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Cultura y Educacin

Culture and Education

ISSN: 1135-6405 (Print) 1578-4118 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rcye20

What is the key to academic success? An analysis


of the relationship between time use and student
performance / Dnde est la clave del xito
acadmico? Un anlisis de la relacin entre el uso
del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico

Carmen Daz-Mora, Juan A. Garca & Arturo Molina

To cite this article: Carmen Daz-Mora, Juan A. Garca & Arturo Molina (2016) What is the
key to academic success? An analysis of the relationship between time use and student
performance / Dnde est la clave del xito acadmico? Un anlisis de la relacin entre
el uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico, Cultura y Educacin, 28:1, 157-195, DOI:
10.1080/11356405.2015.1130294

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11356405.2015.1130294

Published online: 15 Feb 2016.

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Cultura y Educacin / Culture and Education, 2016
Vol. 28, No. 1, 157195, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11356405.2015.1130294

What is the key to academic success? An analysis of the


relationship between time use and student performance / Dnde
est la clave del xito acadmico? Un anlisis de la relacin entre
el uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico
Carmen Daz-Mora, Juan A. Garca and Arturo Molina

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha


(Received 13 March 2015; accepted 28 October 2015)
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Abstract: University students use of time is one of the most relevant inputs
to their education process. The aim of this work is therefore to explore the
effect that the time spent on different academic and non-academic activities
(collected using a diary) has on student performance, in order to determine
which of these activities improve students marks. Moreover, we investigate
the role of quality variables such as study skills. Using a sample of under-
graduate business students, we find that academic activities such as doing
assignments in teams, attending university lectures and self study have sig-
nificant positive effects on students marks. It is thus concluded that to
improve academic performance it is not only the quantity of time that matters
but also quality aspects like the ability to schedule.
Keywords: time use; academic and non-academic activities; student
performance; study skills; undergraduate students

Resumen: El uso del tiempo por parte de los estudiantes universitarios es uno
de los inputs ms relevantes de su proceso educativo. Por ello, el objeto de
esta investigacin es analizar el rendimiento obtenido por los estudiantes en
funcin del tiempo que dedican a actividades acadmicas y no acadmicas
(medido a partir de un diario) con la finalidad de averiguar cules mejoran en
mayor medida el rendimiento acadmico. Basado en una muestra de estu-
diantes del Grado en ADE, encontramos que la realizacin de trabajos en
equipo, la asistencia a clase y el estudio de forma autnoma son las activi-
dades acadmicas ms rentables a la hora de mejorar las calificaciones de los
estudiantes. Se concluye, adems, que el tiempo necesario para mejorar el
rendimiento acadmico no tiene que ver nicamente con la cantidad sino
tambin aspectos cualitativos como la capacidad para planificar el tiempo
asignado a cada actividad.

English version: pp. 157172 / Versin en espaol: pp. 173189


References / Referencias: pp. 189191
Translated from English / Traduccin del ingls: Miguel del Ro
Authors Address / Correspondencia con los autores: Carmen Daz-Mora, Department of
Applied Economy, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 45071 Toledo, Spain. E-mail:
carmen.diazmora@uclm.es

2016 Fundacion Infancia y Aprendizaje


158 C. Daz-Mora et al.

Palabras clave: uso del tiempo; actividades acadmicas y no acadmicas;


rendimiento acadmico; habilidades de estudio; estudiantes universitarios

The way in which individuals manage their time provides valuable information on
their behaviour and personal priorities. From the perspective of students, they
have to decide how best to allocate their time in order to maximize present and
future satisfaction. Present satisfaction is related to the amount of time devoted to
leisure activities, while future satisfaction results from the possibility of accessing
the job market for which academic performance is relevant (Dolton, Marcenaro, &
Navarro, 2003).
The aim of this paper is to explore the effect that the time spent on different
academic and non-academic activities has on student performance in order to
determine which of these activities improve students marks. We have therefore
estimated an empirical model using data on time allocation from a sample of
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undergraduate business students. We have also investigated the influence of


quality variables such as study skills, since recent literature has emphasized its
importance for students to get better academic performance (Michaels & Miethe,
1989; Nonis & Hudson, 2010; Plant, Ericsson, Hill, & Asberg, 2005). The results
of our study may provide undergraduate students with helpful guidelines con-
cerning how to organize their time more efficiently. It may also help tutors and
teaching staff to design the course structure.
The relationship between student time allocation and academic performance at
university level has been widely studied, although the empirical evidence is not
conclusive and further research is necessary. The findings of most frequently cited
studies on this topic are summarized in Table 1. Some studies have shown a
positive relation between the time spent studying and academic performance
(Lahmers & Zulauf, 2000; Stinebrickner & Stinebrickner, 2004), while the
empirical evidence in others does not support this positive relation since the
authors have found either a negative correlation (Didia & Hasnat, 1998;
Kember, Jamieson, Pomfret, & Wong, 1995) or a non-significant correlation
(Nonis & Hudson, 2006).
Moreover, when not only study time but also other academic activities are
considered, the studies frequently present mixed evidence and the impact on
student performance differs depending on the specific academic activity. Grave
(2011) found that higher marks were positively associated with spending more
time on attending courses and self study and negatively with attending student
work groups and tutorials. Brint and Cantwell (2010) reported that both class
attendance and out of class study had a positive influence on student perfor-
mance. Krohn and OConnor (2005) showed that study time had a negative
effect whereas the impact of class attendance was not significant. Dolton et al.
(2003) found that both time spent on lectures and self study had a positive
relationship with university examination scores, but that only the former was
significant when the students innate ability was controlled for. According to
Schmidt (1983), when treated as an aggregate measure, time spent on aca-
demic activities did not influence students performance, although specific
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 159

Table 1. Relation between time devoted to academic activities for undergraduate stu-
dents and academic performance depending on the method used to obtain information.
Authors Method Main results
Schmidt (1983) Survey Mixed results depending on the academic
activity considered.
Michaels and Miethe (1989) Survey Mixed results depending on the academic
activity when quality aspects are considered.
Didia and Hasnat (1998) Survey Negative correlation.
Dolton et al. (2003) Survey Positive correlation.
Stinebrickner and Survey Positive correlation.
Stinebrickner (2004)
Nonis and Hudson (2006) Survey Non-significant correlation.
Brint & Cantwell (2010) Survey Positive correlation.
Nonis and Hudson (2010) Survey Positive relation when quality aspects are
considered.
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Grave (2011) Survey Mixed results depending on the academic


activity considered.
Kember et al. (1995) Diary Negative correlation.
Lahmers and Zulauf (2000) Diary Positive correlation.
Krohn and OConnor (2005) Diary Mixed results depending on the academic
activity considered.
Plant et al. (2005) Diary Positive relation when quality aspects are
considered.

components of that time, such as hours spent in lectures, in discussion sessions


and on studying for the second examination, do have a positive and significant
effect while studying for the final examination had a negative impact.
This diversity of empirical results could be due, partially, to the type and
number of academic activities considered, which makes an adequate measurement
of the time devoted to different academic activities essential (Dolton et al., 2003).
Our study therefore attempts to correct this shortcoming by extending the number
of academic activities. Two additional reasons can be used to explain the hetero-
geneous results obtained from previous empirical evidence. First, the method used
to obtain information on student time allocation and, second, the quality of time
devoted to academic activities.
With regard to the method, most existing studies have used a survey to
collect information from students (Dolton et al., 2003; Kamp, Dolmans, Van
Berkel, & Schmidt, 2012), asking them about the number of hours dedicated to
a certain task during a period of time (usually one week) or dividing the day
into three parts (viz., morning, afternoon and evening). The main shortcoming
of using survey questions is that time allocation is reported retrospectively and
this method appears to be less suitable for collecting information on sporadic
and short-term activities (Sonnenberg, Riediger, Wrzus, & Wagner, 2012). This
has been pointed out as a limitation in studies on student time allocation
(Nonis & Hudson, 2010). Some studies have, however, used a diary to record
160 C. Daz-Mora et al.

all the student activities during a given period, considering that it is a better
means to identify and quantify the time spent on different activities (Kember
et al., 1995; Krohn & OConnor, 2005; Lahmers & Zulauf, 2000; Plant et al.,
2005).
In relation to the quality dimension, recent studies indicate that the relation
between time and academic results depends not only on the quantity of time
devoted to academic activities, but also on its quality, which increases the effec-
tiveness of time spent, as is proposed in several studies. Michaels and Miethe
(1989) introduced measures of quantity and quality of study time to explain
students academic marks. The quality of time includes study habits such as
rewriting lecture notes after attending a class, studying each day throughout the
term and studying in the library or other quiet settings. According to their results,
study habits have significant effects on marks, which are positive in the case of
studying in a noiseless environment but unexpectedly negative in the case of
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rewriting lecture notes and having a study routine. Plant et al. (2005) argued that
the amount of study only emerged as a significant predictor of academic perfor-
mance when the quality of study and previously attained performance were taken
into consideration. More specifically, their results indicate that studying in a quiet,
solitary environment improves students marks. Nonis and Hudson (2010) intro-
duced three different indicators of good study skills as qualitative variables
(ability to concentrate, access to good notes, continuous and programmed
work). Only the interaction between the time spent studying and the ability to
concentrate had a positive effect on academic performance; that is, those students
that both dedicated more time to studying and had a better ability to concentrate
obtained higher marks.
Finally, several empirical studies also incorporate a measurement of the time
spent on non-academic activities. Ackerman and Gross (2003) found that stu-
dents with less reported free time perform better academically in terms of
average marks than do those with more free time. Nonis and Hudson (2006)
showed that the total amount of time spent working has no direct influence on
academic performance. Brint and Cantwell (2010) considered three perspectives
of analysis the use of time for academic and non-academic activities, active
and passive use of time, and the use of time on and off campus in order to
include an approach for other types of activities, such as doing sport, watching
TV or using the computer for fun. Since the available evidence is still scarce, our
work seeks to broaden the empirical analysis regarding the distribution of the
time spent on non-academic activities and observe their contribution to student
performance.
In short, in this paper we establish four objectives: (1) to analyse the students
marks depending on the time spent on academic activities; (2) to examine which
specific academic activities lead to an improvement in students achievement; (3)
to study the influence of the quality of time devoted to academic activities on
students performance; and (4) to examine the impact of other non-academic
activities on students marks.
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 161

Method
Participants
We conducted the study in the second term of the 201011 academic year at the
University of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) in Spain. UCLM is a public university
that has approximately 30,000 students. The participants were 103 of the 372
students enrolled in the first and second years of the degree in Business
Administration (response rate 27.7%). Table 2 shows the distribution of the
socio-demographic variables in the sample and the population. The representa-
tiveness of the sample was guaranteed since the distribution of the socio-demo-
graphic variables showed no evidence of significant differences between the
sample and the population. According to the Spanish marking scheme, the mark
is measured as a continuous variable from 0 to 10. The average mark of the
sample was 4.85 (SD = 1.82). This average mark of slightly below 5 was
representative of the degree courses chosen due to the existence of several
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subjects of a quantitative nature with a high level of difficulty that result in a


poor academic performance in the first and second years of the Business
Administration degree.

Table 2. Socio-demographic profile: comparison of sample and population.


Sample Population
Variable (N = 103) (N = 372)
University entrance scores
Less than 6.00 42% 44%
Between 6.00 and 7.00 36% 36%
More than 7.00 22% 20%
University entrance examinations (dummy)
June (value 1) 77% 71%
September (value 0) 23% 29%
Field of post-secondary non-tertiary education
(dummy)
Social Sciences and Humanities (value 1) 63% 61%
Other (value 0) 37% 39%
Scholarship status (dummy)
Yes (value 1) 25% 24%
No (value 0) 75% 76%
Easiness of the subjects
Less than 0.35 38% n.a.
Between 0.35 and 0.45 30% n.a.
More than 0.45 32% n.a.
Family home (dummy)
Yes (value 1) 67% n.a.
No (value 0) 33% n.a.
Gender (dummy)
Female (value 1) 59% 58%
Male (value 0) 41% 42%
Note: Population: students enrolled in the first and second year of the degree in Business
Administration; n.a.: not available.
162 C. Daz-Mora et al.

Procedure and materials


Three data sources were used in this study: a time-use diary, an ad-hoc ques-
tionnaire and the official university records.
In relation to the collection of data on the use of time, we decided to use a
time-use diary. Other less costly alternatives, such as surveys, are of lower quality
and lead to signicant inaccuracies (Juster & Stafford, 1991). We presented the
diary on three different days (Monday, Wednesday and Saturday) during the
middle weeks of the term, following the recommendations made by Lahmers
and Zulauf (2000) as regards the usefulness of avoiding the start/end of a term
owing to the lesser/greater workload. The diaries were distributed among the
students, who were asked to return their completed diaries by using the Moodle
platform. This procedure minimized the risk of the only students filling in the
diary being those that usually attend lectures. The response rates obtained varied
between 36.8% for the first diary and 27.7% for the last. As mentioned above, in
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the estimated empirical model, we used only the information obtained from the
103 students who presented all three diaries.
The diary contained 13 pre-specified activities (six academic categories and
seven non-academic categories) with an extensive description to help allocate the
time spent on each of them (Table 3). The data showed that the students devoted
7.87 hours per day to academic activities (SD = 1.96). Of these, the activities on
which the students spent the greatest proportion of their time were class attendance
and self study, consisting of 2.92 and 2.63 hours per day respectively. Of the non-
academic activities, those on which the students spent the greatest proportion of
their time were vital tasks (eating, sleeping and personal hygiene) and leisure and
communication (talking on the phone, using email and social networks, watching
TV, etc.), consisting of 9.25 and 3.18 hours per day respectively.
The questionnaire presented along with the first time-use diary was used to
record additional information regarding: (1) the students socio-demographic char-
acteristics (i.e., gender and accommodation during the year); and (2) study skills
(including access to notes, scheduling and ability to concentrate). We measured
these three skills using seven items from Nonis and Hudson (2010). Each item was
rated on a five-point Likert-type scale, ranging from strongly disagree (1) to
strongly agree (5). We performed a confirmatory factor analysis in order to test
the reliability and validity of the instrument used (Table 4). The results from the
confirmatory factor analysis indicated an acceptable overall model fit, adequate
reliability levels (Cronbachs alpha and composite reliability values for all con-
structs were above .7) and satisfactory convergent (all the loadings were significant
and above .5, and average variance extracted values were greater than .5) and
discriminant validity (the average variance extracted for each of the constructs was
greater than the squared correlations for all pairs of constructs).
Finally, academic performance (i.e., average mark) and other academic aspects
(i.e., university entrance scores, university entrance examinations, field of post-
secondary non-tertiary education and scholarship status), which were respectively
used as a dependent variable and control variables, were obtained from the official
university records.
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Table 3. Descriptive results regarding time use: hours per day.


Activity M SD
Academic activities (Academic_Activ) 7.87 1.96
Academic_Actv1: Attending university lectures (attending class, taking exams and tests, participating in workshops and 2.92 0.89
seminars with professionals and academics, etc.)
Academic_Actv2: Taking private classes (attending classes outside university) 0.17 0.43
Academic_Actv3: Self study (reading theoretical content of lectures, taking notes, making summaries, methodical study, etc.) 2.63 1.55
Academic_Actv4: Resolution of practical exercises/cases (individually resolving exercises or practical cases) 0.77 0.64
Academic_Actv5: Doing work/presentations in groups (doing work or practical projects in groups, making group 0.33 0.48
presentations on digital supports, rehearsing them, etc.)
Academic_Actv6: Searching for information (attending tutorials, meeting colleagues in order to study together, exchanging 1.05 0.74
notes, searching in libraries, the internet, books, journals and news, using the Virtual Campus, etc.)
Non-academic activities (Non_Academic_Activ) 16.13 1.96
Non_Academic_Actv1: Taking complementary courses (taking English classes, expositions, IT courses, reading clubs, 0.07 0.23
collaborating with associations, etc.)
Non_Academic_Actv2: Doing sports (jogging, going to the gym, etc.) 0.38 0.57
Non_Academic_Actv3: Leisure and communication (talking on the telephone, using email and social networks, watching 3.18 1.38
television, going to the cinema, using the internet for entertainment, etc.)
Non_Academic_Actv4: Social life (meeting for a drink, nightlife, etc.) 1.09 0.87
Non_Academic_Actv5: Compromised time (doing domestic work and paid work) 0.58 0.71
Non_Academic_Actv6: Doing vital tasks (eating, sleeping and personal hygiene) 9.25 1.01
Non_Academic_Actv7: Others (travel and other activities not included in the previous sections) 1.57 0.84
Total 24.00
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico
163
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164

Table 4. Results from confirmatory factor analysis: study skills.


Squared correlation
Average
Cronbachs Composite variance Access to Ability to
C. Daz-Mora et al.

Concept/Item Loading alpha () reliability extracted notes Scheduling concentrate


Access to notes (NOTES) n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.00 .15 .19
NOTES1.Taking down good notes in class. 1.00
Scheduling (SCH) .75 .78 .55 .15 1.00 .25
SCH1R. Waiting until the last minute to complete .88***
assignments.
SCH2R. Waiting until the last minute to prepare .80***
for an exam.
SCH3. Going over text and lecture notes the .50***
same day they were covered.
Ability to concentrate (CONC) .81 .81 .59 .19 .25 1.00
CONC1R. Finding it difficult to pay attention in .75***
class.
CONC2R. Finding the mind wandering off .72***
(thinking of other things) in class.
CONC3R. Finding it difficult to concentrate in .83***
class.
Goodness of fit summary: 2(df = 11) = 39.90 (p < .01), goodness of fit index (GFI) = .91, incremental fit index (IFI) = .90, comparative fit index
(CFI) = .89, root mean square residual (RMSR) = .06.
Notes: RReverse-coded items; n.a.: not applicable; ***p < .01.
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 165

Control variables
We included seven control variables that might affect academic performance.
First, university entrance scores would, in our opinion, be expected to have a
positive effect on students marks. Some studies emphasize the role of previously
acquired knowledge, skills and abilities, measured by means of performance
attained prior to university level, in current performance (Grove, Wassermanb,
& Grodner, 2006; Plant et al., 2005). Second, it is to be supposed that academic
performance would be better for those students that pass university entrance
examinations during the first period (June) than for those that pass these exam-
inations during the second period (September exams taken by students that
could not take the exams in the first period, because they had not yet passed all of
the required subjects, or because they failed their exams during the first period).
Third, the existence of various subjects of a quantitative nature (mathematics and
statistics) led us to predict that students originating from the fields of social
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sciences and humanities might have a weaker academic performance than those
originating from the fields of sciences and technology. Fourth, scholarship status
is an indicator variable of whether students are motivated and pressured to achieve
good academic results. Fifth, data from previous years reveal different pass rates
in different subjects (these rates oscillate between 7% and 68%), suggesting the
existence of very dissimilar difficulty levels for each subject which tend to be
quite stable over time. In other words, the handicaps confronted by students as
regards passing each subject are by no means homogenous. We therefore calcu-
lated the indicator of the level of easiness of the set of subjects in which the
student is enrolled during the second term as the mean of the one-year lagged pass
rates for those subjects. A positive relation would, in our opinion, be expected
between the students academic performance and the level of easiness of the set of
subjects in which they are enrolled. Finally, and with regard to the control
variables related to the condition of students living in the family home and the
gender of respondents, it is not possible to determine a priori any signs of their
impact on academic performance.

Results
Specifications of the empirical model
We proposed several specifications of the empirical model in order to achieve the
four objectives stated in the introduction. We estimated a cross-section model in
which the dependent variable was academic performance proxied by the students
average mark. The explanatory variables were the aforementioned control vari-
ables, time devoted to total academic activities (Academic_total), to different
academic activities (Academic_Activ) and to different non-academic activities
(Non_Academic_Activ), and study skills.
Model 0 included only the control variables as explanatory variables.
166 C. Daz-Mora et al.

Academic Performancej University entrance scoresj


University entrance examinationsj
Field of post-secondary non-tertiary educationj
Scholarship statusj Easiness of the subjectsj
Family homej Genderj vj
(Model 0)

Where j denotes the number of individuals in the sample (103 students).


Model 1 included the control variables and time spent on academic activities.
The total time devoted to each academic/non-academic activity was calculated by
using the number of minutes assigned by the student to each of the three inputted
days of information. Each of the six academic categories was entered in the model
in relative terms, that is, by dividing the time assigned to each activity (expressed
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in minutes) by the workload (measured using a proxy variable the number of


ECTS credits in which the student was enrolled during the second term). We
decided to proceed in this manner owing to the great differences between the
workloads assumed by each student (M = 35.26 ECTS credits, SD = 4.09). Time
spent on academic activities was analysed in aggregate (i.e., amount of time spent
on total academic activities, Model 1A) and was also disaggregated in the six
academic categories (Model 1B).

Academic Performancej Academic totalj University entrance scoresj


University entrance examinationsj
Field of post-secondary non-tertiary educationj
Scholarship statusj Easiness of the subjectsj
Family homej Genderj vj
(Model 1A)

Academic Performancej Academic Activj University entrance scoresj


University entrance examinationsj
Field of post-secondary non-tertiary educationj
Scholarship statusj Easiness of the subjectsj
Family homej Genderj vj
(Model 1B)

As already indicated, not only the amount of time devoted to academic activities,
but also the quality of that time influences students marks. Therefore, study skills
(i.e., access to notes, scheduling and ability to concentrate) were also introduced.
These were calculated as weighted arithmetic means, in which the weights were
the standardized loadings derived from the previous confirmatory factor analysis
(Table 4). The study skills had to be measured in terms of interaction with the time
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 167

spent on academic activities (Nonis & Hudson, 2010), that is, the time spent will
enable better results if the student also has good notes, concentrates well and
schedules things properly. Problems with multi-collinearity were avoided by
calculating the variables of time spent on academic activities and those for quality
(i.e., access to notes, scheduling and ability to concentrate) in their deviations with
respect to the mean, while the time devoted to academic activities was interacted
in deviation with respect to the mean with each of the study skills in deviation
with respect to the mean. The different variables for study skills are included in
different equations (Models 2A2C).

Academic Performancej Academic Activj Study skills Access to notesj


Academic Activj  Study skills Access to notesj
University entrance scoresj
University entrance examinationsj
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Field of post-secondary non-tertiary educationj


Scholarship statusj Easiness of the subjectsj
Family homej Genderj vj
(Model 2A)

Academic Performancej Academic Activj Study skills Schedulingj


Academic Activj  Study skills Schedulingj
University entrance scoresj
University entrance examinationsj
Field of post-secondary non-tertiary educationj
Scholarship statusj Easiness of the subjectsj
Family homej Genderj vj
(Model 2B)

Academic Performancej Academic Activj Study skills Ability to concentratej


Academic Activj  Study skills Ability to concentratej
University entrance scoresj
University entrance examinationsj
Field of post-secondary non-tertiary educationj
Scholarship statusj Easiness of the subjectsj
Family homej Genderj vj
(Model 2C)

Finally, we propose a model to evaluate the impact of the time spent on each of
the seven non-academic activities (Model 3).
168 C. Daz-Mora et al.

Academic Performancej Non Academic Activj University entrance scoresj


University entrance examinationsj
Field of post-secondary non-tertiary educationj
Scholarship statusj Easiness of the subjectsj
Family homej Genderj vj
(Model 3)

Regression analyses
The results of the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimates of the empirical model
are presented in Table 5 (an extended version with standard errors is reported in
Table A1).
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We first estimated a baseline model that included only the control variables
(Model 0). These exogenous variables explained 51% of variance in academic
performance, F(7, 95) = 14.03, p < .01. On the one hand, the university entrance
scores had a high positive impact on academic performance (B = 0.88, p < .01).
Students with the best scores at the previous stage of education, and who therefore
have the best academic backgrounds, also obtain the best marks in higher educa-
tion. In other words, those who had already displayed a good academic perfor-
mance in previous periods, continued to do so at later stages of education,
showing consistency. On the other hand, being enrolled in a set of low difficulty
subjects implied better student grades (B = 0.01, p < .01). Other control variables
showed no significant effects on academic performance.
Model 1A, in which academic performance is made to depend on both the
amount of time spent on academic activities and the control variables, explained
55% of the variance (R2 = .05), F(8, 94) = 14.34, p < .01. We observed a
positive and significant impact of the amount of time spent on academic activities
on students marks (B = 0.04, p < .05). That is, the more time that is dedicated to
these activities in general, the better the marks obtained by students. The sign and
significance of the control variables was maintained with respect to Model 0, with
the exception of gender, which was significant (B = 0.55, p < .1). Once the fact
that they spend more time on academic activities had been taken into account,
being a woman implied a poorer academic performance.
The results of the estimation of Model 1B (i.e., that in which the time spent on
academic activities was disaggregated in the six academic categories) were then
analysed. These exogenous variables explained 57% of variance in academic
performance, F(13, 89) = 8.93, p < .01. Of the six academic activities considered,
three had a positive and significant influence on the students academic perfor-
mance: doing work and preparing presentations in groups (B = 0.14, p < .05),
attending university lectures (B = 0.06, p < .05) and self study (B = 0.04, p < .05).
In the case of other academic activities (i.e., private tuition, individual resolution
of practical exercises or cases and the search for information), the impact was not
significant (p > .1). The sign and significance of the control variables was
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Table 5. Regression analyses predicting academic performance.


B
Exogenous variable Model 0 Model 1A Model 1B Model 2A Model 2B Model 3
0. Control variables
University entrance scores 0.88*** 0.92*** 0.90*** 0.87*** 0.79*** 0.90***
University entrance examinations 0.20 0.31 0.31 0.23 0.15 0.18
Field of post-secondary non-tertiary education 0.36 0.32 0.31 0.18 0.47 0.33
Scholarship status 0.36 0.14 0.07 0.20 0.01 0.07
Easiness of the subjects 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01***
Family home 0.23 0.39 0.51* 0.45 0.58* 0.44
Gender 0.21 0.55* 0.47 0.51* 0.71** 0.76**
1. Academic activities
Academic_total 0.04**
Academic_Actv1: Attending class 0.06** 0.14 0.15**
Academic_Actv2: Private tuition 0.02 0.08 0.10
Academic_Actv3: Self study 0.04** 0.22* 0.27***
Academic_Actv4: Practical exercises/cases 0.03 0.10 0.12
Academic_Actv5: Work in groups 0.14** 0.16* 0.19**
Academic_Actv6: Searching for information 0.03 0.10 0.12*
2. Study skills
Access to notes 0.02
Scheduling 0.03
ACA4*Access to notes 0.10*
ACA2*Scheduling 0.20**
ACA3*Scheduling 0.003**
3. Non-academic activities
Non_Academic_Actv1: Taking complementary courses 0.003
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico

Non_Academic_Actv2: Doing sports 0.01***


Non_Academic_Actv3: Leisure and communication 0.001
169

(Continued )
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170
C. Daz-Mora et al.

Table 5. (Continued ).

B
Exogenous variable Model 0 Model 1A Model 1B Model 2A Model 2B Model 3
Non_Academic_Actv4: Social life 0.001
Non_Academic_Actv5: Compromised time 0.001
Non_Academic_Actv6: Doing vital tasks 0.001*
Non_Academic_Actv7: Others 0.001
R2 .51 .55 .57 .60 .63 .60
F 14.03*** 14.34*** 8.93*** 6.17*** 6.93*** 9.37***
Notes: Exogenous variables in Model 0: Control variables; Model 1A: Control variables and total academic activities (Academic_total); Model 1B: Control
variables and academic activities (Academic_Activ16); Model 2A: Control variables, academic activities (Academic_Activ16) and study skills (access to notes);
Model 2B: Control variables, academic activities (Academic_Activ16) and study skills (scheduling); and Model 3: Control variables and non-academic activities
(Non_Academic_Activ17). Non-significant interaction variables are omitted from the Models 2A and 2B but are available upon request; *p < .1, **p < .05,
***p < .01.
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 171

maintained with regard to the previous estimation of Model 1A, with the excep-
tion of accommodation with the family, which was significant (B = 0.51, p < .1,
i.e., students living in the family home while they were studying at university had
a better academic performance), while gender was not significant
(B = 0.47, p > .1).
In addition to containing the hours dedicated to each of the academic activities
and control variables, Model 2 also included the quality variables considered (i.e.,
access to notes, scheduling and ability to concentrate) by levels and these were
interrelated with the different academic activities. We ran the model for each study
skill (Models 2A2C). Only the time spent on individual resolution of practical
cases when it was accompanied by access to good notes (B = 0.10, p < .1), Model
2A (R2 = .60), and the time spent on private tuition and self study when it was
accompanied by scheduling (B = 0.20, p < .05; B = 0.003, p < .05, respectively),
Model 2B (R2 = .63), had positive and significant effects on academic performance.
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None of these interactions is statistically significant in Model 2C, which includes


interactions between different academic activities and ability to concentrate.
With regard to the results of the estimation of Model 3, which measured the
impact of the time spent on non-academic activities on academic performance, the
total variance explained by this model was 60%, F(14, 88) = 9.37, p < .01. Of the
seven activities itemized, the effect was statistically significant in two cases, in
both of which there was an inverse association with academic performance, as
expected. Specifically, the hours spent on doing sport and on vital activities
(eating, sleeping and personal hygiene) had a negative impact (B = 0.01,
p < .01; B = 0.001, p < .1, respectively). Those students who spent more time
on such activities obtained poor grades. It was striking that the regression
coefficient associated with extracurricular activities such as learning languages,
computing or taking different courses (which would a priori be expected to have a
direct impact on average grades) were not significantly different to zero
(B = 0.003, p > .1).

Discussion and conclusions


This research found that the relation between the students use of time and their
academic results is complex and that academic performance depends not only on
the quantity of time spent on different academic activities but also on the quality
of spent time, once students previous skills and other factors have been con-
trolled for.
First of all, it is reported that the academic activities with a positive and
statistically significant effect on students marks are attending university lectures,
self study and doing work in groups. The positive impact of the first two academic
activities is to be expected since higher education in Spain continues to be focused
on conventional learning based on teacher-centred lectures and the students self
study (Dolton et al., 2003). The recent reforms made to tertiary education in Spain
in order to adapt to the European Higher Education Area have promoted changes
in the traditional teaching-learning approach, thus leading to the incorporation of
172 C. Daz-Mora et al.

additional academic activities with which to acquire advanced knowledge and


skills (Salas, 2014). Our results showed that of these, time spent working in
groups was also effective as regards increasing performance. This finding is in
line with previous research which found a positive effect of cooperative learning
on academic performance (Yamarik, 2007). Moreover, our study suggests that
academic activities other than working in groups do not contribute to better
student marks.
Secondly, it has been found that the positive relation between investing time in
academic activities and student performance is subject to the availability of certain
skills or good study habits, which supposes a sine qua non condition for more
time to be translated into better marks. In this respect, Nonis and Hudson (2010)
found that the interaction between study time and the ability to concentrate makes
it possible to improve academic performance. The empirical evidence from our
study goes further, as it shows that adequate scheduling increases the academic
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benefits of time spent on self-study. Moreover, having good notes increases the
academic benefits of time devoted to resolving practical tasks. We complete the
recommendations by considering that private tuition improves academic perfor-
mance only in the case of students who schedule their time properly.
Finally, with regard to the non-academic activities considered, we provide
evidence that none of them had a positive impact on academic performance and
only two of them had significantly negative correlations (sports and vital tasks),
although the coefficients were very small. These findings are partially different
from those of Brint and Cantwell (2010), who found a positive relationship
between average marks and time spent on sleeping and being with the family
and a negative one for time devoted to using the computer for fun.
To conclude, the present study contributes to the literature by showing which
academic activities are the most relevant as regards improving students marks, how
scheduling and having good notes strengthen the positive impact of certain academic
activities and which non-academic activities are obstacles to students increasing their
academic performance. There is a need for future studies to take into account the
differences in the temporal orientation of students (Horstmanshof & Zimitat, 2007) as
a highly relevant variable for explaining the quantity of time spent on academic and
non-academic activities, in addition to its impact on student performance.
Despite the fact that our research has been carried out with only one group of
business students from one university, this study may provide useful suggestions for
students and for university teaching staff. In the case of students whose goal is to
improve their academic performance as a means to increase the possibility of acces-
sing the job market and better salaries, our findings offer helpful guidelines as regards
how to organize their time more efficiently and information on which study habits
should be strengthened. For university teaching staff, our analysis provides sugges-
tions on how to design the course structure, and more specifically, which types of
academic activities could be offered to maximize students academic performance.
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 173

Dnde est la clave del xito acadmico? Un anlisis de la


relacin entre el uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico

La forma en que las personas organizan su tiempo aporta informacin valiosa sobre su
comportamiento y sus prioridades personales. Desde la perspectiva de los estudiantes,
deben decidir la mejor forma de organizar su tiempo para obtener la mayor
satisfaccin en el presente y en el futuro. La satisfaccin presente est relacionada
con la cantidad de tiempo dedicada a actividades de ocio, mientras que la satisfaccin
futura procede de la posibilidad de entrar en el mercado laboral, para lo cual el
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rendimiento acadmico es importante (Dolton, Marcenaro, & Navarro, 2003).


El propsito del presente artculo es explorar el efecto que tiene el tiempo
invertido en diferentes actividades, acadmicas y no acadmicas, en el rendimiento
de los estudiantes, y determinar cul de estas actividades mejoran sus notas.
Empleamos por tanto un modelo emprico que utiliza los datos sobre
organizacin del tiempo procedentes de una muestra de estudiantes del grado de
Administracin y Direccin de Empresas. Tambin investigamos la influencia de
variables de calidad como habilidades para el estudio, ya que la literatura reciente ha
subrayado su importancia en el rendimiento acadmico de los estudiantes (Michaels
& Miethe, 1989; Nonis & Hudson, 2010; Plant, Ericsson, Hill, & Asberg, 2005).
Los resultados de nuestro estudio pueden convertirse en una gua de organizacin
eficiente del tiempo para los estudiantes de grado. Tambin pueden resultar de
ayuda para los tutores y el equipo docente en el diseo de la estructura del curso.
La relacin entre organizacin del tiempo de los estudiantes y rendimiento
acadmico en el nivel universitario se ha estudiado ampliamente, aunque las eviden-
cias empricas no son concluyentes y es necesario realizar ms investigaciones. Los
resultados de los estudios sobre este tema citados con mayor frecuencia se resumen en
la Tabla 1. Algunos estudios han encontrado una relacin positiva entre tiempo
dedicado al estudio y rendimiento acadmico (Lahmers & Zulauf, 2000;
Stinebrickner & Stinebrickner, 2004), mientras que las pruebas empricas de otros
estudios no apoyan esta relacin positiva, e incluso algunos autores encontraron ya
una correlacin negativa (Didia & Hasnat, 1998; Kember, Jamieson, Pomfret, &
Wong, 1995) o una correlacin no significativa (Nonis & Hudson, 2006).
Adems, cuando se tienen en cuenta no solo el tiempo de estudio sino tambin otras
actividades acadmicas, los estudios realizados a menudo presentan pruebas contra-
dictorias, y su impacto sobre el rendimiento acadmico vara en funcin de la actividad
acadmica concreta. Grave (2011) encontr que las notas altas se relacionaban positi-
vamente con el tiempo dedicado a asistir a clase y a estudiar de forma autnoma, y
negativamente con la realizacin de trabajos en equipo y asistencia a tutoras. Brint y
Cantwell (2010) encontraron que tanto la asistencia a clase como el estudio fuera de
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174

Tabla 1. Relacin entre tiempo dedicado a actividades acadmicas y rendimiento acadmico de estudiantes de grado segn el mtodo empleado
para obtener informacin.
C. Daz-Mora et al.

Autores Mtodo Resultados principales


Schmidt (1983) Encuesta Resultados variados segn la actividad acadmica en consideracin.
Michaels and Miethe (1989) Encuesta Resultados variados segn la actividad acadmica cuando se tienen en cuenta aspectos relacionados
con la calidad.
Didia and Hasnat (1998) Encuesta Correlacin negativa.
Dolton et al. (2003) Encuesta Correlacin positiva.
Stinebrickner and Stinebrickner Encuesta Correlacin positiva.
(2004)
Nonis and Hudson (2006) Encuesta Correlacin no significativa.
Brint & Cantwell (2010) Encuesta Correlacin positiva.
Nonis and Hudson (2010) Encuesta Relacin positiva cuando se tienen en cuenta aspectos relacionados con la calidad.
Grave (2011) Encuesta Resultados variados segn la actividad acadmica en consideracin.
Kember et al. (1995) Diario Correlacin negativa.
Lahmers and Zulauf (2000) Diario Correlacin positiva.
Krohn and OConnor (2005) Diario Resultados variados segn la actividad acadmica en consideracin.
Plant et al. (2005) Diario Relacin positiva cuando se tienen en cuenta aspectos relacionados con la calidad.
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 175

clase tenan una influencia positiva sobre el rendimiento de los estudiantes. Krohn y
OConnor (2005) mostraron que el tiempo de estudio tena un efecto negativo, mientras
que el impacto de la asistencia a clase no fue significativo. Dolton et al. (2003)
encontraron que tanto el tiempo dedicado a asistir a clases como a estudiar de forma
autnoma tenan una relacin positiva con las puntuaciones en los exmenes de en la
universidad, pero solo el primero era significativo cuando se controlaba la capacidad
innata del estudiante. De acuerdo con Schmidt (1983), cuando se trata como una
medida agregada, el tiempo dedicado a actividades acadmicas no influye sobre el
rendimiento de los estudiantes, aunque algunos componentes concretos de dicho
tiempo, como las horas dedicadas a asistir a clase, a sesiones de discusin y a estudiar
para un segundo examen, s tienen un efecto positivo y significativo, mientras que
estudiar para el examen final tena un impacto negativo.
La diversidad de estos datos empricos podra deberse, en parte, al tipo y nmero
de actividades acadmicas estudiadas, lo que hace esencial llevar a cabo una medida
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adecuada del tiempo dedicado a cada una de ellas (Dolton et al., 2003). Por tanto,
nuestro estudio trata de superar este inconveniente ampliando el nmero de activi-
dades acadmicas. Otras dos razones pueden explicar la heterogeneidad de los
resultados obtenidos en anteriores estudios empricos: en primer lugar, el mtodo
empleado para obtener informacin sobre el uso del tiempo de los estudiantes y, en
segundo lugar, la calidad del tiempo dedicado a actividades acadmicas.
Respecto al mtodo, la mayora de los estudios previos aplicaron una encuesta a
los estudiantes para obtener informacin (Dolton et al., 2003; Kamp, Dolmans, van
Berkel, & Schmidt, 2012), preguntndoles cuntas horas dedicaban a una determi-
nada tarea durante un perodo de tiempo (por lo general una semana) o dividiendo el
da en tres partes (maana, tarde y noche). El principal inconveniente de emplear
encuestas es que se informa sobre el uso del tiempo retrospectivamente, mtodo que
parece ser menos adecuado para recoger informacin sobre actividades espordicas
y a corto plazo (Sonnenberg, Riediger, Wrzus & Wagner, 2012). Algunos estudios
sobre uso de tiempo de los estudiantes han llamado la atencin sobre este hecho,
calificndolo como una limitacin (Nonis & Hudson, 2010). Otros, sin embargo,
han empleado un diario para registrar todas las actividades de los estudiantes
durante un perodo determinado, ya que es un medio que identifica y cuantifica
mejor el tiempo dedicado a diferentes actividades (Kember et al., 1995; Krohn &
OConnor, 2005; Lahmers & Zulauf, 2000; Plant et al., 2005).
En cuanto a la dimensin de la calidad, los estudios recientes indican que la
relacin entre tiempo y resultados acadmicos depende no solo de la cantidad de
tiempo dedicada a actividades acadmicas, sino tambin de su calidad, que
incrementa la efectividad del tiempo invertido, como varios estudios proponen.
Michaels y Miethe (1989) introdujeron medidas de cantidad y calidad de tiempo
de estudio para explicar las calificaciones de los estudiantes. La calidad del
tiempo incluye hbitos como reescribir los apuntes de clase despus de la
misma, estudiar todos los das a lo largo de todo el curso, y estudiar en la
biblioteca u otros lugares tranquilos. Segn sus resultados, los hbitos de estudio
tienen un efecto significativo sobre las notas, positivo en el caso de estudiar en un
ambiente tranquilo pero inesperadamente negativo en el caso de reescribir los
176 C. Daz-Mora et al.

apuntes de clase y de tener una rutina de estudio. Plant et al. (2005) argumentan
que la cantidad de estudio solo emergi como un predictor significativo del
rendimiento acadmico cuando se tena en cuenta la calidad del estudio y el
rendimiento obtenido con anterioridad. En concreto, sus resultados muestran
que estudiar en un ambiente tranquilo y solitario mejora las calificaciones de los
estudiantes. Nonis y Hudson (2010) introdujeron tres indicadores distintos de
buenas habilidades de estudio como variables cualitativas (capacidad de concen-
trarse, acceso a buenos apuntes de clase, trabajo continuo y programado). Solo la
interaccin entre el tiempo dedicado a estudiar y la capacidad de concentracin
tuvo un efecto positivo sobre el rendimiento acadmico, esto es, los estudiantes
que dedicaron ms tiempo a estudiar y tenan una mayor capacidad para concen-
trarse obtuvieron calificaciones ms altas.
Por ltimo, varios estudios empricos tambin incorporan una medida del
tiempo dedicado a actividades no acadmicas. Ackerman y Gross (2003) encon-
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traron que los estudiantes que dijeron tener menos tiempo libre obtuvieron un
mejor rendimiento acadmico (calificaciones medias) en comparacin con aque-
llos que tenan ms tiempo libre. Nonis y Hudson (2006) mostraron que el tiempo
total dedicado a trabajar no tena influencia directa sobre el rendimiento
acadmico. Brint y Cantwell (2010) aplicaron tres perspectivas de anlisis: el
tiempo dedicado a actividades acadmicas y no acadmicas; uso de tiempo activo
y pasivo; y uso de tiempo dentro y fuera del recinto escolar, con el fin de incluir
otro tipo de actividades, como practicar deporte, ver la televisin o jugar con el
ordenador. Como los datos son escasos, nuestro trabajo persigue ampliar el
anlisis emprico de la distribucin del tiempo dedicado a actividades no
acadmicas, y observar su influencia sobre el rendimiento de los estudiantes.
Resumiendo, en este artculo establecemos cuatro objetivos: (1) analizar las
calificaciones de los estudiantes en funcin del tiempo dedicado a actividades
acadmicas; (2) examinar qu actividades acadmicas concretas implican un
incremento en el rendimiento de los estudiantes; (3) estudiar la influencia sobre
el rendimiento de los estudiantes de la calidad del tiempo dedicado a actividades
acadmicas; y (4) examinar el impacto de otras actividades no acadmicas sobre
las calificaciones de los estudiantes.

Mtodo
Participantes
Llevamos a cabo el estudio en el segundo semestre del ao acadmico 201011 en
la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) en Espaa. La UCLM es una
universidad pblica con 30,000 estudiantes. Los participantes fueron 103 de los
372 estudiantes matriculados en primero y segundo del grado en Administracin y
Direccin de Empresas (tasa de respuesta 27.7%). En la Tabla 2 se muestra la
distribucin de las variables sociodemogrficas en la muestra y en la poblacin.
La representatividad de la muestra estaba garantizada, ya que la distribucin de las
variables sociodemogrficas muestra que no hay diferencias significativas entre la
muestra y la poblacin. Segn el esquema de calificaciones espaol, las notas son
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 177

Tabla 2. Perfil sociodemogrfico: comparacin de muestra y poblacin.


Muestra Poblacin
Variable (N = 103) (N = 372)
Notas de acceso a la universidad
Menos de 6.00 42% 44%
Entre 6.00 y 7.00 36% 36%
Ms de 7.00 22% 20%
Examen de acceso a la universidad (simulado)
Junio (valor 1) 77% 71%
Septiembre (valor 0) 23% 29%
Modalidad de acceso a bachillerato (simulado)
Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades (valor 1) 63% 61%
Otras (valor 0) 37% 39%
Estatus de beca (simulado)
S (valor 1) 25% 24%
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No (valor 0) 75% 76%


Facilidad de las asignaturas
Menos de 0.35 38% n.d.
Entre 0.35 y 0.45 30% n.d.
Ms de 0.45 32% n.d.
Hogar familiar (simulado)
S (valor 1) 67% n.d.
No (valor 0) 33% n.d.
Sexo (simulado)
Mujer (valor 1) 59% 58%
Hombre (valor 0) 41% 42%
Nota: Poblacin: estudiantes matriculados en primero y segundo ao del grado en Administracin de
Empresas; n.d.: no disponible.

variables continuas que oscilan entre 0 y 10. La nota media de la muestra era de
4.85 (DT = 1.82). Esta nota media ligeramente por debajo de 5 era representativa
de las asignaturas del grado escogidas, con presencia de diversas asignaturas de
naturaleza cuantitativa y con un alto grado de dificultad, que tienen como
resultado un pobre rendimiento acadmico en el primer y el segundo ao del
grado de Administracin y Direccin de Empresas.

Procedimiento y materiales
Se emplearon tres fuentes de datos en este estudio: un diario sobre uso del tiempo,
un cuestionario ad hoc, y las calificaciones oficiales de la universidad.
Para recoger datos sobre el uso del tiempo decidimos emplear un diario. Otras
alternativas menos costosas, como las encuestas, son de menor calidad y con-
llevan una inexactitud significativa (Juster & Stafford, 1991). Presentamos el
diario en tres das distintos (lunes, mircoles y sbado) durante las semanas
intermedias del semestre, siguiendo a las recomendaciones de Lahmers y Zulauf
(2000), que consideran til evitar el comienzo y el final de un semestre por la
menor/mayor cantidad de trabajo en esos perodos. Se distribuyeron los diarios
178 C. Daz-Mora et al.

entre los estudiantes, y se les pidi que los completaran y los devolvieran a travs
de la plataforma Moodle. Este procedimiento minimiz el riesgo de que los nicos
estudiantes que rellenaran el diario fueran aquellos que asisten habitualmente a las
clases. Las tasas de respuesta variaron entre 36.8% para el primer diario y 27.7%
para el ltimo. Como se mencionaba anteriormente, en el modelo emprico
estimado solo empleamos la informacin obtenida de los 103 estudiantes que
presentaron los tres diarios.
El diario reflejaba 13 actividades pre-especificadas (seis categoras acadmicas
y siete no acadmicas) con una extensa descripcin para ayudar a asignar el
tiempo dedicado a cada una de ellas (Tabla 3). Los datos muestran que los
estudiantes dedicaron 7.87 horas al da a actividades acadmicas (DT = 1.96).
De estas, las actividades a las que dedicaron ms tiempo los estudiantes fueron la
asistencia a clase y el estudio autnomo (2.92 y 2.63 horas al da, respectiva-
mente). De las actividades no acadmicas, aquellas a las que los estudiantes
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dedicaron ms tiempo eran actividades vitales (comer, dormir e higiene personal)


y ocio y comunicacin (hablar por telfono, usar el correo electrnico y las redes
sociales, ver televisin, etc.), dedicando a ellas 9.25 y 3.18 horas al da,
respectivamente.
El cuestionario presentado junto con el primer diario de uso del tiempo se
emple para obtener informacin adicional sobre: (1) las caractersticas
sociodemogrficas de los estudiantes (sexo y lugar de residencia durante el ao
lectivo); y (2) habilidades para el estudio (acceso a apuntes de clase, capacidad de
programacin y concentracin). Medimos estas tres habilidades empleando siete
tems procedentes del trabajo de Nonis y Hudson (2010). Se puntu cada tem en
una escala tipo Likert de cinco puntos, de muy en desacuerdo (1) a muy de
acuerdo (5). Llevamos a cabo un anlisis factorial confirmatorio para probar la
fiabilidad y validez del instrumento (Tabla 4). Los resultados de este anlisis
indicaron un ajuste del modelo global aceptable, niveles de fiabilidad adecuados
(el alfa de Cronbach y los valores de la fiabilidad compuesta estaban por encima
de .7 para todos los constructos) y una validez convergente satisfactoria (todas las
cargas fueron significativas y se situaron por encima de .5, y los valores de la
varianza media extrada fueron superiores a .5) y discriminante (la varianza media
extrada para cada uno de los constructos fue mayor que las correlaciones al
cuadrado para todos los pares de constructos).
Por ltimo, el rendimiento acadmico (nota media) y otros aspectos
acadmicos (notas de acceso a la universidad, exmenes de acceso a la universi-
dad, modalidad de acceso a bachillerato y estatus de becas), que se emplearon
respectivamente como variable dependiente y variables de control, se obtuvieron
de los registros oficiales de la universidad.

Variables de control
Incluimos siete variables de control que pueden afectar al rendimiento acadmico.
En primer lugar, podra esperarse, en nuestra opinin, que las notas de acceso a la
universidad tuvieran un efecto positivo en las notas de los estudiantes. Algunos
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Tabla 3. Resultados descriptivos de uso del tiempo: horas al da.


Actividad M DT
Actividades Acadmicas (Actividad_Acadmica) 7.87 1.96
Actv_Academica1: Asistir a clases en la universidad (asistir a clase, realizar exmenes y tests, participar en jornadas y 2.92 0.89
seminarios con profesionales y acadmicos, etc.)
Actv_Academica2: Asistencia a clases particulares (asistir a clases fuera de la universidad) 0.17 0.43
Actv_Academica3: Estudio autnomo (leer el contenido terico de las clases, tomar apuntes, hacer resmenes, estudio 2.63 1.55
metdico, etc.)
Actv_Academica4: Resolver ejercicios/casos prcticos (resolver individualmente ejercicios o casos prcticos) 0.77 0.64
Actv_Academica5: Hacer trabajos/presentaciones en grupo (hacer trabajos o proyectos de prcticas en grupo, hacer 0.33 0.48
presentaciones en grupo mediante soportes digitales, ensayarlas, etc.)
Actv_Academica6: Bsqueda de informacin (asistir a tutoras, quedar con los compaeros para estudiar juntos, intercambiar 1.05 0.74
apuntes, buscar en bibliotecas, internet, libros, revistas y noticias, usar el Campus Virtual, etc.)
Actividades No Acadmicas (Actividad_No_Acadmica) 16.13 1.96
Actv_No_Academica1: Asistencia a cursos complementarios (asistir a clases de ingls, exposiciones, cursos sobre TIC, clubs 0.07 0.23
de lectura, colaborar con asociaciones, etc.)
Actv_No_Academica2: Hacer deporte (correr, ir al gimnasio, etc.) 0.38 0.57
Actv_No_Academica3: Ocio y comunicacin (hablar por telfono, usar el correo electrnico y las redes sociales, ver la 3.18 1.38
televisin, ir al cine, usar internet para entretenerse, etc.)
Actv_No_Academica4: Vida social (quedar a tomar algo, vida nocturna, etc.) 1.09 0.87
Actv_No_Academica5: Tiempo comprometido (hacer trabajo en el hogar y trabajo remunerado) 0.58 0.71
Actv_No_Academica6: Tareas vitales (comer, dormir e higiene personal) 9.25 1.01
Actv_No_Academica7: Otros (viajes y otras actividades no incluidas en las secciones anteriores) 1.57 0.84
Total 24.00
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico
179
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180

Tabla 4. Resultados del anlisis factorial confirmatorio: habilidades para el estudio.


Correlacin cuadrtica
Alfa de Fiabilidad Varianza media Acceso a Capacidad para
Concepto/tem Carga Cronbach () compuesta extrada apuntes Horarios concentrarse
C. Daz-Mora et al.

Acceso a apuntes (APUNTES) n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.00 .15 .19


APUNTES1. Tomar buenos apuntes en 1.00
clase.
Capacidad para organizarse los .75 .78 .55 .15 1.00 .25
horarios (HOR)
HOR1R. Esperar al ltimo minuto para .88***
terminar los deberes.
HOR2R. Esperar al ltimo minuto para .80***
preparar un examen.
HOR3. Repasar el texto y los apuntes de .50***
clase el mismo da.
Capacidad para concentrarse (CONC) .81 .81 .59 .19 .25 1.00
CONC1R. Dificultades para prestar .75***
atencin en clase.
CONC2R. Distraerse (pensar en otras .72***
cosas) en clase.
CONC3R. Dificultades para concentrarse .83***
en clase.
Resumen de bondad de ajuste: 2(gl = 11) = 39.90 (p < .01), ndice de bondad de ajuste (goodness of fit index, GFI) = .91, ndice de ajuste
incremental (incremental fit index, IFI) = .90, ndice de ajuste comparativo (comparative fit index, CFI) = .89, raz cuadrada del residuo
cuadrtico medio (root mean square residual, RMSR) = .06.
Notas: Rtems codificados inversamente; n.a.: no aplicable; ***p < .01.
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 181

estudios subrayan la influencia de conocimientos, habilidades y capacidades


previamente adquiridos, medidos segn el rendimiento obtenido antes de acceder
al nivel universitario, en el rendimiento actual (Grove, Wassermanb, & Grodner,
2006; Plant et al., 2005). En segundo lugar, se puede suponer que el rendimiento
acadmico sera mejor en aquellos estudiantes que aprueben los exmenes de
acceso a la universidad en la primera convocatoria (junio) que en aquellos que la
aprueben en la segunda (septiembre: exmenes realizados por aquellos estudiantes
que no pudieran hacerlos en la primera convocatoria, bien porque no haban
aprobado an todas las asignaturas necesarias, bien porque suspendieron los
exmenes de la primera convocatoria). En tercer lugar, la existencia de varias
asignaturas de naturaleza cuantitativa (matemticas y estadstica) nos llev a
predecir que los estudiantes que procedieran de las reas de ciencias sociales y
humanidades podran tener un peor rendimiento acadmico que aquellos que
procedieran de las reas de ciencias y tecnologa. En cuarto lugar, el estatus de
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beca es una variable indicativa de la motivacin y la presin para obtener buenos


resultados acadmicos que tienen los estudiantes. Quinto, los datos de aos
anteriores revelan diferentes tasas de aprobado en distintas asignaturas (estas
tasas oscilan entre 7% y 68%), lo que sugiere la existencia de niveles de dificultad
muy distintos para cada asignatura y que tienden a ser estables a lo largo del
tiempo. En otras palabras, las dificultades con que se enfrentan los estudiantes a la
hora de aprobar cada asignatura no son en modo alguno homogneas. Calculamos
por tanto el indicador del nivel de facilidad del conjunto de asignaturas en que se
haba matriculado cada estudiante durante el segundo semestre como la media de
la tasa de aprobado durante el ao anterior para esas mismas asignaturas. Se
podra esperar, en nuestra opinin, una relacin positiva entre el rendimiento
acadmico de los estudiantes y el nivel de facilidad del conjunto de asignaturas
en que estn matriculados. Por ltimo, y respecto a las variables de control
relacionadas con la condicin de los estudiantes que viven en el hogar familiar
y el sexo de los encuestados, no es posible determinar a priori ninguna direccin
de su influencia sobre el rendimiento acadmico.

Resultados
Especificaciones del modelo emprico
Propusimos varias especificaciones del modelo emprico con el fin de alcanzar los
cuatro objetivos expuestos en la introduccin. Estimamos un modelo transversal
en el que la variable dependiente era el rendimiento acadmico, representada por
la nota media del estudiante. Las variables explicativas eran las variables de
control mencionadas, el tiempo dedicado al total de actividades acadmicas
(Acadmicas_total), a distintas actividades acadmicas (Actividad_Acadmica) y
a distintas actividades no acadmicas (Actividad_No_Acadmica), y habilidades
para el estudio. El modelo 0 inclua como variables explicativas solo las variables
de control.
182 C. Daz-Mora et al.

Rendimiento academicoj Notas de acceso a la universidadj


Ex
amenes de acceso a la universidadj
Modalidad de acceso a bachilleratoj
Estatus de becasj Facilidad de las asignaturasj
Hogar familiarj Generoj vj
(Modelo 0)

Donde j denota el nmero de individuos de la muestra (103 estudiantes).


El modelo 1 inclua las variables de control y el tiempo dedicado a actividades
acadmicas. El tiempo total dedicado a cada actividad acadmica/no acadmica se
calcul empleando el nmero de minutos asignado por el estudiante a cada uno de
los tres das de informacin recogida. Se introdujo en trminos relativos cada una
de las seis categoras acadmicas en el modelo, esto es, dividiendo el tiempo
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asignado a cada actividad (expresado en minutos) entre la carga de trabajo


(medida empleando una variable representante, el nmero de crditos ECTS en
que el estudiante estaba matriculado durante el segundo semestre). Decidimos
proceder de esta manera por las grandes diferencias en carga lectiva que asuma
cada estudiante (M = 35.26 crditos ECTS, DT = 4.09). Se analiz el tiempo
dedicado a las actividades acadmicas en agregado (esto es, cantidad de tiempo
dedicado al total de actividades acadmicas, Modelo 1A) y tambin desagregado
en las seis categoras acadmicas (Modelo 1B).

Rendimiento academicoj Academicas totalj Notas de acceso a la universidadj


Ex
amenes de acceso a la universidadj
Modalidad de acceso a bachilleratoj
Estatus de becasj Facilidad de las asignaturasj
Hogar familiarj Sexoj vj
(Modelo 1A)

Rendimiento academicoj Actividad Academicaj


Notas de acceso a la universidadj
Ex
amenes de acceso a la universidadj
Modalidad de acceso a bachilleratoj
Estatus de becasj Facilidad de las asignaturasj
Hogar familiarj Sexoj vj
(Modelo 1B)

Como ya se ha indicado, no solo el tiempo dedicado a actividades acadmicas


influye sobre las calificaciones de los estudiantes, sino tambin la calidad de dicho
tiempo. Por ello tambin se introdujeron las habilidades para el estudio (acceso a
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 183

apuntes de clase, capacidad de programacin, y capacidad para concentrarse). Se


calcularon como medias aritmticas ponderadas, en las que los pesos eran las
cargas estandarizadas derivadas del anlisis factorial confirmatorio previo
(Tabla 4). Las habilidades para el estudio deban medirse en trminos de
interaccin con el tiempo dedicado a actividades acadmicas (Nonis & Hudson,
2010), esto es, el tiempo dedicado posibilitara obtener mejores resultados si el
estudiante tiene adems buenos apuntes, se concentra bien y se organiza los
horarios adecuadamente. Se evitaron los problemas de multi-colinealidad me-
diante el clculo de las variables de tiempo dedicado a actividades acadmicas y
aquellas que miden la calidad (acceso a apuntes, capacidad de programacin, y
capacidad para concentrarse) en sus desviaciones con respecto a la media, mien-
tras que el tiempo dedicado a las actividades acadmicas interactu en desviacin
respecto a la media con cada una de las habilidades de estudio en desviacin con
respecto a la media. Se incluyeron las diferentes variables de habilidades por el
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estudio en las distintas ecuaciones (Modelos 2A2C).

Rendimiento academicoj Actividad Academicaj


Habilidades de estudio Acceso a apuntesj
Academic Activj
 Habilidades para el estudio Acceso a apuntesj
Notas de acceso a la universidadj
Ex
amenes de acceso a la universidadj
Modalidad de acceso a bachilleratoj
Estatus de becasj Facilidad de las asignaturasj
Hogar familiarj Sexoj vj
(Modelo 2A)

Rendimiento academicoj Actividad Academicaj


Habilidades de estudio Capacidad para programarsej
Academic Activj
 Habilidades de estudio Capacidad para programarsej
Notas de acceso a la universidadj
Ex
amenes de acceso a la universidadj
Modalidad de acceso a bachilleratoj
Estatus de becasj Facilidad de las asignaturasj
Hogar familiarj Sexoj vj
(Modelo 2B)
184 C. Daz-Mora et al.

Rendimiento academicoj Actividad Academicaj


Habilidades de estudio Capacidad para concentrarsej
Academic Activj  Capacidad para concentrarsej
Notas de acceso a la universidadj
Ex
amenes de acceso a la universidadj
Modalidad de acceso a bachilleratoj
Estatus de becasj Facilidad de las asignaturasj
Hogar familiarj Sexoj vj
(Modelo 2C)

Por ltimo, proponemos un modelo para evaluar el impacto del tiempo dedicado a
cada una de las siete actividades no acadmicas (Modelo 3).
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Rendimiento academicoj Actividad No Academicaj


Notas de acceso a la universidadj
Ex
amenes de acceso a la universidadj
Modalidad de acceso a bachilleratoj
Estatus de becasj Facilidad de las asignaturasj
Hogar familiarj Sexoj vj
(Modelo 3)

Anlisis de regresin
Los resultados de las estimaciones de los mnimos cuadrados ordinarios (Ordinary
Least Squares, OLS) del modelo emprico se presentan en la Tabla 5 (una versin
ampliada en la que se incluyen los errores estndar se ofrece en la Tabla A1).
En primer lugar estimamos un modelo que inclua solo las variables de control
(Modelo 0). Estas variables exgenas explicaban el 51% de la varianza en
rendimiento acadmico, F(7, 95) = 14.03, p < .01. Por una parte, las notas de
entrada a la universidad tenan un alto impacto positivo sobre el rendimiento
acadmico (B = 0.88, p < .01). Los estudiantes con las mejores notas en la etapa
educativa anterior, y que por tanto tenan los mejores antecedentes acadmicos,
tambin obtenan las notas ms altas en la educacin superior. En otras palabras,
aquellos que ya haban mostrado un buen rendimiento acadmico en perodos
anteriores continuaron hacindolo en etapas posteriores de la educacin, mos-
trando consistencia. Por otra parte, estar matriculado en un conjunto de asigna-
turas de baja dificultad se asociaba con mejores notas (B = 0.01, p < .01). Las
otras variables de control no mostraron efectos significativos sobre el rendimiento
acadmico.
El Modelo 1A, en el que el rendimiento acadmico depende tanto de la
cantidad de tiempo dedicado a actividades acadmicas como de las variables de
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Tabla 5. Anlisis de regresin que predicen el rendimiento acadmico.


B
Variable exgena Modelo 0 Modelo 1A Modelo 1B Modelo 2A Modelo 2B Modelo 3
0. Variables de control
Notas de acceso a la universidad 0.88*** 0.92*** 0.90*** 0.87*** 0.79*** 0.90***
Exmenes de acceso a la universidad 0.20 0.31 0.31 0.23 0.15 0.18
Modalidad de acceso a bachillerato 0.36 0.32 0.31 0.18 0.47 0.33
Estatus de becas 0.36 0.14 0.07 0.20 0.01 0.07
Facilidad de las asignaturas 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01***
Hogar familiar 0.23 0.39 0.51* 0.45 0.58* 0.44
Sexo 0.21 0.55* 0.47 0.51* 0.71** 0.76**
1. Actividades acadmicas
Acadmicas_total 0.04**
Actv_Academica1: Asistir a clase 0.06** 0.14 0.15**
Actv_Academica2: Asistir a clases particulares 0.02 0.08 0.10
Actv_Academica3: Estudio autnomo 0.04** 0.22* 0.27***
Actv_Academica4: Ejercicios/casos prcticos 0.03 0.10 0.12
Actv_Academica5: Trabajo en grupo 0.14** 0.16* 0.19**
Actv_Academica6: Bsqueda de informacin 0.03 0.10 0.12*
2. Habilidades para el estudio
Acceso a apuntes 0.02
Horarios 0.03
ACA4*Acceso a apuntes 0.10*
ACA2*Horarios 0.20**
ACA3*Horarios 0.003**
3. Actividades no acadmicas
Actv_No_Academica1: Asistencia a cursos complementarios 0.003
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico

Actv_No_Academica2: Hacer deporte 0.01***


Actv_No_Academica3: Ocio y comunicacin 0.001
185

(Contina )
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186
C. Daz-Mora et al.

Tabla 5. (Continuacin).

B
Variable exgena Modelo 0 Modelo 1A Modelo 1B Modelo 2A Modelo 2B Modelo 3
Actv_No_Academica4: Vida social 0.001
Actv_No_Academica5: Tiempo comprometido 0.001
Actv_No_Academica6: Tareas vitales 0.001*
Actv_No_Academica7: Otros 0.001
R2 .51 .55 .57 .60 .63 .60
F 14.03*** 14.34*** 8.93*** 6.17*** 6.93*** 9.37***
Notas: Variables exgenas en Modelo 0: Variables de control; Modelo 1A: Variables de control y Total de Actividades Acadmicas (Acadmicas_total); Modelo
1B: Variables de control y actividades acadmicas (Actv_Academica16); Modelo 2A: Variables de control, actividades acadmicas (Actv_Academica16) y
habilidades para el estudio (acceso a apuntes); Modelo 2B: Variables de control, actividades acadmicas (Actv_Academica16) y habilidades para el estudio
(horarios); y Modelo 3: Variables de control y actividades no acadmicas (Actv_No_Academica17). Las variables con interaccin no significativa se omitieron de
los Modelos 2A y 2B pero se proporcionarn previa instancia; *p < .1, **p < .05, ***p < .01.
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 187

control explic el 55% de la varianza (R2 = .05), F(8, 94) = 14.34, p < .01.
Observamos un impacto positivo y significativo en la cantidad de tiempo de-
dicado a actividades acadmicas sobre las notas de los estudiantes (B = 0.04,
p < .05). Esto es, cuanto ms tiempo se dedica a estas actividades en general, ms
altas son las notas que obtienen los estudiantes. El signo y significacin de las
variables de control se mantuvo con respecto al Modelo 0, a excepcin del sexo,
que se torna significativo (B = 0.55, p < .1). Una vez se tuvo en cuenta el hecho
de que las mujeres dedicaban ms tiempo a las actividades acadmicas, ser mujer
implic un peor rendimiento acadmico.
A continuacin se analizaron los resultados de la estimacin del Modelo 1B
(aquel en el que el tiempo dedicado a actividades acadmicas se desagregaba en
las seis categoras acadmicas). Estas variables exgenas explicaron el 57% de la
varianza en rendimiento acadmico, F(13, 89) = 8.93, p < .01. De las seis
actividades acadmicas en consideracin, tres tuvieron una influencia positiva y
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significativa sobre el rendimiento acadmico de los estudiantes: hacer trabajos y


presentaciones en grupo (B = 0.14, p < .05), asistir a las clases en la universidad
(B = 0.06, p < .05), y estudio autnomo (B = 0.04, p < .05). En cuanto a las otras
actividades acadmicas (clases particulares, resolver casos o ejercicios prcticos
individualmente, y bsqueda de informacin), el impacto no fue significativo
(p > .1). El signo y significacin de las variables de control se mantuvo respecto
a la estimacin previa del Modelo 1A, a excepcin de la familia, que fue
significativa (B = 0.51, p < .1; los estudiantes que vivan en el hogar familiar
mientras estudiaban en la universidad tuvieron un mejor rendimiento acadmico),
mientras que el sexo no fue significativo (B = 0.47, p > .1).
Adems de considerar las horas dedicadas a cada una de las actividades
acadmicas y las variables de control, el Modelo 2 tambin inclua variables de
calidad (acceso a apuntes, capacidad para programarse, y capacidad para concen-
trarse), analizadas por niveles, y que se interrelacionaron con las distintas activi-
dades acadmicas. Aplicamos el modelo a cada habilidad de estudio (Modelos
2A2C). Solo tuvieron efectos positivos y significativos sobre el rendimiento
acadmico el tiempo dedicado a la resolucin individual de casos prcticos
cuando se acompaaba de buenos apuntes (B = 0.10, p < .1), Modelo 2A
(R2 = .60), y el tiempo dedicado a clases particulares y estudio autnomo cuando
se acompaaban de capacidad para organizarse los horarios (B = 0.20, p < .05;
B = 0.003, p < .05, respectivamente), Modelo 2B (R2 = .63). Ninguna de estas
interacciones es estadsticamente significativa en el Modelo 2C, que incluye
interacciones entre distintas actividades acadmicas y la capacidad para
concentrarse.
En cuanto a los resultados de la estimacin del Modelo 3, que meda el
impacto del tiempo dedicado a actividades no acadmicas sobre el rendimiento
acadmico, la varianza total explicada por este modelo fue del 60%, F(14,
88) = 9.37, p < .01. De las siete actividades que se reflejaron en sus correspon-
dientes tems, el efecto fue estadsticamente significativo en dos casos, y en ambos
se encontr una asociacin inversa con el rendimiento acadmico, como
esperbamos. En concreto, las horas dedicadas a hacer deporte y a actividades
188 C. Daz-Mora et al.

vitales (comer, dormir e higiene personal) tuvieron un impacto negativo


(B = 0.01, p < .01; B = 0.001, p < .1, respectivamente). Aquellos estudiantes
que dedicaron ms tiempo a estas actividades obtuvieron peores calificaciones.
Fue llamativo que los coeficientes de las actividades extracurriculares como
aprender idiomas, informtica o asistir a asignaturas diferentes (lo que a priori
podra esperarse que tuviera un impacto directo sobre las notas medias) no fueron
significativamente distintos de cero (B = 0.003, p > .1).

Discusin y conclusiones
La presente investigacin ha encontrado que la relacin entre el uso del tiempo de
los estudiantes y sus resultados acadmicos es compleja, y que el rendimiento
acadmico no depende solo de la cantidad de tiempo dedicada a diferentes
actividades acadmicas sino tambin de la calidad de ese tiempo, una vez se
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han controlado las habilidades previas y otros factores.


En primer lugar, encontramos que las actividades acadmicas con un efecto
positivo y estadsticamente significativo sobre las notas de los estudiantes son
asistir a las clases en la universidad, estudiar de forma autnoma y hacer trabajo
en grupos. El impacto positivo de las dos primeras es esperable, ya que la
educacin superior en Espaa sigue centrndose en el aprendizaje convencional,
basado en clases magistrales del profesor, y en el estudio autnomo (Dolton et al.,
2003). Las recientes reformas llevadas a cabo en la educacin terciaria en Espaa
para adaptarla al rea de Educacin Superior Europea ha impulsado cambios en
el enfoque tradicional de enseanza-aprendizaje, llevando as a la incorporacin
de actividades acadmicas adicionales, mediante las cuales se adquieren conoci-
mientos y habilidades avanzadas (Salas, 2014). Nuestros resultados muestran que,
de estas actividades, el tiempo dedicado a trabajar en grupo era tambin efectivo
de cara a mejorar el rendimiento. Este hallazgo coincide con investigaciones
previas en las que se encontr un efecto positivo del aprendizaje colaborativo
sobre el rendimiento acadmico (Yamarik, 2007). Adems, nuestro estudio sugiere
que otras actividades acadmicas diferentes al trabajo en grupo no contribuyen a
mejorar las notas de los estudiantes.
En segundo lugar, hemos encontrado que la relacin positiva entre dedicar
tiempo a actividades acadmicas y el rendimiento acadmico est sujeta a la
disponibilidad de determinadas habilidades o buenos hbitos de estudio, lo que
supone una condicin sine qua non para que ms tiempo se transforme en mejores
notas. A este respecto, Nonis y Hudson (2010) encontraron que la interaccin
entre tiempo de estudio y capacidad para concentrarse posibilita la mejora del
rendimiento acadmico. Las pruebas empricas de nuestro estudio van ms all,
mostrando que una adecuada organizacin de los horarios incremente los bene-
ficios acadmicos del tiempo dedicado al estudio autnomo. Adems, tener
buenos apuntes incrementa los beneficios acadmicos del tiempo dedicado a
resolver tareas prcticas. Completamos las recomendaciones apuntando que las
clases particulares mejoran el rendimiento acadmico solo para aquellos estu-
diantes que organizan sus horarios adecuadamente.
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 189

Por ltimo, respecto a las actividades no acadmicas analizadas, aportamos


pruebas de que ninguna de ellas tuvo un impacto positivo sobre el rendimiento
acadmico, y solo dos de ellas mostraron correlaciones negativas significativas
(deportes y tareas vitales), aunque los coeficientes eran muy pequeos. Estos resulta-
dos son parcialmente distintos a los encontrados por Brint y Cantwell (2010), quienes
encontraron una relacin positiva entre notas medias y tiempo dedicado a dormir y a
estar con la familia, y una negativa para el tiempo dedicado a jugar con el ordenador.
Para concluir, el presente estudio contribuye a la literatura mostrando qu
actividades acadmicas son las ms importantes para mejorar las notas de los
estudiantes, cmo organizar el horario y tener buenos apuntes fortalecen el impacto
positivo de ciertas actividades acadmicas, y qu actividades no acadmicas obsta-
culizan la mejora del rendimiento acadmico. Es necesario realizar ms estudios para
tener en cuenta las diferencias en la orientacin temporal de los estudiantes
(Horstmanshof & Zimitat, 2007) como una variable muy relevante en la
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explicacin de la cantidad de tiempo dedicado a actividades acadmicas y no


acadmicas, adems de su impacto sobre el rendimiento de los estudiantes.
Pese a que nuestra investigacin se llev a cabo con un nico grupo de estudiantes
de empresariales de una nica universidad, este estudio puede aportar sugerencias
tiles a los estudiantes y al profesorado universitario. En el caso de aquellos estu-
diantes cuya meta es mejorar su rendimiento acadmico como forma de aumentar la
probabilidad de entrar en el mercado laboral y de obtener un mejor salario, nuestros
resultados ofrecen pistas tiles respecto a cmo organizar su tiempo de forma ms
eficiente, e informacin sobre qu hbitos de estudio deben reforzar. Para el profeso-
rado universitario, nuestro anlisis aporta sugerencias sobre cmo disear la estruc-
tura de la asignatura y, ms concretamente, qu tipo de actividades acadmicas se
pueden ofrecer para maximizar el rendimiento acadmico de los estudiantes.

Acknowledgments / Agradecimientos
The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and
suggestions to improve this paper. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support
of the University of Castilla-La Mancha through the Teaching Innovation Projects. / Los
autores quieren agradecer a los revisores annimos por sus valiosos comentarios y suge-
rencias para mejorar este trabajo. Los autores agradecen y reconocen el apoyo econmico
de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha mediante los Proyectos de Innovacin Docente.

Disclosure statement
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. / Los autores no han referido
ningn potencial conflicto de inters en relacin con este artculo.

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Statistical appendix

Table A1. Regression analyses predicting academic performance: unstandardized regres-


sion coefficients and standard errors.
B(SE)

Model Model Model Model


Exogenous variable Model 0 1A 1B 2A 2B Model 3

0. Control variables
University entrance scores 0.88*** 0.92*** 0.90*** 0.87*** 0.79*** 0.90***
(0.18) (0.17) (0.17) (0.19) (0.18) (0.17)
University entrance 0.20 0.31 0.31 0.23 0.15 0.18
examinations
(0.35) (0.34) (0.35) (0.37) (0.35) (0.34)
Field of post-secondary 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.18 0.47 0.33
non-tertiary education
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(0.29) (0.28) (0.29) (0.31) (0.30) (0.29)


Scholarship status 0.36 0.14 0.07 0.20 0.01 0.07
(0.34) (0.33) (0.34) (0.35) (0.33) (0.34)
Easiness of the subjects 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.007***
(0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002)
Family home 0.23 0.39 0.51* 0.45 0.58* 0.44
(0.29) (0.29) (0.30) (0.30) (0.30) (0.29)
Gender 0.21 0.55* 0.46 0.51* 0.71** 0.76**
(0.27) (0.28) (0.29) (0.30) (0.30) (0.33)
1. Academic activities
Academic_total 0.04**
(0.01)
Academic_Actv1: 0.06** 0.14 0.15**
Attending class
(0.03) (0.09) (0.06)
Academic_Actv2: Private 0.02 0.08 0.10
tuition
(0.06) (0.12) (0.08)
Academic_Actv3: Self 0.04** 0.22* 0.27***
study
(0.07) (0.11) (0.10)
Academic_Actv4: 0.03 0.10 0.12
Practical exercises/cases
(0.04) (0.10) (0.07)
Academic_Actv5: Work in 0.14** 0.16* 0.19**
groups
(0.08) (0.08) (0.08)
Academic_Actv6: 0.03 0.10 0.12*
Searching for
information
(0.04) (0.09) (0.07)
2. Study skills
Access to notes 0.02
(0.02)
Scheduling 0.03
(Continued )
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 193

Table A1. (Continued ).


B(SE)

Model Model Model Model


Exogenous variable Model 0 1A 1B 2A 2B Model 3

(0.02)
ACA4*Access to notes 0.10*
(0.06)
ACA2*Scheduling 0.20**
(0.09)
ACA3*Scheduling 0.003**
(0.001)
3. Non-academic activities
Non_Academic_Actv1: Taking complementary courses 0.003
(0.003)
Non_Academic_Actv2: Doing sports 0.005***
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(0.001)
Non_Academic_Actv3: Leisure and communication 0.001
(0.001)
Non_Academic_Actv4: Social life 0.001
(0.001)
Non_Academic_Actv5: Compromised time 0.001
(0.001)
Non_Academic_Actv6: Doing vital tasks 0.001*
(0.000)
Non_Academic_Actv7: Others 0.001
(0.001)
R2 .51 .55 .57 .60 .63 .60
F 14.03*** 14.34*** 8.93*** 6.17*** 6.93*** 9.37***
194 C. Daz-Mora et al.

Apndice estadstico

Tabla A1. Anlisis de regresin que predicen el rendimiento acadmico: coeficientes de


regresin no estandarizados y errores estndar.
B(EE)

Modelo Modelo Modelo Modelo Modelo


Variable exgena 0 1A 1B 2A 2B Modelo 3

0. Variables de control
Notas de acceso a la 0.88*** 0.92*** 0.90*** 0.87*** 0.79*** 0.90***
universidad
(0.18) (0.17) (0.17) (0.19) (0.18) (0.17)
Exmenes de acceso a la 0.20 0.31 0.31 0.23 0.15 0.18
universidad
(0.35) (0.34) (0.35) (0.37) (0.35) (0.34)
Modalidad de acceso a 0.36 0.32 0.32 0.18 0.47 0.33
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bachillerato
(0.29) (0.28) (0.29) (0.31) (0.30) (0.29)
Estatus de becas 0.36 0.14 0.07 0.20 0.01 0.07
(0.34) (0.33) (0.34) (0.35) (0.33) (0.34)
Facilidad de las 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.01*** 0.007***
asignaturas
(0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002)
Hogar familiar 0.23 0.39 0.51* 0.45 0.58* 0.44
(0.29) (0.29) (0.30) (0.30) (0.30) (0.29)
Sexo 0.21 0.55* 0.46 0.51* 0.71** 0.76**
(0.27) (0.28) (0.29) (0.30) (0.30) (0.33)
1. Actividades Acadmicas
Acadmicas_total 0.04**
(0.01)
Actv_Academica1: Asistir 0.06** 0.14 0.15**
a clase
(0.03) (0.09) (0.06)
Actv_Academica2: Asistir 0.02 0.08 0.10
a clases particulares
(0.06) (0.12) (0.08)
Actv_Academica3: 0.04** 0.22* 0.27***
Estudio autnomo
(0.07) (0.11) (0.10)
Actv_Academica4: 0.03 0.10 0.12
Ejercicios/casos
prcticos
(0.04) (0.10) (0.07)
Actv_Academica5: 0.14** 0.16* 0.19**
Trabajo en grupo
(0.08) (0.08) (0.08)
Actv_Academica6: 0.03 0.10 0.12*
Bsqueda de
informacin
(0.04) (0.09) (0.07)
2. Habilidades para el estudio
Acceso a apuntes 0.02
(Contina)
Time use and student performance / El uso del tiempo y el rendimiento acadmico 195

Tabla A1. (Continuacin).


B(EE)

Modelo Modelo Modelo Modelo Modelo


Variable exgena 0 1A 1B 2A 2B Modelo 3

(0.02)
Horarios 0.03
(0.02)
ACA4*Acceso a apuntes 0.10*
(0.06)
ACA2*Horarios 0.20**
(0.09)
ACA3*Horarios 0.003**
(0.001)
3. Actividades No Acadmicas
Actv_No_Academica1: Asistencia a cursos complementarios 0.003
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(0.003)
Actv_No_Academica2: Hacer deporte 0.005***
(0.001)
Actv_No_Academica3: Ocio y comunicacin 0.001
(0.001)
Actv_No_Academica4: Vida social 0.001
(0.001)
Actv_No_Academica5: Tiempo comprometido 0.001
(0.001)
Actv_No_Academica6: Tareas vitales 0.001*
(0.000)
Actv_No_Academica7: Otros 0.001
(0.001)
R2 .51 .55 .57 .60 .63 .60
F 14.03*** 14.34*** 8.93*** 6.17*** 6.93*** 9.37***