Neg. dir. (10^-6)

20 105 356.00 -0.46 -0.46 50.00 50.00 3.600


30 271 48.00 -0.35 -0.46 50.00 50.00 3.600
40 172 355.00 -0.33 -0.35 50.00 50.00 3.600
50 61 86.00 -0.28 -0.33 50.00 50.00 3.600
60 200 357.00 -0.23 -0.28 50.00 50.00 3.600
70 200 357.00 -0.18 -0.23 50.00 50.00 3.600
80 200 357.00 -0.16 -0.18 50.00 50.00 3.600
90 93 357.00 -0.11 -0.16 50.00 50.00 3.600
100 200 359.00 -0.06 -0.11 50.00 50.00 3.600
110 200 359.00 -0.04 -0.06 50.00 50.00 3.600
120 98 359.00 -0.02 -0.04 50.00 50.00 3.600
130 68 22.00 0.00 -0.02 50.00 50.00 3.600
21 179 250.00 0.65 0.63 50.00 50.00 3.600
23 208 354.00 0.78 0.65 50.00 50.00 3.600
41 151 273.00 -0.07 -0.15 50.00 50.00 3.600
43 251 271.00 0.01 -0.07 50.00 50.00 3.600
52 99 94.00 -0.25 -0.11 50.00 50.00 3.600
54 203 112.00 -0.23 -0.25 50.00 50.00 3.600
91 223 283.00 0.25 0.14 50.00 50.00 3.600
93 321 269.00 0.36 0.25 50.00 50.00 3.600
92 111 100.00 0.07 0.04 50.00 50.00 3.600
94 229 100.00 0.09 0.07 50.00 50.00 3.600
96 72 99.00 0.12 0.09 50.00 50.00 3.600
121 298 275.00 0.59 0.47 50.00 50.00 3.600
123 301 263.00 0.71 0.59 50.00 50.00 3.600
122 223 106.00 0.74 0.67 50.00 50.00 3.600
124 243 106.00 0.82 0.74 50.00 50.00 3.600
126 122 110.00 0.90 0.82 50.00 50.00 3.600
Attachment 7. Structures

STRUCTURE Nr. 100


Type : Overflow
Width (m): 6.00
Sill level (m): 0.00
Mu pos. dir. : 0.900
Mu neg. dir. : 0.900

STRUCTURE Nr. 1
Type : Overflow
Width (m): 1.00
Sill level (m): 0.78
Mu pos. dir. : 0.900
Mu neg. dir. : 0.900

STRUCTURE Nr. 2
Type : Overflow
Width (m): 2.00
Sill level (m): 0.01
Mu pos. dir. : 0.900
Mu neg. dir. : 0.900

STRUCTURE Nr. 3
Type : Overflow
Width (m): 1.50
Sill level (m): -0.23
Mu pos. dir. : 0.900
Mu neg. dir. : 0.900

STRUCTURE Nr. 4
Type : Overflow
Width (m): 2.00
Sill level (m): 0.36
Mu pos. dir. : 0.900
Mu neg. dir. : 0.900

STRUCTURE Nr. 5
Type : Overflow
Width (m): 2.00
Sill level (m): 0.20
Mu pos. dir. : 0.900
Mu neg. dir. : 0.900

STRUCTURE Nr. 6
Type : Overflow
Width (m): 1.50
Sill level (m): 0.71
Mu pos. dir. : 0.900
Mu neg. dir. : 0.900

STRUCTURE Nr. 7
Type : Overflow
Width (m): 1.50
Sill level (m): 0.90
Mu pos. dir. : 0.900
Mu neg. dir. : 0.900
Attachment 8. Population pairwise
Attachment 9. Flood Pairwise
Attachment 10. Land Use Pairwise
Attachment 11. Infrastructure Pairwise
Attachment 12. Land Function Pairwise
Attachment 13. Output at Node 150, 40, 41, and 43

Attachment 14. Output at Node 150, 50, 52, and 54


Attachment 15. Routing from Section 23 to 20

Attachment 16. Routing from Section 43 to 20


Attachment 17. Routing from Section 54 to 20
Attachment 18. Routing from Section 93 to 20
Attachment 19. Routing from Section 96 to 20
Attachment 20. Routing from Section 123 to 20
Attachment 21. Routing from Section 126 to 20