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Submitted by:
The objective of course EC-220 is to provide hands-on experience to the students of
Electronics and Communication Engineering, NSIT. The training covered the following

Designing tool EAGLE CAD

Introduction to basic components like resistor, capacitor, inductor etc.
Concepts behind the designing of a power supply.
PCB fabrication
Designing a linear variable power supply.
Testing of power supply using active load.

The report focuses on each and every aspect of power supply designing. It also covers a
brief description of EAGLE CAD tool and the steps involved in fabrication process.

We would like to thank Professor Dhananjay V. Gadre for his continuous guidance and
support throughout the course of the training. His lectures were of great value for
understanding the concepts behind the designing of a power supply.

We would also like to thank all the seniors present during the training for all the help. It
wouldnt have been possible without their help.

1.1 What is a power supply?

1.2 Need for regulation

1.3 Basic terminology

1.4 Linear Vs Switch mode power supply



3.1 Source

3.2 Conversion

3.2.1 Step down converter

3.2.2 Rectification

3.2.3 Filtering

3.3 Protection

3.4 Regulation

3.4.1 Series voltage regulator

3.4.2 Shunt voltage regulator

3.4.3 Voltage regulator ICs



5.1 Voltage regulator using zener diode

5.2 Modified circuit using transistor in CC configuration

5.3 Short circuit protection

5.4 Voltage regulator using op-amp

5.5 Output voltage less than reference voltage

5.6 Output voltage more than reference voltage




8.1 Buck converter

8.2 Boost converter

8.3 Buck-boost converter




1. Introduction

A power supply is an electronic device that supplies electric energy to an electrical

load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of electrical energy
to another and, as a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power

Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy
it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Depending on its
design, a power supply may obtain energy from various types of energy sources,
including electrical energy transmission systems, energy storage devices such as
a batteries and fuel cells, electromechanical systems such as generators
and alternators, solar power converters, or another power supply. All power supplies
have a power input, which receives energy from the energy source, and a power
output that delivers energy to the load.

Power supplies or power supply units, PSU, form an essential part of very many items
of electronics equipment. The most common form takes in AC power from the mains
supply and delivers a DC voltage to the item requiring power. Accordingly power
supplies are widely used in a variety of forms - some large supplying high levels of
current, other power supplies, much smaller providing lower levels of power. It is
basically consisting of the following elements: transformer, rectifier, filter and regulator
circuits. Power supply units (PSU) are used in computers, amateur radio transmitters
and receivers, and all other electronic equipment that use dc voltage as an input.
Most of the electronic circuits require DC supplies however the output voltage of such
supplies varies with
1) Variation of load
2) Fluctuations in AC mains voltage
3) Change in device parameters due to temperature change
Hence to get a constant output voltage we need a voltage regulator whose function is to
provide constant dc voltage independent of any of the variations mentioned above. The
voltage regulator should be capable of providing substantial output current as well.





There are two basic forms of power supply used in electronics equipment:

Unregulated: This form of power supply was the only type used many years
ago. It simply consisted of a rectifier section and this was followed by capacitor
or capacitor and inductor smoothing. There was no regulation to steady the
voltage. If a large current was drawn the voltage would fall as a result of the
resistive losses, and also the smoothing would not be as effective and the level of
hum would rise.
Voltage regulated: As transistor circuitry became more commonplace,
regulated power supplies became more common. Today they are almost
universally used. They typically incorporate a voltage reference, and the output
voltage is compared to this and altered accordingly by control circuitry within
the regulated power supply.

SCP - Short circuit protection

OPP - Overpower (overload) protection
OCP - Overcurrent protection
OTP Overtemperature protection
OVP - Overvoltage protection
UVP - Undervoltage protection
UPS - Uninterruptable Power Supply
PSU - Power Supply Unit
SMPSU - Switch-Mode Power Supply Unit


LINEAR POWER SUPPLY: Linear power supplies gain their name from the fact that they
use linear, i.e. non-switching techniques to regulate the voltage output from the power
supply. The components used operate in active region.
SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY: Switch mode power supplies are widely used because
of the advantages they offer in terms of size, weight, cost, efficiency and overall
performance. In this transistor operates in cutoff and saturation region. Switch mode
power supplies have become an accepted part of the electronics scene and are often
referred to as switch mode power converters, or just switchers.
1) BUCK CONVERTER: Output voltage less than input voltage.
2) BOOST CONVERTER: Output voltage more than input voltage.
3) BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER: Output voltage can be made either more or less (as
required) than the input voltage.


Very low level of noise Low level of efficiency
Straightforward High levels of heat
technology may need to be
Large size compared
to switching regulator

Highly efficient Ripple and noise can

Switching be higher than linear
Can be made very
regulator regulator
Switching spikes can
Low amounts of heat cause interference
need to be removed
Certain factors which determine the quality of the power supply as explained below:

Output Impedance A regulated power supply is a very stiff dc voltage source.

This means that the output resistance is very small. Even though the external
load resistance is varied, almost no change is seen in the load voltage. An ideal
voltage source has an output impedance of zero.

Source/Line Regulation Generally, the input line voltage has a nominal value
of 230 Volts but in practice, here are considerable variations in ac supply mains
Since this ac supply mains voltage is the input to the ordinary power supply, the
filtered output of the bridge rectifier is almost directly proportional to the ac
mains voltage. The source regulation is defined as the change in regulated output
voltage for a specified range of line voltage.

Load Regulation The load regulation or load effect is the change in regulated
output voltage when the load current changes from minimum to maximum

Percentage Load regulation = [(Vno-load Vfullload)/ Vfullload]*100

Vno-load > Load Voltage at no load.
Vfull-load >Load voltage at full load.

From the above equation we can understand that when Vno-load occurs the load
is infinite, that is, the output terminals are open circuited. Vfull-load occurs when the
load resistance is of the minimum value.

Minimum Load Resistance The load resistance at which a power supply

delivers its full-load rated current at rated voltage is referred to as minimum
load resistance.

Minimum Load Resistance = Vfull-load / Ifull-load

The value of Ifull-load, full load current should never increase than that
mentioned in the data sheet of the power supply.

Ripple Rejection Voltage regulators stabilize the output voltage against

variations in input voltage. Ripple is equivalent to a periodic variation in the
input voltage. Thus, a voltage regulator attenuates the ripple that comes in with
the unregulated input voltage. Since a voltage regulator uses negative feedback,
the distortion is reduced by the same factor as the gain.


Every power supply needs an input to drive the whole circuit. This power can be
extracted from various sources, some of which are listed below:

1) AC MAINS: This is the most commonly used source and is easily available
everywhere. Its specifications are 220V at 50Hz frequency (in India). It is to be noted
that the size of the transformer is inversely proportional to the frequency.

2) SOLAR: It is a renewable source of energy but is not available every time and
everywhere. It can be harnessed using a number of ways. Solar energy is first converted
to electrical energy and is then stored in batteries. The angle between the sun rays and
the solar panel determine how efficiently the energy is harnessed. We get maximum
energy when the panel is perpendicular to sun rays. This involves tracking of sun which
can be done in following two ways:

(i) 4 quadrant method (solar tracker)

(ii) Predicting at what time the sun rises knowing the exact time, date and month

Knowing the position of sun, the panels can be tilted to receive maximum light. The
graph plotted by tracker using MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM tells the
maximum power point.

3) RESONATING STRUCTURES: the natural resonating frequency of architectural

structures can be used to induce voltages. This method is not used much.

4) FARADAY GENERATORS: In this, a cylindrical container is wound by a number of

turns of copper and a magnet is suspended. This magnet when oscillated induces a
voltage in the copper wire which is utilized further. The power output of this technique
is not very high.
5) HYDEL POWER PLANTS: Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity
generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the
gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form
of renewable energy. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential
energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted
from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the
source and the water's outflow.

6) NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in

which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. As is typical in all conventional thermal
power stations the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam
turbine connected to an electric generator which produces electricity. A nuclear
reactor is used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. The most
common use of nuclear reactors is for the generation of electric energy and for
the propulsion of ships.


In most of the cases we deal with AC mains supply of 220V as the source but this cannot
be used directly and has to undergo following 3 processes:

>>Step down converter




220V AC is dangerous to work with hence it is required to convert it to a lesser value by
using a step down converter i.e. a transformer.
The transformer is a static device that transfers electrical energy from the primary
winding to the secondary winding without affecting the frequency. It is used to step-up
or step-down the ac voltage level and isolates the remainder of the electronic system
from the ac power.
The primary winding of the transformer is connected to an ac voltage source that
produces alternating current while the secondary is connected to a load. The primary
and secondary windings are not physically connected to each other but due to
electromagnetic induction following Faraday's law, there is an induced voltage in the
secondary winding. There are three main functions of transformers namely: stepping
the voltage up, stepping the voltage down and providing isolation between the primary
and secondary circuits.

The output of a step down transformer is still AC and is converted to DC by a process
called rectification. For this process following three rectifiers can be employed
according to our needs
>> Half wave rectifier
>> Full wave rectifier
>>Bridge rectifier

Bridge rectifier circuit

The R-C filter circuit is used to reject input noise. Smoothing capacitor helps reduce the
ripples in the circuit which converts the pulsating DC output after rectification to a
constant DC voltage. The other capacitor is the reservoir capacitor. An electrolytic
capacitor is used as a reservoir capacitor.

It acts as a temporary storage for the power supply output current. The reservoir
capacitor is large electrolytic, usually of several hundred or even a thousand or more
microfarads, especially in mains frequency PSUs. This very large value of capacitance is
required because the reservoir capacitor, when charged, must provide enough DC to
maintain a steady PSU output in the absence of an input current; i.e. during the gaps
between the positive half cycles when the rectifier is not conducting.

A combined reservoir capacitor and low pass filter it is possible to remove 95 percent
or more of the AC ripple and obtain an output voltage of about the peak voltage of the
input wave.

To obtain a ripple free constant dc supply we

need to apply appropriate valued capacitor.
This value of capacitor is obtained by input
voltage that we get from transformer .In this
case we opted for a step down transformer
which provides output of 12 V. The peak is
obtained at value of about 12*1.414=16.8 V.

Generally the available values of capacitors are

16 V, 25V; etc. This type of zener arrangement
for regulated supply is used for circuit using
small supply current. Zener diode provides constant voltage only for the case of
constant current and temperature. Hence we need to provide constant current to zener
diode in order to provide constant
Reference voltage .So this configuration was not used for
designing the regulated voltage circuit.


Circuit protection is employed to protect wires and other circuit components from
damage in the event of a power overload or voltage spike. Lightning storms, overloaded
power outlets, or a sudden electrical surge when large appliances or equipment
suddenly switch on may result in a dangerous situation with the potential to cause fires
or damage. Circuit protection negates this damage before it occurs by cutting off the
power to the circuit.

1) FUSE: A fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial device to
provide overcurrent protection, of either the load or source circuit. Its essential
component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows through it,
interrupting the circuit that it connects. Short circuits, overloading, mismatched loads,
or device failure are the prime reasons for excessive current. Fuses can be used as
alternatives to circuit breakers.

2) MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER: MCBs or Miniature Circuit Breakers are

electromechanical devices which protect an electrical circuit from an overcurrent. The
overcurrent, in an electrical circuit, may result from short circuit, overload or faulty
design. An MCB is a better alternative to a fuse since it does not require replacement
once an overload is detected. Unlike fuse, an MCB can be easily reset and thus offers
improved operational safety and greater convenience without incurring large operating
cost. The principal of operation is simple. There are two contacts one is fixed and the
other moveable. When the current exceeds the predefined limit a solenoid forces the
moveable contact to open (i.e., disconnect from the fixed contact) and the MCB turns off
thereby stopping the current to flow in the circuit. In order to restart the flow of
current the MCB is manually turned on. This mechanism is used to protect from the
faults arising due to over current or over load.

3) CROWBAR: Crowbar protection is a fail-safe protection mechanism which shorts

circuits the output of a power supply under failure conditions such as overvoltage.
Crowbar protection can also refer to a circuit which has its sole purpose to cause a fuse
to blow by subjecting it to high current.

A crowbar circuit is usually placed across the power supplys output terminals, to
protect the load against any overvoltage. It does this by shorting the terminals (placing
a crowbar across). It may blow up the fuse, trip the circuit breaker or shut down some
parts of the circuit so as to cut off the power to the load. The protection is used for both
low and high voltage power supplies.

The crowbar protection uses a sensing circuit to monitor the supplys output voltage
and compare it against a preset value. In the event of an overvoltage, it triggers the
crowbar device which in turn short circuits the output terminals, hence cutting off the
The two commonly used components for the crowbar device are the silicon controlled
rectifier (SCR) known as thyristor and the MOSFET. The monitoring circuit, and
crowbar device, depends on the sensitivity of the circuit protected and the type of
stresses expected or experienced. A successive protection will depend on whether the
protected circuit or load can survive the excess voltage and the protection devices
response time.

4) METAL OXIDE VARISTOR: A varistor/voltage dependent resistor (VDR) is a

component which has a voltage current characteristics that is very much similar to
that of a diode. This component is used to protect electrical devices from high transient
voltages. They are planted in the devices in such a manner that it will short itself when
a high current is produced due to the high voltage. Thus the current dependent
components in the device will remain safe from the sudden surge. MOV is the most
commonly used type of varistor. It is called so as the component is made from a mixture
of zinc oxide and other metal oxides like cobalt, manganese and so on and is kept intact
between two electrodes which are basically metal plates.

5) SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION: A short circuit is a conducting connection, e.g.

phase neutral conductor, caused by a fault. Short circuits in electrical plants can occur
suddenly and conduct extremely high voltages that are discharged explosively.
Wherever they occur, their destructive potential is enormous. If there are no protective
measures in place against short circuits, cables may overheat, possibly leading to a fire
or to damage to the plants.

Hence every circuit should be provided in every circuit. This is explained in detail while
discussing about short circuit protection in linear power supplies in section 5.3.

A voltage regulator is designed to provide a very steady or well regulated dc output. It

is always ideal to have a steady output voltage so that the load will operate properly.
The output level is maintained regardless of the variation of the input voltage. The
commonly used transistor voltage regulators are the series voltage regulator and the
shunt voltage regulator.


The series voltage regulator or series pass voltage regulator uses a variable element
placed in series with the load. By changing the resistance of the series element, the
voltage dropped across it can be varied to ensure that the voltage across the load
remains constant.
The advantage of the series voltage regulator is that the amount of current drawn is
effectively that used by the load, although some will be consumed by any circuitry
associated with the regulator. Unlike the shunt regulator, the series regulator does not
draw the full current even when the load does not require any current. As a result the
series regulator is considerably more efficient.

Applying KVL in loop containing zener transistor and load we get VO = VZ - Vbe

Now, if Vo increases Vbe should decrease to satisfy the above equation since Vz
remains constant at zener voltage. The reduction in Vbe causes the voltage at output to
decrease thus bringing it back to the previous reference voltage value.

Now, if Vo decreases Vbe should increase to satisfy the above equation since Vz
remains constant at zener voltage. The increase in Vbe causes the voltage at output to
rise thus bringing it back to the previous reference voltage value.

This way the output voltage is regulated.

The basic operation of a shunt regulator can be seen from the diagram. Essentially the
load is operated with a resistor in s eries with the voltage source and the shunt
regulator then in parallel with the load.
In order to keep the voltage across the load constant, a level of current must be drawn
through the series resistor to maintain the required voltage across the load. The load
will take some and the remaining current is drawn by the shunt voltage regulator.
The circuit is designed so that at maximum load current the shunt regulator draws
virtually no current and at minimum load current, the shunt voltage regulator passes
the full current.
As a result, it can be seen that shunt regulators are inefficient because maximum
current is drawn from the source regardless of the load current, i.e. even when there is
no load current.

Zener diode shunt regulator circuit

One of the most common and simple forms of shunt regulator is the simple Zener diode
regulator circuit shown below. Its operation is very straightforward. Once over its small
minimum current, the Zener diode maintains an almost constant voltage across its
terminals. The series resistor drops the voltage from the source to the Zener diode and
load. As the Zener diode maintains its voltage, any variations in load current do not
affect the voltage across the Zener diode. It takes up the current variations required to
ensure the correct drop across the series resistor.
A regulator Integrated Circuit (IC) unit contains the circuitry - the reference source,
comparator, amplifier, control device, and the overload protector - inside a single IC.
There are also adjustable voltage regulators which allow the user to set the desired
output level. Other IC regulators have fixed output values. It is said that IC regulators
are superior compared to transistor voltage regulators when it comes to linearity of the
output voltage. Examples of voltage regulator ICs are 78XX family for positive regulated
voltages and 79XX family for negative regulated voltages.

When used as an AC signal amplifier, the transistors biasing voltage is applied in such a
way that it always operates within its active region. However, both the NPN & PNP type
bipolar transistors can be made to operate as solid state switch by biasing the
transistor such that it operates in its saturation and cut-off region.

The operating regions for the transistor to act as a switch are shaded in the figure

In the saturation region of operation, the base-emitter junction as well as the collector-
base junction are forward biased and the transistor is fully ON, thereby acting as a
closed switch. In the cut-off region, the base-emitter junction as well as the collector-
base junction are reversed biased and the transistor is fully OFF, thereby acting as an
open switch.

Switch circuits are of two types:

1. Low side switching

2. High side switching

Low side switching

Low side switching is called so because the switch is connected to the ground or the
low side and the load is connected to high side. Low side switching can be achieved
using a NPN transistor. There needs to be a resistor in series, large enough to limit the
current, but small enough to drive the transistor into saturation. With a zero signal
applied to Vin of the transistor it turns OFF acting like an open switch and zero
collector current flows. With a positive signal applied to Vin of the transistor it turns ON
acting like a closed switch and maximum circuit current flows through the device.

Unfortunately, a transistor is not a perfect switch, so there will be some residual voltage
drop over it (0.2 to 0.4V for the BJT, under 0.1V for the MOSFET). One problem with
these low-side switches (i.e. in the ground wire), is that the circuits will start to float:
with a small voltage drop over the transistor, all signal levels to this circuit will be
raised slightly, and sometimes unpredictably. Also, when the power is switched off, the
circuit ends up being tied to its power supply + side, but disconnected from ground
The floating load causes problems.

High side switching

To eliminate the problem of floating load, in high side switching the load is connected to
the ground.

A NPN transistor cannot be used in this case as it will be operating in the common
collector configuration as an amplifier and not as a switch (Vo= Vin-0.7). Therefore, we
use a PNP transistor here.With a zero signal applied to Vin of the transistor it turns ON
acting like and acting as a closed switch while with a positive signal applied to Vinof the
transistor it turns OFFacting like an open switch.

Here, to keep the transistor off we need provide the input voltage nearly the same as
the Vcc. This case therefore needs a more complex circuit (as given below).
When Vin is 0, no current flows into the base of the NPN transistor, which means it
wont conduct, and hence no current flows into the base of the PNP transistor either.
When Vin is 1, the NPN transistor will conduct and pull its collector towards ground.
So the base of the PNP transistor is pulled down, and the PNP transistor is switched on.

This can also be achieved using a Zener in place of the NPN transistor as shown:

Vin is either 0V or 3V. When Vin is 0V, the resistor maintains a voltage lower than Vcc at
the base. Voltage at emitter=Vcc, therefore, the transistor is ON. When Vin= 3V, the
voltage at the base becomes higher than Vcc thus making the transistor OFF.


A voltage regulator, in its most basic form, can be made using a zener diode. A zener
diode is always operated in reverse bias. A zener draws negligible current until the
voltage across it reaches a specific value known as knee voltage. Beyond this point
current rises abruptly without much change in the voltage across zener. Thus zener
gives approximately constant voltage.
Vz is the reference voltage

Is = Il + Iz

(Vs- Vz)/Rs = Iz + Vz/RL


Zener voltage varies by a small amount with zener current i.e. internal resistance
of zener is not zero but has a particularly small value. Hence, the zener voltage
will change with the variations in input voltage and load current.

There is no provision for variation in output voltage.

In case high current flows through zener, power dissipated in it will be high.
Hence it becomes necessary to use high power zener.

In this, a transistor (Q1) in common collector configuration is used, along with the
zener. Common collector transistor is a voltage buffer i.e. it allows unity voltage gain
and high current gain.

The zener now operates at lower current since the base current is times lower than
the emitter current. This fact leads to following two advantages:

Even if the current(which is very low) through zener changes, the change in
zener voltage will be negligible.

Lower current through zener leads to low power dissipation hence no need for
high power zener.

Note that even though the current through zener changes the required load current is
still maintained.


In the above configuration the output voltage is Vbe (base emitter voltage) less than the
zener voltage.

i.e. VO = VZ - Vbe

To compensate this voltage drop, a diode in forward bias is added in series with the

So now, VO = VZ + Vbe - Vbe


The circuit doesnt allow adjustment of output voltage.

It doesnt have short circuit protection i.e. protection against high currents
flowing through the transistor when load is reduced to zero.


Under short circuit condition all current passes through base emitter junction of series pass
transistor, Q1. This will lead to huge power dissipation in the transistor and it can
eventually damage the transistor and the circuit. Therefore, it is necessary to give short
circuit protection. The circuit with short-circuit protection is shown in figure:
It is known as current limiting circuit which consists of another npn transistor, Q2 and
RSC. Under normal operating conditions Q2 is off and the current flows through RSC and
voltage drop takes place across it. The value of RSC is chosen in such a way so that when
short circuit current flows through it the voltage drop across RSC becomes 0.6 i.e. Vbe for
Q2 becomes 0.6 thus pushing Q2 into active mode. At this stage, the current going into
base of Q1 is diverted to Q2. So now Q1 gets into cutoff mode.

In our power supply design short circuit current has been limited to 0.5 A. Therefore,
value of RSC can be calculated in the following manner:

Vbe = 0.6 V

ISC = 0.5 A

RSC = Vbe / ISC = 0.6 / 0.5 =1.2


To achieve better voltage regulation we use an operational amplifier in the circuit.

The salient properties of an op-amp are:

The open loop gain of an op-amp is infinity.

Voltage at one terminal is same as that at the other input terminal due to virtual
shorting (V1=V2).
No current flows into the op-amp. I in =0
It has high input impedance.
It has low output impedance.

The op-amp can be used as an amplifier in the following two configurations;


In this configuration the non inverting terminal of the op-amp is grounded and input is
applied at the inverting terminal. A negative feedback is applied with the help of a
resistor. Therefore, the output voltage comes out to be

Vo= -(Rf/Ri)Vi

Since the output is 180 degrees out of phase with the input, the term inverting is used.


The input voltage in this case is applied to the non inverting terminal, the inverting
terminal being grounded. Negative feedback is provided by the resistor Rf as shown.
The output voltage is given as:

Vo = (Rf/Ri +1) Vi

The output is in phase with the input, hence the name.

We use the following property of an op-amp to improve the voltage regulation circuit:

The voltage at one of the input terminals of an op-amp is reflected at the other terminal
without loading the circuit. The circuit after adding op-amp is as follows:

On variation of load, output voltage changes but series pass transistor tries to maintain
the output voltage constant. The output voltage is controlled by the continuous drop
taking across series pass element.

Series pass voltage regulator with feedback

The output voltage is sampled and compared with a stable reference voltage using op-
amp. The error is then used to correct the output voltage. Here series element is a
transistor, reference voltage is provided by zener and op-amp acts as a comparator. If
there is any change in the sampled and reference value then it is detected by op-amp
and it changes the current driving the transistor which further helps in restoring the
output value back to the required regulated value.
For detailed explanation of series pass element please refer to section 3.4.1.

In all the circuits discussed till now output voltage is fixed at zener voltage VZ. Note that
zener provides the reference voltage. It means that if one wants to change the output
voltage then the reference voltage has to be changed which involves replacing the
current zener diode with another of different breakdown voltage. This is not a very
good method of obtaining variable voltage at the output.

The variable voltage at the output can either be greater than or less than the reference
voltage. Both the cases are discussed here one-by-one.


It is achieved by putting a potentiometer across the zener as shown:

But as the potentiometer value changes, the current through the potentiometer
changes, therefore the current through zener also changes eventually leading to
deflection in reference voltage which isnt desired. This phenomenon is known as
loading effect. To get rid of this problem an op-amp in voltage follower configuration is
used as follows:
The output voltage of op-amp remains at the reference voltage. Here, since the input
current of the op-amp is zero the current through zener never changes. This way the
problem of loading is solved.

Now. VO = Vref * R4 /( R3 + R4)


This is achieved by the following circuit:

Now, VO = 1+ (R1 / R2)



In most cases the current providing capacity of the series pass transistor is unable to
fulfill the current requirements of the load. Thus to obtain higher current, a power
transistor, MJE3055, which has high collector current can be used. But since the current
gain of power transistors is low the output of the op-amp cannot drive it. To solve this,
an npn transistor, BC547 is used which can be driven by low output current of op-amp.
This way a power supply with high current rating can be designed. Such a configuration
The final circuit can be made by integrating the following four things:

1) Providing short circuit protection.

The Short-Circuit protection is given with the help of transistor Q2 and Resistor RSC.
When the load is shorted, there will be an increase in current through RSC and
correspondingly the voltage drop across RSC will switch on the transistor Q2 which
in turn will drain the base current going in the Darlington pair and hence protect it
from damage. But as the current through the series pass transistor decreases, the
voltage drop across RSC will also decrease and the transistor Q2 will again be cut-off.
It will transit between off and on. In steady state it will just be on. The value of Short-
Circuit resistance RSC can be found out using the formula: RSC=Vbe/I max.

2) Replacing the series pass transistor by Darlington pair.

3) Preset - resistor arrangement for obtaining o/p voltage lesser than reference
voltage provided by zener.

{ R2 /(R1 +R2)} * V ref < Vo < { (R2+ x)/ ( R2+x +R1)} * Vref Where x is the
resistance of the preset connected.
4) Preset - resistor arrangement for obtaining o/p voltage greater than reference
voltage provided by zener.

{1+(Ri / (Rf +x))} * V ref < Vo< {1+(Ri /Rf)} * V ref


Power transistors are used to handle high current and voltages. In application such as
these the power dissipated is high. If this problem of heating is not solved then the
collector base junction becomes too hot and hence the power output reduces. To
minimize the heat, heat sink, made of aluminum, is attached to the transistor. For good
transfer of heat from transistor to heat sink the area of collector is made large so that
its metal part is in direct contact with the metal of heat sink.

The main purpose of a heat sink is to expel heat from a generating source. Heat sinks
work through the process of conductive and convection heat transfer.


- No Moving Parts

- Require no power

- Ideal for components which cannot be in contact with liquids.


This is a current limiting technique to limit the peak power dissipation to prevent
thermal destabilization or thermal runaway in the power transistor (which usually
leads to the part destroying itself), to keep it in its safe operating area.

Foldback is a current limiting feature (a type of overload protection) of power

supplies and power amplifiers. When the load attempts to draw overcurrent from the
supply, foldback reduces both the output voltage and current to well below the normal
operating limits. Under a short circuit, where the output voltage has reduced to zero,
the current is typically limited to a small fraction of the maximum current.

The prime purpose of foldback current limiting in linear power supplies is to keep the
output transistor within its safe power dissipation limit. With a linear voltage regulator,
the output voltage Vout and output current Iout are maintained by simply dissipating
away the surplus of input voltage Vin:
Under overload conditions the output voltage falls and so the difference Vin -
Vout becomes larger, tending to increasing dissipation. For a simple current limit, safely
handling the worst-case scenario (a short circuit) would therefore require a much
larger heatsink and output transistor than would be required under normal operating
conditions. Foldback partially solves this, helping to keep the normal-rated output
transistor within its safe operating area under fault and overload conditions. Foldback
also significantly reduces the power dissipation in the load in fault conditions, which
can reduce the risks of fire and heat damage.
The characteristic curve for power supply with and without foldback current limiting is
shown below:

With foldback current limiting Without foldback current limiting

IC LM723 can be used to make both linear and switching mode power supplies.

It has the following features:

Maximum output current (to load) 150mA without using any external pass
transistor and can be exceeded to more than 10 A using external transistors.
Maximum input voltage - 40V.
Output voltage can be adjusted between 2 -37 V.

The circuit for variable voltage power supply designed earlier was made using discrete
components. The same circuit can be realized using internal circuitry of the LM723 IC
along with certain external components.
V+ and V- : Supply voltage terminals of IC. V+ is the positive terminal and V- is the
negative terminal.

Non-inverting input: It is the non-inverting terminal of the error amplifier whose

output is connected to series pass transistor. Reference voltage or a part of it is fed to
this terminal.

Inverting input : It is the inverting terminal of the error amplifier whose output is
connected series pass transistor. Output voltage or a part of it is fed to this terminal.

Vref : It is the reference voltage output of the IC. It is the output of voltage reference
amplifier. Its output voltage is about 7.15 V.

Vout : It is the output terminal of the IC and can provide upto 150m A of current.
Output voltage ranges from 2-37V.

Current Limit: It is the base input of the current limiting transistor. It is used for
current limiting and current foldback applications.

Current Sense: It is the emitter of the current limiting transistor. It is used for current
limiting and current foldback applications

Vc : This is the collector input of series pass transistor. It is usually directly connected
to positive supply voltage if external transistors are not used.

Vz : It is the anode of zener diode whose cathode is connected to the output terminals.
It is generally used for making negative regulators.

Frequency compensation : This pin is connected to capacitor which bypasses high

frequency noises. It is the output of error amplifier. The capacitor is connected between
this pin and inverting terminal of error amplifier. The prescribed values of capacitors
varies for different types of regulators.

8.1 BUCK CONVERTER : Here the output voltage is less than the input voltage.
The fundamental circuit for a step down converter or buck converter consists of an
inductor, diode, capacitor, switch and error amplifier with switch control circuitry.

The circuit for the buck regulator operates by varying the amount of time in which
inductor receives energy from the source.
In the basic block diagram the operation of the buck converter or buck regulator can be
seen that the output voltage appearing across the load is sensed by the sense / error
amplifier and an error voltage is generated that controls the switch. Typically the
switch is controlled by a pulse width modulator.

Transistor Switch on Period

In figure below , when the switching transistor is switched on, it is supplying the load
with current. Initially current flow to the load is restricted as energy is also being
stored in L1, therefore the current in the load and the charge on C1 builds up gradually
during the on period. Notice that throughout the on period, there will be a large
positive voltage on D1 cathode and so the diode will be reverse biased and therefore
play no part in the action.
Transistor Switch off Period

When the transistor switches off as shown in figure below, the energy stored in the
magnetic field around L1 is released back into the circuit. The voltage across the
inductor now in reverse polarity to the voltage across L1 during the on period, and
sufficient stored energy is available in the collapsing magnetic field to keep current
flowing for at least part of the time the transistor switch is open.

The back e.m.f. from L1 now causes current to flow around the circuit via the load
and D1, which is now forward biased. Once the inductor has returned a large part of
its stored energy to the circuit and the load voltage begins to fall, the charge stored in
C1 becomes the main source of current, keeping current flowing through the load
until the next on period begins.
8.2 BOOST CONVERTER: Here the output voltage is more than the input voltage.
The boost converter circuit has many similarities to the buck converter. However the
circuit topology for the boost converter is slightly different. The fundamental circuit for
a boost converter or step up converter consists of an inductor, diode, capacitor, switch
and error amplifier with switch control circuitry.

Figure below illustrates the circuit action during the initial high period of the high
frequency square wave applied to the MOSFET gate at start up. During this time
MOSFET conducts, placing a short circuit from the right hand side of L1 to the negative
input supply terminal. Therefore a current flows between the positive and negative
supply terminals through L1, which stores energy in its magnetic field. There is
virtually no current flowing in the remainder of the circuit as the combination of D1, C1
and the load represent a much higher impedance than the path directly through the
heavily conducting MOSFET.
Fig. below shows the current path during the low period of the switching square
wave cycle. As the MOSFET is rapidly turned off the sudden drop in current causes L1
to produce a back e.m.f. in the opposite polarity to the voltage across L1 during the on
period, to keep current flowing. This results in two voltages, the supply voltage V IN
and the back e.m.f.(VL) across L1 in series with each other.

This higher voltage (VIN +VL), now that there is no current path through the MOSFET,
forward biases D1. The resulting current through D1 charges up C1 to VIN +VL minus
the small forward voltage drop across D1, and also supplies the load.

Fig.3.2.4 shows the circuit action during MOSFET on periods after the initial start up.
Each time the MOSFET conducts, the cathode of D1 is more positive than its anode,
due to the charge on C1. D1 is therefore turned off so the output of the circuit is
isolated from the input, however the load continues to be supplied with V IN +VL from
the charge on C1. Although the charge C1 drains away through the load during this
period, C1 is recharged each time the MOSFET switches off, so maintaining an almost
steady output voltage across the load.

A simple buck converter can only produce voltages lower than the input voltage, and a
boost converter, only voltages higher than the input. To provide voltages over the
complete range a circuit known as a buck-boost converter is required.

The control circuitry senses the voltage at output and accordingly controls the two

When working in buck mode SW1 is controlled and SW2 remains open.

When working in boost mode SW2 is controlled and SW1 remains closed.
After the schematic and board has been finalized, the PCB for the same shall be
fabricated. The PCB used is 1.6mm thick with a copper layer of 34microns.

The toner transfer method of PCB fabrication was followed. The toner transfer method
is an in-house method of PCB fabrication and works with laser jet printers only. We
transfer the toner of the printer onto the copper surface, which then indicates the
region that will retain the copper, while the FeCl3 etching solution will remove the rest.


The first step will be to prepare the PCB for pressing. A PCB procured from a shop will
have dirt and dust on the copper surface and will often have an oxide layer, which will
prevent the toner to be transferred onto it. We need to clean its surface.

First, a printout of the board layout on a photo paper was taken. The printout must be
taken using a laser jet printer. Photo paper is necessary because we do not want the
toner to be absorbed by the paper, as is the case with ordinary paper.

While taking a printout of the board layout, it is necessary to note that our layout is on
the top layer. Thus the layout will need to be inverted if we want to see the layout on
the copper the same as that on our screen.

The printout is cut leaving a margin of 1mm around the edges. Any fingerprints on the
printed region should not be left, as this will inhibit the ability of the toner to be
transferred onto the PCB.


Now, taking this size as reference the copper clad board of the required shape was cut
using a hacksaw or a CNC machine.


To remove the oxide layer on the copper board and make the copper surface even,
scrub it using sandpaper.

Pressing was done using an electric iron set on wool. The printout was taken and
inverted on top of the copper clad board such that it entirely covers the copper surface.
The iron is kept on top of the photo paper, covering about half of the area, for half a
minute without moving it and applying slight pressure on it. Same thing is done for the
other half.

After the board has cooled down, it is immersed the in a tray with water and scrubbed
gently so that the paper is removed.

If the track has been cut from some places, permanent marker is used to redo them.

Use a needle to strike off extra paper on the tracks.

Once the layout is imprinted on the copper surface, the next step is to remove the
copper from the area that is exposed. This is done by a displacement reaction of copper
and Ferric ions from the FeCl3 solution. Proper precautions should be taken while
etching and preparing the solution.
Half a cup of FeCl3 powder is added to half a bucket of water.

Immerse the board into the FeCl3 solution and swirl the solution slightly. It takes about
15-20mins.Once etched, the board is rinsed thoroughly. Scrub the board to remove the
ink. This will reveal the copper tracks underneath.


Once etched, the board is rinsed thoroughly. Scrub the board to remove the ink. This
will reveal the copper tracks underneath.

Acrylic coating is applied using acrylic spray on board to protect it from damage due to
contamination, moisture, dust and corrosion caused by oxidation of copper.


Sawing and grinding the excess board Excess board was led. Next, grinding machine
was used to grind the edges and achieve more ner edges and reduce the board area.
Drilling was done using 0.7mm and 0.95mm.

0.7mm was used for resistors, capacitors, leds, IC base etc.

0.95mm was used for diodes, preset.

The temperature of the soldering iron is set at around 300C. Wet the sponge. The
sponge is required to clean the tip of the solder iron. It should always be wet. Any
excess solder on the soldering iron will get caught in the grooves of the sponge. Put the
hex nuts and screws to the corners of the board.

Soldering is always done according to the height of the components.

Resistors of 1/8 watt were soldered first, followed by ceramic capacitors, diodes, led,
preset, connectors, IC base. The high value capacitors and resistors with higher wattage
are soldered at the end.

The power transistor is soldered and a heat sink is attached to it with a layer of thermal
paste in between. A thermal paste is a kind of thermally conductive (but usually
electrically insulating) compound, which is commonly used as an interface
between heat sinks and heat sources. The main role of thermal grease is to eliminate air
gaps or spaces (which act as thermal insulator) from the interface area so to maximize
heat transfer.
No load voltage: Short circuit test;

Power supply was connected to a rated Power supply was connected to adapter.
adapter in this case 9V, 0.67A. Multimeter was connected to output of
Multimeter was connected to the output power supply in ammeter mode.
terminal in voltage mode.

For the testing of the power supply, we want to ensure that the power supply gives
constant voltage despite the variations in load. To change the load manually we need to
keep changing the values of resistors. Instead an active load is good option for testing of
power supply which acts as resistance whose value could be varied by electronic
control like potentiometer.

The active load is supplied from a separate supply to obtain a reference voltage. This
voltage acts as reference voltage drawn from Zener diode. The voltage when applied on
potential divider gives a voltage range of 0 to 0.5 V. This range of voltage is applied on
xed resistance. Hence we x the voltage drop across this resistance. By xing this drop
we get the same drop when power supply is applied, which includes the drop across
transistor, drop for diode and xed drop for resistance. Hence we could obtain different
value of current through the resistance by changing the value of reference voltage.

The following readings were noted

Sno. Voltage(V) Current(mA)

1 7.07 29.77272727
2 7.07 72.72727273
3 7.06 125
4 7.05 172.7272727
5 7.04 204.5454545
6 7.04 242.5
7 7.04 272.9545455
8 7.04 295.9090909
9 7.03 344.3181818
10 7.03 371.1363636
11 7.02 411.8181818
12 7.01 436.3636364
13 7.01 459.0909091
14 7 490.9090909
15 7 518.1818182
16 6.99 538.6363636
17 6.98 550
18 6.93 584.0909091
19 1.83 606.8181818


0 Current
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

The graph between the output voltage and current comes out to be as shown above.