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Wastewater Design &

Best Practices
American Meat Institute
Conference on Worker Safety, Human
Resources and the Environment
Kansas City, Missouri

Brian Mulinix, P.E.


Brian Bakke, P.E.
HDR Engineering, Inc.
March 20, 2013
Overview

Wastewater what are we treating


Preliminary Treatment
Anaerobic Treatment
Aerobic Treatment
Nitrogen Removal
Phosphorus Removal
Tertiary Treatment
What Are We Treating?
BOD5 Proteins
TSS OR Fats
FOG Carbohydrates
TKN
Phosphorus
Partially-Digested
Feed
OR
Manure
Urine
What are We Treating?

Slaughterhouse
Proteins (blood, meat, etc.)
Fat
Partially digested feed from stomachs and intestines
Manure from pens
Urine from pens, kidneys, bladders, etc.
Processing
Proteins
Fat
Carbohydrates
Animal Feeding Operations
Manure
Urine
Some uneaten feed (protein, carbs, fat/oil)
What Type of Food is Being Treated?

Example Protein Fat Carbohydrates


Slaughterhouse
Processing
Hams Some Some (from the pickle liquor)
Bacon Little (from the pickle liquor)
Cooked Sausage Little
Chicken-Fried Steaks (from the breading)
Rendering
Ready-to-Eat Foods Some Some (noodles, sauces, seasonings, etc)
Pretreatment Can Shift Type of Food

DAF reduces fat and some protein


Ferric pretreatment greatly reduces both fat and
protein
Many carbohydrates
Go into true solution
Unaffected by physical or chemical pretreatment
Determine Waste Loads from Food

Protein BOD5 = TKN x 6.25 x 0.8

Fat BOD5 = FOG x ( 1.7 )

Carbohydrate BOD5 =
Total BOD5 Protein BOD5 Fat BOD5
Why is Type of Food Important?
Fat Protein Carbs
Anaerobic Sludge Production 1 1.5 - 2 4-5
pH Buffering
Proteins make their own alkalinity
Fats and carbs require alkalinity for buffering
Nutrient Requirements
Proteins are a complete food source
Fats and carbs are deficient in nutrients and
micronutrients
Different Physical Characteristics
Fats may coat media, float
Swine Farms are Slightly Different

Swine farm waste is similar to human waste without


the dilution water
Virtually everything has been through digestive or
urinary tract
Pigs have utilized much of readily-digestible food
(energy), leaving less easily-digestible to treat
What is Your Discharge Requirement?

Municipality
Limits specific to system
Surcharges
Land Application
Agronomic rates
Direct Discharge
Effluent guidelines
Nutrient limits
PRETREATMENT
Screening

Remove solid materials, prevent avoidable BOD


and TSS
Types:
Static Screens
Vibrating Screens
Rotary Screens
Channel Screens
Gravity Clarifiers

Removal
BOD 20-30%
TSS 30-40%
TKN 10-20%
FOG 50-60%
Dissolved Air Flotation

Without With
Removal Chemicals Chemicals
BOD 30-40% 60-80%
TSS 50-60% 70-80%
TKN 20-30% 40-60%
FOG 50-70% 70-90%
ANAEROBIC TREATMENT
Anaerobic Treatment A Marvelous Tool

Reduce CBOD5 by 85-90%


Reduce TSS by 70-80%
Biogas produced containing 74%
Accept/treat shock organic loads
Serves as equalization
Accomplishes with minimal energy required and
minimal sludge production
Anaerobic Degradation of Organic Materials

Acid-Forming Methane-Forming Methane +


Complex Bacteria Organic Bacteria
CO2 + small
Organics Acids
amt. Cell Mass

Waste Conversion Waste Stabilization


(minimal energy lost, (waste energy converted to
minimal BOD reduction) methane energy, big BOD
reduction)
Anaerobic Treatment Technologies

Low Rate
Anaerobic lagoon
Medium Rate
Anaerobic contact system
Anaerobic SBR
High Rate
Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB)
Anaerobic filters; upflow, downflow, expanded bed
Hybrids
Anaerobic Treatment Comparison

Low Rate Medium Rate High Rate

Contact
Process/Reactor Lagoon process ASBR UASB Filters
Loading,
lbs BOD5/1000 ft3/day 15 30 60 160 60 375 >160 160 - 625

HRT, days 3.5 15 1 10 0.5 10 0.25 1.5 0.5 2.0

unknown,
SRT, days >20 >30 >100 30-100
but long

In summary, anaerobic lagoon is lightly loaded with a long detention


time and sludge age and all the more robust for it
Covered Anaerobic Lagoon

Synthetic or
Natural Cover

Storm Water Collection

Peripheral Biogas
Collection
Design Considerations / Common Operating
Problems
Solids Accumulation
FOG at lagoon < 350 mg/L
Prevent sand, mud, grit, paunch manure, pen waste,
truck bedding, etcL keep out of lagoon
Measure/plot grease cover and settled sludge
thickness Spring, Summer and Fall
Remove sludge every Fall to maximize active volume
< 15% of WAS digests in lagoon, serves more for
thickening; remove WAS sent 1-2X/year
Design Considerations / Common Operating
Problems (cont.)
Anaerobic Temperatures
Ideally 95F
Can go as low 82-86F, or lower for shorter periods
Chemicals
Chlorides: sudden swings of > 1,200 mg/L may
disrupt anaerobic treatment
Processing plants with brine chills, pickle liquors
Beef plants with brine hide curing
Design Considerations / Common Operating
Problems (cont.)
Chemicals (cont.)
Sulfates/Sulfides
Sulfates typically from water supply
Ferric sulfate in pretreatment
Processing mucosa
Tannery wastewater
Sulfates in anaerobic influent reduced to hydrogen sulfide
Reduces methane generation
At high concentrations can be toxic to methanogens
Rule of thumb COD:S < 4:1
Most in effluent, but released in biogas (depending on pH and
temperature)
For every 26 mg/L H2S in the liquid, 1% in gas phase (35C)
For each 1 mg/L sulfide in effluent, requires 2 mg/L of dissolved
oxygen to oxide back to sulfate
Can use ferric/ferrous to tie up sulfide
Design Considerations / Common Operating
Problems (cont.)
Chemicals (cont.)
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Quat)
Inhibitory levels at 5-15 mg/L active ingred.
Macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
Micronutrients
Cobalt, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel
(0.1 mg/L deficient)
Iron (1.0 mg/L deficient)
CBOD (mg/L)

0
500
1000
1500
2000
3/4/07
4/15/07
5/27/07
7/8/07
8/19/07
9/30/07
11/11/07
12/23/07
2/3/08
3/16/08
CBOD mg/l

4/27/08
6/8/08
7/20/08
8/31/08
10/12/08
11/23/08
1/4/09
Volatile Acids

2/15/09
3/29/09
5/10/09
6/21/09
8/2/09
Meat Processing Plant

9/13/09
TEMP (F)

10/25/09
Anaerobic Lagoon Effluent

12/6/09
1/17/10
2/28/10
Addition

4/11/10
Micronutrient

5/23/10
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Temperature (F)
Anaerobic Lagoon Operating Problems

Reactions to upsets, not If performing poorly,


causes: check:
Drop in biogas New plant operations,
production like processing mucosa
Low pH Temperature
Quats
Increase in ORP
Sudden chloride swings
High volatile acids
Nutrients and
Increased micronutrients
acid:alkalinity ratio
AEROBIC LAGOON TREATMENT
Aerated Lagoons/Basins
Hydraulic and Sludge detention
time 1-5 days
Detention time, not oxygen
transfer rate dictates size
As CBOD5 drops, TSS climbs due
to microorganism growth
Aerated Lagoons/Basins
Advantages Disadvantages
Simple to operate Electrical energy reqd
No sludge to handle TSS increase
BOD reduction Nitrification requires
50% in winter
Longer detention time
75% in summer
Temperatures > 50F
Convert anaerobic
effluent to aerobic Small influent flows
Nitrify NH3 under require vertical-wall
certain conditions tanks
ACTIVATED SLUDGE NITROGEN REMOVAL
Activated Sludge Process

Influent

Continuous or semi-continuous
CBOD oxidation Biomass
Nitrification Recycle
Represents most wide-spread Aeration
used in meat and poultry
industries
Conversion into settleable Biomass
solids Waste
Develop ideal biomass
Balance of floc and filament-
forming organisms Clarification
Effluent

Activated Sludge is like a loop with no beginning and no end


BOD Only Activated Sludge

Design Parameters to consider


Dissolved oxygen supply Maintain 2.0 mg/L DO
Alkalinity Maintain pH 6.5 7.9
Detention/contact time 4 to 8 hours
Mixed Liquor Concentration 2,000 to 3,000 mg/L
Oxygen Uptake Rate 40 to 50 mg/L/hour
Sludge age 1 to 3 days
Temperature range 10 to 30 deg. C.

Consumes:
1.1 g O2 / g BOD
Typical Meat Industry Activated Sludge
Anaerobic Influent Anaerobic Effluent
Pork/Beef Poultry Meat Proc. Pork/Beef Poultry Meat Proc.
CBOD5 (mg/L) 1200-1300 600-1800 600-1600 200-400 150-250 150-250
TKN (mg/L) 120-300 60-180 50-150 110-270 55-160 45-135

Nitrate/Nitrite (mg/L) 4.0 4.0 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


Phosphorus (mg/L) 20-50 15-30 20-45 18-45 13.5-27 18-40

BOD:N:P 100:10:1.67 100:10:1.67 100:10:3.0 100:60:10 100:50:10 100:40:14

Anaerobic Lagoon Aeration Basin Final


Clarification

RAS

WAS
Ammonia Nitrification
Consumes:
2-step conversion
4.57 g O2 / g NH4-N
Ammonia to Nitrite - Nitrosomonas 7.14 g Alk CaCO / g NH -N
3 4
Nitrite to Nitrate - Nitrobacter
Design Parameters to consider
Dissolved oxygen supply Maintain 2.0 mg/L DO
Alkalinity Maintain pH 6.5 7.9
Detention/contact time 4 to 24 hours
Mixed Liquor Concentration 3,000 to 5,000 mg/L
Oxygen Uptake Rate 40 to 50 mg/L/hour
Sludge age 8 to 15 days depending on temperature
Temperature range 10 to 30 deg. C.
Traditional Nitrification/Denitrification
1 mol Nitrate
(NO3-)
Autotrophs 40% Carbon
(BOD)
Nitrification-Aerobic Heterotrophs
Denitrification-Anoxic
25% O2

1 mol Nitrite 1 mol Nitrite


(NO2-) (NO2-) 60% Carbon
(BOD)

75% O2

1 mol Ammonia mol Nitrogen Gas


(NH3/ NH4 +) (N2)

4.57 g O2/g NH4-N oxidized


3.5-6 g COD/g NO3-N reduced
7.14 g CaCO3/g NH4-N oxidized
recover 3.57 g CaCO3/g NO3-N reduced
Nitrogen Removal Processes

Single Stage Nitrification-Denitrification


Simultaneous/Combined Nitrification Denitrification
Sequential BOD-Nitrification-Denitrification

Biological Options
Suspended Growth
Fixed Biofilm
Nitrogen Removal Processes - Classic
Zoned
Effluent:
Wuhrman NH4-N < 1 mg/L
TN < 10 mg/L

Ludzack-Ettinger

Modified Ludzack Etinger


(MLE Process)

Bardenpho
(4 stage Phoredox)

Step Feed
Tilmann WRP, Los Angeles
Nitrif/Denitrif: +70% TN Removal

Modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) system

Carbon
Alkalinity Anoxic Aeration
Basin Basin Final
From Clarifiers
Anaerobic
Lagoon

Mixed Liquor Return (4Q)


(nitrate source)

RAS (1Q)

TN WAS TN
200 mg/L 40mg/L
Denitrification vs Recycle

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%
0 2 4 6 8 10
Recycle Ratio (RAS + MLSS)
Nitrif/Denitrif: 6-8 mg/L Effluent TN

4-Stage Bardenpho system

Carbon

Carbon,
Alkalinity Anoxic Post-Anoxic
Aeration Reaeration
Basin Basin Basin Basin Final
From Clarifiers
Anaerobic
Lagoon

Mixed Liquor Return (4Q)


(nitrate source)

RAS (1Q)
WAS
TN TN TN
200 mg/L 40 mg/L 7 mg/L
Pork Plant Effluent Nitrogen
Effluent TN
50
Influent TKN averaged 199 mg/l
45

40

35 Probably lost nitrification


Total Nitrogen, mg/L

30

25
Switched from Final
Clarifier
20 to UF Membranes

15

10

0
1-Nov-08 3-Jan-09 7-Mar-09 9-May-09 11-Jul-09 12-Sep-09 14-Nov-09 16-Jan-10
Simultaneous Nitrification/Denitrification

Biological process occurring concurrently in same


reactor
Relies on dynamic balance of DO/BOD/NH3
Utilizes control of aeration by DO or ammonia
concentration
Reduces oxygen requirements and recovers
alkalinity
Total nitrogen removal
Simultaneous Nit/Denit
1 mol Nitrate
(NO3-)
40% Carbon
Autotrophs
Heterotrophs
Nitrification-Aerobic
Denitrification-Anoxic
25% O2

1 mol Nitrite 1 mol Nitrite


(NO2-) (NO2-) 60% Carbon

75% O2

1 mol Ammonia mol Nitrogen Gas


(NH3/ NH4 +) (N2)

3.43 g O2/g NH4-N oxidized


2.1-3.6 g COD/g NO3-N reduced
5.7 g CaCO3/g NH4-N oxidized
recover 2.38 g CaCO3/g NO2-N reduced
Nitrogen Removal Simultaneous

Effluent:
NH4-N < 4 mg/L
SBR TN < 6 mg/L

Oxidation Ditch

Biodenitro
Cyclic Aeration

Two Zone Activated


Sludge with DO Control
Simultaneous Nit/Denit

Target effluent NH3 in first stage


Target DO in first stage 0.01-0.15 mg/L
Denitrification dependent on DO control and BOD availability

NH3 / DO
Carbon Control
Alkalinity Post
SND
Basin Aeration Final
From Clarifiers
Anaerobic
Lagoon

RAS (1Q)

WAS
Simultaneous Nit/Denit
Potential Advantages Potential Disadvantages
Elimination of Limited controlled aspects
of the process
separate tanks,
Floc sizes
internal recycle Internal COD storage
Simpler process DO profile within floc
design Slower Growth Rates
Reduction of carbon, Larger Tank Sizes
oxygen, energy, and Sludge bulking,
filamentous bacteria
alkalinity growth
consumption
Complex instrumentation
Anammox
1 mol Nitrate
(NO3-)
Autotrophs 40% Carbon
Nitrification-Aerobic Heterotrophs
Denitrification-Anoxic
25% O2

1 mol Nitrite 1 mol Nitrite


(NO2-) (NO2-) 60% Carbon

40-50% O2
75% O2

1 mol Ammonia mol Nitrogen Gas


(NH3/ NH4 +) (N2)
1.83 g O2/g NH3-N oxidized
0 g COD/g NO2-N reduced
3.1 g CaCO3 /g NH3-N oxidized
Definition

Developed in Europe
Bacteria
Autrophic Use CO2 as Carbon
Growth Conditions
Anaerobic/Anoxic
Temperature 20-35C
Very slow growers
Long sludge age > 30 days
NH4+ : NO2- ratio 1 : 1.32
pH (neutral range)
Nitrite (maintain at <40 mg/L)
Free Ammonia (maintain at <10
mg/L)
Once Grown Very Stable - Can
be stored for months with no
food.
Anammox Providers

Paques BV
Upflow gravity separation
Anita MoxTM by Veolia Water Technologies
Plastic biofilm carriers
Similar to MBBR
DEMON by World Water Works
WAS cyclone separation
SBR reactor
Anammox (DEMON)
Operational Philosophy

1 process cycle of the


DEMON involves 4 time-
controlled phases:
Aeration phase
Fill / React phase
Settling phase
Discharge phase

Standard Effluent
90% removal NH4-N
10% production NO3-N
80% removal TN
Full Scale Operation

Regular sampling
Sensors: pH, DO, conductivity,
NH3-N
Regular Operation
DO range of 0.3-0.4 mg/L
(during aeration phase)
pH typically 7.0
Avoidance nitrite accumulation
Downtimes
DEMON Design Requirements

Pretreatment
Most BOD, TSS removed
Pre-storage tank (6-12 hrs HRT)
Design parameters
Total/soluble COD, TKN, NH3-N, Alkalinity, PO4-P,
TSS, Temperature, pH
Flow (aver/max); sludge processing
Tank reactor
Operates as SBR, but can be continuous flow
DEMON Major Components

Seed Sludge Aeration Instruments & Tank


System Controls

Blowers Decanter Mixer Cyclone


Comparison

Nitrification/Denitrification DEMON-system

NH4 NH4
Energy 1.27 kWh/lb N Energy 0.50 kWh/lb N

NO3 NO2 / NH4


2.3 lb 0 lb
C-source C-source
Methanol/lb N Methanol/lb N

N2 N2
CO2 emissions > 4.7 t CO2/t N CO2 reduction -0.4 t CO2/t N
Demon Results - Sidestream

Heidelberg, Germany
126,000 gal/day; 1,300 mg/L TN
PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL
Biological Phosphorus Removal

Many Process Options


Anaerobic Zone key to process
Grow Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms (PAOs)
Typically achieves <1.0 mg/L
High influent Sol BOD/P is required
carbon/VFA addition via fermentation
Process stability is key. Conditions that favor the
right PAO populations are need to be understood
Biological Phosphorus Removal

Modified (5-stage) Bardenpho

Effluent:
UCT TP < 1 mg/L
OP < 0.5mg/L

Modified UCT

VIP (Virginia
Initiative
Process)
Chemical Phosphorus Removal

Chemical Options
Ferric Salts (Ferric Chloride, Ferrous Chloride)
Alum
Sodium Aluminate
Lime

Reaction: FeCl3 & PO4 FePO4 & 3Cl


Dosage: Theory : 5.24 lbs FeCl3 / lb P
Actual: 10.48 lbs FeCl3 / lb P
Rate: 3.1 gallons 30% FeCl3 / lb P
Typical Chemical Treatment Opportunities

Primary Secondary Tertiary Polish

Solids
Processing
TERTIARY TREATMENT
Tertiary Treatment

Treatment Goal Remove additional TSS, TN, TP


not captured in secondary treatment processes.
Simple TSS Removal
Tertiary Clarifier
Cloth Filter Disk TN Removal
Sand Filter Biologically Active Filter (BAF)
Submerged Biofilter
More Complex
Membrane Bioreactor
Ultra Filtration
RO
Questions?

Wastewater Design &


Best Practices
American Meat Institute
Conference on Worker Safety, Human
Resources and the Environment
Kansas City, Missouri

Brian Mulinix, P.E.


Brian Bakke, P.E.
HDR Engineering, Inc.
March 20, 2013