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Title - niti and vairagya satakas


Subject - vedic literature
Author - bhartrahari
Language - english
Pages - 282
Publication Year - 1933
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G O V E R N M E N T OF I N D I A

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA

Central Archaeological Library

NEW DELH

ACC. NO
1 2 7 4 2
CALL NO.
S a 8 S

O.G.A. 79
1*f
4

ft
THE

NITI AND VAIRAGYA S ATAKAS


A

aw

BHARTRHARL

Edited with a Com, in Sans^ an English


Translation and Notes*

BY

6
Author of Higher Sanskrt Grammar $fc. $c.

T H KEVISSD EDITION".
it*

G o p a l N a r a y e n & Co.

BOMBAY
(All Rights Beserved by the Author.)

Printed by C. S. Deole at the Bombay Vaibhav Press, Servants


of India Society's Building, Sandhurst Road, GIrgaon,
Bombay and Published by Gopal Nurayen & Co.,
Booksellers and Publishers, Kalbadevi Road t

Bombay*

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INTRODUCTION.
T H E POEM A N D T H E ATTXHQB*
The little volume now offered to the pnblic contains two of
the three S'aiakas of Bhartrhari, one of the celebrated poets
<af ancient India, Of the Hiatory of the poem or of its author
very little is known that is authentic. The only circumstances
in the life of Bhartrhari that we h o w have been handed
down by traditions and the various aooounts that these give
-can hardly be reconciled. Bhartrhari is traditionally repre-
sented as belonging to the Royal house of Ujjain j and though.
,he was entitled to the crown, he is said to have abdicated i t
in favour of his younger brother Vikrama, the founder of the
"Samvat Era, as he was disgusted with wordly life on account
of the discovery of his wife's infidelity* and retired to the forest
wishing to lead an ascetic's life- Be that as i t may. One fact
appears to be incontrovertibly true from the general tenor
of the Saiakas that Bhartrhari must have met with sore disap-
pointment in life, and his faith in the virtue of women was
perhaps shaken by certain bitter experiences in his own life or
of those he had around. We give below the different accounts
of him as found in different works, ( i ) I n one Ms. the name ot
Bhartrhari's wife, mentioned in connection with the above
tradition, is given as Anangasena. (2) The Arv&chinakaska
mentions Yirasena a Gandharva, as the father of BhartyharL
>

Pour children wereborn^s. Bhar. Yikram&ditya, Subhatavtrya ?

and Hain&vati (the mother of the well-known Gopiehanda). (3)


Bhartrhari *s mother was Sus'iU, the only daughter of the king
of Jambudvtpa. This king had no son and so he gave the
. . _ , . . . . . . . . ... - I . . .-I-.. , - . - - - i | n r . i I Li - i 1 , 1 1
i > i ' i i MM -^^M^,.

* Thin tradition seems to have given nm to Ntti S'ataka si. 2


which has hardly any connection in the place where it stands, and
may possibly be an interpolation. The use of the first personal pro-
nouo in the verse is not an induoitable proo: of its reference to the
author himself and the want of true critical spirit on the part of thd
Pandits might have led to the fabrication of the story current among:
the people.
iv

kingdom to Bhartrhari who transferred the seat of govern-


ment to Ujjain, placed Vikram&ditya on the throne and appoint-
ed Subhatavirya his 'commander-in-chief (4) The name of
Bh.te wife was PadmSkshi and she was the daughter of Simha -
aena, king of Magadha. (5) Mr. Sheshagiri Shastri gives a
rather curious tradition. He says:" King Vikramaditya ia
gaid to have been the son p,l a Br&hmaria named Ohandragupta
who married four wives, ope of the Brahmana caste, another of
the Kshatriya, the third of Vais'ya, the fourth of the
fi'udra caste. They were called Brhmant, Bh&numati, Bh&gya*
vatt and Sindhumatl Each of the lour bore him a son. Vara-
born of the first wife, Vikram&rka of the Second r

Bhatti of the third, and Bhartrhari of the fourth. Vikramarka*


became king, and Bhatti served him in the capacity of Prime
,;
Minister.
I t need not said how far such traditions are capable of
furnishing us materials for a trustworthy account of the poet.
A l l that can be gathered from the above-mentioned traditions
ia that our poet was of royal descent and that, being disgusted
with the world, he renounced it, and retired to the forest as an
anchorite and further that he was a man of poetic talents, ^
groat scholar and a Yogi. Besides the S'ataJcm another work
ealled the fakyapadtya goes by the name of Bhartrhari. The
poet Bhatti, author of the Bhatti K&vga, is also by tradition*
Uentited with Bhartrhari *
/ : T H E AUTHORSHIP OF T H E s'ATAKAS.
I

fihar*rhiWri i t , by a general oonsensues of opinion, regarded as


the autho* a>t tte three S'atakas. To a superficial reader they
appear to be a collection of verses without any collecting link.
And this circumstance, viz., that the verses have no common
bond of unity has given rise to a theory that the S'atakas are
r

not an original work but a mere compilation from the works of


former authors. A n additional circumstance, that some of the
0
' The controversy as to the identity of Bhartrhari and Bhatti is*
<3iscuflsed further on.
-verses in these S'atakas are found i n works by other authors,
which are not mere compilations, has lent colouring to this
assumption- Another theory is that the author of the S'ataka*
was not Bhartrhari but that some poet composed them i n his
name. This theory has neither a wide currency nor has i t any
stronghold on the minds of scholars. W i t h regard W
former i t is sufficient to remember that only a small number
of the verses i n the S'atakas have been attributed to other
writers, that these i n almost all cases are persons of less note
and that they cannot be said to have preceded Bhartrhari M I
chronological order. The number of verses which can at all
be challenged as not being BhartyharFs will not exceed fifty
in the two S'atakas 5 and even of this number very few can be
definitely ascribed to one writer or another. With the excep-
tion of K&lidasa with whom Bhartrhari has one verse i a
-common (si. 70 N%ti S'ataha) all others from whom Bhart|^
hari can be suspected of having borrowed are persons lefci
noted than he, and removed by several centuries from the
period at which we thiilk our poet can be placed. The 3'atakas,
therefore, must be regarded as an original work, Had they
been a mere compilation Bh. would have designated hit eel*
lection by some such name as Subh&shita-manjushi er ttie Mfe*
Besides the verses are not altogether isolated* T&0fi m
connecting links which divide th?m into different groups. r

a careful reader they will appear to be the outpourings of a


mind strongly disgusted with the world or powerfully affected
by its incidents 5 and the poet must have penned his thoughts
down as his mind was held i n sway by different emotion* ft*
different times. We must, however, believe that the mature of
work and its very want of a eomraon thread as i n a
eontinuous narrative afforded facilities to unftorupuleni pewofts
<to pass off either their own or other verses as BharMt*rl%
*rad that numerous interpolations must have, from
time, be made, since the number of verses i n eaefe S'atalU
'has considerably increased, so much that the tfcree S'ata&a*

Tl
i
i

now contain nearly 400 verses* between them. The growth^


however, has been so much mixed with the original that i t has-
now become an almost hopeless task to resort to the process ot
elimination.!
THE DATE OF T H E S'ATAKAS.
r

The poet himself furnishes no evidence as to his date^ nor


does he give any information about himself in his work. We
must, therefore, judge at what period i n Sanskrit literature we-
are to place the poet, first, from tradition, and secondly from
*

internal and external evidence. Tradition makes Bhartrhari r

as has already been said, the brother of Vikram&ditya, the


epoch-maker. And antiquarians do not seem to be opposed to*
ihis view. Vikrama's era, the Samvat, begins 56 years before
Christ Bhartrhari being the eider brother of Vikram, we
0
It cannot be said whether it was with regard to this circurn-
stance that Colebroeke spoke of the S'ataJcas as 'either three or four
S'ataka$ or centuries of couplets/
f An attempt (though not final ) has been made in this edition to*
detach Buch verses from the original.
Tnere is some difference of opinion among antiquarians as re-
gards the beginning of Samvat Era, Mr. Telang believes that
Vikrama was the founder of the Shaka or S&Iiv&hana era which datea
with 78 A. D and thus he places Bhartrhari towards the close ofr
M

the first and the beginning of the second century after Christ. MJV
T
Telanjg s main contention is that Bhartrhari being the author of
tt&h^^adiya, sufficient time must be allowed to elapse between him
1
an! Fatftnjali for all the vicissitudes' in the life of the latterV
Mah&bTi&Bkya^ We shall show further on, from evidence collected
fcy iir. K. P&thak^ and which seems to be very conclusive, that
ihe author of the V&ky&padiya was a Buddhist Bhartrhari # ^ r

author oi the S'alkha^ wasnot a-Buddhintj and therefore Mr*$eiangV


objection to accepting Bv O. 56 m the date <yf,the commewerpeut of
|be i ^ ^ v M Jka on the gyouix<$ of insufficiency of the period we get
f

eeriain Indents i n the history of th^f Mahd&k&shytt recorded by


the author of the Vdhjapadiya falls to the ground.
t

Another date has been proposed to mark the commencement


of the Samvat Era viz. A. D. 544. The reasoning by which the-
r

Til

might suppose that tradition places him i n the first kalf of the-
century before Christ.*
The internal evidence as to the date of the S'ataias is f a
very vague and uncertain nature. The S'atakas are inter-
spersed with Ved&ntic phraseology, but this i n itself is hardly i,

sufficient to determine their period. The doctrines of the


Ved&ntins were being discussed and formed for a n u m W of i

centuries, and i t is therefore difficult to hazard a conjecture


as to a particular period in the history of Sanskrit letters
having produced the poems. The Puranas are also referred to
i n the work ; and as Prof. Wilson has tried to show that none
of the Puranas date back more than a thousand years, some
scholars have tried to place the S'atakas at so lata a period
as the eleventh or twelfth f century A . D. I t is to b$ greatly
' ' ' " " * * " - ' " , - - , . ^ . y . - * ^ . - ! i, , f M , , ) , , , . . . , ^ ^ , , , ^

result has been arrived at, is, to speak most charitably of it, simply
fancifully. (For further information, see Intro, to Abhi. S'ak.)
may, therefore, be taken as the date of the com me n ce in enfcof
the Samvat of Vikrama era.
* It is difficult to determine the exact period in the history of
Sanskrit literature which might appropriately be called the Ved&etie
age. This followed the Upanishad period and was coeval with the
Panranic and Buddhistic periods. The greatest names of the Ved&n-
tic period are those of Kuin&rila Bhatta, and tbe still more famous
&hankar&ch&rya. Xum&rila is supposed to haveflourishedabout 700
A and Shankar&ch&rya half a century later (though there are
grounds to believe that theflourishedlong before this). The Vedantic
age thus extended beyond the eighth century but its beginning cannot
be traced with any degree of accuracy*
f $he Paumnic age is also the- subject of as much oo^o^Wf *#*
any other period in Sanskrit literature. The greatest name ecmueeted
with this period is that of Vyltsa, the out h or of the ei ghteen Purmm
Vy&sa's name is also connected with the Vedic period ; for he is *al
to have arranged the Vedaa as we new find them. Vy&a may-thtr^
fore be regarded as the link between the Vedic and the Paur&$e
-period*, and to have Jived towards the close of the Vedic age and
marked the commencement of the Paura^ic age* He ia therefore
certainly a good deal older than the Christian Era.
Till
j

doubted whether the reasoning of Prof. Wilson is conclusive


enough; and whatever view might be held as to the inter-
polations which have been made in some of the Puranas, yet
in general i t may be said that they or some of them at least
have existed prior to the first century A . D. so that the mere
mention of the Purtoas in a work cannot prove any thing as to
its being a modern production,
Let us now see i f external evidence will assist us i n eafca-
ftp***" '

blishing the date of Bhartrhari, His commentators, i t seems,


never troubled themselves with this question. They like others
before and after them appear to have followed the maxim,
"gold is gold, why enquire how old i t is?" Nor is there any-
specific mention of the author of the S^ataJcas in any of the old
writers which will throw any the least light on his age.
There is, however, one passage in a Persian work, the Kali~
lau-Dimnah which bears a close resemblance to one occurring
in the Pmcha Tantra^ where again i t is borrowed from Bharty-
hari. The Persian work was a translation of the Pamha Tantra
not directly from the original Sanskrit and was written
for one of the kings of Persia between 531 and 579 A . D. Th&
Pancha Tantra, must, therefore, be an older work, in existence
in the year 500 A . D. at the latest. The Pancha Tantra is not
In all its parts an original work, but draws largely upon the
literature then existing Among other works i t is indebted to
the $'Mafa&$$ and one stanza from the Ntti S'ataka has been
borrowed by the Pancha Tantra* and from thence by the
Kalila-t^Dimmfa The author of the S'atakas therefore must
|*e Eved some time before 500 A . D. that is we cannot place
him later than the latter half of the fifth century.
Bhartrhari nowhere mentions contemporary persons or inci-
dents nor is he referred to by any writer as a contemporary
j-n' I _ Jl ** -.-r-rf.-i T i' -- . -r; i _n j__ J _i_ - ; ~ I ~ T r _ * , ,, , '
" ~~" " IT" ' '~ ' " ^^^^^ ^w^^^^

* NUi 8*atalca SI. 94. Sh&rangadhara, however, quotes this verse as


9

of some other poet after quoting a number from Bhartrhari.


ix

Thus i t will be seen that there is nothing that goes against the
4ate furnished by the tradition.
T H E I D E N T I T Y * OF B H A R T R H A R I A N D B H A T T I ,
Bhartrhari has been identified with Bhafti, the author of
the celebrated Bhatti Kavya* As regards Bhartrhari himself
there i s a controversy as to whether the Bhartfhari of the
r
S atahas and his namesake, author of the Vahyapad%tfm are one f

and the same. So the controversy expends itself thue*


Was Bhatti another name for the author of the S'atakas. or for
the auhtor of the Vakyapadtya^ or were the three one and the
-same or quite different individuals ? That the three were no-
one is conclusively proved from some evidence collected t o -
gether by Prof. K . B . P&thak, Mr, P&thak has proved from
contemporary and other unquestionable evidence that the author
-of the V&kyapadiya was a Buddhist. Neither Bhartrhari, the
l
-author of the S atahas nor Bhatti, was a Buddhist. The S'atcn
f

has are not only not imbued with any of the charaefeeri*-
tic that ought to mark a Buddhistic work for the inetti-
cation of moral principles ( for which the S'atakas are i n -
tended ), but even the alleged traces of Buddhism in them
&re so faint that one can confidently assert that the wwfc
is not the production of Buddhistic genius. Nor was Bhatti
# follower of Buddha. He ^glorifi es i n his -epic, the BhatH
kavya, a hero whom Hinduism has idolised. A Buddhist
would have chosen for his hero a oo-rettgionist rather than
a Hindu divinity. So the author of the Wiky&pmMya wae &
distinct individual from either of the authors of the S'atakas
or the Bhattikavya, So the question to be determined now ifi
was Bhafti the same as the author of the S'atakas? And we
think not. I n the ao&onnts of the lives of th*te tw# jMfttUhtfto.:'
there is too great difference to admit of the end being identified
with the other. I f we ignore the tradition that the bwo w*p$, i ' r ' 1

1 ! - ! ^ - ,1, ,-..-...^M *
W . . , ^ . M - < P ^ H . - ^ , l M ^ ^ > ^ - ^ l , . m ^ l ,
M l l B l

* This is taken here with minor changes, which do not affect


the argument at all, from my Introduction to the Bhatti K&itpk
Cantos I - V .
X

tact' the same individual, we find very little that ia common to-
the life of the two. Bhartrhari was a Kshatriya, Bharti a*
Br&Krftana ; the former is connected with Central India and the
latter seems from a passage in the Bhatti Kavya to have be-
longed to the court of Valabhi. Erom internal evidence offered
by the S'atakas and the Bhatti Kavya we might say that they
could not have been the productions of the same pen. The
latter is as is well known, a grammatical poet $nd the author
;

shows a wonderful command in handling his words, and even


from a grammatical point of view the poem can be said to be a
perfect piece of composition. Of the S'atakas we cannot say
the same. They confront us here and there with an unconth
form of word, and a clumsy construction.* This i n itself is*
sufficient to awaken our suspicion, and reject all theories of
identity. I n their religion too they seem to be two different
persons. Bhartrhari, though a professed unitarian as regards
S'iva and Vishnu, now and then betrays his predilections to-
wards the former deity, f while Bhatti is a devout worshipper
of the latter. Another circumstance which leads to the same
conclusion, is, as remarked by Mr. Govind S'ankara S'astri
B&pat (in his preface to his edition of the Bhatti K&vya, N , SL
Press Series), that i n ancient works, distinction is made of the
quotations from the works of these two poets. I n the absence
of equally trustworthy evidence or convincing argument, the
a]t>ove circumstances are sufficient to dispel all ideas of the iden-
t i c of these two poets.
THE TWO BHARTRHAMS.
m i

Oolebrooke seems to have made a distinction between the


Ipfo Bharfcrharis ;for when speaking of Bhabtil&vy a he lays-
that its author was Bhartrhari and cautions his readers at the
. I j 1 1 1

aame time that this Bhartrhari was not the brother of Vikrama,
and author of the S'atalas. Evidently he must have been
referring to the author of the Valyapadlya whom he identifies
For instances see. 100 N. S\ 6 F. S- Mis. &c. " "
f See 81. &c. F. S\ 69, 63, 85, &c.
' ' ' ' i ' .
i is

?
with Bhatti. We have already stated on Mr. Pthak s autho-
rity that the author of the Vakyapadtya was a|Buddhistj and
now we shall proceed to summarise Mr* P&thak's evidence
In brief* r I

The Chinese traveller I-tsing who paid a visit to India


towards the close of the 7th century states that the grammarian
Bhartrhari died fo*ty years before his visit. The author of
of the Vakyapadiya, the Chinese pilgrim says, was a Buddhist
+
who ''believed deeply i n *he three jewels, and meditated on
the twofold voidness." YSohaspatimisra, a writer of the
r
l l t h century speaks of the author of the T akyapadtya as &1

B&*hya, which means Vedabahya, and this word was applied


to the Buddhists. This confirms the statement of I-tsing
that the grammarian Bhartrhari was a Buddhist, Kumfirila
indulges i n a violent invective against the author of the
V&kyapadtya which i t wonld be difficult to understand under
f

any other supposition than that he was a Buddhist. So


the anthers of the Batakas and the V&kyapadtya must he
regarded as different persons, and the only objection* wMh
Mr. Telang had to placing our poet so early as at the middle
of the 1st century B. 0. may be suppoaed to be laid at rest.
THE S'ATAKAS.
As already remarked the Safcakas are an original work.
They are three i n number, viz. Sring&ra, Nlfci and Vairagya.
They must have been composed by the poet after he had
renounced the world. Probably the Nlti Sataka was written
first, then followed the Sringara and lastly the Vairagya Sataka*
We shall speak of the 1st and 3rd later on. Here we shall Eay
something about the 2nd. The Sri. which deals with ei^lic
eentiment has natnrally to do with wos&en aswtthe ieefi^gt
and sentiments to which their yonlhful eharms give nee-
"Here Bhartrhari/' says Prof. Maedonell, **bx
meditative verse, shows hwns&lf to be well ao^uainted
the charms of women and with the arts
1 Prof. Max Muller calculates this date as 650 A. D.
$ See supra, P. VI*
xii

captivate the hearts of men." I n i t the poet describes how


-jnen, how-so-ever strong-minded or learned they may be, fail
-^victims to the shafts of Cupid or are caught into the snares
of their wiles or amorous sports by women. The &ri. Sa.,
.however, is written by the poet with a view to create disgust
for sensual pleasures in the hearts of men and as preparatory
to the teachings of the Vair&gya S'ataka,
VEDANTIO OR BUDDHISTIO.
The Satakas are said by some to be Buddhistic. There
- might be some faint traces of Buddhist terminology* in them
hut that hardly goes to prove conclusively that they are the
^redaction of Buddhistic intellect. On the contrary the
extreme paucity of such passages as bear, in whatsover degree,
r H

indications of Buddhism, and the large preponderance of


passages referring to the Yoga and the Ved&nta philosophies
ought to be considered as sufficient evidence to maintain that
the Satakas are not Buddhistic but Vedantic4 On this point
Mr Telang declares that after reading and rereading the
t

Satakas he failed to trace any thing i n them which can be


called peculiarly Buddhistic. And i t is certainly absurd to
expect that Buddhism, with ail the wide influence i t once
commanded in India, would fall to leave its mark, faint r i

though i t be, on any thing connected with philosophy and


rlnorals. ^
THEIR FATALISTIC TENDENCY.
Some might be led to think that Satakas inculcate, at Id&st
* * <

-countenance, fatalism. I n a land where the doctrine of


. ' . , . - - - i i i _ _ } L 1

, _i__j__Trr_i-__. . - .

* The suspicion that our poet was a Buddhist rests on the authority
of a Chinese traveller, but he refers to the author of the Vahyapadrlya
a&d not to our poet. See Supra, The Buddhistic traces are very
faint and can hardly be detected. See jftfig^j S'l. 98. V. S\, ^r^ra:
N. S'. 1 &c.
X There is frequent reference to Ved&ritic doctrines and to * their
source, the Vedas, in the S'atakm; for the latterlee SL a 6fc,
45, 71, &c and for the former V. & /fat^RJ1010 $Q ( f

*m 70,71, Mis. 9; ft sr^fa 101 <; ^ f?fit>3. :


, 1 " '

1
I

* r
Xlll

transmigration prevailed from the earliest times i t was but


natural that the conception of fate should hate exerted its
influence on moral poetry. And there is no wonder that BMr
trhari e mind, like all Indian minds, leaned toward ia talis]
?
. IK

But his fatalism, like that of other writers, is not a fataEsm of "
inaction-one that w i l l paralyse all effort on the part of man*
Side by side with fatalistic verses i n the Satakas there are a
number of others which impress the necessity of industry Biu
exhorts his readers to put forth strenuous exertions and toper-
severe i n their work t i l l i t is accomplished.
THE TEACHINGS OF T H E S A T A K A S .
I t has been already stated that Bhartrhari was not a BucL
dhiat. He speaks of the Vedas with the deepest respect, and
makes frequent references to the chief Vedantin doctrines. He
speaks of being absorbed i n Brahma as the highest bliss* He
refers to the method of attaining this blissful position a being
the eradication of Karma, and the annihilation of infatuation
by means of real knowledge- These are the chief doctrines pt
Ved&ntism, and Bhartrhari therefore mnsfc be considered to bg a
follower of the Ved&nta system of philosophy. Here and ttttffe
he refers to Yoga, to the ten incarnations, to the Ganges, and
to the sacred regions of the Him&layas also. I n the Nttiiataka
Bhartrhari inculcated certain principles intended to guide men
in their daily life. First and foremost of the#e is Sol&reflpeefc.*
He points out the value of independence and asks his readers
not to lose self-respect i n the midst of even overwhelming diffi-
culties and trials in sloks couched i n very impressive language.
Another virtue to which the poet draws attention is Persever-
ance. Men of &tm minds, says he, carry to a mm^MMtnk issue
whatever they undertake. A third virtue which he holcb np
lor onr admiration and imitation m Benevolence or service of
cmf Ifellow-men. virtue he iul$&te in verses which
Again Bh* inspires inonr
The students find out the references.
xiv

hearts admiration and love for the sublime virtue of moral


courage. He assigns to character the highest place among
human virtues as carrying with i t a number of blessings.
In the Vair&gya Sataka the poet inculcates the principle
of renunciation. He tells us to undermine desire, in verses
which hold out the greed of worldly men to ridicule and
the arrogance of the rich to contempt. He exhorts his readers
to turn from worldly pleasures which give not lasting happi-
ness but often disappoint, and to seek mental calm in tibm
solitude of the forest. There, with all desires gone, his mind
resting on God who is the only controller of the universe, and
happy like a king an ascetic can attain final beatitude and get
happiness which alone is permanent by being absorbed i n the
great Almighty. The poet often draw's a glowing picture
of the perfect happiness which men who have renounced the
world enjoy.
L I T E R A R Y ESTIMATE OF THE SATAKAS.
u
Mr. Dutt says* The reader will appreciate the opinion of
Prof Lassen that i t is the terse and epigramatic character of
Bhartrhari's short poems which makes them conspicuous among;
the productions of the Indian muse; and the perfect art
with which they are composed makes them worthy of being
ranked among the master-pieces of Indian genius." The style
is on the whole simple, but sometimes the meaning is obscure
-owing to an attempt at brevity at the sacrifice of perspicuity^
Some of the shorter verses are written in a particularly graceful
and forcible style which had endeared them to the general
reader and assigned them a place on the tip of every tongue
-conversant with ganskrt. The longer metres are on the wholes
free from long and perplexing compounds. I n some cases there
is one line, generally the last, which contains rather a long
compound. This however serves to give the style greater
!
dignity which a tame ending cou d not do. True, there is not
melody in the lines, but their artless and simple diction corres-
ponds well with the subject, which, in both the S'afakas
embodied in this little volume, is moral and religions
History of Civilisation in ancient India, vol. I I , p.
XV

instruction. The Slokas i n both, the Satakas are embellished!


with figures of speech which are natural and of the simpler
sort. To impress a principle on the mind of ike reader,
Bhartrhari generally puts forth a wealth of illustration,
-often drawn from nature, which is hut seldom equalled^ and
his delineation of character is so varied, and so striking and
his observation of natural ptenomena so close that we must
%elieve that he was a minute observer of the world. T h l r
minute observation, i t may be presumed, has enabled Mm t o i

.discharge his self-imposed task of a didactic poet with so


much success, as is attested by the high popularity which he
enjoys, and the unique position which he nolds in the history
*of Sanskrt literature*

TO
THE BEOOND E D I T I O N . (1902 )
In the preparation of this Second Edition of the Nlfci an4
Vairagya Satakas sufficient care has been taken to revise the
Notes and Translation as critically and minutely as was pofiible*
Much valuable help was derived from Mr. K . M . Joglekar**
.Edition of the S'atakas for which I feel greatly t&wWW t f |Ip^ f

Third Edition1010 $L Jt,S^'&$,


PGUBTff E D I T I O N .
In revising the text of the Satakas for this edition I had the
advantage of consulting two more Mm. and the Nir. Ed. with
the com> of R'amachai^rabndhendra. By the light of these
the slokas in the two Satakas have been rearranged under dif-
ferent htads. Such an arrangement of the slokas might have
fa&n the work of later editors! or writers as tttitte fchink, but f
has at leaipt thin ad vantage-t? ta all that the pmt, whi^hes 1
eay on a particular theme is brought together instead of being
Scattered pell-mell here and there and can t&n* ''W hei^*
understood. The Sans, c<m. has been awpBffed eome ns#fa#
matted being added. The notes and translation also have been
carefully revised. *
25th, July 1918. %
CONTENTS.

The Satakas treat oi the following themes;


NITI&ATAKA.
I IntroductorySalutation to Brahma.
2 14 aTsclf^^T or Ignorance censured.
1528 f^fsqqjnT or Learning praised.
0
2938 JTPT^N" or Self-respect and fortitude praised.
i

3951 asRfq'o or wealth and what relates to i t .


5261 *Pn* or wickedness described.
0
6269 ggpTT The conduct of the virtuous extolled.
7079 ^ ^ r r T ^ r W or the ways of the benevolent.
8089 t^tfo or Courage described.
9096 ^JT^r^rr or The power of Fate described.
99106 g ^ o - t h e working of the power of Karman.
Miscellaneous. 115
VAIRA'GYASATAKA,
r
I Salutation to Siva.
2 11 ^^rf'T'T or desire condemned.
1221 f ^ ^ ^ ^ r n f ^ ^ ? f n T h e pursuit of pleasures a mere
mockery. They should be abandoned,
2231 ^ r r ^ l ^ ^ f the misery of beggary.
3241 ^rTrW'fToThe impermanency of sensual pleasures,
4251 g^yjir|?jrThe power of time described.
5261 ^ftr^l%%^r" conversation between a Yati ( one
: a

who> has renounced the world ) and a king.


6271 'W*^RhT T r An address to the mind.
; c o

- 8 1 /%^r^q9?gr%^lT'distinction of the real from ftbe


unreal.
1
8291 f ^ r ^ q * o r the way to worship god &iva,
#2101 ar^rP^for the life of one qnite disattached to the
world.
Miscellaneous. 114
if*

t
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4
TRANSLATION
OF
NITIS'ATAKA.

1. Salutation to that peaceful Majesty whose form is


pure knowledge, infinite and unconditioned by space,
time, & c , and the principal means of knowing which is
self-perception.
2. She of whom I think ceaselessly is indifferent to
me: she yearns after another man, and he is attached to a
third person; while some other woman pines away for me:
fie on that woman, on him, and on the God of Love, as
well as on this woman and on me.
3. A n ignorant man can be pleased easily; a wise man
can be pursuaded the more easily; but, the God Brahma
himself w i l l not be able to win over a man puffied up
with a gain of knowledge.
4. One might forcibly take out a jewel from the midst
of the jaws of a shark; one might cross even the sea,
agitated on account of a succession of waves rising high;
one might place on one's head even an infuriated serpent
as i f i t were a flower, but ooe cannot please the heart of
a perverse fool (or the perverse mind of a fool).
5. Sedulously pressing sand, one may get oil even
from i t ; a person parched with thirst may drink water
even in a mirage; roaming ( here and there ) , a person
may, perchance, find the horn of a hare; but no one w i l l
be able to propitiate a confirmed blockhead.
6. He who wishes to lead wicked men to the path o f
the good, with wise words that sprinkle nectar ( as i t
were), tries to bind an elephant with a tender lotus-stalk,
2 T K A N S L A T I O N OF

or attempts to cut a diamond with the edge of a 8'irlsha


flower, or desires to impart sweetness to the salt (waters
o f ) the ocean with one drop of honey.
7. The Creator has created a certain and effective
disguise for ignorance which can be readily commanded,
viz. silence, which, especially in an assembly of learned
men, becomes to ignorant folks a befitting ornament.
8. When I knew a little, I was blinded by pride, as
an elephant is by rut; and my mind was elated with the
thought " I am an omniscient being". When ( however ) ,
by keeping company with the wise, I learnt bis by bit,
the fever of pride entirely disappeared at the thought
that I was a fool.
9. When munching with unparalleled relish and delight
a human bone, fleshless, stinking, covered with a swarm
of worms, clammed with saliva and nauseating, a cur ia
not abashed to behold even Indra standing near: a mean
wretch does not mind the worthlessness of his belongings.
10. The Ganges falls from heaven on the head o f
Siva; from the head of the Lord of beings to the mountain
Himalaya; from the lofty, mountain to the plain ( l i t . the
earth): and from thence into the ocean. Thus going down
^nd down the Ganges here has been reduced to a low posi-
tion: or there is no cause for wonder; in a hundred ways
ruin overtakes those that have lost their discernment.
11. I t is possible to counteract(the working of) fire
with water, and the heat of the sun with an umbrella; to
control a lordly elephant with a sharp goad, and an i n -
furiated bull and an ass with a cudgel; to cure illness by
taking medicine, and to countermine the ( effect of) poison
by the use of spells. Every thing has an antidote prescri-
bed for i t i n the S'&stras, but for a fool there is none.
NITIS'ATAK. 3

12. A person, unacquainted with poetics, music and


1;he arts, is, in fact, a beast without the horns and the tail;
rand i t is the highest piece of good luck for beasts that he
lives without eating grass.
13. Those who do not possess learning, or practise
penance or give gifts, or have knowledge, character, virtue
*or religious merit, roam in the mortal world as beasts in
a human form, a mere burden to the earth.
14. Better would i t be to wander in company with fox-
esters through the inaccessible regions of mountains than
.to live i n the company of fools even in the halls of the
Lord of gods.
15. That renowned learned men whose speech is charm-
i n g owing to the use of words refined by tho S'astras and
whose knowledge is worth being imparted to disciples
live in poverty in the dominions of a king, bespeakes the
stupidity ( want of appreciation ) of the king. Even with-
o u t wealth learned men are kings. The jewels are not to
iblame but the wicked lapidaries by whom they are ap-
praised much below their worth.
16. The secret treasure of knowledge is not destroyed
even at the end of the world, does not fall into the hands
of a thief, ever yeilds some (indescribable ) happiness, and
when given to those that solicit i t , increases plentifully-
'Oast away your pride, ye king, towards those who have
this treasure. Who can rival them ?
17. Do not despise wise men who have obtained the
highest good; wealth, worthless as grass, stands not i n
<their way; a lotus-fibre cannot present any obstacle to
-elephants whose temples have been darkened with a stream
of fresh rut.
18. ( I f he is) highly incensed, the Creator can deprive
4;ho swan only of the luxury of residing i n a bed of Jotoa-
4 T R A N S L A T I O N OF

plants; but be cannot rob the bird of his universal reput-


ation for skill in separating milk from water.
19. Bracelets do not beautify a person, nor do neck-
laces resplendent like the moon, nor bathing, nor anoint-
ing ( with rubbed sandal &c. ) , nor ( wearing) flowers, n o r
bedecked hair. Speech alone beautifies a person when i t
is possessed in a refined form. (Other) ornaments wear
away continuously; the ornament of speech is the (only)
one which lasts for over.
20. Learning is verily the highest (mark of or, addi-
tional ) beauty for man; i t is a treasure concealed and''
well protected; i t places within his reach enjoyment,,
honour and happiness; i t is an object of reverence even to^
those who are worthy of reservence; while journeying i n
strange lands it is a friend; and i t is the highest diety;.
learning is honoured by kings, but not wealth; one des-
titute of learning is a beast.
21. I f men have forgiveness, why should they require
an armour; no (other) enemies (are required to ruin) them,
if-they are hot-tempered; i f there are kins-people, where
is the necessity of fire ? (i. e. they w i l l do the destructive
work of fire ) ; i f there is a friend, what use is thereof
medicines of sovereign virtue ? "What need is there of"
serpents i f wicked men (exist) ? Of what account is wealth
i f there is blameless learning ? What is the use of ornaments-
i f (one has) ( a proper sense of) shame ? I f there is sweet
poesy, of what good is kingdom ?
22. The stability of the world solely depends on those
men who are expert in the following arts:courtesy t o -
words one's relations, kindness towards strangers, cunning
towards the wicked, affection for virtuous men, policy to-
wards princes, humility towards the learned, bravery in*
Nim'ATAK. 5
t

dealing with one's enemies, patience with the elders, and


shrewdness towards women.
23. Good company removes the dulriess of intellect,
infuses truth into speech, bestows great honour, removes
sin, purifies the heart, and spreads fame in all directions;
-say what i t does not secure for men.
24. Victorious are the blessed poets-in-chief, conversant
with a l l sentiments, whose bodies in the form of fame
enojoy immunity from old age and death.
25. A well-behaved son, a chaste and loving wife, a
master ready to bestow favours, an affectionate friend,
honest servants, the mind free from the least trouble, a
lovely form, abiding prosperity, and a face effulgent with
learning; all these can be obtained by a mortal i f Hari,
who gratifies desires and pleases the world is propitiated.
26- Refraining from destroying life, self-restraint as
regards appropriating the wealth of others, truthful speech,
charity at the right time and according to means, not
talking about the young wives of others, impeding the
stream of greed, humility towards elders, compassion for
all creaturesthis is the way to happiness common in a l l
the scriptures, that never fails in its operation ( or vitiates
no other ordinance).
27. For fear of obstacles, nothing is begun at all. by
persons who are low-spirited; ordinary people begin and
stop when thwarted by difficulties; but the best of (i. e.
resolute) men, though repeatedly repelled by adverse cir-
cumstances," do not give up what they have (once) un-
dertaken.
28. A course of conduct pleasing and upright ( at once),
not stooping to a sinful act even when life is i n danger,
6 * TBANSLATIOff OF
>

never to supplicate the wicked nor to beg of a friend'


who has very little wealth, living nobly i n adversity, and
following in the footsteps of the great,by whom has this
vow, as difficult ( t o perform) as walking on the edge o f
a sword, been taught to the good ?
29. Though grown weak on account of hunger (starva-
tion), emaciated by old age, almost unnerved and reduced
to a pitiable state, with all energy lost and life dying out
of him, will the lion, foremost among those who are great
i n self-respect, ever eat withered grass when his desire is
( habitually ) fixed solely on making a morsel of the broken,
temples of a rutting elephant ?
30. On securing even a little bone, fleshless and dirty,,
with small remnants of fat and muscless (still left), a dog
is satisfied although i t does not satisfy his hunger- ( B u t )
a lion kills an elephant, despising a jackal that has even
fallen into his clutches. Every one, though overtaken by
difficulty, desires a fruit according to the state of his mind
( or in born disposition).
31. A dog wags his tail, falls at the feet of his master
( l i t . feeder), and falling on the ground exhibits his mouth
and maw; but the lordly elephant looks grave and eats-
after (when coaxed with ) hundreds of flattering words-
32. I n this revolving world who is not born and who is
not dead (or, what dead person, indeed, is not born
again )?He (alone is t r u l y ) born by whose birth the family-
is raised to eminence.
33. High-minded people have a two-fold course of
action like a bunch of flowers, viz. to stand at the head
( i n the case offlowersonthe heads,) of all men, or to*
wither away in a forest.
NiTls'ATAK. 7

34. There are even othersBrhaspati chief among


them, five or six in number, that are honourable (enough);
but Rahu, delighting in ( showing ) his peculiar prowess
(or, showing his prowess against a distinguished adversary),
does not act inimically towards them. On the new and
full moon days the demon-chief, whose head is the only
remnant part of his body, mark, friend, eclipses only two,
the luminous sun and the bright moon.
35. S'es'a supports the row of the worlds on his shelf-
like hood; he is ever held on his back by the great
Tortoise; even him, the ocean consigns with little concern
to the abyss ( o f its water); oh I unbounded is the
magnificence of the actions of the great I
36. Better would i t have been (for Mainaka) to have
his wings lopped off with the strokes of the thunderbolt
hurled by the proud Indra, strokes which were unbearable
on account of the flames of fire proceeding thickly from the
thunderbolt; but alas, for the son of the snowy mountain a
plunge into the waters of the ocean was not proper, when
his father ( Himalaya) was beside himself with pain.
37. Since even the insentient sun-jewel emits burning
heat when touched by the Pddas (feet-the rays ) of the
sun, how can a man of mettle then brook an insult offered
by others ?
38. A lion, though young, attacks elephants whose
rampart-like temples are soiled with rut; this is the nature
of the valiant; age, indeed, is not the cause of valour.
39. Let caste go to the nether world, and let the aggre-
gate of virtues sink lower still; let goodness of character fall
from a precipice, and nobility be burnt down with fire; let
the thunderbolt strike at once bravery which is no friend (to
TBANgLATlON OF ,

us); wealth alone be ours, without which all these virtues


are like ( o f as little worth as ) a piece of straw.
40. There are the limbs, all the same; the action the
same; the same unimpaired intellect; and speech also the
same; and yet the same man, destitute of the warmth of
wealth, becomes instantaneously a changed being; this
is strange.
41. The man who possesses wealth is ( considered)
nobleborn; he is learned, well-informed, andanappreciator
-of merits; he alone is an orator and a handsome man; ( i n
short) all qualifications cling to wealth.
42. On account of evil counsel is ruined a king; an an-
chorite by attachment to worldly pleasures; a son by indul-
gence; a Brahmana by not studying the Vedas; a family by
a misbehaved son; character by association with the
wicked; modesty by wine; husbandry by want of attention;
affection by resorting to travel; friendship by want o f
courtesy; prosperity by bad management; and wealth by
misdirected charity"( or careless expenditure ) .
43. Charity, enjoyment, and destruction are the three
courses by which wealth passes away. He who neither
gives nor enjoys has the third course (left for his wealth).
44. A jewel polished on the grindstone, ia victorious
warrior wounded with weapons, an elephant emaciated on
account of rutting, a river with its waters ( l i t . sandy bed)
shrunken in winter,the moon with an only digit remaining,
a young woman become languid through amorous sports,
and persons whose wealth has been bestowed on
supplicants all these look graceful by their slenderness,
4 5 . When poor, a man longs for a handful of rice; when
afterwards he is full (of wealth) he regards the whole earth
NtTIs'ATAK. 9

AS straw. Hence we must say that for want of fixity as


regards the smallness or largeness of the objects of desire
the position of the wealthy magnifies or lessens things
( t* e. their value ) .
4 6 . 0 king, i f you wish to milk this cow-like earth,
-then first nourish ( enrich) the nation as they do the calf?
when the nation ( the people ) is being constantly enrich-
ed, the earth, like the desire-granting creeper, yields a
variety of fruits.
47. Now truthful, now false; at one time harsh, at an-
other speaking sweetly; now cruel and merciful afterwards;
now parsimonious, but anon liberal; ever spending wealth
and ever gaining large sums of moneythus the policy of
kings, like a harlot, assumes a diversity of forms.
48. "What is the use of these men becoming the king's
servants ( l i t . resorting to the king ) who do not possess
the six qualities, viz. the power to command, fame, the
protection of Brahmanas, charity, the enjoyment of
pleasures and the protection of friends.
49. Whatever amount of wealth, large or small, might
tiave been allotted to ( l i t . written on the forehead of) a
man, he certainly obtains even in the country called Maru;
on the mountain Meru he w i l l not be able to get more.
Have patience then, and do not adopt a servile course of
-conduct towards the wealthy for nothing. See that a jar
draws ( l i t . takes u p ) the same quantity of water from a
well as well as from the sea.
50. 0 magnanimous cloud, who does not know that
you alone are the supporter of the Ck&takas? Why do
you then wait for our plaintive appeal ?
51. Oh friend Ch&taka, listen (to me) with an attentive
mind for a moment; there are many clouds in the sky, but
10 TRANSLATION OF

they are not all of them such (that a supplication should


be addressed to them); some of them moisten the earth
with showers, ( whereas) others roar for nothing; do not
utter a piteous cry before every one that you happen to see.
52. Cruelty, unprovoked opposition, lust of another's
wealth and wife, and envy of good men and relations r
these are natural with the wicked.
53. Though adorned with learning a wicked man should
be avoided. Is not a serpent dangerous ( although i t is }
bedecked with a jewel ?
54. Dulnees is attributed to a modest man; hypocrisy to
one who has a liking for religious observances; roguery to
one who leads a life of sanctity; cruelty to a warrior; want
of discrimination to one devoted to meditation; meanness to'
one who speaks agreeably; arrogance to a spirited man; gar-
rulity to an orator; and imbecility to a steady man. "What
virtue is there then that is not stigmatised by the wicked ?
55. I f avarice forms part of a man's character, why
should he need other bad qualities; i f there be wickedness,
why want sins; i f truthfulness, religious austerities; i f there
is purity of heart why should he go on a pilgrimage? I f he
has goodness of heart why should he want relatives ? I f he
has reputation, ornaments are superfluous. I f he possesses
learning, what need he care for wealth (v. I. the people )?
I f he has a bad name why should he need death ?
56. The moon, pale by day ( i . e. day-light), a beautiful
woman past youth, a lake without lotuses, the unlettered
mouth of a man with a fair exterior, a king solely given to*
hoarding wealth, a virtuous man ever plunged in misery,
and a wicked man having access to a king's courtthese
are the seven barbs in my heart.
HITIS'ATAK. 11

57. No one is, indeed, a favourite of kings whose


anger is extremely fierce; the fire burns even the sacri-
ficer offering an oblation, when touched.
58. The duty of service is most difficult to be understood;
i t is beyond the ken of even sages: (for a servant is called) r

dump i f he is silent I ( i f he is) ready with his answer, he is


talkative or garrulous; i f he stands near, he is impudent; and
then i f he keeps at a distance, he is timid; i f he bears p a -
tiently, he is a coward; i f he cannot brook (harsh words,
insults, &c.) he is generally considered unmannerly.
59. Who can live happily when within the range of a
wicked man who hates merif-, who has by chance attained
greatness, and has forgotten his former mode of obtaining
a living by base deeds, and who free from all restraint, has
whitewashed a l l other wicked people.
60. The friendship of wicked men and of good men
differs like the shadow in the first and the second half of
the day (respectively )extensive at the beginning, but
gradually contracting (in the first part, while i n the latter)
at first scant, but attaining growth afterwards.
61. The deer, the fish, and the virtuous, living on
grass, water and contentment respectively ( f i n d ) in this
world unprovoked enemies ( i n )-"the hunter, the fisherman,
and the wicked.
62. A bow to those men in whom reside the following
sterling qualities:desire for the company of the virtuous,
satisfaction at the merits of others, humility towards elders,,
attachment to learning, love for one's own wife, fear
of calumny, devotion to the Trident-holder (Siva),,
strength to restrain the self, and freedom from the contact
of wicked men.-
12 TRANSLATION OF

63. Fortitude in adversity, forgiveness in prosperity,


cleverness of speech in an assembly, valour in war, a
l i k i n g (earnestdesire) for fame, and untiring application
to the study of the Vedasall these are natural with the
magnanimous.

64. Who taught this course of conduct, difficult like lying


on the edge of a sword-blade, to the good, viz. charity well
concealed, quick reception to him who comes to their house,
silence after doing good, not announcing in public their
kindness (toothers), freedom from arrogance in prosperity,
and speaking of others in terms free from disrespect-
fulness.

65. Laudable charity for the hand, submission at the


feet of elders for the head, true words for the mouth, i n -
comparable valour for victorious arms, a quiescent state
for the heart, Vedic knowledge (acquired by the ears)for
the ears; of higb-souled person these are the ornaments
even though they have no wealth.

66. I n prosperity the mind of magnanimous men


becomes tender like a lotus, while in adversity i t becomes
"hard as a solid rock.

67. Not the least trace of water is to be found when i t


falls ( l i t . stands) upon heated iron; the same, lying ona

lotus-leaf, shines assuming the form of pearls; i t is trans-


formed into a pearl when i t falls into the cavity of the
shells in the sea while (the sun is) in conjunction with the
constellation Sv&ti, I n general, the lowest, the mediocre,
r

and the highest degree of excellence is imparted (to a


thing) by association.
NiTIS'ATAK. 13-

68. He is a son who pleases his father with goocT


actions; that is a wife who desires the good alone of her
husband; that is a friend who acts the same way in adversity
as in happy times. The meritorious (alone) secure these
three things in this world.
69. Rising by bending low ( L e. by their humility ) ,
evidencing their own merits by extolling those of others,
gaining their ends by projecting extensive schemes for
( t h e good of ) others, and censuring calumniators, whose
tongues ( l i t . mouths) are noisy with harsh syllables of"
accusation, with their patience alonevirtuous men of'
such extraordinary behaviour and highly esteemed in the
worldwho w i l l not adore them ?
70. Trees become bent ( i . e. humble) with the harvest
of fruits; with newly-formed waters the clouds hang very
low; good men with (the acquisition o f ) wealth become
meek; this is the nature of benevolent persons.
71. The ear is graced by Vedic knowledge alone, and
not by an ear-ring; the hand by charity, not by a bracelet;
the body of beneficent people by kindness towards others,
and not by sandal-paint.
72. Wise people thus describe the characteristics of a
true friend;he ( i. e. a good friend ) dissuades (you) from
sin, urges (you) to goo! action, keeps (your) secrets, publi-
shes (your) merits, does not forsake you ( when you are )
i n distress, and helps (you, l i t . gives you) i n time of need.
73. The sun causes the group of sun-lotuses to expand
without a solicitation; the moon* though unasked, causes
the moon-lotuses to bloom; and the cloud yields water
without being solicited; good people direct their efforts-
towards the good of others of their own accord.
14 TRANSLATION OF

74. Those are the noblest persons who, giving up self-


interest, bring about the good of others; those that under-
take a business for the sake of others, not inconsistent
with their own good, are men of the middle order; those
that stand in the way of the good of others for their own
benefit are demons in a human form; but we know not
what to call them ( l i t . who they are ) that oppose the
.good of others without any advantage to themselves.
75. Milk, at first, imparted all (its) qualities to its con-
stituent water; on seeing the distress of milk (i. e. when i t
was heated) water sacrificed itself i n the fire(. e. became
evaporated); seeing the distress of its friend ( i.e. water ) ,
it (viz* milk) became very eager to throw itself into the
fire ( l i t . to go to the fire, i. e. began to boil over); but i t
settled down when united with that watersuch is the
friendship of the good.
76. I n one part sleeps Kes'ava; in another is the host
of his foes; in a third the chain of mountains seeking
shelter; in another part yet is Vudava ( submarine ) fire
with all the world-destroying fires. Oh, how extensive,
deep and enduring is the expanse of the sea!
77. Cut down (check) desire, have recourse to patience,
give up pride, fix not (your) attachment on sinful deeds,
speak the truth, follow the footsteps of the good, serve
i,he learned, reverence those that deserve respect, conciliate
(your) enemies, do not parade your good qualities, pre-
serve fame and sympathise with those in ditress; this is
the characteristic of the good.
78. Very few good men are there who, full of the nectar
x>f holiness in thought, word and action and pleasing the
three worlds with numerous acts of beneficence, rejoice ( l i t .
NiTXS'ATAKA; 15

bloom) at heart in ever magnifying the minute good


qualities of others.
79. What is to be done with the mountain of gold or
t h e mountain of silver, the trees growing ( l i t . resting)
upon which remain the same as they are; we honour the
mountain Malaya alone, by resorting to which even the
Rankola, theJSfeem and the Kutaja become sandal trees.
80. With (the acquisition of) valuable jewels the gods
were not satisfied; and at the dread poison they were not
terrified; they did not suspend the labours until they
obtain nectar. Resolute persons do not swerve from a
policy once determined upon.
81. Sometimes lying on the ground and sometimes on
a couch, sometimes subsisting on vegetables and sometimes
tasting rice prepared from the S'dli variety, sometimes
wearing a wallet and at others superfine garments, a high-
souled man, pursuing (his cherished) object, does not care
for ease or hardship.
82. Good-naturedaess ( kind behaviour ) is the orna-
ment of greatness; silence of valour, restraint over the
sense of learning, humility of (Vedic ) knowledge, spend-
ing in the right direction ( or, bestowal on worthy recipi-
ent ) of wealth, freedom from anger of austerities; for-
giveness of a man in power, and freedom from hypocrisy
-of religious observances; while good character, which is
-the root of all these, is the highest ornament of a l l .
,83. Let men versed in policy praise or blame; let the
goddess of wealth enter ( t h e i r house ) or go away ( from
i t ) as she likes; let death come even to-day or in another
Age; persons of mental calibre do not swerve from the
path of justice.
16 TRANSLATION OF

84. The virtue of courage of a heroic person cannot


be obliterated though he be worried; though pointed down-
wards the flame of fire does not point to the ground.
85. That courageous man conquers the triple world
whose mind the arrow-like side-glances of women do not
hurt, the heat-of-fire-like anger does not burn and the
numerous sensual objects do not draw (towards them )
with their captivating snares.
86. A ball, though struck on the ground with a blow
from the hand, does rebound upwards; generally the misfor-
tunes of the virtuous are not everlasting (are temporary).
87. Better i f this body falls from the lofty peak of a-
high mountain against some rugged surface and is shatter-
ed to pieces in the midst of rough rocks; better is the hand
thrust into the fangs of a huge serpent of deadly bite;,
better failing into the fire; but not the wrecking of one's
character.
88. The fire acts like water, the ocean becomes like a
streamlet, Meru like a small stone, the lion like a deer,
the serpent like a wreath of flowers and poisonous juice like
a shower of nectar, to him in whose person becomes mani-
fest good character which is prized most by all men.
89. A tree, though cut down, grows again; the moon,
though waned, waxes again; thus reflecting .good men are-
not troubled in this world, when plunged in misery.
90. Indra was worsted in battle by his enemies; though
possessed of greatness and prowess-even he who had Brhas-
pati for his adviser, the thunderbolt for his weapon, t.he-
gods for his soldiers, and the heaven for his citadel; he-
verily enjoyed the favour of Hari (Vishnu), and had A i r -
avata for his elephant; i t is clear, then, that i t is better to*
submit to fate; oh, fie I valour is useless.
NtTls'ATAK. 17

91. A mouse, gnawing a hole into a basket, at night, fell


into the mouth of a serpent that, with its body pent up in
a basket and its limbs weakened by starvation, had grown
despondent. Filled with its meat the serpent quickly glided
away through the same opening (lit. the same passage viz*
the hole made by the mouse); see, my men, i t is destiny
alone that is the cause of the rise and fall of men.
92. The fruit which men get depends on action (done in
a former life), and the inducement to action is in consonance
with i t ( action done in a previous life ) ; still a wise man
should be doing a thing only after mature consideration.
93. A bald man, scorched on the head by the rays of
the sun and wishing for a shady place, went to (rest under)
a palm tree; even there, a big fruit falling (from the tree)
broke his pate with a crash. Yerily misfortunes do, i n -
deed, go there where a luckless man goes.
94. When I see the sun and the moon oppressed by
the planet ( R a h u ) , the captivity of the elephant and the
snake and the poverty of men of intellect, I come to think
Oh, destiny is all powerful!
95. I n the first place, the Creator creates an excellent
man, the ornament of earth and the mine of all good
qualities; but i f he makes him short-lived, then alasl woe
to the indiscretion of Y i d h i I
90. Though he is the repository of nectar; and the lord
of herbs, though he is followed by S'atabhishak ( t h e con-
stellation of that namea hundred physicians) and is the
crest-ornament of S'iva's head, consumption does not leave
the Moon: or by whom can the ordinance of cruel Fate be
transgressed?
97. That, which is fixed as a man's portion i n this world
by all-powerful Destiny, w i l l go to h i m ; patronage of the
N. T. 2
18 TRANSLATION OF

great ( l i t . great patronage) is not at all the cause (of the


aquisitton). Although the cloud, thegratifierof the desires
of all beings, showers daily, only two or three minute drops '
of water fall into the mouth the CMtaka.
95. When on the branch of the karira tree there is not a
single leaf, it is not the fault of the spring. I f the owl cannot
see by day what blame is due to the sun? Showers of rain
do not fall into the mouth of the ck&taka; but why blame
the cloud for that ? Who is able to wipe off what has
once been written on the forehead by fate ?
99. We shall bow to the gods, but then, even they are
subject tothe accursed fate; (in that case) fate ought to re-
ceive our homage; but even fate dispenses but the fruits con-
sistent with each action. The fruit being dependent on action
what (have we to do) with the gods and what with fate! Bow
to those Karmans then, which even fate cannot control.
100. A how to that Karman by whom Brahma was 1

confined in the interior of the pot-like primordial egg


(there to evalve his creation ) like a potter; by whom
Vishnu was hurled into the very troublesome intricacy of
the ten incarnations; by whom S'iva has been compelled
to wander for alms skull in hand; and in obedience to
whom the sun ever roams in the sky.
101. A handsome form avails not; neither does descent
nor character; not even learning, nor service assiduously
rendered. Good luck, the result of ( l i t . stored by) past
religious performances fructifies for man seasonably, as
d,o trees.
102. Meritorious deeds done in a former life protect a
man in a forest, on a battlefield, in the midst of foes, or water
or fire, in the vast ocean, or on a mountain-top, whether
he be asleep or careless or in a perilous condition.
NITIS'ATAK.

103. 0 good man, to obtain your cherished desire, adore


t h a t goddessGood conduct-that changes wicked men into
good, fools into wise men, enemies into friends, the invisible
dnto the visible and deadly poison into nectar, in an instant.
F i x not your hopes on numerous other qualities with
persistent application.
104. When good luck is favourable to one ( l i t . closely
linked), a splendid mansion, sportive women and prosperity
brilliant with the white umbrellaall these things are en-
joyed for a long time; but when unfavourable ( l i t . when its
thread is snapped) behold I all these vanish in all direc-
tions like a wreath of pearls, the thread of which is broken
i n the sport of amorous quarrels.
105. A wise man, bent on doing, a thing, good or bad,
should first carefully consider its consequence. The issue
of actions done in hot haste becomes, t i l l death, like a
dart, poignant to the art.
108 The luckless man that does not practise penance
en coming into this Land of Karmcm, cooks (as i t were)
with sandal-wood, &c. for fuel, in a utensil made of the
Vaidurya gem, the oil-cake of sesamum; or ploughs the
earth with a golden ploughshare for the sake of the root
of the Arka tree, or makes a hedge round a crop of
Kodrams of camphor-trees having cut them down.
107. That which is not to take place, never takes place,
nor is a thing fated to take place averted, i n this world,
owing to the force of destiny, though:aman may dive into
water, ascend to the top of the mountain Mem, conquer
enemies in battle, learn trade, agriculture and all other
arts and sciences, (or ) pass like a bird with great effort
through the infinite sky.
1

20 TRANSLATION 01T

108. To a man possessing immense merit (laid by) in a.


former life, a dreary forest becomes a capital city, all men
act in a friendly way towards bim and the whole earth be-
comes fall of precious deposits and gems.

MISCELLANEOUS.

1. Sloth is a dreadful enemy abiding in the body of


man; there is not friend like industriousness by resorting
to which a man is never ruined.
2. What is an advantage gained? The company of the-
virtuous. What is misery? The company of those that are
not learned. What is loss? Wasting an opportunity. What
is perfection ? Being devoted to one's religious principles.
Who is a brave man ? One that has restrained his senses.
What woman is most beloved? One that is devoted. What
is wealth? Learning. What is happiness? Not going on a
journey. What is kingdom? The power to command.
3. High-souled persons have, like the Mdlati flower,,,
two fates(in store for them) either to be at the head of all
men, or to fade away in a forest.
4. The earth is here and there adorned by persons who
are poor in unpalatable speech, rich in pleasing words,,
content with connubial happiness and desisting from-
calumniating others.
5. As by the sun of profusely glittering splendpur, so b y
a warrior, though single-handed, the entire surface of tht-
earth is covered (overpowered ) with his pa'das (feet *. e.
power; rays-in the of the sun).
6. Spirited men, devoted to the performance of the-
vow of truthfulness, sacrifice their lives willingly but not
NJTIS'ATAKA. 21

their vow which is fche source of modesty and numerous


other good qualities, which keeps the heart exceedingly
pure and is binding like a mother of exceedingly pure
heart and attached to one.

7. Like unto the face reflected in a mirror the heart of


woman cannot be caught (comprehended); their feeling,
intricate like the faint mountain-track, cannot be gauged;
their heart has beeu described by the wise as fickle like
water on a lotus-leaf; a woman growing with faults is,
evidently, like a creeper growing with its poisonous shoots.
8. Leave aside the question whether a man, wounded
while facing the enemy attain victory or heaven; the
applause of both the armies is, indeed, intensely gratify-
ing to the ear.
"9. I D all this collection of exceedingly wonderful things,
whether of this nature, or of such extent, either Varaha or
Il&hu, pre-eminently stand out as an object of wonder: (the
former ) in that he alone bore up the earth when i t was sunk
in water; the latter, the head-remnant, in that he swallows
his enemy (the sun), and afterwards throws him ont.
10. The earth is bounded by the ocean; that store of
waters is a hundred yojmas'm extent; the sun, ever travel-
ling measures the expanse of the sky;thus in most cases,
things are confined within well-defined bounds; but victori-
ous is the intellectual brilliancy of the good ( wise ) that
is unlimited I
11. ( L e t me have) one godKes'ava or S'iva; one
friend, the king or an ascetic; one abodein the city or in a
wilderness; and one (thing more)a charming wife, or a cave.
12. This earth, though supported dy the Tortoise, the
(seven) principal mountains, the (eight) principal elephants
and by the serpent king, shakes nevertheless. The under-
22 TRANSLATION OF

taking of pure-minded persons (alone) shakes not (remains


firm) even at the time of the final dissolution (of the world) *
13. Does not the Tortoise feel pain in his body on ac-
count of his burden, that he does not throw off the earth, or
does not the lord of the day feel fatigue, in that he never
remains motionless? (Yes they do). But a worthy man,,
when going to give up his undertaking, feels shame inward-
ly; for carrying to their completion things ( once ) under-
taken is the hereditary vow of the good.
14. Who, in the world, does not become submissive when-
his mouth is filled with a morsel ?- Mrdanga gives out a
sweet sound when its face is coated (with dongh ).
15. Thousands of mean fellows there are, who are busy
only in maintaining themselves. , He alone stands at the
head of the good, who considers the interest of others as
his own. The V&dava fire drinks the sea to fill its insati
able maw, but the cloud to alleviate the heat caused by
the summer to the world.
16. "Verily a statesman, who brings in new wealth from,
afar, avoiding dispute ( or, war, l i t . the sound of bows ) al-
together, becomes engrossed in pleasing the assembly of the-
wise and takes his steps slowly and solwly agreeably to the
heart (wishes) of the subjects, is never free from the burden
of anxiety, like a poet who brings outcharming ( l i t . fresh )
meaning (from words which are) far apart ( i n sense),
leaves at a distance unsuitable words again, becomes deeply
engaged in pleasing the assembly of the wise, and arranges
words with care agreeably so popular taste.
17. Good men should be waited upon, though they may
not give good advice (in a special way). For what come from
them as random discourses serve as rules for guidance.
It

TIS'ATAK .

18. Though falling, a noble man ^generally falls like &


ball (i, e. to rise again); but a mean fellow falls like a
lump of clay (never to rise again).
19. I f ever by chance the world became destitute of
lotuses, would the swan then, like a cock, scratch a
dunghill ?
20. That elephants whose temples are split open by (the
line of) rut stand lazy through drowsiness, at the door, as
also steeds decked with gold ornaments neigh proudly, and
that one is awakened from sleep by the sound of lutes,
clarionets, drums, conches, and tabors:all that, like (the
accompaniments) of the lord of heaven, is the manifesta-
tion of the power of religious merit.
21. Redness in lotuses, beneficence in good men, and
ruthlessness -'in the wickedthese three are by nature
established respectively in the three.
22. True speech is the highest ornament for man; modesty
for a woman and sienderness of the middle; (with the read-
ing *T5rp~for a woman with the stately gait of an elephant
slenderness & c ) ; and for the twice born, learning and in
addition patience. Good character is an ornament fof
all men.
23. Beloved one, wicked fate, having, like a skilful
potter, per force rolled our mind into a ball of clay, as i t
were, whirls i t round and round by placing it on the wheel
of anxiety which revolves being driven by a series or
strokes from the rod in the form of adversity; we know
not what fate will do !
24. I f you desire to see the courage of magnanimous
persons give way in times of difficulty, desist from this
wicked pursuit, all trouble in which must be fruitless
24 TRANSLATION OF

0 you block-head these are not the Zz^a-mouutains nor


the oceans either which transgress their usual bounds at
the time of the universal destructionbut insignificant on
that account.
25. The goddess of victory likes the chest of warriors
lacerated with the nail-like-long sword, just as an ac-
complished and grown up handsome woman longs for the

tshesfc of brave men scratched by her nails long and pierc-


ing like a sword.
TRHRfSLaneN
OF
VAIRAGYAS'ATAKA.
o:x>

1. Hara, the powerful lamp of knowledge, shines


bright in the house of the heart of ascetics; the lamp,
which is resplendent with the flickering flame of light
from the beautiful digit of the moon, worn as crest-orna-
ment, which burnt, with ease, the moth in the shope of
the bustling Kama (the god of love), which sheds its
quivering light at the top of the wick of supreme happiness
and which completely destroys the mass of darkness of
of unbounded infatuation existing ( I. e in the heart).
y

2. Learned men ( who can appreciate good speech) are


overpowered by jealousy; rich men are blinded by arrog-
ance; and by ignorance are smitten the rest of the people.
{Hence) good speech is absorbed in the body (finds no
vent for want of encouragement).
3. I dug up the earth expecting to find a treasure;
smelted the ores found in mountains; crossed the lord of
rivers (the ocean ), assiduously propitiated king; passed
several nights in the cemetery solely intent upon securing
the efficacy of incantations; ( but after all ) I have not
obtained even a broken cowrie. Leave me now, thou, Greed.
4. I wandered over the country rugged with numerous
impassable tracts but did not gain any thing; giving up
the proper pride for race and lineage I served (but) to no
purpose; banishing all sense of self-respect, I dined in
strange houses, fearing like a crow ( of being driven away
at any moment); but thou waxesfc still, oh G r e e d -
delighting in wicked deedsand art not satisfied.
26 TRANSLATION OF

5. Intent upon propitiating them, I endured with great


difficulty the taunting words of wicked men; checking in .
my tears I even laughed with a vacant mind; I steadied my
heart, and even bowed to the wicked. Disappointed
Greed, in what other way wilt thou make me dance ?
6. For the sake of this life ( l i t . these vital airs) that
is compared to water on a lotus leaf, what, indeed, have
we, destitute of discernment, not done ?since in the
presence of the rich whose minds are blinded by the pride of '
wealth, we, shameless that we are, have committed the sin
of even mentioning (singing the praises of) our own virtues.
7. We forbore but not through forgiveness; we relin-
quished domestic happinessbut not willingly; we endured
the pain caused by inclement cold, wind and sunbut did
not (thereby) practise auterities; day and night did we
think of wealthbut not, with restrained vital airs, of'
the feet of S'iva. We did the various actions which
ascetics perform; but as to the several fruits (obtained by
them ) we have been deceived.
8. We have not enjoyed pleasures, but we have been -
preyed upon (by the destructive influence of time); we
have not undergone austerities, but we have been harassed
(by worldly cares); time has not lapsed, but the lease of '
our life; our greed has not decayed but we have.
9. Wrinkles have made an inroad on the face; the
head is marked (with gray hair) all the limbs become
feeble; greed alone keeps its vigour-fresh.
10. The desire for enjoyments is dead: the pride of youth
is quiet: humbled co-eval friends, valued^'as life itself, have
sped quick to heaven; ( I have) to stand up slowly support-
ed on a staff; and the eyes are obstructed by powerful
blindness: oh the impudence of the body! I t is still afraid -
of being overtaken by death.
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAK 27

11. Desire is, indeed, a river, with the objects of desire


for its water, agitated by waves in the form of hankerings,
having for sharks the passions, and for birds the misgivings
(of the heart), destroying the tree of fortitude, difficult to
cross on account of eddies in the form of infatuation, very
deep and having anxiety for its steep ( l i t . high) banks; the
great ascetics of pure heart, who have crossed i t (the
river), enjoy felicity.
12. I no not expect the course of life in this world to
turn out happy; the result of meritorious deeds inspires me
with fear as I contemplate i t ; for, enjoyments, long experi-
enced in return for accumulated stores of merit, assume
mighty proportions to make the enjoyer miserable, as
it were.
13. Even after remaining with one for a long time
pleasures must needs vanish. What more is there in plea-
sures tearing themselves off from one, that one does not of
one's own accord relinquish them ? When vanishing of
their own accord, they end in keen anguish for the mind;
but when relinquished by one of one's own will, they pro-
duce infinite happiness proceeding from tranquillity.
14. Those, who, by the knowledge of Brahman, have
acquired discrimination and possess a refined intellect, do
what is hard toido, in that:they renounce riches even such as
contribute to pleasures, being absolutely unselfish: (these)
were neither obtained before, nor are they now; nor is there
any certainty ( l i t . firm belief,) as to their attainment; and
still we are not able to renounce them, although their pos-
session ( l i t . desire ) is only a matter of imagination.
15. Of the blessed persons who dwell in the caves of
mountains and contemplate the Supreme Light, birds drink
the tears of delight, fearlessly resting on their laps: our
life on the other hand,is being wasted, (as) we enjoy the
28 TRANSLATION OF

delight of sports in the pleasure gardens adjoining the


walls of mansions reared up by our imagination.
16. Alas! the mind does not give up (its longing) for
carnal pleasures even when one has to eat food obtained by
begging, and that too unsubstantial and once (only in a
day);when one has the earth for a couch, and only one's
self for an attendant, and when one'a raiment is a wallet
of a hundred threadbare rags (stitched together).
17. The breasts which are fleshy protuberances are com-
|3ared to golden jars; the mouth which is the receptacle of
phlegm is likened to the moon; the hips * * * ( are de-
scribed as) rivalling the head of an elephant-king. Mark
how the despicable form (of a woman) has been heightened
(cried up) by a certain class of poets,
18. Among passionate persons stands conspicuous S'iva
alone, who* took for himself half the l.oiy of :his beloved,
(and yet) to whom there is none superior among passion-
renouncing men. as one who has given up his attachment
to women; the rest of the people, smitten with the poison
of the cobra-like and irresistible shafts of love, and there-
fore maddened, are able neither to enjoy nor to reject plea-
sures, which are rendered (mere) objects of mockery by
the God of Love.
19. Let a moth fall upon the flame of a lamp not know-
ing its power; let the fish through ignorance bite the baited
flesh; but even we that know better do not give up sensual
objects which are complicated with a net of difficulties.
Alas! how mysterious is the influence of infatuation!
20. The removal of pain man wrongly considers as hap
- piness itselfwhen the mouth is parched with thirst, he
drinks sweet and fragrant water; when oppressed with
hunger, he swallows rice mixed with vegetable and other
VAIRA'GTAS'ATAK . 29

condiments: and when the fire of love is kindled he clasps


his wife closely.
21. A man, infatuated on account of ignorance, enters
on a worldly career which is like a prison, believing the
world to be constant, on seeing the towering mansion, the
sons esteemed by the good, the boundless wealth, the lovely
wife, and the prime of life: but the blessed man renounces
all this knowing it to be perishable in a moment.
22. I f a man did not see his wife distressed and wearing
a care-worn appearance, with hungry and noisy children
ever tugging at her thread-bare raiment with piteous looks
what man, who respects himself, would, for the sake of his
accursed stomach, say"Give me"the syllables being
broken and absorbed in the gurgling throat for fear of the
supplication being rejected.
23. The insatiable boiler of the stomach, which is clever
in dissolving (lit. cutting) the knot of high pride which is
dearly prized, which is like the bright moonshine in caus-
ing the lotus-like higher virtues to fade, and which is like
an axe in cleaving asunder the luxuriant creeper modesty,
causes humiliation.
24. Blessed is the man of self-respect, who, living in a
holy city or in a trackless forest, rather goes, when hungry,
from one door to anotherthe vicinity of which has been
darkened by the smoke arising from the fire into which
oblations have been offered by Brahmanas reciting the Vedic
mantras with the proper accents-in order to fill the cavity of
his stomach, with a broken pot covered with a piece of white
cloth; but not so the man who daily humiliates himself i n
(the presence of) his kinsmen, of equal rank with him.
25. Are the Himalayan retreats, which are cool on ac-
count of the spray of the waves of the Ganges, and the
-30 TRANSLATION OF

charming slabs of which are occupied by Vidyadharas, no


more, thai; men are fond of a morsel from others (doled
out) with an insult ?
26. Have bulbous roots disappeared entirely from the
valleys, or the rivulets from mountains, or have branches
- bearing delicious fruit and yielding bark-cloth disappeared
from trees, that the faces of wicked men devoid of courtesy
. are looked at in eager expectancy?faces, the creeper-like
eyebrows of which are made to dance by the breeze of pride
at having obtained with difficulty a small sum of money?
27. Arise, dear friend, let us go to the forest, where even
the name of big folks is not heard, whose minds mean fel-
lows that they are, are ever distracted by inconsiderateness

and whose speech is marred by the effect of the disease of


wealththere maintain yourself now on sacred fruits and
roots making the earth your couch and covered with fresh
end painful barks of trees-a way of living which is
covetable.
28. There are the fruits of trees obtainable at will in
every forest without difficulty; at intervals there is the
cool and sweet water of sacred rivers; a bed made of the
tender leaves of creepers is soft to the touch; (although
these are available) mean:persons do yet suffer pain at the
gates of the rich.
29. Seated on a stony couch ia the cavern of a mountain,
may I , in the intervals of contemplation, recall, with an
inward smile, those days which seem to be longer to one
-experiencing the misery of (having to address) supplica-
tions to the wealthy and which (days) appear to be shorter
(to one) whose mind is tossed about by the allurement of
sensual objects.
30. The joys of those who always rejoice in contentment
!
have not bean interrupted, nor is the thirst of those others
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAK. 31

quenched, that have their minds agitated by covetousness


for wealth'. This being the case for whose sake was that
Meru made bv Brahman a peerless repository of wealth ? I
like not i t , the glory of whose gold i i for itself alone.
31. The great ascetics say that the cult of S'iva is a
treasure of inexhaustible happiness which cannot be
refused to any onea cult in which there is ( / . e. which
enjoius,) maintenance ou charity, in which there is no
degradation, which yields unparalleled happiness, which
always removes fear, does away with the haughty pride
resulting from wicked jealousy, and counteracts the
current of miseries, which is easily accessible every day
at all places, is preferred by the good, and is holy.
32. Enjoyment ( o f pleasures) is accompanied with
.fear of disease, noble birth is liable to a fall, wealth is
exposed to danger from the king, dignity to misfortune,
.an army to fear from the enemy, beauty to danger from
oldage, knowledge of S&tras to controversy, merits to
danger from the wicked, and body to the fear of death; a i l
objects are thus beset with danger; asceticism alone is
invulnerable on earth.
33. Birth is attended with death; vivacious youth with
oldage; contentment with cupidity; the felicity of renuneL
ation stands in the danger of being disturted by the spor-
tive movements of youthful woman, and virtues by
malicious people; wood-lands are infested by serpents;
kings are surrounded by wicked people ; even prosperity
is affected bvrinconstancv; or, what is there that is not
.smitten by somethiug else ?
3 i . The health of miu is undermined by hundreds of
mental and physical infirmities; to where* there is wealth
misfortunes comethrougiugasif through gates throw open
4o them; Death hasfcil) asserts his supremacy over every
32 TRANSLATION OF

helpless creature that is born; what thing is there t h e n r

that despotic Fate has made immune from danger?


35. Enjoyments are transient like high surging waves?,
life is liable to pass away in a moment; youthful happiness
lasts for a few days only; love for the cherished is fickle;,
knowing, therefore, that the entire worldly existence is
destitute of any good, ye wise men, givers of advice, make-
the attempt with a mind skilful in (or, intent on) doing
good to the people.
36. Sensual objects are as ephemeral as the lightning
shining in the midst of the cloudy canopy; life is frail like
the water collected in the row of clouds scattered by the
wind; momentary is the youthful happiness of mortals;,
taking this into consideration, 0 wise men, fix your mind
at once on contemplation of the Supreme Spirit, which i t
is easy to do when one is a perfect master of ( l i t . by be-
ing perfect in ) patience and concentration.
37. Life is fickle like a swelling wave; the splendour
of youth remains only for a certain number of days; wealth
is, like thought, momentary; pleasures are like the flashes
of lightning in autumn; even the embrace of the beloved,
encircling the neck, lasts not for a long time; so have
your attention concentrated upon Brahman, that yoit
should cross the ocean of worldly dangers.
38. With their bodies cramped, men have to remain
with difficulty in the womb in the midst of impurities; i n
youth the enjoyment of pleasures is difficult on account,
of the distraction arising from the pain of separation from
one's beloved; surely old age too is unwelcome, ( for at that
period the refractoriness of women is conspicuous; say
oh men, i f there is even the least happiness in worldly life?
39. Old age stands threatening like a tigrass; like
enemies diseases smite the body; life runs away like water
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 33

from a broken jar; and yet, oh wonder, man acts in a wayde^


trimental to bis interest (does not try to secure Moksha).
40. The enjoyments are multifarious and of a transient
nature; and by them is constituted this worldly life; what
for should you then wander; oh people? Refrain from your
actions (pursuit). I f our word is to be believed, concentrate
your mind, pure on account of the snapping of the bonds of
desires, within its cell which can be within reach when
passion is rooted out.
41. That indescribable pleasure alone is the highest
and ever abiding ( l i t . keeping its flavour ever fresh ) being
in the enjoyment of which one considers straw(of little
importance) the hosts of gods such as Brahma, Indra and
others and on tasting which high states ( prosperity ) such
as the sovereignty of the three worlds &c. lose all charm.
0 good man, fix not, therefore, your affection on any other
enjoyment which is evanascent.*
42. That cfeelightful city, that great king, and the circle
of feudatory kings, and that assembly of eminent scholars
at hisside, the ladies (of the court) with their faces like
the disc of the moon, and that group of haughty princes,
those bards, and those storiesa bow to Death' through
whose (destructive) power all these things have become
things of the past (lit. things to be remembered),
43. I n a certain house (also square of the dice board)
where there were many, there (now) stands only one;
even there where there was one many followed, and there is
not one left at last; thus revolving day and night as i f they
were two dice, and Gol of Death plays ( at dice ) with his
- n i l . m 1 _ n l l - . . i . n l l u r - . - * ' - i . i - L I T . - II.II -

l. Having attained that knowledge of Brahman*


compared with which thf3 very sovereignty of tie three worlds be-
comes unpalatable, do notfixyour attachment on pleasures consist-
ingof food, clothes and honour (position).
V. T. 3
9

TRANSLATION" OF

wife Kali making mortals their dice-pieces and the earth,


the hoard.
44. With the setting and rising of the sun life be-
comes shorter and shorter day by day; the lapse of time is
not felt in business which weighs down a man with the
great weight of work; the feeling of disgust is not awaken-
ed on beholding the aggregate of birth, old. age, misery
and death; the world has been maddened by drinking the
intoxicating wine of delusion.
45. Believing that the night is the same and again the
same day, ignorant people run busily in the same manner
resolutely (or secretly) setting about their diverse voca-
tions. Oh, how do we not, through infatuation, feel asham-
ed (though) disgraced by transactions in which there is a
repetition of the enjoyment of pleasures, and by this
* worldly life of such nature !
46. For the annihilation of wordlv existence we did
not contemplate the feet of the Lord, according to the
prescribed rules; nor did w*e accumulate religious merit
which is capable of throwing open the doors of heaven; nor
did we embrace even in a dream, the pair of the stout
( f u l l grown) breasts and thighs of a beautiful woman. W e
have been ( serviceable ) simply as axes in cutting down
the forests in form of our mother's prime of life.
47. We did not in this world acquire learning capable of
silencing a host of controversialists, and befitting modest
persons; we did not lead our fame to heaven by shattering
with the point of our sword the temples of elephants, we did
not, at moon-rise, sip the nectar of the tender-foliage-like
lower lip of our baioved; alas ! like a lamp in a tenautleas
house, our youth has, indeed, passed away uselessly.
48. We did not acquire untainted knowledge; nor did
we amass wealth; we did not even serve our parents with a
VAIKA'GYAS'ATAKA. 35

devoted mind; nor did we embrace young women with


long sparkling eyes even in a dream; like crows we have
.passed this period (of our life) craving a morsel from others.
49. Those from whom we were born have long since
.passed away; those too, with whom we grew up, have been
-consigned to the region of memory; now here we are, with
our fall approaching nearer and nearer day by day, reduced
'to the same state as that of trees (growing) on the bank
of a sandy river.
50. The life of men is limited to a hundred years ;

half of i t passes away in the night; of the remaining half


one-half made up of its first and last fourths is occupied by
youth and oldage; the remainder is passed- in servitude
& c , accompanied by disease and grief for the separation (of
relations). Whence can there be any happiness for mortals
in wordly life which is even more unsteady than a wave ?
51. Like an actor, a man for a time plays the child,
and then for an instant the youth delighting in pleasures;
for a moment he plays the part of poverty, at another he is
full of prosperity; and at the close of life he retires behind
the curtain of Yama's seat, his limbs wasted by old age,
and his body graced by wrinkles.
52. You are a king; we too are exalted by the pride we
take in the wisdom acquired from the preceptor whom we
served; you are known for your greatness, (even) our fame
the poets spread in all directions; thus, 0 mortifier ( qjf
men) the (difference between us is not very great; i f you
turn away your face from us, we too are utterly i n -
different (to you).
53. You are the lord of riches in full, we too of words in
all their senses; you are brave, our skill in the act of subduing
-the feverish pride of a controversialist is inexhaustible.
those who are tilled with wealth serve yon; even me serve
36 TRANSLATION" OF

those that have a longing to listen to me that the taint of"


their hearts may be removed; if you have no respect for
me, the less have I for you; 0 king, here am 1 off.
5 4 . Here we are satisfied with barks, and you with silk
garments; the satisfaction is equal in this case and the dis-
tinction is without difference. Let him be (called) poor
whose greed is boundless; the heart being content who is
rich and who is poor.
55. Fruits for meal, sweet water for drink, the (bare)
surface of the earth for a bed, and barks for raimnent, are-
all good (preferable) enough; but I cannot tolerate ( l i t .
sanction) the impudence of Wicked men, all those senses-
have been maddened by the fresh (acquisition of) wealth
as i f by drinking wine.
56. We live on alms, cover ourselves with the direc-
tions serving as garments, and lie down on the surface of
the earth: what have we to do with big folks ?
57. Of what value, indeed, are we in royal place since
we are neither actors, nor flatterers, nor singers; nor have
we our hearts set on hating others; nor are we (beautiful)
women bent down with the burden of the breasts ?
58. The world was formerly created by certain large-
hearted blessed persons; by some it was sustained, and by
others i t was conquered and given away as i f it were grass .;

other noble persons even now rule the fourteen worlds.


What morbid infatuation is i t on the part of men when
they have acquired rulership over a few towns ?
5 9 . What honour is i t to kings to obtain (the rulership'
of) the earth, which was not left unenjoyed even for a mo-
ment by hundreds of kings; but the lords of a part of its
(earth's) part, and of even a: small part of that partfools
t h a t they arerejoice when on the contrary they ought to
VAIBA'GYAS'ATAKA. 37

60. The clod of earth is encircled by the watery edge.


Even when taken as a whole, i t is indeed very small; and i t
Is apportioned by a number of kings and enjoyed after
hundreds of battles. Abject and exceedingly poor, they
therefore., give or would give nothing. Fie upon those mean
fellows who wish to get even from them a piece of coin.
6 1 . He ( l i t . that singularly fortunate person) alone
was born whose white skull was, by the enemy of the God
of Love, held prominently on his head as an ornament;
(and y e t ) what height of morbid presumption is there on
the part of men when a few persons solicitous of saving
their own lives bow to them.
G2. Alas ! ( my ) heart, why dost thou enter the dense
mass of misery (suffer much distress) in order to please
the hearts of others by daily propitiation when with the
powers of the Chintamani spontaneously rising ia thee,
thou art inwardly satisfied, what object of thine foregone-
desire will not satisfy?
63. Why do you wander for nothing, oh mind ? Rest
yourself somewhere. A thing that naturally ( l i t . of
itself) takes a particular course does take i t ; i t changes
not. Without, therefore, remembering what is past, or
speculating about what is to come, do you in this world
experience fruits, the coming and going of which cannot
be determined beforehand.
64. How be pleased, 0 heart; cease from these trouble-
some abyss of sensual objects; resort to the path of final
beatitude which is capable of removing, in a moment, a l l
misery; assume a peaceful attitude, give up your course
unsteady like a zmce and never again be attached to
transient worldly happiness,
65. 0 my mind sweep off infatuation, acquire that de-
motion to the moooharasted god (which grants the highest
40 TRANSLATION OF

77. I n this world in which life extends over a few


Winkings of the eye, we do not know what to do, whether
we should taste nectarious juice of diverse kinds of poetry,
or drink the streams of philosophy; whether we should
modestly lead a householder's life in company with a wife
ennobled by virtues; or whether we should dwell on the
banks of the heavenly river, practising penance.
78. These kings whose minds are as unteady as a
horse are difficult to be propitiated: while we have a high
ambition and our heart is set on a lofty position, old age
despoils the body and death robs (one) of the dearly loved
existence: ( under these circumstances), 0 friend, there
is nothing advantageous to a wise man in this world
except penance.
79. Pride being on the decline, fortune being dissipated,
the mendicant having gone" without gaining his object,
the relations having diminished in number, attendants
having gone away, and youth having gradually died out,
only one thing ( l i t . only t h i s ; is proper for the wise viz.
a habitation somewhere in a brake in a cavern of the
mountain, the rocks of which are purified by the waters
of the Ganges.
80. Delightful aro the moon-beams, the forest spot
verdant with grass, the happiness arising from the
company of the good and of friends is gratifying; the
narratives in poetic works are pleasing; charming is the
beloved shining with the tears deposited on it by angar;
everything is charming; but nothing (is charming) when
the mind is distracted. (See notes).
81. Is there not a delightful mansion for habitation; is
not music &o. pleasing to the ear (lit. fit to be heard); is not
the happiness of the company of one as dear as) life itself to
(a man's) great gratification? But wise men have resorted
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKAt 41

io a forest considering all this as unstable as the shadow


of a small lamp flickering ia the wind (caused by the
wings) of a moth madly falling upon i t .
82. 0 friend while searching this triple world as far
as wordly life prevails, none such has come within the
range of our sight or hearing as can easily become (lit*
possesses the facility of bocommg) tin* post for fastening,
by means of self-restraint, the elephant of the mind in-
toxicated by the deep-seated and secret attachment for the
female elephant in the form of the sensual objects*
83. Though reflecting for along time, I do not know of
what great penance this is the result.vi~. this rambling
at w i l l , this meal free from humiliation* the company of
the noble, this learning having for its fruit (the observance
of) the one vow of controlling the senses, and the mind
moving (but) slowly towards external objects.
84. Desires have already been absorbed (by reasons of
non-fuliilment) in the heart; youth has passed away; and
alas! in the absence of appreciates of merit, skill (lit. qua-
lifications) in the (different) limbs has proved fruitless;
relentless and powerful death, the all-destroyer, comes sud-
denly; what is to be done (lit. proper) ? Ah X have i t ; except
bearing ( resorting to,) the two feet of the destroyer of
cupid (S'iva) there is no other recourse.
85. Between Mahesrara, the Xjord of the worlds and
Jamlrdana, the Pervading Spirit of the universe, X have
no conception of any difference; still I am strongly drawn
to the new-moon-crested God.
86. On nights with all sounds hushed up, sitting at
ease somewhere on the sandy bank of the heavenly river,
the surface of which (bank) is whitened by the brilliant
flood of moonlight, and grown despondent on account of
the wearisomeness ( l i t . magnitude or expansiveness ) of
wordly existence, when shall we loudly uttering the
?
42 TRANSLATION OF

the words "Siva, S'iva" have our eyes flooded with copi-
ous tears proceeding from supreme bliss !
87. Having given away everything with a heart fall o f
tender compassion, and remembering the courses of destiny
having adverse ends in this wordly existence, (when) shall
we pass, in a sacred forest, the nights l i t with the rays o f
the full autumnal moon, the feet of Hara being the sole
refuge of our mind!
88. When shall I wearing a small strip of cloth, and
residing in Yarimasi (Benares) on the bank of the river
of gods pass my days like a moment crying out "Have
mercy, oh Lord, of Gauri, Destroyer of the Three Cities?
oh S'ambhu, oh Three-eyed God," having placed on my
head my folded palms!
89. Having bathed in the waters of the 'Ganges, and
worshipped Thee, 0 Lord, with fruits and flowers undented,
and having fixed my attention, sitting on a stony couch in
the gorge of a mountain, on Thee, the object of con-
templation, when shall I , 0 Enemy of Smara, be free by
Thy grace, from the pain of serving a master having hands
and feet just like myself, delightfully carrying out the
words of the preceptor, living on fruits ( only ) and self-
complacent.
90. 0 ^ambhu, when shall I , living all alone, free from
desire and peaceful, and having for my pot my hand (only)
and for ray garments the quarters, be able to root out
Karma ?
91. A certain path (L e- of Mokska), easily attainable
by the favour of $iva, opens up for the Yogins, who use the
hand as a pot, who are contented with alms which are i n -
trinsically pure, who sit anywhere, who ever look upon
the world as almost like grass and who have all acquired,
even without casting off the body, the knowledge of the
uninterrupted and supreme delight (of Brahman ).
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 43

92. Happily lives the ascetic ( w i t h his) strip of cloth


extremely threadbare and torn in a hundred pieces, and a
wallet to match, (with his) freedom from care and meal
consisting of alms got with ease, ( w i t h his) bed in a forest
or a cemetery, (with his) equal regard for friends and foes,
with his extremely serene contemplation in a secluded
place, and glad that all his errors arising from arrogance
have been corrected.
93. The mere (insignificant) group of worlds is nothing
for the temptation of one who has restrained his mind. Ts
ever agitation produced in the sea by the motions of a
S'afari (a female fish )?
94. 0 mother, Lakshmt, repair to some one else; do
not yearn for me. We are uot haukerers after pleasures.
What are yon to those ( i . e. to us ) who are free from
desires ? We now wish to live on barley-flour obtained by
begging ( and placed) in a hollowed vessel oipaldm leaves,
stitched together at the moment.
95. Like a king possessed of by no means small wealth
an ascetic, with ashes profusely besmeared ( to his body )
and peaceful, sleeps quietly, delighted in the company of
the woman viz. indifference (to worldly attachments), the
earth(being to him) a delightful beP, his creeper-like
arm a spacious pillow, the sky his canopy, the favourable
breeze (or, the breeze, always at his service) his fan, and
the moon a brilliant lamp.
96. There is (rarely found) an ascetic, living on alms,
free from attachment (though) in the midst of the people,
his movements ever under his control, attached to the
path which is free from giving and taking, wearing a-
wallet made of old threadbare clothes thrown away in the
streets, not caring for honour, not proud, and wishing sole-
ly for the enjoyment of tranquil pleasure.
44 TRANSLATION OF

97. Is he a Chandal (pariah) or a Brahmana (twiceborh),


is he a S 'Cidra or an ascetic, or is he some great saint, whose
intellect is acute enough to understand philosophical truths:
ascetics, although thus spoken of by people, garrulous on ac-
count of the doubts risiug within them quietly ( or, self-de-
Mghted) go their way neither offended nor piease at heart.
98. The creator ordained the air to serve the serpents as
'foodnot involving the sin of destroying life, and assessa-
ble without any effort; animals living on land be made to eat
grass;(but) tomfln, whose talents are capable of bearing
them over the ocean of life, he has assigned such a living
that while in pursuit of i t all their good qualities are inva-
riably brought to an end (exhausted).
99. Can those blessed days be ( i n store) for me, when
I , having fixed myself in the Padm&sana, posture on a
slab in the Himalayas on the bank of the Ganges, and
having gone to the sleep of concentration while in the act
of constantly contemplating Brahman, the old stags (grow-
ing) fearless will rub their bodies against mine ?
100. Those blessed onea-whose hand is (to them) a clean
pot, and alms acquired by wandering (an) inexhaustible
(supply of) food, to whom the extensive ten quarters are
as a spotless garment, and the earth as a spacious bed?
whose development is in accepting renunciation, who are
contented with themselves, and who have got rid of a num-
ber of opportunities of humiliationroot out Karma.
101. 0 mother, earth; 0 father, wind; 0 friend, l i g h t ;
0.water, my good relation, and 0 brother, sky; here do
I fold, for the last time, my palms i n salutation to you; by
means of poor knowledge resulting from the preponderance
of merit accumulated by virtue of association with you, all
the trammels of infatuation having been removed", I now
.merge in the Supreme Brahman.
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 45-
MISCELLANEOUS.
1. The sun is covered by day with the name strip of
Ambara ( sky; cloth).with which the moon is covered at
night: oh the misery of these !
2. When self-restraint developed by discrimination be-
comes manifest, and when the strong-hold desire has
upon man is relaxed, there appears that perfection (the
last stage of contemplation ) wherein even the lord of gods,
becomes an object of pity, wretched (as he is under the
influence of desire ) on account of the strong distraction'
caused by the enjoyment of greatness worn out of age.
3. Learning formerly served to remove the pain ( of
existence) of those who possessed self-restraint. I n
course of time i t came to be used for securing sensual
happiness to sensualists. Seeing that the rulers of the
earth are now averse to learning, alas 1 it is even going
down and down every day. *
4. The time ( that was ) happy on account of the enjoy-
ment of lovely women is passed; and having, for long, wan-
dered along this avenue of the world we are exhausted; now
(stationed) on the bank of the Ganges ( l i t . the river o f
heaven ) we send forth ( l i t . extend ) with deep sight (the
cries of invocation) with the wordsS'iva, S'iva, Siva.
5. Mahadeva is the god, and the stream of the gods
(the Ganges) alone is the stream (for me); caves are
(my) abode, and even the quarters (my) raiment; the
Destroyer is (to me) as a friend; and my vowsuch
conduct (as i s ) free from meanness; or why say more
(on this subject), let me be wedded to the Vata tree
alone (lead a life of seciusiou and piety).
6. How very blessed, indeed, are some persons who
with their shackles of worldly ties snapped and not
looking out for the irregular course of serpentine-
46 TRANSLATION OF

sensualism, pass, in the farthest corner of a forest, the


* night, delightful on account of the expanse of the sky
'being brightened up by the winter moonshine, solely
intent on storing up merit.
7. Our view ( at first ) was that you were we and we
were you (. e. you and we were the same, and had no
diverging interests ); what has happened now by which
you are you and we are we ( i . e. you and we have had
diverging interests) ?
8. What is one ha's a threadbare wallet or a spotless
white silken cloth? What i f one has only one's wife or is
surrounded by a splendid army of horses and elephants ?
What i f delicious food is eaten, or coarse food towards
the close of the day? What i f there is not the light ( of
the knowledge of Brahman ) manifested inside ( L e. in
the heart) or what i f there is the glorification in which
the fear of worldly existence is destroyed?
9. When there was ignorance (in us) produced the
influence of the darkness of passion, even the whole world
was then looked upon (by us) as consisting of women only;
now having applied the collyrium of better judgment, our
sight has been restored to its normal state and regards the
whole world as Brahman.
10. Knowledge in the case of the good does away with
conceit, vanity and the like; in the case of others ( l i t . some)
it is the cause of haughtiness.and vanity. A secluded place
in the case of self-restraining persons leads to salvation; i Q

the case of love-sick persons it is a further incitement to love.


11. I consider those men to be supremely rich, who
have never joined their palms overhead iu token of submis-
sion, to whom a slab on some mountain is as a couch and
a cave in mountain as a home, to whom the barks of trees
are as raiment and the deer as friends, whose subsistence
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 47
is by the sweet fruits of trees, who find an agreeable beve-
rage in spring water, and to whom learning is as a
pleasure-giving consort.
12. When there is the river of the three worlds, the
lustre of whose wai&t garment touches the head of S'iva,
and which with good fruits and with the barks of the trees
lining its bank furnishes a splendid living, what wise man
is there, who, with the intense pain from the fever of
poverty, would face harrowing miseries, i f he had no com-
miseration for his ill-placed family ?
IS. Alas! why do wise men live elsewhere, rejecting
Kasi where the most rigorous penance (a life of entire ab-
stinence) is (like) varied dinners given in gardens, where
a strip of cloth to cover (the body) is decent raiment,
where the glory is an unlimited wandering for alms, and
where approaching death is like a blessing.
14. Oh heart, leave those at whose gate (are heard)
such replies as "this is not the time for you (to see the
master)," "(he is) now in private," "the master is asleep"
and " I f you were to see him after waiting ho would get
angry"; and do you go to the temple of the Lord, the r u l -
er of the world, which gives unbounded happiness, which
is free from Mrsimess, and where the cruel words of gate-
keepers are not heard.
15. May my days pass in some sacred forest, while
muttering the words "Siva, S'iva, S'iva " with an eye
regarding equally a serpent or a wreath, a powerful
enemy or a friend, a gem or a clod of earth, a bed of
flowers or a stone, a blade of grass or a group of damsels.
10. Every thing gives happiness* (lit. ail directions are
full of happiness) to a man who is poor, self-restrained,
peaceful, of an equilibrating m i n i , and ever content at
heart.
48 TRANSLATION OF
1

17. Time never returns; it passes uselessly, a fact


which was never cotfsidered (by you); (you) accommodated
(yourself) to the various conditions, which are adverse on
account of the concurrence of a hundred difficulties; or
what shall we say ? What barm have you not done your-
self? Every now and then you have been repeatedly do-
ing the same*
18. "Arise, my friend, and bear for it moment the*
heavy burden of my poverty. 1 am now tired, and shall
long enjoy the happiness you enjoyed from death." Thus
addressed by a poor man who bai hurried to the cemetery,
the corpse remained silent, knowing that death was better,
far better, than destitution.
19. These (\ e. women) laugh and cry as suits their
purpose; make (others) confide in them, but themselves
confide not; therefore a man, possessed of nobility of birth
and character, should abandon women as one does jars in
a cemetery.
20* To brutes alone would be dear those fawn-eyed
(women) in whose case faults (demerits) are a recommend**"
ation( to* merits) for, their hardness of the breasts, unstea-
diness of the eyes, and falsehood on the tongue ( t o . mouth)
are praised; crookedness of hair, dulness of the face, and
plumpness of the hips, commended; and timidity of the
heart and deceitful tricks towards their beloved (husbands)'
always mentioned (with approbation).
21. I n some places there is music of the lute, in others
cries of alas! alas!; in some places there is the conversation
of learned men, in others the brawls of men intoxicated
with drink; i n some places there are charming ladies, i n
others (men or) women with leprous bodies; I do not know
whether worldly life is full of sweets or bitters*
VAIBA'GYAS'ATAKA. 40

22. Deformed ia limbs and lisping in speech, here are


you that have been made the buffoon of a farce, while
flattering; what part (f do not know) will prolonged life
make you play, such as you are, with your ears bordered
with grey hair.
^ 23. Wealth is evanescent; life is unsteady; and youth in
life is fickle; in wordly existence, which is fleeting, merit
alone is unchangeable.
24. That Tortoise alone was born who offered to bear on
his back (lit. offered his back for) the heavy burden of the
world; the birth of Dhruva (alone) is to be praised, regulated
by whom the planetary system revolves; other creatures in
the world are, like the insects in an udumbara fruit, which
possess wings to no purpose, as i t were born and dead (simul-
taneously), since they are not able in anyway to do good to
others (and since) (both) the present world and the next
have become unavailable to them.
25. Possessed ofabusesasyouare, you may pour abuses*,
ay, you may; fot want of them, we are unable to give you
abuses; i t is known all the world over, that what there U
can be given; no one ever gives to another the horn of a
hare.
20. Alms are not unattainable to me in my path l i n e i
by rich gardens; the earth is full of fruits, and the skins of
deer and the barks of trees (serve as) raiment; with joys or
with sorrows, there is in fact the same result. Who w i l l
then give up the three-eyed God, and bow to the men
blinded by pride for a particle of wealth?
27. W i t h a sword we did not cut asunder elephants-
we did not harass our enemies;* * * * we did not sip the
noisy water of the streamlets of the Himalayas; we passed
our time like crows desirous of obtaining a morsel from
others.
[Extra S'l. in the foot-notesBy you Bali was not
liberated from the nether world; death was not done away
50 TRANSLATION OF

with; the dark spot on the Moon was not wiped away, no*
were diseases rooted out; nor was S'esha's burden lightened
(by you) for a moment by supporting the Earth. 0 heart,
you suffer torment day and night by the false :pride of be*
mg good.]
28. My mind desires to go to S'amkara, its scruples in
the investigation of scriptural meaning being completely set
at rest, its delight in poetry full of various sentiments
being turned away, and all the different wild doubts (lit.
expanse of doubts) being totally dispelled.
29. What i f (you have) excellent rice, or a coarse meal
at the close of the day? What i f (you have) a strip of
cloth or a long white garment? What i f (you have) one wife
or a number of them endowed with a hundred qualities ?
And what i f you wander all alone, or are surrounded by
hundreds of elephants and horses?
30 Charity is a cow that yields all desires; a wallet
protects from cold; (my) devotion to S'iva is firm; what
then is the use of riches ?
31. An ascetic, though he has abandoned all desires,
lies down on the ground like a king, having the Earth for
his couch, his creeper-like arm for a pillow, the sky for
canopy and the Moon for his lamp, experiencing pleasure in
his union with the woman called Renunciation, and fanned
from all sides by the attendant maidsthe quarters, with
their chowriesthe winds.
32. Tell me, 0 deer, where you performed penance
and of what name, that ( by virtue of i t ) you have never
to see the face of the lich or to tell lying flatteries; you
do not hear their haughty words, nor run to them with
some expectation, but you eat tender grass when i t is
time ( t o eat) and lie down at ease when sleep comes ( t o
your eyes).
33. 0 brute, how many times and what preparations
of yours, desirous of drinking of the water of the ocean of
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 51

mirage in the form of wealth, have not been baflled ?


( V e r y often they have been). Yet your hope is not
dispelled; your heart must certainly be formed of adaman-
tine stone, since i t has not yet been broken into a
hundred pieces.
34. What is i t that lovely-eyed (women) do not do ?
Having entered the affectionate heart of men they
fascinate them, madden them, mock them, despise them,
gladden them and cause grief to them.
35. A lion, strong and living on the flesh of elephants
and hogs, ruts, i t is said, ODce in a year. The dove, eating
only hard pebbles, ruts daily. Say what the cause here is.
36. Residence in a sacred forest, and, 0 joy, association
with the deer, sacred maintenance on fruits, stones for
couches on the bank of every riversuch are the materials
for those that like devotion to God. To those whose
minds are fixed on renunciation alone, whether (they
live in ) a house or a forest, i t is all the same.
37. We are quite conteut with those delicious syllables
(utterances) sweeter than honey or clarified butter which
the Divine speech ( the Upanishads) sends forth from its
ambrosial and immortal body; as long as there is, under
our arm, a quantity of barley-meal procured by begging
for our maintenance, so long we do not wish to live on
wealth acquired by servitude.
38. A dog, lean, blind of an eye, lame, crop-eared and
tail-less (through disease ), suffering from abscesses,
clammed with pus, and with his body covered with
hundreds of worms, exhausted through starvation, decayed
with age, and having the brim of an earthen jar placed
round its neck, follows a bitch. Madana scruples not to
smite even one that has already been smitten.
39. Desist, 0 wise men, from associating with
womenfrom the momentary happiness. Be attached to
Mercy, Friendship and Reason. Neither the fully-
developed orbs of breasts covered with a wreath, nor the
52 TJJANSLATION OF

round hips having a tinkling girdle round them set with


diamonds, can be your salvation in hell.
40. Why are those suggestive glances, 0 young
women, darted from your sportively half-closed (eyes)?
Desist, Oh, desist; vain is this effort ( of yours ) . Now
changed beings are we; youth is gone; our yearning (is
only) for the farthest part of a forest; infatuation has
subsided, and we look upon the meshes of the world
as straw.
41. This young woman constantly darts towards me
her eye that steals the beauty of the blue lotus-leaf.
What is designed by her? Our infatuation is gone; the
1
feverish flame produced by the striking of the flowery
arrows of the God of love has been blown out; and yet
the poor girl persists !
42. Why do you, 0 God of love, trouble your hand
with the twangings of your bow? Why do you, 0 Cuckoo,
chatter ineffectually with your soft and sweet notes ?
0 young woman, enough of your glances, affectionate,
artful, charming, sweet and unsteady; our heart has
tasted the nectar-like contemplation of the Moon-crested
God.
4 3. I f you do not want to be engulfed in the ocean of
worldly existence, then leave at a distance this river in
the form of a woman, having about ( t h e banks) cruel
monsters in the shape of cruel thoughts, encircled by the
waves of the three furrows on the belly, having a pair of
chakratdka birds on their wing in the form of two high
and plnmp breasts, and decked with a lotus* in the shape
of the face.
44. By the five senses, clever in ministering to their
own advantage, which have marred supreme bliss, have
1 been duped, being revolved (among their objects)
thusHere is melodious music, here a d'ance, these are
sweet flavoured viands, here is a spreading perfume, and
here the touch of breasts.
N O T E S
ON
NITIS'ATAKA.

SI. 1. The poet begins with a salutation to Brahman*


the Supreme JSn$ which is one of the three modes prescribed
9

for the opening of a poem by Sanskrfc writers on Poetics, m.


STRfl^rfN^rr 3*gr%fm %W A blessing ( to be con-
ferred on the readers), a salutation ( t o the favourite Deity )
and an indication of the subject matter are the three pres-
cribed forms of introduction to a poem. I t is also usual
with Sanskrfc writers to have what is technically called
Mangalmkaraha. This is done either directly by an appeal
to the favourite deity itself or to some of its attributes, or
by the use of some such word as ar^f and the like. The
efficacy of this Maiigala is emphasised by all kinds of
writers; see Patau, quoted in the com.
The Vedantic character of the s'l. the student will easily
8 ac s
mark. f%^r|w~ P e and time} 3'i?t%f^r i l i t . what is cut off from
all sides, is contained i n another, is measured: 3ffiftf%&$r
means what is unmeasured; hence undefined, unconditioned,
3 T l f % refers to qualities (gu7ha& ) such as spr 3Y*$r*r
? as well
8
as to q^pT (effects) &c. ^ $snt 3TnT* ^ F r t ^ R T infinite*
f ^ ^ ^ r ^ R T f ^ ^ r s r pure intelligence or knowledge- A K a r a ,
of the J T ^ 5 ^ ^ f c p i % class, o^f^r-whose form is pure intelli-
gence, f f ^ r A Tripada Harm. This is the beet way
of taking the Oomp. The attributes of Bramha, here expre-
f
ssed, are summed up i n the mahiwakya ^fc^* ^ I ^ R ^ c f sf^a"
{

of the Taittitlya Upaniehad. Another way is to analyse


the Oomp. as a Bah. with ^ % as the second member, with
all that precedes as its attributive member, itself being a
Oomp, of three adjectives. is derived from 1. P
to settle into a solid form x and literally means wha^
is visible to the senses?,, henee secondarily what is perceptible
* Damiin, Kavy&dars'a. 1.
2 NOTES ON

by the mind. The Dat. sing, of neu. adjs. ending in 5 is


optionaly formed like that of mas. nouns; so-^q* or f3f.
*ee Gr. 69. P&n. V I I , I . 74.
se , eroe on
^3*$% &c -Hr3W^" ^ "P P^ > manifestation of Br-
l

hma in contemplation, ^rqj means 'principal, chief/ rather


3
than 'sole; * cf. the couplet. q$t5?qrif TO ^ &o, quoted in G-r.
154; also Amara x&Qm^^ttV-
e
I*TFT*TFP^
7

from ^r + ?g( 3T*T)> & measure; hence the means of arriving


;at correct knowledge. I n this sense the word SFJTTtxr is more
common. The pram&7ias, according to the Vedantins, are
:
:^c^Tg^RR*Tf STHFnf^* to which the Naiy&yikas add ^t^pr.
Brahma is specially regarded as irc^sTJTPrw*^ ' capable of
being realised by perception, although there are other means
of knowing i t such as m*W &c. Another reading here is
^ r ^ ^ ^ j - q r f q - which Mr. Telang interpreter in two ways:-
(1) to him who is the sole e3senee of self-knowledge, or (2)
to him whose sole ( or principal ) essence is self-knowledge,
-preferring the former, as that, he thinks, gives the sqffT
view of the Ved&nta.
&c The Dat. by ^ : ^ c T ? ^ T ^ T H ^ r ^ r ^ m ^ '
#

P&n. I I . 3. 16. Tfpcf is one of the attributes of Brahma, cf.


the S'ruti fspsfiar H T % : 4 ^TT-cf ftW H r s S R ^ \
i
?

refers to Brahma and not to the third element. Brahma is


often called ^ s u f f e r : i n the Upanishads. Oomp. trq- ^xnarr^rs
B q( ^ r f a ^ q ^ F c r ^ r &c. Chh&ndogya. also the S'ruti rfgffr
F o r t h e i d e a c o m
sqn%: (cPTRTcr). P - Panchadasi^
quoted in the com.
For the idea may be compared Geography Nysaen's description
of the divine nature quoted by the late Mr. Mansel in his philosophy
of the conditioned ( p. 16 ):It is neither in place nor in time,
but before these and above these in an unspeakable manner,
contemplated itself by itself through faith alone, neither measured
by ages, nor moving alone with times."
SI. 2. The present S'loka is said by| the Commentator^
{whose remarks are perhaps based on a tradition which is
almost universal) to refer to a family intrigue the incidental
NiTIS'ATAKA. 3

discovery of which filled Bhartrhari with disgust for worldly


life. I t is this:-~Once upon a time, a Br&hmana**, who had
45ome by a fruit which conferred immortality on any one who
ate. i t , gave i t to Bhartrhari, as the worthiest person to
receive i t , being the protector of many people. Bhartrhari
gave i t to his wife who gave i t to her paramour, who in his
turn gave i t to a sweet-heart of his, who again presented i t
to Bhartrhari, The s'loka, however, is quite out of place here
as i t has no connection with any things that follow. I f i t
be supposed that i t is the expression of the abhorrence of the
intrigues and sins of the world felt by some one disgusted
with i t , then the most natural place for i t would be the
Vairagyas ataka. Many manuscripts, however,
1
agree i n
giving i t here.
fa^tTOTfaThink with affectionate regard or love. srf*r
#P3T- Words implying love, attachment ( or disattachment )
&c, govern the Loc. of the person or thing for whom or which
the feeling is shown. Mr. Telang considers the Loo. to be
being equivalent to H ^ W T ^ W ^ B^g^TT:3F*FRf
?
^fxp: attached or devoted to. 3T *ir become 3T?q- i. e assumes
t ^ F f by the V&rt. fff?ipr: ff^Hfif ( in Samasa and the other
Vrttis ) jjfSfiq:: See Malli, on 3R-;=^$rpf ^fifalcg^Rf &o. Kmnu
i n . 63.
For, for the sake of ( Indec* ) is often compounded m
here. Of. ^F*T ??T%^fT &c. K&v. P. I . when not compounded
i t governs the Gen. 3T*fmf S F l F T f 35?! Vair. S'at. 36. q f t g c t r f i h "
;

pines for, feels ardent love for. This reading is evidently


preferable ( as Mr. Telang also thinks ) to qffgcrf?r which may
??
be best rendered as "delighted with all I do.
f ^ r i s used with the Acc. j r s p r * ^ ( H*r^Tc?T%^r ) +
r o m

L i t . the intoxicating god. ^ ^p^The hiatus here is allowed


c
by the rule ^ f p R ^ & * Sid. Kau.; see com.Sandhi i
absolutely necessary in a grammatical form, in the case of a
According to another version king "Vikrama obtained the fruit
from a Yogin, he gave it to a Br&hmana, he*to Bhartrhari and so on*
4 NOTES ON

preposition and a root, as also in compounds; but i n composi-


tion i t depends on the w i l l of the writer. Khetorieians, how-
ever, consider i t a fault called See K&v. P . V I I .
S'l. 3. v ^ i c f r m w- (w+) T w- sr?r: i sw<rr
:
used as adverbs ftffa STT^Tcfrf^ f % W ' s r P T W f ~ > is de-
m

rived from ^ to cut, to divide; a particle. f f t f ^ r - R ^ r q r


properly means what is well burnt, polished and burnished;,
hence refined with culture, learned; g er^r f^rcr: fftq^j:
badly learned or wise, vain, arrogant ( w i t h little learnings-
^IfS^r i f t ? ^ : ) 5 f t ^ T ^
T s^Nff&a l Bamarahi. <?/.
Little knowledge is a dangerous thing, sj^r-derived fr. 5jf_ 1.
6. P . to grow+irfff^, the 3f? being changed to ^ before i t by
XJrj. 11. 145. ^ ^ f t T T ^ O a u . means to colour, to impart
one's hue to; hence to win over, to gratify or propitiate. The
Oau. form ia r ^ f o when the meaning is to sport with or hunt
deer; see K i r . V I . 24. Some read the line as s r ^ T R ft ^ &c
but this violates the laws of metre ( as i t makes 17 matras in
Pada instead of 15 or 18 ) and is therefore inadmissible.
{31. 4. iresrIndec. with great force. rr|% from, fftrr
sound + | ( ^ ). I%TcTfFr ( f+37=3T ) a crocodile, a
shark, STSRsrffqqftrft from ^ + p [ e^or. f^r-also der. with-
srq> from ^sr^to bite, o P " . /,from 3?|jr to mark, stamps
g ^ ^ j means pointed, sharp ^jg^rgrfrom %he tips or points
( % e. when held fast between the points ) of the jaws; sing,
m

for pL Cf* gptfft S'S-k, and ^qj^C Vair. S'at. 63 srogjfo- #

ruffled or agitated with a series of rolling billows, m. f.


from f+fir, srefaff Un. I V . 44.
fW^:gsr: ( bent, curved f fesfffl^ ) ^ ips^rfif; +
7
5 ^ ( the nasal ) inserted by ' n i ^ ^ p r r e s r Jg^ Pan.
V I . 3. 67.Before the aft ^ and ^-ST the words 3i^Fr, r|rq>
and such as end in 3T take the aug. when used preposi-
tionally with verbs, q^cj-qg;Tjcqvr like a flower, ffr <psr
fgvEfT Pan. V . I . 15. qj^is attached to a noun i n the sense*
f?fa[ gp*f 'equally with that' when the equality refers-
NiTIS'ATAEA. 5

4o an act. ?fifff%r%gobstination, holding contrary opinions,


perverse, Cf fqrffW Vair. S'at. Mis. s'L 19,
S'L 5. %3KtnfThe word f%^?rr is always used in the
plural. ^rRf:-fr. q^+qr^ ( srr\ ) . ej?? here stands for the Instr*
*fiJstfTT <T ^^SOTSFT by adding q> mirage. I t is a
phenomenon observed i n sandy tracts or deserts when the
floating vapour or air is heated by the tropical sun and present*
the appearance of water. I t is so called because i t attracts and
deceives the deer and other animals, f ^ ^ r ^ a c ^ excellent oil
&c, ^ ^ f s ^ ^ r - i ^ 1 ^ ; 3 " sweet watermay also be regarded as
compound words. This way of taking the expression is
perhaps better as i t adds to the force of the argument, and
avoids rr^iTsr^. I t does not, however, look natural. sgff&ss*
*Fe?frT ^FcfrFF, *w + Cf the Subhaskita <^rrSc?F *Tlft
W ^ f W W I !*rg**rFirf% FffiT: ^ m i l f ^ h : : ll wherein all the
things generally spoken as absolute impossibilities are brought
together. Some discover in this s'l. the fault yatibhailga or
wrong Oresura; see com.

S'l. 6. s^rrS"A wild elephant. Some take i t to mean &
serpent' but without property, as i t considerably impairs the
force of the argument. Besides, a serpent is not known to be tied
down while an elephant always is; cf sL 17, tR^To tie down*
For the %nf see Apte'sG. 176 and note, qr^mrgo*?un?y
:
is m. n~ cT?5 is from cf^+g^. &g 53p>nTbas a metaphorical
meaning here; strives, makes efforts, g^ff^r:a diamond,
STFcf:WffFcPextreme edge, r%fr% is known to be the softest
Slower. This shows the extreme folly of the act. ^WSlIt
prepares, makes himself ready for. I t properly means to put on
an armour and thus to equip one*s self for battle; cf Mah. Bh&r.
sj^W wsffr. I t is Attn, in this sense. <qrf*IThe root ?fr governs
two objects and the Acc. would have been more idiomatic.
But as trf^T is not the principal object but only secondary, i t
.depends upon the will of the speaker to put i t i n the Acc. or
6 NOTES ON

in its natural case. ^qrr^fNf^shedding nectar, mellifluous.


The root is sometimes used transitively. Cf fic3Tf# ^gfqqTOTfT

Wffc$
$5*f ^TRC I Sham. V i L I . 93; also 96. where-
the idea is somewhat differently expressed.
0
The rhetorical fig. here is Nidars'ana (frrWfF? I which is^
6 ?w ai
defined as-f^rsfar 1 3T W ^ R ^ S * ^ OTWR^q^: H ben *
impossible connection of things implies a comparison i t is*
T^^Nf g^fr^cT^^^ ( citing of an instance ). We have here a-
M'aldnidars'ana ( a string of illustrations ) as the zcpamanas or
?
* things compared to are many.
?
S'l. 7. ^RTrT^ t one s command, within one's controL
ft

o
^RT*iI*r rtH5Fci: always leading to one result; hence, never
failing in its effect. With this sense cf. i
^j$\^fc^f^^f%^T.
Bag. I I . 57. *rrefficacy, advantage, arqftrg'cinq*3T acute
intellect, learning; see com.; Nan. Tat,
S'l. 8. f%f^55T: Knowing a little, cf ^FTe^T* si. 3'.
supra. Mr. Telang separates SJ^J 3 T r % ( % ^ 2 to mark distinctly,,
as he says, the contrast with the third line. But this hardly
improves the sense. A man is likely to be puffed up with
little knowledge, not with great knowledge, f|xfgp^TT with
two ( *. e. the mouth and the trunk ), fq^rffran elephant.
f%f^fN&f^ia[When I knew something ( of reality ) every day..
The repetition of f%r%^ shows continuous increase of know-
ledge, the continuity of action being one of the senses of
or repetition. 3Fffmark the double meaning of this word-
here- (1) rut. (2) vanity, arrogance.
S'l. 9. e[TT*roCovered with, or full of a swarm of insects.
0Tl a
fritfNrgiving * bad stench. This is grammatically
inaccurate. *Fsp SPR* gives f^r?^. So to explain the
form we must add J R ^ S I f ^ j : *rwsp ffT'ti: Karm. ^i^??rw.
But this is against the rule ^^rc^p'Tff*ffar ^ ^ r % ^ " r r ^ ~
flffT^fTT^T: 1 No affix showing possession should be added to a*
Karm. i f its sense can be conveyed by a Bah. So this wajf
NiTlS'ATAKA* 7

of defending the form is not very satisfactory. See, however^


our note on fp?^*TT%g Rag* IV". 45. ^rrf^trcensured, cond-
emned. p*$7*r*Avya.; o^tfr?3rr t>. 7. see com.; (eating i t >
with a relish the flavour of which is unparalled. ^
has no fear or misgiving; does not think that he is doing
something censurable or disgusting, q^qffy^wgffthe worth-
lessness of one's belonging. The fig. here is ST^cR^HJDaf.

iff | Where a particular proposition is corroborate by a


general proposition or a general proposition is supported by
a particular instance either under a resemblance or contrast,
that is Arthantaranyasa or corroboration. There is also
STiRgcWtfST i& the first three lines.
SI. 10. w l ^ - ^ l t ? ^ ? of Siva. Bhagirath, a king of the
solar race, wishing to procure the salvation of his 00,000
ancestors that had been reduced to ashes by Kapila's curse,
propitiated by his penance, Gailga, and induced her to come
down to the earth. The river complied with his request
but directed him to find out some one who would bear her
force as she would fall down from heaven. Bhagiratha then
propitiated S'iva who agreed to allow the river to fall on his
head. Bh&glrathl, accordingly, fell from heaven on Slva'a
head, thence descended to the peak of Him&laya, thence to
the earth and thence to the nether world where her waters
sanctified the offspring of Sagara. The whole story is given
in R&tn&. 1.85-44. For qril*!?^ some read qcfRT RTW
0

fil^TcNr^ ( bis i . e. Siva's mountain ). *?#TWmff ^cfrRf?


( 3T ); a mountain. 3 p f f W - T h e Ganges comes down
to a lower and lower position, ^gfflow, base. artRTor ra-
ther, what wonder i f . f%%^^rWTB[GangA, in her arrogance
thought that she would bear down even Siva and enter into the
nether world with him; she was punished for this by Siva, See
B6m. f^FPTItHMark the double entendre on this word which
means (i) great fall, and (ii) destruction, ruin. ^rcTS^r^pplies to
i

8 NOTES ON

the river i its literal sense; in the other case i t means, in a


hundred ways/ The fig. is Arth&ntarany&sa.
11. foapg5ef snwfc
a
S'l. ( & fa*) fire. ^
jg^TS F^f&r *TOr% ( urges men to action ) See
Sid. Kan. on P&n. I l l , 1. 114. ?rr*r *F ^^cfllff snr* ?T ^ R :
^?T ^FT *TT: I ^rm^ sftp s r g r ^ r e w ^ ? f upmita samasa.
5

s
f^l%?Tp. p. of ?gt to sharpen; also Wcf* H^ST^R*F3r i
a spell, a charm, i^pr is its employment for practical purpo-
ses, f^q*ism. and neu. drpsPTfrom ^ H ^ + 3TCT medicine.
#*T: qrr^F: ^mct 3T^um% afafifc ! T%?cT prescribed or laid
down in the S'astras. *j#Fzr &c.~-i. e. for his folly.
-
S'l 12. srrffcsrThe best way is to take the Oomp. as
consisting of three things, vfo. ^rrt?qr ( ^ffcf^r ^TFTi T5T ) po-
etic, compositions, ^t?r music and spgr or arts. See com.
*fRRFPThe verb sfj^is not Atm. and so the pre. p. ought
to be ^frfq\ Bu*t the form is defended by the following rule of
P&n. cn^sOTFT^^^^VJ^v ^TFP^ The term, srpf ( ^ j q ^ a n d
mot ^TFp^) is applied to a root when i t implies habit, age or
a
power; ^ (habit), efpspf f%OTT: ( g$j a young man ),
5
^ I ^ FTSFT* (power). sffgiTFTi may, therefore, mean * accusto-
?
med to live ( cH^tc*? )5 living. ^R^~*fT*r m ^FT^PT Good
luck. gr is added to STR and $n"*r ^rf t . a. without
any alteration of sense.
S'L 13. ^j^may here refer to < knowledge of the self,
or higher knowledge, gonSuch a courage, generosity of
mind &c. t$if:discharge of duty or religious merit. yffi
^re^cTTi burden to the earth. q^p^lFr In this world of
a

mortalsshould be construed with ^ f % .


^"s^r^qor &c.The fig, here is Apahnuti Sf^?f ^ f % r f i r -
4

?
s^n^c^s^r ^n?f 7^1%: where the real thing ( the matter in
hand, the gtr%?r ) is denied and some thing unreal (the CTPTFO
is affirmed in its place, is Apahnuti* of fk^ffkfw* trjj: Si. 20.
S I . 14. ir$ff~fr. (qspst a joint, apart). -the impassable
place. STPct^ p. p. used as a noun; for a similar use ef
MTIS'ATAKA. 9

( g a i t ) r%Tfrsprarerc^: S'is. I . 2. ;yirrew^gtfa@rmrt crqt^^rr-


lf%W iTm^TT^; R&g- I I * 18. TThe derivation of this word
is far-fetched, jgg xjfft gT-* he who grants what is desired,
lisT ^S^ftTT ( nectar churned out oi the sea ) 3TPT^J 3T#-
Wli%m% Pan. V . 2. 127. cf Rama. gTPTRSTfKfT:
: | The word, however, is of later growth, the original
word being sfngif from which i t was derived. See note on 3Tf
Rag. I I . 37.
8
S'l, 15. W g f r T ^ f r ( such a grammar, rhetoric
&o. ) a:q^?n: ( refined, polished ) % %: ^p^rr agreeable,
P a a
charming jft: qcfr^ J ^flJ-OTR-Tm^Rf 3r<lf TfTTTTf% ^ I -
s
V I . 1. 139. arqrapsr: f H ^ r t f 3 1 % r ? % - ^ i inserted between
gpcr and & when these senses are to be implied; ^r*-Tr!f?ir#C^<^!-~
hj ^ we ought to understand that % is inserted to express the
senses already given ( i. e. Wfflfa ^ Pan. V I . 1.137, 138 ) .
rrfar^Wf STrWR adding a property or excellence; f^scTSTf %|}cf

3?3^fTr ic*}**: t This sense will do i n the present case;


WTT: fTlff err: ( collected together ) |??r*r: t ^^N^^fi"

^F2?T^TTsffr^r sgW I Sid. Kau. This last sense w i l l also dowhose


speeches are embellished with quotations from the different
S'astras.
pfr^s^nprr.3TPT*r properly means the Vedas, but here i t
means literary acquirements, knowledge of the different branches
of learning. gjfg-a learned man. a-rrSKFstupidity, inability to
appreciate the merits of. | ^ : - f r % | f ^f?TO5 from fsr-f 5f<r^ t
'%9T*TFErfawt P&n. I I I . 2. 175. These roots take this
aff. frr s#T#; R m m**Rf
5
& ?Nc means 'rich' here. Cf
' m sprE#r| H . Lfraeqrr:from %mlO A . to censure, fit to
he censured, fit to blame. S T s f o : qrfcTcnr:-Valued lower than their
seal worth. Thefig.i n the first three lines is ffflsn-W i n as
much as the poets are spoken of as f J S ^ , though without wealth,
which apparent Virodha or incongruity is removed by taking
10 NOTES ON

| R to mean rich in the store of knowledge. The fig. in the*


last line is ST ST-
;

S'L 16. rw: ^FcT over which the eyes-


( fffzzeye ) move, hence visible to; i t generally means 'within
?
the scope of (aft meaning an indriya); i t also means a.
pasturage, where *ft means a cow. The word is irregularly
formed by <*fr^^TC &o. Pan III.,3. 119. f%^-indesoribable.
Strife Sphere means <to bring about/ Cf for this sense
RF*f*r5sfacf g^fcT T% Vair. S'at. 34. The word very often-
occurs in S'akuntala. ^qrF%^spm is a day of Brahm& equal
induration to the four Yugas (4,320,000 years ) rolling on
1000 times, which also measures the duration of creation.
Vidy& is not destroyed like every other thing at the end of a
Kalpa. Cf for the idea fggr fFcT^gjTf ^TfTT% WW W^ffa 1
and Kum. I . 30; also q- *qftfR rT ^ TI^Tf 1^ T W^^rT^ *T
^TH^IK I m *TWcT R5*T ffaPFf ^pnraT^R ll Subha,
?TT^a[R &c.-Give up your pride or sense of personal greatness
towards them i, e. act with courtesy and humility towards
s

them. |f: i s used with the Inst., cf SifqfftTH" ^ Cpfar'


c

Bk. XV". 65. The fig.s are S ^ R R ^ F and fffRRRT (in the 2nd 1.).
S'l. 17. TOFfthe highest object to be aimed at; the
highest truth *\ e. Knowledge about Brahma or the Surpreme
Spirit, q-fo^.see s'L 7. F?^$*fr:Wealth that insigni-
fieant thing (like grass ). The contrast is betweeen trwr^F
and (jffifiR c$g&$ifr- hindrance.
a

S'L 18. The idea expressed in the s'l. is thisA king, even
though angry with a learned man, can at the most deprive him
of his external comforts but do him no further injuryhe can-
not deprive him of his great inherent virtues. a r ^ F M f c - * - ^
a bed. f^tRT^ may mean 'wholly, entirely/ i f taken with
or 'exceedingly, very much/ when taken with ^fqff. g^nprpSf^f<>-
The power of separating milk from water is supposed to belong
to all swans* Cf qtf ^ i t r f t c t w f%w ^^PS^nX*
Pan. Tan. L ^ l W f r fcffrasf *Wf 5 3 * M < f w i % ^ g ^ * r *

NiTIS'ATAKA. 11

y^?t ^ f ^ f f r U Bh&ra. V i L I . 12. | f r ^ f f ^ ^ q - >rrf:


4

See note on glf^rqr s'L 3. The word is used here in the sense of
'natural skill or capacity/ greq^gg ^rg^ 1?^^ qft^PTf^ I
SL 19. an armlet. sB^^rwr*polished or refined
by culture. Cf Kill. % q ^ f q f FRTflRT<ftcT*?T *fT$3T frlfWW''
Ktun. I . 28, where Malli, renders the word *Rq?r* ky s^TR?^"
^ F ^ r ^ J ^ ' ' Here of course the word means more than that
Lasting for ever.
a s 8w e
S'L 20. qppris used here STT^T^T ' i H known'; or i t
9
may have the sense of 'indeed, verily as in qqri T%rt or ?r
STFT W^fR^ Vik. gr^S'vri!!^*The Oomp. may be taken in two
v e r
ways g-^sr qs?r fT^TT y carefully protected, or rpSsFSWtl
W 2?f ^ carefully concealed ( from view and protected ) Cf
f*fn% ^ supra s'l. 16. %ir^Fffr~contributing to pleasures,
from %^4-^+2:: ( 3T ) added fcfr+-^ see com., z is attached
to ^ in these senses:-*TflF$fT f%?rr# ( m^flc*? )> f ''WW
( 3TTS#f**T )i Sid. Ivau. g^cnf 5 ^ : the preceptor of preceptors^
or the greatest of the great. For the Gen. g^utf see P&n I I . 3.
41. ( ^cl^FT'^R^q; ) and Apte's G, 82. Thefem. of ^ is gaff
o r ^ : j The rule is <fmr s t i r e w i ^
1
I V . 1. 44. *3rf^Rt-
qsjTsr 1 V&rt.-Adjeetives of quality ending in 3: not preceded by
a conjunct consonant, except form their fem. by adding f
optionally. See Gr. 319. ^*^t% R|Tr?%fcr 3 * 3 : *
+ 3* Un. I . 10. n^TO* IpT^FThe construction is rather
unidiomatic from a grammatical point of view. The rule of
Pan. is ^ *m*TPf H . 3. 67. Past. p. participles ending i n
?

?T, when used in the sense of the present tense, are used with
5
the Gen.; xwt Tff > WSh 'itfsrat ^T* The Loc. may be explained
as flcfqrfw^ot, TT*n 1^% S;raTcTr or the whole may be taken as
a Oomp. word meaning well ( g; ) respected ( gysrcIT ) by kings
( TRf%: )* ftvffr^Fr: 7^:Oomp. s'l.s 12, 13.
Fig.As there are many rupakas in this s i . the figure of
speech is 3fala~rupaka. A ^qq is defined as Q^qqnr^^rjf P
OT^^7TO*fpthe identity of the grqi?Fr.and OTH*^ is RupaJca
12 NOTES ON

e, when two things known to be quite different from each


other are identified together to show their great resemblance
to each other the fig. is Rupaka.
S'l. 21. ^ r f - e p s ^ - f snrrotf
c w 5 ^ & qsftwrftr 1
grq%T *s undoubtedly a better reading. The other reading
vsfit*{ means 'why need conciliatory words' i. e. these are super-
fluous. $jfp:Anger itself is a great enemy as i t causes much
restlessness and worry to a man. ^nfft &e.Because the
dayadas are a fire that internally consumes, becomes n$;
?
after g or gr^ when the sense is 'a friend or a foe ; ( see com. );
55^r: ft^tr: t Sid. Kau. Bm^rr*T anRff *pqr 3PWT )
SRWr blameless, commendable and not STT^|^rf%f%5Tr* Mark
the difference of meaning between 3^37 and 3Tip? both formed
by the aff. ^ ; the former means what is not fit to be spoken*
what deserves blame; the latter 'what ought not to be named/
as sreg- qpt? g*FTT*T. See Kau., on Pan. I I I . 1. 101,
(3ww*re*fr ^ < r f ^ f r ^ r r % l % 1 ) sftermodesty, g c f r n r c r r
is used here in the sense of 'good power of composition, poetic
genius'. Cf cyt^T^S^ s'l. 55, further on.
S'l. 2 2 . ^rf^T *generosity, kindness. Cf ^%trrr vf&ft
72

R a 3 1
S'&k. and ^ r f ^ ^ ^ r S ! - STW^RPPT W I Tbi* is to
pay t i t for tat. sp^:politic behaviour; a conduct of policy
an^^orectitude, straightforwardness. ^5ircatiousness,
shrewdness. afctfTOft:stability or preservation o*
social order.
S'l. S3. qff^ ^5p3:a curious phrase. I t means
'causes n\en to be always truthful/ ^T^r^rar ^Tf ^ + ^ -
f^fcTbrings about; lit. grants, sr^rr^f^purifies, enlightens.
f ?
f the similar use of say in English poetry. Cf.
c

q^qf t?r^fri% w - tfcrf T%5 * ^fc^resfrm H Bham. V i l . I ,


119; also jjfTSRFT $m : **T ^rsrfcT^R^M WcTf f | STIf: ^
&c. Fig.In the last line there is 3T$tfnf^*mr srgffTC. There is
t h e first t h r e e l i B e s
Also ^ F T c ? f R ( ) > OffSffa:)
"f^Hffflfj^JOTTOWTfr^ffaVEf- When a case noun occurring oaoe
NlTIS'ATAEA. 13
is connected with a plurality of verbs we have the ( second )
of jsfl wrwfR.
SL 24. 3TS!n%-~Glory to; veneration to (implied ).
^fift* i Pan. V . 2. 115; (1) meritorious, whose works are
:
good. (2) adepts in the preparation of medicines. c^ri%^T "*
iee com.; perfect or accomplished i n the Rasas or sentiments
i. 4. capable of depicting the various sentiments, and, thereby
touching the passions and feelings of men ( what constitutes
the soul of poetry); masters of the poetic art. The Rasas are
eight in number; viz. W R ^ f ^ ^ ^ f 3 ^ r ^ ^ R ^ r : * l *ffaw-
Kfi\ ^ TOP ($TF3?g 5 P P T : *fcH IUTFCT is also added ). Some
also add a tenth-^i^rs^TO- The Rasasa are more or less a
necessary factor of every poetic composition. But according
to Vis'van&tha they constitute the very essence of poetry
( since he defines qsrsq* as qjsptTOHW$$rr3*T*l ) . TOT%3 is also
a S'lishta word. The side meaning is who are skilled i n
managing mercury ( ^ r ) , which, when prepared in a particular
7 1
way, is supposed to grant exemption from old age. ap?P^PT
^ryfl^qr: WW* I ^I^T irregularly derived from j % ; ^re%sf?JT^9T~
ff^Tm^, 3?vrrf?*m * P F T : I r%+*r5i , ^ sp: i P&n. I I I .
3. 41. TO fr. viT+STT Cf ^ffatf^mfiffr
aTOT% I ^CRT ^TIPTO^ II Subh&. The
fig. in this sL is 3'lesha,
S'L 25. ^3:a son; f& i ffor 3 . TJn. I I I .
(

35. BWfttPwell-behaved. ^r?fr^tff ^ t M t ^nT3TtTT Amara.


TOr^SgW-ready to favour, favourably disposed. - arqfitf-
' a w ^ i t W llcf i from I to purify &0.4-T?t: qHffor I refined^
polished: hence elegant or beautiful with. f^CTTsfH^cfl^I^
JoTI%: I habitually pleasing the world, joy of the world
Vishnu Toeing the most popular deity). The fig. here is
a I l
gF^TPJcTT ( d not ^ f w ) which is defined as P R r f R ? ^^k:
^ ^ c ^ l f a c f l " ' K# P.a combination of several objects
having the same attribute ( here acquisition of the various
things mentioned ) the objects being either all relevant ox
all irrelevant.
NOTES ON
S'L 26, 3frF?:restraint over the mind ( i . e. checking
such a desire ). gRT%at the proper time, timely (charity).
?T5R2fr** ^*TRT% according to one's power or means. *rqit}
maintaining silence with regard to speaking about other
people's wives; in such cases spr means *a collection/ q^qf-is
.connected with jqjfto by tffa^&FF iPWSWT9[ ( when the eonnec-
tion is easily understood ) tfTFft: i For a similar idea ef
-3TT%qW*f<sr ?rnr I S'ak V . garf* is the fern, of P&n.
I V . 1. 77. ^rcnrFRfo:The idea recurs in Vai. S'at. L 45.
( mm *m & 0
-) w *n^r f $er 1 CTCT: <RT$
| See Vart. on Pan. V . 1. 124. Common to all the
S'astras. srgqr^o whose application (operation) is unob-
structed . e. which never fails to produce the desired effect.
(
Which violates no rules or ordinance-' K* T . Telang.
"SfaraT Blessings of pll kinds.
S'l. 27. sfr^hby law or poor-spirited men, men inca-
pable of sustained exertion, FT^SFP^f SlTPTf I%^tfil%; f^T+f
:
+ T%+3" I *rvqr.nxen of the 2nd cla3s. Cf Mud- I I . 70.
S'L 28. f$3fj(TAgreeable and yet not departing from y

standing to, justice, just, ffxr:course of conduct, behaviour.


jqrf^~^SF*nfc?T > ^ + 1 ^ 3 7 ^ 5 ? I see Pan. V . 2. 114 A
dirty or foul deed. af<EF?r: &c.Because 3Tf%H7r%Er^%PI *f
o r 6X 9 6 6 su
^f^T^gJ'flT i ^ & i- pr#* 21. Mr. Joglekar
takes this in the general sense of ' a noble-minded person/
deriving i t as (fr*Pt Wt> <>PP d to stgf?P. But I am
a a oae

f
inclined to take i t rather in its restricted sense of < a friend
who alone maybe appealed to for help under any circum-
stances, and not every good person* The force of srfqf is
then properly brought out. The use of the sing. ^rf^r also
shows that that is the intention of the poet. Otherwise he
should have used the plural corresponding to
.^tt^Acting nobly, keeping up one's dignity. Cf S'is.
tlX. 5. q ^ ^ & N " & 'Tread follow/in the foot-steps (of
e
5

the great ). gffg-is here used for ^qff^* advised, dictated.


^f^v^xT5(cT9r-*Three meanings can be assigned to this ( 1 )
I,

NiTIS'ATAKA. 15
5
wfWTTFSt ^ T ^ f t f if 3Ft WcT the vow difficult like that of lying
on the edge of a sword. Cf K i d . p. 396;
(2) or as Mailt explains i t ( Rag. X I I I . 67. ) m$

S^ ^ l W R ^ (moving on) g^cqr^WRPrfff^?!^^ I Or (8)


according to some ^zpf *r% Wf?T T?TWFT ^ ^ f r ^ W Septra'-
.3fg^ \ Or ( see com. ) . This explains the extreme difficulty of
the course of conduct marked out for themselves by the good,
S'l. 29. An Anyolcti. ^r*r~P hed with; % + E F # K rf>: \
ar

r
*p. p. of 75r. to be reduced: Pan. V I I . 2. 55. f^r^ST^T*
Almost full of wrinkles, or decayed. N. B. A t the end of a

Oomp. qp^ may be translated by (1) for the most part, almost;
as icFRHT.* (2) abounding or rich in, full of; asOTfesTRtW ^ T
and like, resembling; as wfocPHtf f%^- f w ^ # l % % ^ t f s r f t
means lustre', fire; hence vigour, energy.
^SpST & - H T T T - intoxicated, furious. SCTgya mouthful.
c

?TW &e. whose desire is fixed solely on eating &c. T F T H S ^ r r ^


great by self-respect or honour. srifcRT:STS^apiTTif ^SRfftfff
-mm* i ( see com. ). q^fr^frfqr H<Tr^fF i clff
^mwmwwmv^ ( Rag. i s . 5 5 . ) i ^rg^TfrfcT f^r?r; r

Sid. Kau. The change of 3TIT to sfsr is irregular.


a s
3T^FFcTT!%; applied to the pollen of flowers, both
and are correct; but as applied to the mane of a lion % ^
is the only correct form. Hence % # f ^ is the only correct
form and not %^tR^ when meaning a lion ( as written i n
iome lexicons ) .
S'l. SO. f5fF{f^r-~The word $rfg- is curiously derived i n
Manu Sm. V* 55. nf ^ ^faerrsgsr ^ffiffrtRf^ I ^ f P ^ T ^
-sfreH" q^^FcT ifR?fqq: (| 3TR^T#Ta small bone; q? in such cases
is used in a diminutive sense; i t may also have a deprecatory
sense here; fri^cr^re^ 3 i T l ^ ^ - The reading arfw % has no
special propriety here. f%f:f|qrFffl%? a word of the
class; ftfSf ^^rfwWrj; ! Sid, Kau. ^ T ^ r * ^ worthy of, i n
keeping with, one's greatness or magnanimity of hearty
16 NOTES ON
inherent disposition or character ( according to Malli; see com.
on Rag. V . 21. ) FigArtkantaranya&a. For the idea comp..

3P*ra1 g 3>T^ II Bha. V I . 1, 49.


S I . 31. ^ > r ^ ^ r r ^ ^ ~ ( l ) He falls down on his knees;
(2) falls at the feet of another. Both the senses seem to be
afc
intended, f^o^.the giver of food, ^qffipygW *" 5
the
end of a Oomp. indicates excellence. Compare the similar use
of such words as spr*r, &C. see com. fnc[with patience
or seriousness. ^rg^RT:with hundreds of cajoling expres-
sions or words of coaxing ( addressed to him ). A n Anyohii
( a kind of Apra&tutaprars'amsa ) .
S'l. 32. qf^r^R"Rotating, revolving:an idea that fits-
in well with Samsara which means 'that in which the soul
passes from one corporeal existence to another/ *FtT. cpf *f
who, indeed, being dead is not born again ? This is
the sense in which the late Mr. Telang seems to take this
passage. But the condition of death must follow that of
birth, so i t is better to construe it as gj; ?f 3?f 37 ?f W^RT
who is not born and who is not dead: birth and death are the
necessary conditions through which every one must pass. Cf
Bg I I . 27. quoted in the com. ^?ptf%elevation, eminence,
a rise in status.

S'L 33. $sftff STTOt q ^ i two fold' ^ r r e i 3*FT>


f

cRTTJ flf^r^f \ Pan. V, 2. 42, 43. 3?*? is optionally

substituted for %q in the ease of f | or j % ; f|cR, gr4; fsRT^ W*H3>


jfqf^g;noble-minded, high-souled. gr *r<f[ &e. v. I. means;-
There are two courses ( of action ) for &c. The former is
preferable as i t implies an amount of consideration and
determination on the part of the Manishin. ^f( 37 &o.(1)
at the head of all; (2) on the head &c. For the idea expressed
here comp. 5*ffl*i: OTTW T%^T 5 $ faricR ^%3RTT~
^ T H U Uttar. I . ff^xsN A high-minded man rather than
0

occupy a low position retires from society and leads a secluded,


life. Fig. Upavia*
NiTIS'ATAKA. 17

SL 34. fffqf%from ^ff^speechHhtrirr the lord of; here


7
the planet Jupiter, 'w&fift: g ^ f f c J W V&rt.
on P6n. V I . 1. 1.57. ?? is substituted for the final of % ^ and cTc[
when followed by qf% and when the sense is a particular
deity and a thief respectively; so 9^+qa^=ereq*<C* ?T^rf%?fr:
well respected or esteemed i. e. of middle size.
f^q-osee com,; or fqr$sqQ unusual, uncommon*
or f^tsqef %t% 1fa*ra:\ W complete, hence uncommon
fop*: f # * * H3T Vf%: TO bent on performing deeds of
unusual valour. |^psj% A denom. fromgr meaning %f qjfTfff;
derived with the aff. qpqfgr. see com. ^ r e ^ - b r i l l i a n t . ^ppp^:-^
revolving; fft*p: by w r a f e i f c &c. P&n. I I I . 4. 72, trt^
The time of new or full moon ( opposition or conjunction ).
The allusion here is to the severance of the demon's
head at the time when the nectar that was churned out of the
ocean was served to the gods, and R&hu attempted to drink i t
by joining their line. The sun and the moon informed Vishnu
of the fraud, whereupon he severed the demon's hea3 with his
discus. But as the demon had tasted a little quantity of
Amrta the head lived and is supposed to wreak its vengeance
on the two luminaries. See Mat. Pu. Adh. I I . 5. 13. 16. BhSg*
P. V I I I . 9. 23-26. The fig. is srift^qptfCT the action of
B&hu which is not the matter i n hand ( siffttpr ) implies the
action of an inveterate wicked man which is the matter intend-
ed to be described.
SL 35. 4"llHhH5T The flat surface of (extensive board form*
ad by ) his hoods. Oomp. Mat. Pu. OOLIX. 7. T^fan^on
the back. Avy. Com. This is less common though by no
means very rare: comp. Bv. L 60; Nai. I I I . 40; Sis. I I I . 70.
V I I . 32 and 70 Bhatti. V . 4. trft m^l m \ Pin. I I .
1. 18. The words qjr ad %&q are optionally compounded
with a noun i n the Gen. case forming an Avy., the final & oi
these being irregularly ( f?ftRRT3; y$*m *R^tf*TCTfSr 1 Sid.
Kan* ) changed to t$; optionally there may be Gen. Tat e, g f

N. N* 2
18 NOTES ON

TffFTRKk n^m^Icj;. When the last word has the sense of the
Loc. the final may be changed to 3 ^ as here, the sense being
tr^fsr * T ^ . See Gr. 274. ^ f ^ r ^ R - ^ T l properly means the
1

bosom ( j g s T F c R ' see Amara. 11, 77. ); hence a portion, a corner


of the ocean's surface. sf% 3 T I % 9>PCT*frT LOC. Tat. The Tad.
aff. ar ( ) is necessarily added to a Tat. ending in 3^% by
Pan. V. 4. 7. BRT^Tnt with but scanty regard. The ocean seems
to take but little notice of the Tortoise with his immense body.
For the story see Mat. Pu. Ohap. OOXLIX. 26, 26, sfp- ex-
?

presses here'wonder, astonishment/ ( R J ^ f p T R * * T T^Nfeir


ffT^rr *Jpat. The fern, of H : ^ ^ is formed in three ways- so
the other forms of the ph are fr:WTT- * R ^ T * ^ * ; see
a n
< 5

^ p T ^ Gr. 1 329. The fig. in the first three lines is M&ladipaka,


and in the fourth artkmtaranyasa ( confirming the general pro-
position about the magnanimity of the actions of the great
iby the particular instance of the sea ).
Si. 36. vpsf^xIndra. The word here may be w r q ; or
Wici;; snprT W l o r T h e former is derived by
f
'^ST^TafUn 1.159. the latter by TT^j Pan. V I . 4. 128.
tPsrrcnC. Main&ka, son of Him&laya and Mena Cf 3T*$cT3nr

Kum. I . 20. Allusion-Formerly the moun-


'^TT^f ^ T W ^ c T R r ^
tains had wings with which they flew about and grew very
troublesome. To stop the evil Indra lopped off their wings
with his thunderbolt when hundreds of them flew to the sea for
protection. Only Mainaka escaped the fate which overtook:
others. For this legend, see U&mL Sun. K, Adh. I . 115-119.
For the physical explanation, see Notes on Rag. I , fi8. Mark
the use of the word # f % c T here. In the construction of <n;q; ^
or ^ g?r:, studi word is not usual, its signification being impli-
a

ed in the construction itself. Mr. Telang's notes.


1. 37. ^HfTrjsince then; in as much as. qr|: f f c : (1)
touched with the rays; (2) with feet. %^^fr of pre-eminen*
valour, f ^ ; showing excess ) ^WFr^^TW^f T^T: Pan. V*
NiTIS'ATAKA. 19

% 12L rafrftfinsult. Cf ?r % ^ % ^ # T O c r r % l : ^ w f ^ ^ ?re*r

" f ^ a w m r T%cT ?T ?fatfl% II Uttar. V I . 14; also gr:*?r

8
frnsRT per f C I T *^r%fiT H K i r . I 43, where PTHPTT * the same as
fqr?l%. C'f. also I I I . 44. f^frrfr F". /. which nearly means the
same thing. I t properly means 'change, agitation;' hence what
causes such agitation, offence, injury. Fig, Drst&nta.
SL 38. f f q f ^ ? r P f f ^ *3ratf*r^r *wt erg i w*ar<fr^f
^qxgrfirTff (wall-like), excellent cheeks; the excellence consist-
ing in their breadth or massiveness. JTff%^T^TRrri
,2: >
^Tc?rf%xrr- Ga7iamtnamahodadhi quoted by MallL i n his com.on
c
Bag. V . 43. Or this may mean the temples and cheeks/
f*n% properly moans a wall, fr. fSfpg to separate: a wall separates
two rooms, hence any thing that separates, distinguishes (used
at the end of a Harm. Oomp. ). s?frr^'nature/ a permanent
trait i n one's character; opp. to j%^r%* Oomp. sL 52, last line.
Fot the idea oomp. EMd&saefcrgf f | ^ %m Bag,
X I . 1. and ?fgr?rr w snm^TT r : ^ r c g s r e t i
SL 39. crrfrr^frH' &c.The idea of the sL is that all these
qualities sink into utter insignificance when compared to mo-
ney. I f one has money these are nothing to him. Oomp. si. 41.
.^epyone of the seven regions below the earth. These aio
mm, f%cTc2r? m&, vsim> mm*>> ^iTerer and qmm tfterVir-
tuous conduct, character. I t is a word of constant occurrence
in Bhar.; cf. S'lokas 18,42, 82, 109, &o. a r r ^ T n o b i l i t y ot
birth. Cf Mai. Mad. I I . 13. S&k I V . 18. %ftpTBravery
is said here to be an enemy as i t often proves an obstacle to
earning money. A brave man can never stoop t o sueh mean
acts as i t sometimes becomes necessary for a seeker of wealth,
to perform. ^#%qr &cThis explains why wealth ia desired
at the cost of *rri% and so the fig. is KavyaliQga.
SI. 40. $F?C*rrFTCf?*T is peculiarly derived by Pan. ( V _
20 NOTES ON

the soul, the lord of the body. I t is thus explained by Vamanax

swifter i $s*rrcw ssfSrwsfc i ?^ur SOTTJJRT

%$wm l Al80.f?^qT?q-;rr5#q^;i Bhaitoji. There are two kinds


of IndriyasJnanendriyas and ICarmendriyas, thus given by
M a n u c f ^ g q r f^rnr nro^rr ^ qsrm i qrg?RT S*CNT<?
q"I^=lsr ^ j i f r ^fcir ll *RW is the eleventh organ of sense
which is internal. I n the Ved&nta I F R I ^ g f l k 3 T i f 3 2 K I%xf
are said to be the four internal organs. According to some
these are the different faculties constituting the mind or apcp-
#^rr. Others add ^rcf^^crr to the list making up a qsg-sjr.
gf^jrT is evidently used here for the mind and not i n the sense
of the Vedantins. BTtff^TcTunrepulsed, in full (un-impaired)
vigour, g*^^power or manner of speech. aT%ff&r^Oomp.
T^tfsr ^ t . I I . ^ff^fsqrf Mv. ar**?: &Cbecomes quite a
changed man (inasmuch as he is differently treated by the-
world at large ); see the nest si.
Si. 41. cpftT:nobly born. Cf for the idea in the s'lokas*
89-41 the well-known Subhashita ^^T^fSTW l%ril% ^FTT^fl^W
s f ^ i : i ^T*rh srn* *mtfu *t ^ifwRr: u Also vtmtm

K&vyalmga, ^ gaij: ^P5^nnn% explaining the reason of a*


wealthy man being considered &c.
SI. 42. |rii?52rrgc~see com. ^^fattachment to wordly
objects, association with men.^tH^:?FTift W^W^T 5R*tt from
l R + ^ p a C ( a w ) - srafrTORserving, propitiating a wicked
man I n doing this one is likely by habit to loss one's good
#

disposition, impudence, impolitic conduct.


vant of proper care or supervision. nrraniTfcarelessness or
indiscretion (not exercising prudence and judgment) ia expen-
diture, including charity, is evidently a better reading thatt*
NiTIS'ATAKA. 21

c
iFgpTTct where means liberality, giving away/ I t
also keeps up symmetry. Fig. g5^lT*Tcn? T^WTflt indicating the
common attribute*

SL 43. *xff;passage out; money goes out i n these three


ways, sfr &c.The language here is rather condensed, f^tr
must be supplied from the first line as the object of gp^Ti% and
I^TTW after
?
;
which means his answering to q":.

SL 44. W^frst^*Cut or polished on a polishing stone*


^T%f%^<Tforcibly struck wounded with weapons. ^\$ffivM
e
means shattered, hewn, and is a stronger term than f?=T??f:.
3Tf^fto|-:^ffcrj-: Inst. Tat; reduced by the flow of rut. Here
*fjsr: has the same meaning as #cr$or ( thin, which is a mark
: w
of beauty ). This is preferable to fn*T?T? b i c h is a Bah. and
implies the cessation of the flow of rut, and therefore the
poet uses the rather unusual Inst. Tat. s r r ^ q r F T * f r o m
^ to become dry or thick + ^ ; shrunken. Cf flSfc ^fft^gfrT:

II Mud. I I I . 7. As the floods subside i n autumn the


rivers shrink back into their proper beds and look beautiful
with their pellucid water, Cf f^qcffarf WT^ff ^5[Hf %wrc$Rf
^rfanaprt % t t ^ Pre!*? ^ ^ ^^11^5 ^ r i TO? t
Bhayfci. I I . 1. Also Bag. I V . 19. 21.

^ r ^ ( W T ) qssrr Spf^PTt I Such a moon is con-


sidered not only beautiful but also an object of reverence. Cf.
Bag, V . 16. quoted in theOom. also sxaTq^^qiq'gff^ra' ^ T l f l W ^
SFxfT f q ^ f K i r , I I . 11. For the poetical account of the wan-
ing of the moon, supposed to be drunk in turns by the gods,
j)ttrs $*c, see our Baghu ( V . 16 ) and note thereon. Klfk*f%
An abs* noun from ?rg. The afE. ^itfsr* ( ) is optionally
added, to form abstract nouns to tj-g, *rg, q f ^ , trg, $g & c 'jpeiT-
>

#vqr i r r f ^ ^ ' P&n. V , 1. 122. a r f ^ f &cas Oharudatta, the


Jhero of the Mrch.; and not i n vices*
22 NOTES ON
4
Fig. dipafta, as the common attribute $T*rr is mentioned
once with regard to * s r ^ r which is H^ET ( matter in hand ) and
?

with respect to * n % &o. which are s r i R g c r * ' ^gFTTSg ST^N^r

SL 45. qrf^fpnReduced in circumstances every way (trie):,


completely poverty-stricken, jf^rfc! properly means the palm
hollowed, hence by Zaksha?la what is contained therein; also
a measure equal to two pahs. sgfSTftfgoverns the Dat.
See Pan. I . 4. 56. ^gyf: full of, sciL wealth, opp. to gR^T^T-
ai a
Mark the force of the prepositions q-pr *d ^ qo^r^ffT ( verb
capable of a very large number of meanings according to con-
text); here, thinks, considers.

3T?T:hence; {. e. because of the fact mentioned above, ar^-


gfpcSfThe state of ha via g no fixity, uncertainty ^ ^ppcjTFf
c^FcT EFW *TTf: I The last two lines are somewhat puzzling and
have been differently interpreted. For construction see com,
The meaning is that since there is variability with regard to
the greatness or smallness of the same thing it must he con*
eluded that i t is the state of life of those possessed of wealth
that causes the things so to appear.

SL 46. ?sr$rf%desiderative of although a f | ^ W root^


i t is here used with one object. f^TT^^fita Karm. and the
Fig, properly is ^qqp. ^q-equivalent to fnf 3*SF seems to
have been used here in a wider sense:now, at present* This
verse gives a very sound advice to princes to secure the pros-
perity of their states. The last three lines contain an 3rtpflT and
the metaphor of the first has not been kept up. \^j%o therefore
should be taken as in the Oom. Cf Rag. I . 26. gfjf i f

SL 47. ffwr-murderous, cruel, bloody. From adde<$


7
f n ^ f l ^ by ' ?FWF<T & c Pan* H I . 2. 147. sr^qrr-sHf W
?? *IW I with an eye solely to wealth; greedy, <?fr^-~ liberal,.
NiTIS'ATAKA 23

munificent, f^c^f may be taken either as adj. or adv. i n the


m
dissolution of the compounds, ftiqszrarr & R^f^PT^nW* The
fig, is TJpama.
SL 48. BqtTafrrpower to enforce command. Ramarshi con-
siders the word srrfPJTHT^ to be an swgjtrr u e. as including
all people. The Br&hmarias are specially mentioned as most
deserving help and protection, their priestly avocation making
i t impossible for them to defend themselves with arms &c.
&o. who have not gained these sis qualities ( special
, t 5
advantages ). q rP^^i rr^f Ttaking shelter with a king t\ e.
m a
becoming royal servants or favourites. Or qrjRTf y be taken
as Voo. singular; i n this case ?fjf may refer to kings; what ia

the use of resorting to those kings who do not &c.


SL 49. Try is the waterless tract now known as
Mar war. fa^%51?^ qjerrft srsrr ^ R I ^ ?ra m*>> t*. ^ + 3" Un. I . 7.
on the mountain Meru, the store-house of wealth. Accord-
ing to the Puranas the mountain Meru is formed of gold and
jewels. I t is the loftiest mountain on earth and the centre
round which the whole-firmament revolves, frqprf fW m
fTfr do not act or behave in an abject manner. The last
:

line shows that on the capacity of a man depends his fortune^


and i t should be rightly understood to counteract the effect o f
the first which is fatalistic. The fig. is Drstanta. See si. 57,

SL 50. ift^TCmoving within the range of the senses (*ff)$


hence, known. See supra si. 16. ^r^3riY%kiwords expressive
of our pitiful condition, supplication. The fig. here is 3TJ?*gcr~
Some liberal person is addressed with these words which
apparently refer to the cloud. 3PT?g?isRfj?r is thus defined

SL 51.
CT'VqRJRQTwith close or assiduous attention.
SfTlfSnr:sueh referring to ^ I C ^ S T R : i n the above Sloka. A l -
hongh the slokas are not mnch connected with each other s t i U
NOTES ON

the poet allows the ellipsis to remain because i t is so easy to


supply i t . %f%f^. %r%a[-some...others, q q- cf$*r g^r
^Trr:before every one that you see. The fig. is 3 } i r ^ 3 W r
here.

SI. 52. aTSRTCorr%l?:causeless strife, unprovoked quarrel.


j^pq[ refers to each of the foregoing nominatives.
SL 53. Every serpent of a particular species is supposed
1
to have in its crest a jewel which shines by night. The verse
ia attributed to Obanakya. See Kavyasaflgraha p. 293. and
.^arangadhara p. 63.' Telang. Thefig.is fsfer by *TT*F"f There
8
is however a mixture of ar^ffr^gsri ! also.
SI. 54. The language here is somewhat condensed, ;pr.%
and v&dfa have to be supplied with every clause, f pner
fjftw: gar: ^I^n%ffT W&fc Sffi^ST^"ne who likes to
stick fast to religious observances. gf?{ordinarily means
^^tflc!' ( $*om Tf^+f^ the 3T being changed to gr by Un. I V .
123 ) one given to contemplation; hence here, a man of reserve,
one who keeps silence. ^p^RT gf^T- Amara. for the Ved&ntic
?

meaning see Bg. I I . 56. quoted in the com. g??rc5Tr5*3^**


I fr. The possessive aff. x here implies censure,
sjW is used here ^ T T 3 T i* to express possibility; or i t may
S

have the sense of 'indeed.' BTF^^*'branded.


SI. 55. pffvf:is regarded as the greatest of all evils being
the origin of most of them. Cf. TPTCT H i t . I . 27.
see com. 3T*T*rHere the srs^ shows f^ft^r ot opposition. f M b
I f a man has ^spqr his courteous conduct will easily win over
strangers and so there will be no lack of relatives to him
wherever he may go. The other reading *sr%: does not
yield a good sense. Bhartrhari considers Vidyi as the best
treasure. Cf SI. 16, 20, 21, and 103. wrw.Of- Bg. I I . 34.
.quoted i n the com. i* tffcfr *rctfrT?ffr %f5? I Mrch.
1. 56. ft^*^5T (Inst. | t l r ) ^nc: rendered pale by
(the overpowering light o f ) day 3R$r^~3*$Wsm$t ^
;
NiTIS'ATAKA. 25

s ^ i N a m Bah. **rrfr:-& 3Tf^er%T <TSS I Cf Unlettered,


illiterate' i n English. Want of learning becomes a disgrace
0re t t e
more marked in such a case. WSfg^NnH wotd tffTfT
;q a r e
is to be emphasised. ^qfif r-Both 3Tf*T 3TWT found
used by classical writers, though the former is the correct
form. The change of T to tr[ in 3TffCT is explained by referring
i t to the fT3pCT?? group. oTj"ff: a wicked man gone to the
courtyard of a king's palace. This may also be metaphorical
who has curried royal favour. This si. is quoted i n the
K. P. as an instance of the fig. ^rg^r-ST^ ^TRTFT qffi ^T5^T
?
tT?^frrTT^%% ^fl^HTI W # * r : ( * causes which are partly
agreeable and partly otherwise). For definition see com.
Here the moon alone obscured by day is sufficient to become a
s'alya ( sore affliction ) and yet others are mentioned.
SL 57. ^|tTR^r-Here the word is :used i n its general
sense; any sacrificer (eomp. ^rr T f N r S&k I . 1. ) and has
nothing to do with the priest of that name at a great sacrifice.
^gr^T-This is not the pre. p. of the root as i t is always Par.;
but formed with the aff. ^ R S T J see noted on 5ffa*TR: SL 12.
<ir^:gfrrcfftf + ogar )- The fig. is Drst&nta which
is thus defined^pern sptifaf ( 3 W ^ T W ^ ^ T ^ M f ) #<*f
srf^fap^r^ I K . P X ,
#

5
&L 58. * n g w : ^ *!g^: ^$5" from
a possessive affix added to the words, of the f ^ i n f ? class; see
P&n. V . 2. 97j garrulous, officious, ^ T P T ^ T h e proper form is
*&qjspi$ i f we add srr^ by TFqrf5j^P&n. l i t . 2. 155.
?
Cf Amara ^ r s s r ^ f ^ g fRT?3": . But as the form stands, i t
must be explained as ereqtftft 3i?q:,^fcFcn s r ? W - 3TST*rF*T~
timid, For the meaning of spT5*T cf. <gara[ ER^sfr flfelfPPrarr'
Bag. V I . 20. BTPT^TfT:noble-born, polite i n behaviour,
eourteous. qftftHfHffiYogins have superhuman power by
their practice of contemplation and so they must know every
:
thing. But this is unfathomable even to them. ar*p*r
difficult to obtain success i n ; difficult properly to carry out*
26 NOTES ON

The other reading gyggr: for ^Tfw: avoids repetition, the


meaning in that case being 'delirious'; but when we look to-
what the common parlance is in this connection, this reading-
does not seem to be preferable.
SL 59. =3^foof one that has brightened all wicked men,
s. e, a scoundrel of the first rank, who has brought credit to
the whole class, f^sr^tyunbridled; one licensed as i t were
to indulge in all sorts of wicked deeds. upsrniF &c.see
com. I t will be inappropriate to analyse as ^#^fpfT: since i t
continues even now. With the reading f^nEgc! for fefasjcT the
sense is-'whose indulgence in wicked eonduct commenced
?
before is now developed. -Telang. I n this ease dissolve HFSfRir

JL 60. This verse very cleverly describes friendship as we


find it in the world. Insincere friendship shows at its highest
at the very beginning, but gradually vanishes and is compared
to the shadow in the morning which is longest at sunrise and
goes on contracting till noon. A good man's friendship,-
however, is hardly preceptible, like the mid-day shadow, at
first, but goes on steadily increasing.
35#fFern, of also see notes on SI- 20. f|^r~-~to be-
connected with ipfcf &c by what 5s called q^^fr JSFW like
4

^3p?TPT SWST^; sec note on tRSff S'. 20, The fig, is Upam
mixed with ^ F f f ^
SL 61. T$*X\ &c."Hc^si^ai-those that aie causelessly
enemies; HC^R&T %RtfT; I The fig. of speech here is ^r&ieq:
which is defined as ^qr&sq- 3S%0Tf SPftOTntf P. X ,
a r Q
Here gsc^fc *TT3T f?3pr mentioned as the respective
enemies of fir, tffa and
SL 62. close application, strong attachment.,
#5%^ir:There is S F W here, *p tm: tWT?t
g % : 1 We have preferred the sing, to the plural as i t keeps up
NlTIS'ATAKA. 27'

the uniformity of construction with regard to the use of the


sing, throughout.
SI. 63 ^q^cnrcleverness in speech, command over langu-
#

age, eloquence. From the way in which the study


of the Vedas is frequently referred to i n the S'atakas we may "
infer that Bhartrhari was not a Buddhist. Cf Si. 66, 67 ; see
Introduction.

SL 64. 3f$PTmeans 3TT3ST; see com.; i t also means haste


which sense will also do here i f we take f%f% to mean 3TT?fl%*T
e
as remarked by Mr. Telang I t would mean the flutter of '
7
preparation to do due honour. qs^ffi* ^cgqsfr^: v. L w i l l mean-
proclaiming the good deeds of others i n an assembly. f^rf^re??
-3Tf$?^: (insult, contempt); ^fjr: essence, gist; conversation
about others without meaning the least offence; even the pith of
which is free from disrespect to others. STf^^rn5Tff^the vow
of lying on the edge of a sword; also, explained otherwise as the
practice of continence even i n the company of a young wife.
See note on SL 28. This SL is quoted in the Kuvalaya-
nanda as an instance of ^g^fcS'fTT? with some variations

SL 65. cafPT charity. Cf ^rnfo s'L 71. WV&T*some


take this with o9R as well as with the nominatives following
i t , with the necessary change of gender, i%wr*T r ^ R ? i JT^lcft*
f^Wfq^r ever victorious; ^ #r JJ^T ^ &o. Some separate
f^^4t making i t an adj. to frlpq% f f f L o c . sing, of f^qr which
optionally becomes g^r from the Acc, plural, f g ; also occurs as a
word by itself, but its use is rare, fr^TO t Amara.
Wfr>srHoly knowledge: or knowledge i n general. Cf %fj% afer%f
q TOVSFT sL 71 infra. The fig. is f%xsmm since there is the mani-
festation of the effect, although its cause \s^[ has been -
denied; T%qp?r: [ | f f t : j ^ # q^qT%ff*TFRT t K . P. X .
28 NOTES ON

*Tf i f e cTW ffrsritow: like a dense ( ) line ( ^rrcf) of rooks


&c. The fig. here ia Upamfi the simile-expressing aff. being
omitted in the compound ^ t ^ ^ p f ^ . For a similar idea,
see SI. 63.
SL 67. ^p?rfT *T wr?teven its name is not heard . e. no
trace of it is left, ^rotr V. I* known L e. through the medium
of the ears g^oRTTCCTby reason of its assuming the form
#

of a pearl. ^ F ^ r n c S v & t i , a. while the sun is in conjunc-


tion with the constellation Sv&ti. I t is supposed that at the
time of the sun coming in conjunction with this constellation
the pearlshells burst open and the rain-drops that they receive
into their cavity form pearls, see Brhatsamhitaof Varahamihira
X V . 13. Cf TTF=rr^re s ^ F c n : srsrra Rrewrsns* i s r c ^ m
g^rqRW H MaL I . 6. ^ ? j | r i % r ^ A good or
faultless pearl. ^ is evidently preferable to *rg\ s?rPT%Since
this verb is repeated a strict rhetorician would detect in thig
^F-TcT^fJ^ (the fault of repeating a word with the same
meaning). The readinggqf &c. is free from this fault.
The figure is Arthantaranyasa.
SL 68. Some take with but that is not good; the
construction should be ^ g i f f r ^ ^ l f l ^ cic^a^rMeaning ' she
that desires the good only of her husband deserves to be called
f ?
wife. epfsrsrqc Mark the gender of this word which is neu\
the gender of Sanskrt words in some cases is quite arbitrary
as remarked by P&n.f%f^TW ^TOPnsffeSFCT Of the
word ^ft which is mas. and is alwsys used in the plural.
3^-^:gu? ITCT^ 5WRFa> The aft T % ^ ( < > i * added
to ^ after the words mentioned in the sutra ^ ^ r ^ i T ^ s r g ^ S
. ^?r: I Pan. I I I . 2. 89.
SL 69. q ^ ^ ^ r ^ ^ ^ r i s i D g to greatness by humility, sgsrr-
qq^:pres. p. of causal of Their appreciation of other
people's merits is in itself a sign of their possessing merits.
f^cToaropfj:rebuking. Contemptuous silence is the best
V
3STiTIS ATAKA. 29-

treatment of a calttminator.^^^srpaTr^foffcn admirable,,


s
f l f (TTT?T*c) %<$tf The fig. here is Virodhabhaaa.
SL 70. *rRf%Hf*^sf:hanging very low. This reading
is preferable to aa the point here is srgcST. arffgcfHNot
hanghfcy. sarfr^T^:with the acquisition of wealth. This s'l.
occurs i n the S ak. Act. V . The figures i n this s'l. according
to Ragbavabhatta are f ^ T ^ T ^ - ^Tc*rq7%f^STT (T^H'FR <BT**T~

SI. 71. Cf s'l, 65 supra. The fig. here is trft^ziT as the


S'astras &c. are specially mentioned as imparting beauty to
the ear &c. to the exclusion of the ear-ornaments &c. I t is
thua definedT^I%H^H' m ^i%cf ^cST?q% 1 m g ' T ^ ^ q t f r ' T

SI, 72. ifrqrr^That from which a person is warded off is-


put i n the AbL ease; see. com. j%<THT ^f^*T?Tmay mean (1) i f ar
*ntf*rg (ffSPPt ^frfa) fNr 5Rifal?r urges (his friend ) to apply
himself to a work beneficial to him; or (2) 3TTci?R ^sPTffsets-
himself about the accomplishment of his friend's good. The Dat.
is to be explained by < f^n^tra^CT ^ ^F^foT WH%qr:' Pin. I I , ,
3. 14. When an infinitive of purpose is not actually used i n a-
sentence its object is put i n the Dat. case; tf^wqfr q - j ^ tfr^p^n^
qicffrq^h Sid. Kau.
SL 73. fw^^Rir^cause to bloom, opens. A denomu
verb derived from with the aff. f ^ f ( o ). f%5pr^fl*r?r:
spep ( fold ) 3*Wfclj f^U blown or expanded. & white
lotus. Like ^gq- i t is a lotus blooming at moon-rise. *qrsff*ffe?
a collection of; properly a circle of* * ^cpsjM <f WW&FC I Amara.
*fr^ff%ff: to be taken with all the threefqr39?, and ^spsrsJT*
affir^rnf application, resolutely setting oneself about. Fig*-
Arthantarang&s&m
SL 74. f%Mr. Telang reads q$ 'some*, % however,
serves as a better correlative of and gives proper force to the
main anertiozu ^ R T ; w h o bring about, accomplish* 3V?fF9:~-
30 NOTES ON

^ T % T 3Tr%"T^^ ifar M - without sacrificing their own good*


S9PifTSfT*? Tm%p;. See note on f|tTP7 1. 72.
SL 75. tj*jat first i.e. before i t was placed on fire, srrqp
( 1 ) heat; ( 2) trouble, f?ST^RST Mark!; or, surely, verily.
eager, %q af&qr reunited with the same water.
3JF*3f{%becomes calm, settles down. The stanza draws a very
nice moral lesson from a common occurrence in the kitchen.
The milk on being well heated begins to boil over; but i f water
is added to i t , it settles down. The fig.s are T3^T?f^7l?5TJF
supported by 3T^r?tT^r*
SI. 76. ftPwhen repeated this has the sense of here
* there, in one place, in another q?r^r or f^stg; ia called ^^TRIV
'SRJflWftft*!3^5qf'Amara, and #U1^I%lL ^ - f a m i l y , a host
of (^srrcfl%: f sr^ ) sfRf^f^-Of Kesava's enemies, the
demons. For the account of the K&lakeyas hiding themselves
in the sea, see Mah, Bhar. Van. P. 101,105. ^rrf^T:&c.
chains of mountains seeking shelter (SQII. from the wrath of
Indra). See notes on s'l. 36. Oomp. T^P^?r ^Wf^rtPT^P 3?T<rcr-
mm nfm: \ <?F ? ^ N $ I ^ P <ft*qr ttffcrf swpmrspr^t
According to the Hartv. Mainaka appears to be the only
-mountain that took refuge in the sea. The poets speak of more
mountains as having taken refuge probably only to magnify the
. greatness of the sea. with the fires that destroy the
world at the end of the creation. The Oommentator R&marshi
gives to this word the sense W ^ W ^ T ^ R r c ^ in addition, but
this is quite obscure, is also a particular cloud though i t is
not intended here. For ^Frcrsr see Matsya Par&na OLXXIV.49.
a 6t o
,4t sep. and Mis. sh 9. q f ^ o ~ ^ *TCFT W *>* *****
a great load, mighty. This may be looked upon as an instance
of 3TST?g?pr^[^T the srsftgir not being directly mentioned.
SL 77. I n line 3 the Nirnayas&gar Edition reads n^qiqqr
for ^fffgpsr which will suit only with the reading sr^*^ for
^ gtin^seecom,; as i t stands, however^it is entirely objection-
NlTIS'ATAKA 31

able, Mr. Telang tbinks the construction of the stanza to be


similar to that of Sis. I . 51, which is according to the Sutra
^S^r^^rcT^^Tr^ l a such constructions all the verbs must be i n
-the Imperative mood. Here qrcifc*TT: must be considered as
equivalent i n sense to the Imperative mood. 359pT5i 3 3

Telang adopts the reading %l?crq;. But then what does qnftcjr
c 8 0
refer to ? Certainly to the actions indicated by flff^T & -5
this amounts totfcfcj;%T%cT tfftf %fHcra[. ST^PH" is therefore better.
Such acts are the sign of &c.
Sh 78. q'u^cff^rqfofull of nectarious holiness or holy
thought &c. qrtrfrfTcSTmagnifying to the size of a mountain,
making much of. fsfiftFcr:some, few, rare. Mr. Telang com-
pares with this the use of ^ 1 % ^ in Bhag. V I I . 3. ^er^ cfp^r
^ &*f*i: \ R&marshL
fe
SI. 79. wqftfft he mountain of gold, q^. ifaTcTn^-Kailasa,
being white (on account of being covered with snow), is con-
sidered to be a mountain of silver. This cannot be Himalaya
as some take i t . Cf Meg. I . 58. <qr~r &c.The trees on other
mountains are the same that they are; they are not changed i n -
to sandal trees as they would be i f they grew on the Malaya
mountain. Malaya, a mountain i n the south of India, famed for
its sandal trees. i ^ p r f w e honour. Cf arfq'f *rat T^Ref*
Rag. V I I I . 8. and Mallinatha's com. thereon. The fig. is
Virodh&bh&sa.
SL 80. ^ c ^ f f l f : w i t h the 13 valuable jewels (churned out
of the ocean before obtaining the 14fchnectar). vftafrSfr
did not take affright at the appearance of the dreadful poison.
i%f^r^f^-The AbL by the Vart. ^ c o r &c. see com. See
Apte's G. 7C. Cf mT^g^WW^F * ^R?^PcT i The fourteen
jewels are mentioned i n the following verse9$ifp qfc(gqr

ffg# m rf^T3 :
fftfte* F * T % ^g|ta irferr%^r
*l %W&*i U For the story, see R&ma. Bal. K . X L V . Bh&g. P.
V I I . 9-8. N i . Sat. 27. The fig. here is Arthantarany&sa.
I

32 NOTES ON

Si. 81. grf^-rnay better be taken as an adv. of time; at


one time; at another, ^rpSTPgr? is a better reading than qjft ^
as keeping up symmetry, srr^pfjro-Having a liking for
(a superior kind of paddy ) only. ^sxrirrfr--One wearing a
r m
wallet. ^Cr* <> W*=r+I%FP high-souled, also wise
0 a e t h a t s e e l s 3 fco
ihows imWT' wrfff 51^) gain
his object. This as well as qpswrrft OT^rfTfr are formed
by affixing ^ ( M H O by gwrsrnft fSiR^m^sn^ (f^ is added
to a root in the sense of 'in the habit o f when i t is preceded
by a noun not denoting a class ). ^ R r a may also be taken
as i n the com,
j

Si. 82. s w f - S u b d u i n g the passions, tranquillity. jrtf^


One possessing absolute power. This is the only concrete
noun used in the s'loka for jpcrTW- ffrsarf^mr-freedom frorr*
hypocrisy, igf q"P* &-Some take this to mean 'of all per-
sons/ in which sense srfa would be superfluous. tffcjrpW^ caus&
of all i. e. of tjsHJTT sfrw-virtuous or good conduct.
SI. 83. 5frr%The conduct of human aftaira, rules of life.
gris equivalent here to 3fTfr- ^ s r o - s e e si. 28. supra. t$rj:
f ^ i ifetflT^fr # f r : JT^^cfn% I Kamarshi. The wise.
SI. 84. grffr(W-p. P- of gflpfadenom. ** ^ ( ^ I ^ W >
of one who is despised, afflicted, worried, jrin^to wipe off
completely, to obliterate. Mr. Telang rightly remarks that
3ra"f5^Fr SFfFPT is not a usual construction and that therefore
s e e
the reading cF^TTreP ( foot-note p. 34) is better. This how-
ever, is open to another objection; fox i t involves the ^fa-
3nr5ppi*c|-, the word ^rcrra;though given by the lexicogra-
phers for fire, being hardly, i f ever, used by the poets. The h>
is Drstanta.
SI. 85. n ^rf*3 'cut or wound', or pierce. ^?rw%"^srr:~-
t n a t
: arrows in the form of glances. frern:-9Wft whioh redu-
ces size*, hence fire; 3>:rr+3rr3 ( ^ ). Construe M
^fftT *T r% and so on.
NiTIS'ATAKA. 33

SL 86. %lf\g &c.The word f r f has a double application


here^ as applied to the bail ?rr^f T T means ( *H?T ?F$Tr firr: )
well-rounded, perfectly spherical, is the other case i t means
'of virtuous conduct, whose course of actions is well-regulated/
c
f- 'STT ^ c f F r n ^ - nmwi* Rag. V . 33, 3TWrf^#:~notabid~
ing short-lived. The Figures are Arthantaranyasa aniS'lesa*
#

SL 87. *rr$pThe top or peak of a mountain. great,


stupendous, fwrre*TcT T f ^ ^ l i t . uneven surface; qr
s
fftP qFcwr^W^:** * one should value character above every
thing else, Cf q ^ f r T5r*T3 Hg
SL 88. rn=ar *n*ra%cTPT towards him; in his case- sr&TOt
&o. are denominative verbs, formed by adding q in the sense
of *'acts like that*/ see com.; and are conjugated in the A'tmane-
pada. f r ^ r ^ l % ^ l i ^
a c s e a e
canah * * assumes the narrowness
0
of a canal, fr^r^tbecomes tame like a deer, q-^?! !a
wreath of flowers, a garland. ^rf^f'Tnr^produces the
effects of a shower of nectar.
S'l. 89. grT=qfr^%increases, waxes. The root j % with
pass, means to grow in bulk, to thrive, as a^trr^ means to
ar
decrease in bulk, ^^csper o not grieved. ffSTtTPover-
NO m m

s a
powered by difficulties, % ft^fT* better reading being
easier.
SL 90. %wrguide, adviser. Cf 3T*n?^ g^^?r?y*n^
Mad. I t f ?*qrrf The spiritual adviser and counsellor of Indra.
For derivation see sL 34. -ST^T?i f%?y who, as is well-known
5
(T%5*> enjoys the favour of Hari. ^rp^i^ srrq: swrfST ^
f < r f a w *Tf { 3Tqr); l i t . sprung from water. The name of
Indra's elephant obtained at the churning of the milky ocean.
%^|*r?ymay be taken as a Tat. or a Dwandwa. The latter
is preferable. means here the accompaniments of royalty*
*rff: had to yield, was routed. t ^ s r t ^ t > . hA poetical license.
s
The poet's meaning is % f ^Kt (^%ctr) <> the two
words cannot be compounded. As it stands we may explain
% ! K w | w ^ f P l f N f &cThis may be taken i n two
NOTES ON

ways:f^F*?3j as an interjection and ffT qfoi separately*, or


the whole together as meaning'Fie upon vain valour/
SL 91. sTSTCSr^whose hopes (of escape) had baffled,
gp^o^ &c.whose body was pressed in the basket. *55T%o
weakened ( by hunger ). fqr%?ffrom rqST^to shape + ?<T, ( f a ^
TW: Un. I I I . 95. ?[% raw flash, f ^
"When a noun indicating 'cause/ is used, the effect is offcenput
i n the Loc. See Apte's Guide 95,
SI. 92. qsw i. e the good or bad result of their actions,
u

happiness or misery. SRqff^TtTOf Si. s. 99, 101, 102. Here


there is a reference to the two of the three divisions of Karman

^pspTF gnNT*ff ssf^fR: 9*r*f: I The construction should be


noted. When the potential pass. p. is used a? predicate the
noun or adjective coming after i t ( as ^fcff here ) must agree
with the agent ( gf^prfhere ) #

SL 93. * S F q T ? I bald-headed man. f R F S ? i * e. the


a

iruit making a loud noise as it fell. <* The fact of the tree
being tjfW ( Palm ) adds to the force of the lines as i t gives
i7
l i t t l e or no shade Telang. The fig. is Arthmtaranyasa,
SL 94. ^cft^s^-trouble from s f f R a h u . ^f^Tcrf
Jiere the aff. expresses srnT?F*T or excellence. Cf the last
line with T%r%cWfl HTSTTS iflfsng W> H. 'In the Kavya-
^saflgraha this stanza is given as Vetalabhatta's p. 39/ Mr.
^Telang'e note. Thefiguresare Arthantaranyasa^ndiKavyaUnga.
SL 95. ^rerfer the subject to this is f%r% to be supplied
irom the context, ^r^some Commentators^ interpret this
as sfq"^ I t seems, however, to be used here arc^u? 'indeed',
-does create, p s p t t ^ The jewel of a man (jj$r j$ T S ^ ) ?
the best of men. I t may also be explained though not
preferably as gs*: ( jewel-like) Cf s r r a \ SFffff ^gmi
ff^f^ra MallL on Rag, X V I , 1. S f W ^ r ^ a n
ornament (beautifier) of. Here (#FT) is addeJ
^ffqrrefers to j^qft*?. Some take this to be equivalent
NiTIS'ATAKA. 35

-to timm. rf^TT^f^*r ^roTi CJC^TOT: the moment a man


becomes a Puru$haratna$ ? r f l ^ WWT% ^ftcJ^I
SI. 96. 5TRT^^<>3Tfa: (** <rff*o burn) gppt *ft*Ter 3T=r
1% sfrefisr: I A plant, a medicinal drug; also an herb which dies
when its fruit becomes ripe. The moon is often called the Lord
of herbs, probably because plants thrive under the influence of
-.moon-light. Cf R g . X . 8 4 . ' ^ s r r i ^ n T?*R: $ T * R vjfirft
rtfr \' where Sayana says-3Tf ft%%^^f*rf^rr f*TS*TT a r c * r a r a [ t

I^nsrr* It Hv. X X V . See also V&y. P. X X 9 T I I . 12. 16. Mat.


' P . X X I I I . 1 0 - 1 3 . More probably, however, affasffan? is Soma,
the plant, the juice of which formed the well-known beverage
of the ancient Rshis. By a curious misapplication of names
the term Soma came to be an appellation of the moon and so all
the epithets of Soma, the plant, were transferred to Soma, the
moon. See notes on Rag, TI, 73, f ^ q ^ H ^ ^ q ^ i j T p n & physi-
cian, ^ETcff%^F^(1) a hundred physicians; (2) name of the
24th lunar mansion (the Satatarakas ) containing one hundred
atars. >F^cfr ear-ring or an ornament worn on the head.
aia

A l l these adjectives indicate that the moon had the means to


counteract the effect of the disease, fr^TQ*rrconsumption
which attacked the moon; also consumption i n general. So
called because i t is, as i t were, the prince of diseases (sffqutf
^trpnt n^rr ) Cf xjm^m^ ttornf ; s ^ f e r r e t &is. 96,
commenting on which Malli. quotes from Vagbhaita
^ i w r 3 ^ (see com.)^ff^fr fr^ntfer ^ ?fer: ^ f ^ r ^ f fgfsrprf
rr#ss?r?*r 5fr! u*rr * w ^ XM^m cTcfr *FT: U The
moon was cursed to be eternally consumptive by his father-in-
law, Dakska, for paying sole attention to Rohini and neglecting
his other daughters. A t the intercession of his wives the
sentence of entornal consumption was commuted to one of
periodical consumption.
SL 97. s n p r r ^ f c f i r a srjJS ^ d i n a literal sense, power-
u s

ful, having power to dispense. s r ^ ^ r ^ c f ^ T F ^ ^ WTKra[ j


36 NOTES ON
L
i
I

R&marshi; marked or settled as one's measure L <e, portion des-


tined to fall to one's share. g t ^ ^ - L i t . go to, fall to one's lot,
Oomp. for this sense of ^ with grtr> f^gq^cF^f WT*ftjWFTl% f
Sak. V. 19. ^ T ^ c T UTOWTCT &o. Meg. Some rea* I
3tR<^ supplying as the subject, but then the construction \
becomes clumsy. g^of^^i. e to obtain more. arpBTdirec-
m

tions; there is also an indirect reference to the other meaning-


<hopes, expectations', qpsrfafLoo. of the pres. p of f^, which,
though trans., is here used intransitively as its object is
?
well-known, cf. w!?mw crc tWr?f ^ ^ w ^ i $TCT:
^tjfr^PfeT %*rr I! Sid.Kau. fl^nA Bah. Oomp,;
*ff ^pfffj^ff$*TTc ^% (3T substituted for the final vowel ) jpfl^t
Sid. Kau. on Pan. V . 4. 73. See com. ^jj^fft &c.
1. 98. is equivalent here to ^r[%. ^fcft&c.The spring
is the season for the trees to put forth new leaves, qsrfa a thorny
shrub growing in desert; i t is eaten by sheep and camels..
an owl, 3Trq- stands for ^ . ^sfcarmm arr^T^t I W
$313 S>r^ %Wf$ ( urges men to action )'; from (*qir
9 7
tRjTC; fsf<fr )* i irregularly derived by ^Rg^o;*? &O. Pan.
I I I . 1. 114. The bird m$<$ is supposed to drink
only a few drops of rain water when the sun Is in Sviti. Various
discrepant stories,are current about this bird with which every
one is familiar. *pj:~-J|ff^ fe^ffl^-
Si. 99. ^ ^ ^ f i y : ~ A denominative, *f ( S R ^ ) is added to qrf;.
in the sense of paying homage to'; swwRr^fRC l q^HTf^sf: I
Sid. Kau. on P&n. I I I . 1. 19. mhere used to introduce an
objection^but, are they not &c. ^f%Sft-~&ecursed fate. Cf gcf~
fa^r BiK V I 6. f e r r c r w r e ^ r f | i%fwt i Sis. X I . 64..
The word is also similarly used. See Vai. Sat. si. 22. The
word fcT^r is more commonly used in this sense but at the end
of a Oomp.; ^ T%f?trrea WPTOf?!^ 1 Mud. I I . qftsjrr: W
* t % f # f I Uttar. I W^T^TT"*RT T^srafifflT 3f?PTT I under the power
:

of fate. The gods, Indra included, are finite beings, whose-


existence as separate deities terminates at the end of a Kaljx*.
NiTIS'ATAKA, 37

m& whose sovereignty i n heaven is not permanent. srjWfjrWtT

f*F*f$ predetermined, fixed; ^^ftpfe? g[frw ?f?T. Even P*<2At has


no arbitrary power to dispense fruits. I t is entirely guided by
men's actions in the distribution thereof. The poet here distin-
guishes between Vidhi and Karman.offSrwar:Every action
}
must bear its fruit, good or bad. Cf f | ^W&T I
r
Mah&bb&r&ta, and the well-known Smrti q r s ^ $fHT^
?
q r w n sr*r*f?r-Tbe Dat. by ^ : ^ r % ^ f i f r ? f W f ^ ^ T n w i
I I . 3. 16. Here ^ WfftT is equivalent to qrrsr^ I The Gen, may
4
also be used with words like srg & c ; sr^Tr?*fPt IB^fa ^HI* I
S i d K a u Ti h 0 r e i s m
a^T *3RTlft - - *e ^
which is defined as sraflWTg?^! ^?BTC: ^ H f ? : I ^
S&ra or climax is that in which excellence rising successively
ultimately reaches its culminating point*
SL 100. 3p?ff?3"c[Like a potter. He*e the aff. p r e f e r s
to the fsfmj mz. the work of forming things which Brahma has
to do like a potter fashioning his clay-things. S J ^ F ^ r f f ^ f t
in the cavity of the immense vessel of the primordial egg, (bur-
sting which Brahma came out and out of which the universe
sprang); See Manu. L 1113 and Mat. P. I I . 24. et. w^r*
because the two shelves of the egg from the extreme bounda-
ries of the universe within which every existing thing is situ-
ated, f^f^tj-restrained, chained down as i t were, f ^ ^ ; T h e
name is thus popularly d e r i v e d - ^ ^ f g ^ j ^ ?IFr
n$wm< i frwrfft^?fr ft*sffw?fn mmtti n wmmr^-^o con-
structions are possible;(1) ?f may be taken as meaning a
forest (^fffeilTT ^ *Tf3) WTflf^ff as a Bah. Oomp. meaning
*beac with great difficulty/ (2) The other way is to take ijfsr as
n adj. qualifying irfrffft ( a noun ) meaning 'the great
difficulty.' The latter way is preferable* Vishnu was cursed
by Durvlsas to undergo the penalty of being born on the
-earth ten times. The ten incarnations are given i n the
following c o u p l e t - - ) ^ : ^*rf *n*T*r: t *P?f
38 NOTES ON

UD. I I . 22. The &rutis derive the word differently. Cf


T5?rfT^??r?trr^^ 1 Also ^sp sfawr ^rmni &wfw

5PSft~^?R3^yr ^ITai^a:^ pqrc3"; a Madhyamapadalopi Oomp..


qffqrr??a human skull. The story of Rudra's begging with a*
skull in his hand is given in the Ska, P. 3 $ : see si. 98. Ac-
cording to R&marshi the term ^ includes the stars and other
heavenly bodies ( sflg^ fcgT^trrg; I ^ r ^ t 3fr & ft SWFcT i )
We extract the following from Mr. Telang's notes:The sen-
timent of this stanza again shocks the orthodoxy of the Com-
mentator. One copy of the commentary has the following.

^ffr?^riqr^r^ U but the idea is not so uncommon, a one as this


indicates. Thus in the Yoga-Vasishtha quoted in the com-
mentary on the Rdmayana p. 12 (Rom. Ed.), we read %q"Tt%

q^sqf% || And this is given as the occasion of Vishnu's incarna-


tions. Another account of them may be seen at Matsya Pur An a
X L V I L , 103. 4, where Bhxgu says to Vishnu; ' ^ i f sfpffiX

This stanza occurs in Kavyasangraha p. 6.


Remarks;The si. is faulty in many ways as regards the
construction and meaning of almost every line. The Tad. aflL
afc$;is used in such instances as srriPTf^pfffi "Pfo. V . I . 115.).
Here ^ has a distinct relation with gp#ft the Now
here ^gTS^raL is to be taken with f^Hr%cr wherein the action is*
implied. Then the construction becomes srur %?r jf^RW^
ar^rF^^rr^^T R^f^cT &C. Here o^iff^fs^; goes well with Brahma
but not with *c3Tcf as i t is absurd to suppose a ?e37^ to be
confined in a pot. Again R&marshi says 3rrr^*rT^ ffoffitP *.
srprwSTFSr^F R^TTS f^ffofp-but then what is- the meaning-
NiTIS'ATAKA* 39

of 3Tf?r ? I n tbe second line there is nothing objectionable


bnt the construction is ambiguous, irjjFT being a noan as well as
an adjective. I n the third line the Oomp. ^ g r ^ ^ f ^ 5 % is to
5
be understood as a Madhyamapadalopi. Then follows pT^TfH" ?^
Now what relation is there between ^qr^o and f^jrSR^ ? I f
any sense is to be given to the clause we must understand
gzq?fa$r c T ^ W " ^ taking i t as t^F^ft Perhaps tbe
poet wrote o g ^ : qualifying being a mistake for
committed by some careless scribe. Again in the fourth line
the casual sense so prominently expressed by f^Effifcf, and
^rf^cT altogether disappears Tgntqfa being used. Thus ttere is
the fault called xrgjtr*nf
SL 101. STTfrm:stands for ^TY^T3En% a graceful form.
qr^rcTl^ears the desired fruit. ^f^rTFR"Fate is of three
kinds; ^T%fT? ^TTT^ and f^TOTQT* There is n reference here to
the first kind. The fig. is Dipaka the predicate expressing the
spf being only once expressed. There is also ZTpama*
si. 1 0 2 . * i f a r o r f t r tf^f^ f m srofa: fr. apjjFr water
+ the matub. aff. the a^being irregularly dropped before i t .
f^psr^fl^f^in a critical or trying position. r%q?T is a generic
term for difficulty. Cf Bhatti. V I . 88 and Bg. I I . 2. where
the venerable S ankar&cMrya renders fsfaq* by ^r^nqr?rr%
ftFfitfFF* 3^rri%This and the preceding sL show that the
author believed i n a former birth, which Buddism does not
recognise. See Introduction. C/3T*f%cT rtf8Ti% 1 I*
SI. 103. f??Ta well-wisher. Cf fcrrer ^: tfy^ ^ f% m<
K i r . I . 5. xr&ra^3T^Tt* *risr 3ff*TStf Avya. 3?% is changed to*
3T$T at the end of an Avya. when preceded by iffS, qT changed

to qfr, *P3[ and 3?5 by qi%q^3^s$t>r: t or better 3r$WF5*


?

qferqcR; Tat. by the V&rt. <3T<?qrrfqr: ^ " [ ^ P T ^ f | f f t ^ F 1 3 T % when


?

compounded has the general sense of an organ of sense ffflfr*W


3TT%$P*3* fF^WW^T- I Manoram&. f i ^ f W ^ - P r o p e r l y the
very deadly poison produced at the churning off the ocean; hence
any Virulent poison. ^f^PITvirtuous conduct. Cf ^^nfSTI
40 NOTES ON

^^Tcfr tfTSFFTr' S & k . V . 15. " W i t h t h e r e a d i n g 3T%3ira; w h i c h


w o u l d seem t o mean ' ' c r o o k e d n e s s " t h e m e a n i n g o f the Stanza
m u s t be ' t h a t w h i c h m a k e s w i c k e d m e n of good ones/ & c This
is also the meaning according to Ramarshi w i t h the reading
^ T 3 ^ F 3 > w h i c h h e i n t e r p r e t s t o be e i t h e r ^ W c f t o r gr^ffi , 1
"^ffati
fk^UW**f{ qj-gT 3 (cominentaty.)" M r , Telang, sap^:
used adverbially here, meaning ' w i t h persistent application( f o r
the acquisition of merits)'* srreqran energetic effort.

SL 104. f^spjamorous s p o r t ; i t i s also one o f t h e Bhavas


of love (Srngara.) ^ f f r r J T ^ T ^ ^ n * universal sovereignty.
An e m p e r o r only has t h e p r i v i l e g e o f u s i n g a white umbrella.

Of 3T3%tF^RrfTlcfq^K0T-* Rag- 15. a r ^ s p i j r i n t e r w o v e n * *A.


continuous. f^f^S^when the c o n t i n u i t y is b r o k e n . Sffi^o
m a y a l s o be t a k e n as 3 ? ? T ^ s r f f ( i n l o v e q u a r r e l s ) q?7s"Rj ( a n d
sports ) ^ Hrgvpr: & c . The propriety o f the words 3T5Tf i s & o t
clear. Probably t h e idea is that pearls dropped d o w n at such
a time are not noticed; so Lakshmi vanishes imperceptibly.

ff^Ti&e.sec c o m . ; f^SFT g^cTHCv. L L i t the state o f being


v i s i b l e o n l y a t t h e e n d o f q u a r t e t s %. n o t w i t h i n t h e reach o f
eyesight. T h e w o r d s m a y a l s o be t a k e n s e p a r a t e l y f^TTSg^Tcn^
fsnr: SRl^Tcff SRTT% Banning in a l l directions disappears.
Mr. T e l a n g proposes the reading gsfrsSWcTf^a Fig. Upaina.
SL 105.^qr^-^rff^FffiRFr^- arfvrprr-should b e t h o u g h t
a r r n r r ^ : t i l l d e a t h ; cf f|pr%q?ffcrra':, a n d
,
over o r considered.
< q ^ f ^ l % ^ q j f ; ^ T&ng. V I I I . 4 5 , S I X . 5 6 a l s o V e i n . I V . 6 .
ftTOP* rom
fc + q^+ST (3T^or o r i g i n a l l y means cook-
i n g a n d thence, ripeness, developmet 5 consequence, fj^fnfr-
burning (a. e m g i v i n g pain t o ) the vitals o f the heart like the
b a r b o f a n a r r o w ( s u p p o s e d t o be p o i s o n e d ' t h a t i t s h o u l d cause
b u r n i n g ) . Of smPT? ^ f f r f *TT^ I S 4 k . V I . 9 .

SL 106, ^nr^r-a c o o k i n g v e s s e l ; ?rari% f t f S ^ f S I W l | | ; ^ ~ % n s


*-lazuli$ f f ^ ; 3T^t W\ C*^ !*
5 3 T
) 8 0
c a l l e d because first obtain-
n
ed fram the mountain Vidura. f^SR?TWrThe cake o f sesamum
& f t e r o i l hasfbeen p r e s s e d o u t o f i t ; o i l - c a k e . f?f&W?f~S atches, c r
NlTiS'ATAKA. 41

ploughs. 3r4r$c?^---The root of the Aria ( colatropis Gigantia f

in Mar&thi) is a worthless plant. Cf the proverb 3#"%*trg


ft^ff 3gp^cj;i ^tr^SF^ret(^ros m = a collection)
* a collection of Karpura plant, ff^"from f to cover, to
surround + f?T ( ) what surrounds, a hedge. gfr^r^Tr^
^ptgrf is a kind of very poor and coarse grain, and is commonly
known as gf)raF. ^ ^ P * l i t . the land of religious rites i. e<
this world as opposed ^tT^T^ (such as bwarga, the world
of the moon &c. ) * The idea is somewhat similar to that of
JBishop Butler who calls this a world for man's probation/
Telang, Hindu writers refer by this to India (the land of
Bharata v^cTfif ) which is the fittest land for the performance
of religious rites. I t is laid down in Sruti ( see Ohh&nd. Up.)
that men repair to the world of the moon &c. to reap the bene-
fits of their meritorious deeds; and when the fund of happiness
laid in store there for them is exhausted they come down again
to this world of mortals to perform Karman. Cf ^ ^ f ^ j ^ S -
T%Tg; 'fllTft ^^ i Kad. p. 457. ^fraj^frpflf mcq spefstf q^jyiT^ I
Rm&. A y o d . K . ^ i j m r T ^ sffT^ q7W^fart *TcTr I quoted by
Mr. Telang from Muir. V . 324. rjcf^is used here i n a wider
sense; as meaning the performance of' one's religious duties
of all sorts, necessary to elevate one to heaven. The idea ex-
pressed here is this:-Men, who waste the opportunity of securing
heaven (or Moksha) by practising tapas given to them by
}

birth i n this world, are as foolish as one who &c. The fig. is
Jlal&nidars ana.
u
SL 107. The moral Mr, Telang draws from his verse is A
man may do the most difficult and dangerous things i n order
to do what is fated not to happen, or to avoid what is fated to
happen. But he w i l l f a i l , " There is no reference in this verse,
however, to " avoiding what is fated to happen." The verse
says that although a man may dive into the sea ( for pearls or
other gems), go to the golden mountain, Meru, conquer enemies
i n battle, or carry on trade and so forth, no wealth comes to
42 NOTES ON

Mm i f i t is fated not to come ( W ^ R r ^ t s ^ T F T <TvT *nTcTTf )> for -


how can that be counteracted which is destined to happen ?
33sr$ & c i , e. for pearls &c. anf*T STIff^er 3T?*T[2r i TCt&r:
j%$ff;According to some the vidyas are three, *ns. STP^tf^^V *
or metaphysics (3?r^c^l%rr); snfr *be three Vedas, and iftfer or
^ o ? ? f t f f f administration of justice. According to some they are
four viz. snfflfWr HT^fr 3Tffr ^o 3^fn%^ ^ T f ^ c f l J K&mandaka. The
,

usual number of Vidyas, however, is fourteen3TfTFi ^ ^ T W ^ R t


* f f a t o ^ r o f t ? ? R : I STTof s p f o n W ^i^9TT trerwa&T I See Bag.
V, 21 These are said to be 64. * vrr^?^?:* obedi-
m

ence to tbe power of fate.


0
SI. 108. n^zr &e is friendly disposed towards him. ^{ffTW
~W may qualify [%fq- a3 well as ^FcTj ^ mFT (FT^T
Rf%??TTR ^T; or BT?rnTcollections of choice things, and
v
jewels. Ramarshi takes i t as wr% ?r ^ffr^T ^^esre^iffairfr^ra"-
^rWIRPT^t g^TTT I For the alleged fatalistic tendency of the
Hindus in general, see Introduction.

The following are the names of these :

W T , ^R^Riwrnr:> *faw*RFPF#, c j ^ r e , ^rsmr:,

n, n^3f%: I^TSR, t ^ r w r : , pi5Trw> *fnn: f^rar -


?

ft*nf> s ^ T ^ t ^ r ? H R W R , T ^ W ^ rn^wh
NiTIS'ATAK, 4&

MISCELLANEOUS.

151; srg + ^r with augment 8^, *Tg*n with 3*53; we have iffr
*TPT^TltDocs ot suffer, is not ruined. The construction of
the second line is rhetorically faulty as $ refers to g^sr which
is not prominent being the member of a compound. The Fig*.
is Rupaka in the first half and Upamk in the second.
SL 2. ^*fssrfgF:losing an opportunity, letting slip right
time; see com.; gq?? may also mean <a condition, an engage-
ment'; not; keeping an engagement. ST*pf?TrSee com.
Obedient or devoted to her husband. STT^ST^poorer
%
to enforce obedience. The fig. is Parisankhya) see s L 71.
a s 3 a
SL 3. sytfr ?Not separable as q^fr T^T i <*uaV
form, j * must be taken as a particle laying stress on the
preceding word. Verily there are &c. i t is, however, rarely
used in classical literature. Mr. Telang remarks''The first
line is ungrammatical unless jr is taken as an expletive by
itself. But f is not used i n the class of wotka to which these
S'atakas belong." The verse is the same as sL 38 ( q. t.) with
some variations. Pig. Upam&t
SL 4. 3 r f ^ ^ f ^ f f r t - " - - - b y those who are poor only in
x c
harsh words, L e. who w i l l not utter harsh words, 3TT^T i b
in. ^ ^ W c g s h F o r a similar expression, cf. f f % % ? xm^
sL 63; qRwr? or qf^r?=censure; ' a i q ^ ^ ^ T f ^ R r i q j w r ^ r a ;
3<HKt*ft g p i $*ar F F ^ T ^ *r|% t\' Amara.
SL 5. qr^raEFfl^(1) covered over with his rays; (2)
trodden under the feet, subdued. M r . Telang thinks that in
the latter sense there would seem tp be an allusion to the
Vamana incarnation of Vishnu, pq&rrc(from ^CRT^T + x ^ Un. 5

2. 33. ) profuse, wide, ^spg^(1) valour; (2) lustre; light. The


A figurflM*eC^ama and S*le*'a.
-

<Skr Wtfcff &c.This is interpreted in three ways;(1)


^ *s*r: 't***ffa>J -(^sjssnqtft t OTT#rff & ^ a n & ( 3 >
-44 NOTES ON
c
<5rRr *T $PV[: & . For taking 3Trr^ understood in (2) there is
no authority. (2), though not quite unacceptable, does not seem
to be intended. I n (1) the word 3Tf*r has hardly any propriety.
I t is, therefore, better to take i t as syssri ^ Sfarr modesty and
many other qualities ( as Mr. Telang does ). a T c ^ a g ^ g ^ F a&d
STSJffoffiT raay also be taken with both, srfff^Tr a^d 3 R ; f r and
interpreted as (1) 3iPF?r c[*f sfWf i which the heart, f. g.
n

motive, is pure ; (3)... q^ri: whose heart is pure; 3f;T(1)


always going with one, binding; (2) devoted or attached to,
lit. always following one. ^ ^ S T ^ R * M $ ^ay here be taken
as a noun in tbe Acc. ( comforts and even life), or as an adverb 5

meaning 'easily, willingly* ( and this is preferable being more


forcible); of c q S R ^ s ^ p ? ^ ITTFRT ? W ? c r * ^ T O T f a f P T c f ^ 11
Nai. I . 56; for the former sense comp. ^q-f ^ T 3Pf
*ff ^ R ^ r T f a I S f S F R t 5 ^ 1 ^TftcT % W T II Uttar. I 12;
S

for ^r^^^TO^r see slokas 02, 102. The aff. fq; ia added for
the metre, as a Bah would have expressed the same sense.
.See note on f ^ i r f ? ^ SI 9 supra. Fig. Upama,
SI. 7 . The word sftorf, in the second line, is to be construed
with each of the first three lines. ^ r r f l f 2 P W f 5 I ^ - - t h e heart
of women cannot be comprehended ( l i t . seized ); 3T3rrr bas a
twofold sense ( 1 ) not to be fathomed & c ; (2) not to be felt or
e a
touched by the hand, ^ r f R l feeling, inward motive, <*fr#T-
fSttTWWmi^ Yadara-kosha; see Malli. in his com. on Bag. I I .
26. Rtcnr:-3Jtcoked ordifiicult to be perceived like the narrow
mountain-path. 3&^?<r73raft?3f& common expression to
denote unsteadiness. a r r a f ^ R f i s used here for 5T{%cT told,
described. ^ p T M r . Telang takes this i n the sense ofverily;
i t may perhaps be taken in the sense of srwpr^sras is well-known.
Cf. iffcft^&imq&stt I ^ f S ^ r ^ ^ ^ f ^ T ^ Mohamad-
gara, ^3ffM?Tngrowing with the faults; i. e. as the
woman grows the faults develop in her. The fig. is Upama.
c
SL 8. arnrg?^ & -killed with his face towards ( not turn-
6
ed away from ) cneenemy, or i u the front line For the idea of
V
2?iT IS AT AKA 45

the first line oomp. Manns. VII.89. quoted in the com.; also B g .
I I . 38. or the following stanza quoted. by Madhusudana
Saraswati under Gita I , 31.gjfsrrfr q^cfr c3T^ ^ W ^ f ^ T R T \
^r*r5^rx% ^rnrg^r fa: f?rs^ t r r ^ i e t that be apart,
leave aside all consideration about. Cf fffgrg rrr^fflT WXftT
V i k . ^riJJTlf:praise^rg *rn?: 1 ^:-$nf*r
3JW^TT%- Leaving aside all considerations of the attainment of
heaven or victory, the applause of both the armies is not an
insignificant gain for a man who falls wounded in the front rank
in a battle.
SL 9. ^^ff%-of this extent, ^f^i^-seems to mean-of this
nature, sj^flrstands at the top; appears pre-eminently i n the
front. the third incarnation of Vishnu who lifted up the
* earth when the demon Hirany&ksha, brother of Hiranyakashipu,
was carrying i t with him into the depths of the ocean, and killed
the demon. The reading ^fT^far^: is evidently a misprint
occasioned by a copyist's blunder, and so i t has been changed
to ^?cT ^ffsrgr. The former hardly gives any sense, ^cTgg>5h
t>. L will not do, as the tusks of such Var&ha cannot, with any
propriety, be compared to Mtihtlas. q^ithe other i, e. B&hu.,
For the allusion see note on ^l^fafftfi^cT: SL 34. The greatness
of Var&ha consists i n lifting up the earth on his tusk,* and of
Raim in being generous enough to let go an enemy whom he has
i n his clutches. The figures are Kavyaliilga and Yathasa%khya..
SL 10. srs*?^the ocean, g ^ j f t ^W=T; from
f
^tf? is changed to ^%^hy 3^=fT3?^f ^ I Pan. T i l l . 2. 13.
lEf^T qT^Ii-ever moving along a path qp^r is derived as tpqro
f5f*4 ^T^FfWff} fr. qf%RC+3T ( 3W t p ^ ^ p ) The space of the
?

sky, although i t may appear extensive* is every day traversed by "


the sun. gpyajfffcomprehends, takes the measure of.^ffVp
things. ^Tg;-clear, well-defined, 3FVft3s0Tboundary-marks.
encase
g^f?*^r:~ 3 ; as the flower is in the bud; hence confined,
delimited. J?^%ropening, blooming of the intellect, hence
i t i brilliancy. The fig, in this sL is, Vyaiireka which is defined*
:
46 NOTES ON

^asOTfTRlST?^?*!s*rffi^ ^ ^ IT. I There Is ztiG when the superio


rity over the g-q^jsT (the standard of comparison) of what is
different from i t is mentioned, as that of ^cff q^ftaft over ^
-&c, here.
SI. 11. The idea of the si. is that one should make once
"for all a choice of the alternatives stated and act accordingly;
'^r^rer^r?r?r *rrot v affair TTJ he should
have the one or the other and nothing between these.
SI. 12. g p ? * r a T % Clef; 3T (si^r); a tortoise. Here
the great TortoiseVishnu's a^qfctfrt* ju*rew--Name of the
-seven principal mountain chains, for which see com. ffsrrrsr
The elephants of the quarters, supporting and guarding them.
The names are thus given by Amarasimha-%T<rcT- SWtfqsT' f pw:
*g?T3pFr: II gwr^i: m?m*T: sqcfoyss* f^nrsrr: II TheRamayana
gives them differently, tns. Virupaksha for the East, Saumanasa
for the West, Mahapadma for the South, and Bhadra for the
North.
srra"7vTwhat is undertaken. STTOfTOCT^of those whose
minds are pur^ t. e. who never use equivocal language but
5

state in unmistakable terms what they would do. I t is not


clear what the gist of tbe si. is. The connection between
strong-mindedness and amalamanasatm is not very clear. Pro-
bably the poet expresses here the same idea as he does i n the
last line of the nest sloka. The fig is Vyatirela.
IS ^ ^ _ ^ ^ T , A tortoise. Here the
second incarnation of Vishnu. Mr. Telang reads the third line
as fip^wfa*F *PTST, suggesting that the line should be taken
as a question and that for this i t would be better to read fifr ^r-
" IfffScP^ further rematksThe reading f%gis more appro-.,
priate to what I think is the intended sense, but to obtain that
must be got rid of " But the third line makes a general
#

statement and supports the figure in the line, while the


questions in the first two lines refer to specific objects, fprgrf:
v&c.construe serft?T% %5PT?f ( ^ ) irfei<*R?3S * I 3rr~
NiTIS'ATAKA. 47

A n observance that is binding. The sloka occurs i n Mud. I I .


"The fig. is Arthmtaranyasa.

SI. 14. fqF?a ball of rice. Cf ^% x^q 3n*^ri%*P faffr^fa


?frr3*r' < V i k . I I . This metaphorically means 'when bribed/
-^jfTabors were originally made of earth. g^gr^vTrefers
to the practice of applying kneaded flour to a Mrdanga be-
fore i t is played upon. The fig. is Arth&ntarany&sa,
Si. 15. ^rncrosolely bent upon, exerting themselves for.
H i f c
0/. srat ^ * ft*rfff - W f t : T h e leader of;
& G ?
^ f f f l % fr. apr+^r + T%^r CO by ^ S t f t * - I I I . 2 61.
The ?r is changed to or after and sn*T by the Vart, sraprpirttlt
^ r e ^ f qrrsrs I t^a" ?fcr; shows the extreme selfish-
ness of V&dava. qT^f:The submarine fire; also called Aurva;
see s'L 76. sft^a: sffa^gtTqff*Fr: ^fajp, a Oomp. of the
I^r?TTT? class, ^^[cfqualifies ^cTIT} caused or intensified by.
ff%f%g^%for entirely removing or annihilating. The Dat. i
<TT?f by the V&rt. ^3*fr sfF^T 1 The cloud is mentioned
here as the type of ^rg;.
SL 16. I n this sL a minister and a poet are described as
having a similar function to do by epithets which are slishta*
^ j g - ( l ) from afar; may also be metaphorical; (2) far apart
se
*\ by using words i n a slishta or secondary (OT^p*PP) ^se; by
presenting a striking picture to the mind far beyond the
conception of ordinary men. (1) wealth or a political end;
(2) the intended sense. SPT^ c^qR^T Avoiding wrangling;
or offensive words; or take the whole as ^pMig" the twanging
sound of the bow *\ e achieving lofty aims by a wise stroke of
m

policy without having recourse to war.; (2) faulty or offensive


expressions, wrong words. ^$fvff(1) assemblies of good (or
politically clever) people, political bodies; (2) assemblies of
learned (able to appreciate) WsTf^ mm. ( 1 ) step; ( & )
words. r?H7f^TT(I) by consulting public opinion; (2) by
going along with the current of ideas and conforming to the
'-Jl

1
I

48 NOTES ON T r
1

tastes of his times. For a similar comparison between a minister


and a poet, see Mad. I V . 2; Sis. XE. 6.
SI. 17. qrft'^KfTSSfn-should be attended upon, ^ s i n ^ &c !
L e i f they do not give special Instruction &c. qrIt will be
better to read sfr to suit the metre. ^trSfiTSTPrandom talk; *
^ |W |TT% sril q ^ I ^ I ^rrwr%precepts, information that
can be safely relied upon.
SI. 18. ^?g3rTF3?ra curious phrase probably used for the
n
metre; the regular one would be ^gspqicf qcffflfj i the manner
?
of the fall of a ball i. e* to rise again, sp;f cj^*? ^J3FiTKTn
^ m ^ ^ ^ n j i F ^ R tRT5r?<wr^ i R&marshi. Cf STR^T tfrgt/frnrf & c
: 0
*u/?ra si. ?6. a?r^ An honourable man, a man of merit. srfsT ^
-a lump of clay, which remains sticking to the ground and
never rises up.
SI. 19. ar?3nr m< sweepings, dust; from 3T*ff + 3T ( 8T<T .
ST^PI^n ?T%)* f r ^ r ^ ~ ^ % ^ *T3T S^mT a cock, |*r:a word
of the ^ r ^ U T ? class; fr. ^ to go or ^ r ; Y R ^ T W ^ f*T (*be
:

^ or F comes in irregularly). Fig. dprastutaprashamsa.


Sh 20. r r ^ f ^ v r F. In this case i\u% must be taken in the
sense of cheeks, and epipr the frontal globes, f^rgr^CT:dull with
the nightly sleep, gprr & ^ tbe idea expressed here, eomp*
C o r

Kir. I . 38 and Rag. V . 65. ^^r^T^rthe lord of the ^orld


of gods L e. Indra; or i t may mean the gods of heaven. =srf ?r
qualifies ^ u n d e r s t o o d , ^f!rproperly aflashof light-
ning; hence manifestation. Construe STPTI"; W^TSftTp fffSTPc! ?T^f
qq-&c.When the relative stands for a whole sentence such as
?
is represented by <that in English, i t is always used i n the
sing, number and neuter gender. See Apte's Guide. 25. The
fig. is Udatta which is described as grsfftt f^gvf; tfqg; the descrip-
tion of the excellence of a thing.
SL 21. qnffq"5RTft^^ VWt sq^Rfrfa <T?fWTfr ?OT WW- t
f i f r i ^ I See com. and P&n, V . 2. 42. quoted therein.
;
L 22. *T3Tff *ror F. ii3rw p- arw^ 1^3 with t h
gait of an elephant; hence a beautiful woman* I f the reading
MTIS'ATAKA. 4&

be qwr, IcerrffSTI would mean a female elephant; protuberant


temples being regarded a3 a m a r k of ugliness i n her case. The
readingwsnf^Rr i s better; i t also explains the force of ^
^frw &o.Cf mwmy wimmw%
m #gr 1 s L 87, above.

SL 2 3 . frr^ro-a^r^r v. L , for readings see next p . , foot notes*


f ^ T f ^ &c.spncF i s preferable to qcfTq w h i c h requires a s t r a i n -
ing, sr^rI** this case or i n this world. Fig. Upama*. T h e
mind is here identified w i t h c l a y , fate w i t h a potter, anxiety
w i t h his wheel, and calamities w i t h his r o d . F a t e w h i r l s the
minds of men by c a u s i n g them a n x i e t y and plunging them
into m i s e r y .
SL 24. r^nra:painful, disagreeable on account of constant
disappointment. a T R T R T e f f o r t accompanied w i t h b o d i l y or
mental trouble. 3 f ^ W P T a resolute u n d e r t a k i n g . <g?vq^Err<?
means here 'a foolish f%qff &c/Cy.^RTft*?%N *JRTK
attempt/
% # ^ # r ^ft5T wnnT^' 1 3 r ? T p r r r * r : sronr: destruction of
every t h i n g crft*Fflr3 I T h i s corresponds to 'jfqrrlf i n the case
of the Til a hats. ^ym^Wtt'-who depart from their u s u a l
course, vk. ( 1 ) r e m a i n i n g firm and s u p p o r t i n g the e a r t h ; and
( 2 ) keeping w i t h i n proper !imit3. M e n t r u l y great are not
s^cn^fcFF in but the mountains and the oceans are.
T h u s the f o r m e r are s u p e r i o r even to the latter. |p?f^^R^:~~<
see note on jf^tpfiiT mis* 12. sgziimmn, and not small \ 6

Mf. T e l a n g s a y s <% however, prefer ^ q m R f q 3^qrrf%^J7r


#fc3"RT^R^ *T ^RFcf sr^^RJfRRT:. I t m a y a l s o d o t o
take i t as ^qiqvm ^&nmHWt s^qfTFT^W: H (W?tT>
% ^TgfTRW: f R a m a r s h i ' s comment runs as f o l i o w a r - ^ ^ f FcTi
?;

SRffltW* T h e idea of the stanza, as explained by us, i s


a common one, Oomp. K i r , X L 5 4 } and s t i l l better because
more c l o s e l y a l i k e is Viracharita p. 110 (Trith, ) 5f <p*q%
so NOTES ON

fq-spj:!," I t will be seen, however, that R&marshi's explana-


tion is more to the point, as already explained by us above.
Cf Bhag. P. V I I I . 24. Mr, Joglekar q n o t e s - j l t ^ T S ^ ^ ^ t "

Bb&m. V i l . I . The fig. is Fyatireka) see mis. si. 10.


Si 25. generally governs the Dative but when
there is ardent longing or a strong desire, i t governs the Acc.;
q ^ H q ^ q f g q^T^rtfrr I S*TTf&T I Sid. Kau. WirfiT-
^ ^ - - T h e space between the arms, ifi. the chest. ^qrfW^^Sf
applies to fr qRcfT5(l) flairs': q^^Tf ?f the nail-like
0JX n & 3
sword. ( 2 ) 3Trw:^fIc3" ?f ^ ^ | r - ^ S i l piercing like a
sword. For the idea of the nail-marks inflicted by lovers on the
bodies of their beloveds, comp. ^ f r q^fT^T SWPlcTHf ^WclT-
sftf ^ i ^ i 5 r T ^ u K u m . . l l l . 29. grqf|ef f^Tffq^risrcr s f s r ^ r t -

Rag. 15. 31, s^cq^r-instructed in, well versed in (love affairs).


STFrar 'qfqw WR^Rq^rgOT^f ^ W f m ' Amara.; a woman i n
whom amour is produced. Since the words and q[ are
used. qjvfcfT here simply msans a woman. Thefig.Cpama*
NOTES ON
VAIK, A'G YAS' AT A K A.

SL 1. ^nfr^f^ra &o.In this sL Hara is described as a


Jamp having for its flame the crescent moon, burning the moth
of K&ma, and dispelling the darkness in the form of ifr|f. nfT%?r
worn as a bead-ornament. ^f^F^rmoving, quivering, effcrr*
^nq-o-see Earn. I I I . 72. (1) a wick; (2) the condition of.
CTnrrc-a mass or heap of; ( an uncommon word; see MaL Mfid.
V . 29.) s^rr?^removing, entirely dispelling. Cf Nai. I I I . 7.
f q ^ % * ^ i t t ^ Q T cf^r-shines pre-eminently. Fig. Rupalca.
SI. 2, The poet herein gives three causes of the decadence
of learningfirst, learned men themselves do not encourage i t
being jealous of new aspirants for literary honours; secondly,
wealthy men in their own self-sufficiency despise knowledge;
and lastly, ignorant men do not encourage i,t because they can-
not appreciate i t . the great, the ricift ^#r^f7f<=TnLit,
smitten by ignorance or want of understanding; incapable of
appreciating merits, ^ffofp. p. of 3g, absorbed; see infra, si.
84 and cf Mis. si. 3.
SI. 3. fHf^fpsrri& the expectation of (finding; a treasure,
%?Tf?tj:-fused, smelted. There may also be a reference to alchemy
here, qnr?: Metallic ores, minerals. ^^PCr^Rhere means
securing the magical power with which some Incantations are
supposed to endow a man who repeats them according to the
rules or manner prescribed i n the Tantra*. sprOT%-the ceme-
0
tery being the usual place for such practices. oRpT &o.a
a
broken cowrie shell. ^fnafPTderived as ?f?n ^TW Oomp.
of the ^nft?nt? olass.
SL 4. ^ ^rT^traversed (by me). The construction i
7
peculiar. The subj. xpjj Is understood. By thesutra ^qqpsptfo
Pan. I I I . 4. 12, cf is addtd srj% to verbs implying motion
or used intransitively. is an Acc of plaeS. Mr- Telang eit< s
7
.as a parallel Instance ' ft^rww? rri% *W ^ gf*RT Pra. I I ; Cf.
52 NOTES ON

"^f?n% ^fFct 3FT^PT Uttar, I Or be taken as Nom.


sing, of (which is rare), g^^(meals were) eaten
(by me), grr^qrg; 3Tr?T|p3Tmiserably and with fear like a crow.
The meaning isbeing an unwelcome guest at the house of
strangers I was afraid they might at any moment drive me
away just as people drive away a crow. Mr. Telang puts on
ci
this a different interpretation. He says.< The fear, however,
would rather seem to be the fear of being seen by others eating
5
at the house of a stranger/ There is no warrant, however, to
take the word stranger to mean* & person of a different caste.
Sfsvn%The Far as. is for the metre- i t should be spfftf S T T F
to gape, increase, grow strong. Ramarshi takes qro^RTcTT as
a Bah. dissolving i t as crTT^f&r T%c[: g*FP=[ qr*r (Is^fTTr) m
but this is ungrammatical.
SL 5. ^^Tqr;taunting words. arrtPsRhumouring;
pleasing, ^SpT JR^r-with a vacant mind; though my mind
was not sympathetic. Some construe as (^^FTf) ff^cPTPT SJ^fa
^ S T ^ f ^ ^ R ^ ^ *FWT *n?i but this is rather farfetched and
is not so forcible. f ^ ^ c P ^ : fT?i-(my mind revolted against
these thing3 but) I controlled my temper. iT[%^cTTSHr (JTP^ sfcff-
| ) of blunted faculties, senseless, wicked. ^T^r^-%sfT 3TRTT
WH":? cTc^f%:; (0 greed), of fruitless expectations. srcTORr"
To incite to something bad. A derivative of this word is some-
times used in a similar sense in Marathi (^n^^FF )
SL 6. gf^T5fothis comparison Is vary common. Cf sffg-rft-
^ O T ^ ^ f % l c 3 * c f ^ ^ f t f f R i W ^ ^ ^ Moh, M. 0. ^ goes with
a f
JTPTFIF^j arrg^l ih man; derived from an+ + f^r?7TI%.
fq-^fau^roself-praise is forbidden, and is therefore considered
to be a sin. Cf f | <?r^ *rn*?r H 3 f^qtfrfirerp* 1
NaL I I , 48 $^tfq W ^ r f ^ W & a i : II Subh.
L 7. ^rf?<f^We forbore, pardoned- Cf srp?r^ Si. 4. ^
but not through forgiveness L e. through inability to
retaliate. ^frf^ftT &e.~*The happiness which was not ours wa&
>^s good as relinquished; but we were discontented, and there-
v
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 53

i o r e , we c o u l d not claim the merit of saints, though we d i d n o t


enjoy pleasures. # s r ; ~ W e had to p u t up w i t h the incle-
mencies of the weather <fec, on account of poverty (as R&marshi
suggests) but that doas not entitle us to the m e r i t of penance.
W T T f r W e were engaged i n contemplation, not. of the feet o f

Siva but of wealth. Thus though wo d i d the same actions


that are done by sages, viz. f o r g i v i n g , renunciation, endurance,
and contemplation as to the f r u i t s of those actions we have been
deceived. W e went the wrong way, and honce our disappoint-
ment. F o r R ^ f ^ ^ R cf ST^cRSeT S S g f w r f ^ ^ f f -
q^Tl^fa^Tff V i k . I . 1* The fig* is Vis'eshokti.
SL 8. JEfifcr *FTGT:desire ( which was never satisfied ) has
preyed on our minds ( l i k e canker on a b u d ) Some supply
qsr%;T but that idea is expressed i n sfPTF"- tfHT*L w i t h cares
and anxieties, ^ T X R ^ 2n*tTn-*--our bodies have been wasted away 5

or i t .is we (men) that have had our exits. I n popular language


we say that tint;* passes; but really speaking i t is not time t h a t
passes: time Is eternal; but we have our exits f r o m this w o r l d .
r=rso[r ^ ^ r r r f ^ext si. or7fr weakened by old ago.
SL 0 . A l l parts of the body indicate the advent of old age.
Greed alone grows young, i. e. though old we feel as greedy as
when we were young, or even more. s r r s f T F W O v e r - r i d d e n ; on
which a f o o t i n g has been made by. q f s R ? g r a y hair; 'qfgrar f ^ r r
^ f y q F ^ Araara.
7
(rrhere may also be taken as an arcf^r^ur
*. e. i n d i c a t i n g k i n d r e d t h i n g s t h e feelings of the m i n d .
w ^ r r a t r f soft f^T^Trff is young. Cf ^fq^l mm ft* % * I T ^-err

SL 10. q ^ ^ f f f R : R & m a r s h i explains this as equivalent


to g^TOSttpsfT I J W ^ F t ^Tf ^qcfRq* ^.-, which is equivalent to
1

5 W q i % W : another way is to take i t as jpfqrj sqp?Fr: respect


;

among men. The first is preferable. ^TORT?^ equal age or


rank; contemporary, ^ r f ^ R T ^ n - e q u a l to l i f e , valued or esteem-
ed as l i f e i t s e l f . The other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n placed on this vijg.
sfrFfcT i ^ f fcfcft h a r d l y be acceptable. ^ f i ; T h e w o r d is an
54 NOTES ON
?
indeclinable (^*s*T*f Amara.) and has generally the sense:;
of the AGO. or Loc. I t is compounded with certain nouns as . ?i

stf, stfafr, ^ru?(W^-HTO & c tf?:impudent, shameless.


(fasNsr). The fig. of speech is Vibh&vam*
SL 1L sfpTVerily, forsooth; or 'may well be considered'
9fffA shark, ff^misgivings, doubts; 3TT%^fT^ ^T3**?J%'
* T f a ^ e f r f c T %*J7^r: 37fV Ramarshi. ^ ^ ^ ^ s f r * e l l i n g the
tree of courage on its bank. Cf infra. fififfi^^tftififtfit: sh 49.
8 T f ^ a n eddy, a whirlpool, crrthe bank of a river. The
Oomp. should properly be rf^Tqjr; but i t may be defended by the
3 :
maxim ^^^FcTf^'R^Hc T - tfFTP 7K*TtFT-Those that have
crossed i t (the river ) i. e. have conquered desire.
, l
SL 12. ggrpcNT# ^fT?P3[The course of life in this world-,
incidents of worldly life. S T ^ ^ T ^ r f ? T o expect something
good out of, to see in prospect; cf ^ R t g ' T ^ T I ? Bhag. I . 31.
f^fT^Presult. f3P?3t?Pto me when I reflect, when I take a
right view of the matter. See N i t . Sat. 89. f ^ q r ^ n r ^ r > ( l ) sn~
joyed for a long time, or (2) enjoyed after a long time, as Ram-
arshi takes i t . The former is, however, preferable; as long enjoy-
ment is required to make a man attached to worldly pleasures
which is implied in the succeeding, line. H f F c f f SJTSF^become-
big; assume large proportions; hence tempt men by their magni-
tude. o<TO?f ^Tsffff^their object in assuming big proportions-
and tempting men away from Moksha being as i t were to make
men happy. The more a man clings to pleasures the more mis-
erable he becomes; for he is always disappointed; cf ^ffg ^JJJ:

I I . 91. Or S E T ^ T may mean calamity; the fondness for enjoy-


ments throws them into the turmoil of embodied existence; see
com. and infra. s'L 46. notes, f^qfafofvand not to- ff^FMt
who at once renounce them and become happy.
SL IK ^cfl^gffrgfrfqfaven ^er staying long. f|3ffif--i
a

here used in the sense of 'the vanishing of pleasures/ and i&


YAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 55-

explained by tbe words s ^ c P SfTEFsqrT^ below. of one's


own motion, voluntarily, qf^ernrpf-mark the sense of qrfc, they
trouble in every way, SEfqrjfCT^ ^T*T is the same as ^TrFfT? oomp,

T^ffifr )i Rg. IT- 71; also 70, 72. I t is not used in its teohnieal
Vedantie sense here (for which see Mis. si. 2).
SI. 14. &c,those who possess R^sp discrimination
(between what is real and what is unreal) from their knowledge
of Brahman. q f ^ F c f c f r PT^??Pabsolutely free from all desires.
T ^ sJTffr f^STcsrsp(we have) no firm belief i n their attainment;
we are not sure that they would be attained. qn^prrflf &c
Although they (enjoyments) are seized only by desire ( i . a. by
imagination); although their possession is only imaginary.
SL 15. ^aprpbirds. BT^^r^TPan Aluht Oomp. q^TTO
&c.for the different ways of dissolving the comp, see com.
3
T%r^!fr r a palace built in the mind &o; f. e. building castles
c o

in the air.
SL 16. f f y g n ^ 3 T 3 F T l i v e l i h o o d ; or f ^ ^ f f f f f ^ f
(food obtained by begging), fr. fff# + 3Tn *?*qr ST^Ff eating,
maintenance on. f f f f q a l s o goes with q r q s ^ f t , even the coarse
food is to be had for bat one meal; i t is not sufficient for the two
meals in the day. ?r ffft1& spite of abject poverty attach-
ment to worldly objects does not die out. fqrcpqr H qrfc^^rpef
t?, / . - i n this case some such words as 3^srr^ must be supplied.
Bat this reading loses force since there is no beauty In saying
that the pleasures do not leave i & I t Is the mind that must
relinquish them. Hence the reading adopted i n the text is
preferable.
SL 17. ^F^^nTff^:by particular posts?. ^ f f ^ - ~ ^ m

gnified, praised, made much of.


SL 18. ^rf^f^one in the power of love, an amorous per-
son. fshTSfSTPSiva and Parvati form together but one body
the right half being male and the left one being female. Cf ?|f -
g^F^S WHRT wfrc*TP &e. Intro, slokas to Kad. Pt. I I *
56 NOTES ON

^?Rf!|Siva, though the greatest of lover, is also greater


than the greatest of those who have renounced the world; for
he only could do the two opposite things, viz, to yield to the i n -
fluence of love so far as to allow his wife to share half of his
body and also to resist successfully the action of the shafts of
Kama which are irresistible ( g i f t ) toothers. Cf q ufif %ff:
w r r r%^n%crr *w mixsm q i K i r . x v n r . 31.

? W 5 l r ^ 5 T W # T ^ R e F T5:il Sum. V , 73, WRFSS **-- 7

lying in a stupor, the poison having pervaded the body, .


other than Siva, Ordinary people never enjoy pleasures ( as
they would do, for titey are only Hf?fHT%F3cF ) and also are not
able to renounce thorn.
SL 10. For v f | T F ^ some read ^ i f i c R ^ which ia enquiva-
5 < i a u a s o e
lent to ^ r ? r ^ ^ R r ~ power to burn, srrgrf? ^^ l ^ easily
understood from the context to mean the same thing. *rr%^*T^
to which a fish-hook is attached, ^fg^f ^cS^SpT^ I Amara.
The moth and the fish are not gifted with the faculty of discern-
ment and they cannot perceive danger, but men, reasoning be-
ings that they are, are ruined by their desires, if7($-4nter-
tiwined, complicated, inscrutable, mysterious.
SL 20. qf%?fmixed with. q-^r^lTf s^TPi: g^^-The remo-
val of pain is happiness. Really, there is no stich thing as
happiness says the poet. What U Soli to be as such is merely
1
on account of the pain being removed, f ^ q W R wrongly
thinks; see com,
SI. 21. tffi &e.~These singly or together, q o ^ r ^ M F o ^
5

^ 3 T m T ^ c f l f f f ; fortunate: of c^m ^gjfoT cT^cjm^T 1 R&g- V I .


29. RrW^-sticka fondly or closelyfco;ffsrwith f% is Atm. *qff
P&n. I . 8. 17. ^ r t ^ R r o ? ~ ^ R l f of course to a philosopher.
W^f: & c . ^ v ^ ^ T c T qps: I ^s^TST means abandoning a l l
desires. Cf *p\*qFft ^jfojf santf ^ q r f f q?f*fr f l f * ^g* - X V I I I , 2.
SL 22. The adjectives In the first two lines require to be
distributed between Rfj%: and itffqi according as they are i n
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 57

the Instr. or the No in. f ^ U ^ ^ R T ^ W Q% 1 3 expresses


pity, f^gcrmiserable ($HT)> derived as KTOT ^ ^RfsFTTf
L i t . having nothing to do; hence perplexed, as a loss to
0
know what to do. &c.Avy, Oomp. ^xv^^T^^r^f-f ^ the
sake of the accursed stomach. The word ^rtj is often used In
the sense i t has here. Cf sTfT $*qT?r?3T5f q?: wft^cf^ Vf^l
H i t . I . See notes on N i t , Sab. si. UO. t r e ^ f a high-souled per-
son; see Nit. si. 33,
SL 23. 3?p??r?fohighly valued. The demands of the
stomach make one completely forego ah self-respect* *|Krnc
nobler; higher, sjjsr collection, ^PHfWthe water-lily that
blooms at sunrise, bnt fades when the moon rises. Cf ^g^FF-
^TTRT ^ f R ^ ^ t ^ r ^ ^ S^. X I , 64. whore the sun rise is described.
The moon-light-like ^yffajff makes the lotuses oi virtues fade
away, frgwo-frtjjsfr ( f % ^ ^ w ^ ) f^p?j) &o. f griR^F
r
a small hatchet. p-$**T& paw boiler.
SI. 24. qrr^ofthe edge, pg-?f fee.Tho edge of which is
covered with a piecy of white cloth, j^qrp^fa broken pot.

j i r : says R'tznarshi. The meaning here is 'the formulae or


systems manifested in the three Veda*'; the proper method of
performing (sacrifices). So this means ^ R ^ R I ^ ^ R R f ^ f i r r -
MallL commenting on Kura. I I . 12 eays ^EPRT q p r ^ R ^ T T?F
**fW\: ?Rcf^ITTrS'TrrT^?F?ff: ( This meaning w i l l also do here
the Vedas pronounced correctly (with proper intonation and
accent.) of a smoky colour, blackened. ^ q ^ t f ^ t h e
adjacent part, g-fx igjf sifrf:going to every door. an
indecl. expressing preference, and used with the clause contain-
ing the thing preferred ( which is put i n the Nom, case )- See
Apte's Guide 4j 301.
g?*rg?^S^fr *r*rn ^ * r n i r . $3: + ^ ( * r ) by fe*nfi[wft'
;

^ P&n, I V . 3. 54, | p r being a synonym of sgFsr: ^%f?%


?
*JT% ^r?P?n%f|*^l'^r ^" i Visva. The sense intended by the poet,
however, Is jg^sf ^ cT?i ^c? ^ 5 ^ ^ cjsr *T3n I But this is inad-
missible from a grammatical point of view, *ref*f ^cj; is to be
58 NOTES ON

to simple words, and not to Compounds. Vamana remarks

tjffqrsr c T ? a r ^ RfOT^Tcj; I
?
The form may be defended by ex-
plaining i t as g ? ^ f r ^fspr:, ^ being affixed by * cT^r ^ r g :
v
?

Pan. IV". 4. 98.


SI. 25. f|rroqfOT^ft^ I. here ^or means a drop and
3Tf3FT spray. n^Tfcf: ^qffiTF%retreats in the Himalayas, the
favourite haunts of ascetics, qrr^ &c.see com.; given
w fc
with, accompanied by, indignities; or ^pWT^" ?*rrerJT * b
humiliation. XrfV* ke pleasure i n .
fca

SL 2G. eRr^rcthe slopes between two hills; see sL 79.


anEPtsnnrr^r*rr fa^rftswra; crewr crrn forcibly i.e. against
one's thoughts, or wishes. This may also be taken with 3PT*TcT-
spqqrcourtesy^ courteous behaviour, ' i ^ w n ^ t Amara.
The last line is adj. to jpgrR- WfTFR"This refers to the eye-
brows of men proud of their wealth which are sometimes rais-
ed, at others wrinkled. Cf Bh&g. I f . 2-5, quoted in the com,,
reading the 3rd and 4th lines as ^ \ g|r: f%TTF%cff5fra* ^ t F B v I T ^

SL 27. The reading fijzf has been adopted in this Ed.


instead of fipjr, as Mas, Vocatives often occur, while a female is
rarely addressed in this Sxtaka. snrifsrH violates the metre.
sr^fWrmust be taken with f f% somehow. Another reading
is fff^s^ $1%$":; but this, too, is not satisfactory, as there is no
propriety of fq%:. 373?$*? *> I-&ofc pleasing, harsh to the
touch; rough, is replaced by ypc which is found i n
one Ed, f^r^fgoes with^FPT and means <of rich people';
cf (Mis, si. 11.) f%xf &e.H^Tn such as rudeness, vanity &c.
Mr. Telang's reading is f^WssTrPT which is redundant as we
have already got r w % - For the idea cf Mis. sL 82,
SL 28. TrraT^i^ every forest. ST#fJ?an adj. (Bah.
Oomp.) or adp. For the idea expressed here comp. infra. sL 55.
a ear on
SL 29. q^pft PP l g * The man who has the misery
to supplicate the rich, often In vain, finds the days very long.
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 59

3Tj%qr means allurement or distraction; one commentary explains


i t also as 3rn?T. T'fRTlit. tossed about; hence distracted, BTFTc?r
^qrf%the man engaged in the pursuit of worldly objects finds
time too short to achieve all his ends. ^r^TFffff the Gen. by
f
'aT^FT^oE^trt *P$rft P&n I L 3. 52.
# ^ F f i s defined by
Patafijali as ^^^cTRcTT (sameness of preception; see
com. si. 99). TPT^(1) at the end of my contemplation; and
(2) during the Interval between two ^*T[j%3. The idea Is this
After I shall have broken my ^RTfsr> I shall smile at the life of
misery led by worldly people. May the time come when I
shall be free from desiro and renouncing the world enjoy the
happiness of ^qipar*
SL 30. ^Sefpsfo^ptTf^crf f ^ r f f always or greatly, highly
^Sri"cfr:~delighted. Mr. Telang reads ^^reg^rr^gf^erT* but
we do not see the propriety of rrRTe* and jgf^?T which mean the
same thing. fypSTUinterrupted, unaltered; they enjoy unmixed
felicity (not affected by the report about the treasures of
Meru ). The joys of ordinary men are often interrupted by
misfortunes, the thwarting of their desires &c. sj5Tfmark the
contrast. The happiness of the one nevor comes to an end; the
thirst of the other never ends and makes him perpetually miser-
able, f-csf &o.Tne sentence ends with ifor: supply sg: or qc(~
3=Tcq as Nom, to fr^ft. This indicates Vairagya, and so the
sL is in its proper place here. The Idea seerna to bd thi?-A sane
person never does any thing without some motive. But i t is
difficult to see what the motive of Brahma was in creating
Meru. Those who are self-contented have nothing to do with
it. I f the object be to gratify the lust for money of avarlcions
persons, Meru, with Its unending treasures, can never fulfil i t .
u ? ?
Sarflgadhara p. 23 ascribes this to VIdy&patL Mr. Telang,
SL 3L a r l ^ - i n which there is no self-abasement; in which
one has not the misery of ^undergoing humiliation, or making
abject supplication. arnfcTip^This reading is batter than 3?sn%~
|rf as i t nearly means the same thing as 3T?T^ 3Tsr%f cf may
mean knowing no obstruction, producing every desired effect.
60 NOTES ON

^rfefs^fl. Z- shielding ( l i t . covering ) from fear. afpTfTPT


4 7
may also mean egotism. day after day, always,
^fgni^may also he taken as ^ r g ^ ^ f q ^ ^ ! ^ ^ - f l l ^ s r a
fr. ^ + g r g ; (?r). TTn. I V . 159. That in which people sit down
to worship or contemplate; hence here worship or the system of
worship; i t may have here the same meaning as that of ^R^psf
or the course of life adopted by the devotees of Siva. ar^F^T
I f the reading srqifffcF be adopted i n the first line this should
be taken to mean that cannot be opposed i. e. made to give
way by being proved inferior. Mr. Telang who does not under-
stand the word srsrisf in this sense suggests that 3TJTr%g?r should
be preferred to 3T$n%gcf23\ 3T3T*f &J &lso be taken with
m

3 T ^ f % P 3 ^ as we have done i n translating.


SL 82. jfrSyzx$ is here used i n the same way as 'birth' i n
English, in the ser.se of 'noble birth'. The,reading for
in 1. 2, is not to be preferred; because q>j by itself is a blemish
and cannot be linked with osker good things mentioned i n the
verse; secondly, all the expressions indicating danger are pre-
dicated as directly producing evil effect* on the objects named
while no direct effect can be produced on rrfa by the fear of
being considered spiritless. There is therefore a want of sym-
metry i f we accept the reading instead of qrq*. I f we take
1 ?
in its Vedantic sense of reticense i t w i l l 'be inappro-
priate as Mr, Joglekar remarks, to link i t with other material
5

things so opposed to asceticism, garcomp. ^ g^jRrrfl? SPT?<T


fTO<*T *sw?rf|' STOfl^S* I Vikr&maDga, I , 20.
SL 33. STfWF??is more forcible than 3Tirraf- I t must be
taken with the following expressions also. sTtgSSfoJ'this
breaks the symmetry as i t is the only adj. used to qualify one
of the several things stated i n the si. ff^w'Sportive move-
ments, amorous actions. 3T3%3?f f^pr?far;affluence ( marred )
by inconstancy. sPTfcrrS^gcIT ^ does not make good sense.
pi

SL 34* afrBrmental torment, anxiety. sqrrfabodily


ailment, disease. f%f jxf:may also be taken as f%ftT gfT^^T;
VAIBA'GYAS'ATAKA. 61>

to which a door has been opened, for which an entrance is


effected, ^rnT ^ITtTIevery born being fsr^RThelpless.
S T R W r ^ ^^ffrftakes entirely in his custody. 3 T r c T O r 9 [ ' m

one's possession. ^ q r t o ^ V ( P&n. V . 4. 54*) ^JT%- Wlft*


The aff. ^Fc^i* added to express possession "and used with a
form of the roots ^ or or ^qr?. q*PTindeed, I should
like to know; cf tT?pf ^Tri g a f f ^ S f & r c f &o. Nil;. S i t . si. 54,

@f?^fr[^[ Standing Well ot firmly, secure, safe,


SL 35. This adds to the ^q^ccf* M r . Telang
translates this by 'breaking' preferring i t to its usual sense of
^ ^ T r ' (the waves rising in succession) but wo think the sense
of ^pspn is more poetical and better as i t corresponds to s f f i f ,
the idea of breaking or vanishing being left to be implied,
f^riq*The Acc. by ' q ? [ ^ M ^ ? 3 * a ^ r V Pan I I - 3. 5. ^ffvjsffr:
^?cf;being instructors of people. The word has no special
propriety here; i t seems to be for alliteration, <fcr<?may
n
also mean beautiful, the l y i ^ g i its excellence
^ 1 Amara. 3jc?r:effort; may mean an effort to lead
people to Mohsha or may simply refer to the transactions of
dally life. Cf Bg. I I I . 21 quoted i n the com,
SL 38. expansion; a canopy; hence a collection
f^tfR"lit.
or mass spread all round. ^r^rR^frlightning r?n% S R *T3T; 1

fr. sg^ifF^ & cloud and sp>j\ *tW*%frail, liable to speedy dig-
s e o
solution; from ^ 3 ^ + g r ^ ( 3 T ) , com. W3TWP5Tr^he
indulgences of youth, youthful happiness. Ramarshi explains
cJTSr^fT by qTT^Tr? &&d another commentary by STifftrrBFTT; but
neither of these is satisfactory, ^ r ^ r ts Lthe ardent desire
for pleasures which youth begets. gfpT^fpr seems to be nsed
here i n the sense of Union with, or manifestation i n contemp-
lation of, the Supreme Spirit- Its usual meaning is f^rTfinff-
7
fq^f^r: 'controlling the functions of the mind, by means of
which the individual soul can be in complete union with the
Supreme Soul. ^=RrfSf & C . 4 ^ J T (by patience) *n *TflTfrfaf%:
success i n the acquisition of theSam&dhi by patient contempla-
62 NOTES ON

tion. Or Samadhi may simply mean a state of equanimity


not allowing the mind to be ruffled or agitated under any
i
circumstances. Some take the Oomp. as%ij ^ m 4f>
but without propriety. The reading s^WTTfa presents no
difficulty. Samadhi is the kst and the most perfect stage of
meditation, tbe eight stages. being q - i T H ^ r ^ m a T T T T W ^ r f R -
^ i ^ T ^ R t f m ^ r e r ^ r f a " I fat^Mf 2nd. pers. pi. Imper. of srr
with f*T. s p " % f ^ r s r ^ r F r o m your inclination towards., fix your
mind on. The figures are Ujpama and Kavyaliiiga,
SL 37. gpfWrw-a large wave. ogF^qrp-momentary, transient
like thought-, signifies a little less than, almost equal to.
t q ^ r r ^ ^ q ^ ^ % 5 f h ^ : - - P a n . V . 3. 67. tpr &o.fTOcnr:
quick motions, flashes g'qpp ^ subs, embrace, derived from 5 ^
-

with g-q + (srgflfc *Tfl W. ) Jr^RPj;^\ Fig. EavyalxTbga.


Si. 38. ^ ^ o r - w i t h great difficulty: modifies rfa?T* cT3f^:-
sfiFSfff: *>. *H^r#oil a t>. I. srqs^rtmfi.t for sacrifice; heqge
impure, dirty, T%^r*?tfregulated by boundaries; hence confined
in a limited area; pent up. Tpfcn^T^PT ^\W- the womb.
ssn%3Rnieans ^ r i p ^ or fir^T^T, and may be translated by 'on
5
account of. OTiffipWP^Fn *>. ^ will not do, as i t means
the same thing as ferajSyq (separation) which has already occur
; o c
red. ^r fr Tr^& '-This is taken by some with the second line;
it is, however, preferable to take the third line as one assertion;
^ T f l ^ R ^ f f r being the reason why old age is an evil. Ramarshi
supports this view. For construction see com. ^r^TPTfT^?rr

SI. S9. qftcT^ftfFthreatening. \ 3 3 ^ 3 T h e use of


the Loc. with i f f is more usual and idiomatic-, cf ^^sr^T 1
iff ef cSRTFTf; and crt%r?Ersrggf fff m Bag. I I . 54 and V I I . 59;

oozes out, gently disappears. arf^'TJ'^ra {people ) do injury


' to themselves, by doing evil deeds, ( t . . do not try to obtain
MoMha ). Fig. Upama.
*
VAIRA'GYAS'AT A K A. 63

SL 4 0 . ^tf^tf^T"-evanescent or transient by nature.


^PT WAndTwordly life ( is formed ) of them only, gjpgfn
-enough with, ^ i r r ^ r a f t T H r " ^
x
*
xn
o n e
pl <5- ^r^fff^srr%^T-which
A

is ( now ) under control on account of desires being uprooted.


^T^Rf*rin its own place or abode, viz. ^^q*qn% STFWfa-
SL 41. gT&q'o-of as little consequence as a small blade
of grass. ^ r ^ ^ f r ^ r r a ^ T V . l . Some such words as ^ns^r or
3TTpra ^TRT should be taken as understood after this Locative.
c
T9T5rra% & -The knowledge of Brahma as expounded i n the
Upanishads; the highest truth taught by them ( the four
Mahavakyas especially ) ; Ramarshi explains this by qr^F^gT^f
( * ^ f t f f ^rn )* &* * Telang says 'It means whose commands
r :

are great; thus in the Upanishads t^cT^r m 3T$rreqr ^IPT sryiTSR"


^ f f ^ ^ i f^gcT. t or jftcfTSWT^Tff* tfcfef &c.; the greatness consist-
ing in the great powers which obey those commands/' But
R&marshi's sense seems to be more natural. The knowledge of
f
Brahma is called 3fahm asana because i t come3 authoritatively
from the Vedas i t being the highest truth taught by them.
;

SffTsr^indescribable. Cf. f i ^ R : ^Ttg-cr^S*?m ^ cfTq ^ ^ %


Dfetar. R^fff^cTQver existing, steady, permanent. Cf with
this si. 70 infra.] Gita V I . 22.
SL 42. W would be better for symmetry. ^r*Fff (tf**r-
fc ?
1^cTi ^ c f " border, frontier. cT^r SW^cT: ) means a frontier
a
king, a tributary prince. fq$*q" wise man. TI^TR^- K
involves tautology since ^ T ^ f T ^ has already occurred, grf?^^;
swollen or puffed up with pride, proud. gtsftF I . (p. p of
with gc3[) l i t . exceeded,, overflowed, hence haughty. PTT^Ta
t
collection. $f^ T*T'TOT^-became a matter of memory L
history.
SL 43. *p|nsed here in a double sense. (1) a house. (2) a
Square on a dice-board. ^ 5 3^:( And there are) many after
r
him i e. many who follow or depend upon him. ihe last two
line3 describe the game at dice in which the god of death and
his wife (the male and female personifications of the principle
of Destruction ) are engaged". The world is their dice-board,
64 NOTES ON
a i l
mortals the dice-pieces ( $T1T Marathi Crfa^T* ) # day and
night the two dice, Siva may also he regarded as the Destroyer-
as he is described in the Puranas as playing at dice with his
wife, Parvat?.
SI. 44. s^nTCavocations, affairs. ;rr$momentous,
Weighty, grrsr:Time, i . e, the passing away of time,
fear or disgust, &c.a Oomp. of the tfjrrf 1*55 class,
^fffsfr^ff^in the af. is used in the sense of 'excess' ( or
made of ). *TlTrrderived from sr<T + T%l=f ( %K ) + 271 ( &rr )
N

that which intoxicates, s s ^ ^ r p q ; STWPff ?J?TJ there is no-


special propriety of taking ^ in the sense of . The poet
rna^es a definite assertion here.
SL 45. RWcraresolutely, steadily, or secretly. cnrF^r~
t\ e. repeatedly enjoyed, hence stale. ^f^rendisgraced; or
tormented. See Nit. Sat. sL 84; and infra q j ^ H ^ M i s sl 29.
M #

SL 46. ^ r d ^ f ^ r r f C u t t i n g asunder, or utter destruct


ion, of the bonds of ^s\X leading to Mofaha ( salvation or
9

unification with the Supreme Being ). . This is attained by


means of Yoga and then there is no re-birth for man. This i&
the highest ideal, the next one is ^ i f . This is attained by
means of religions merit, vows, pacrifices, &c see com. The
:

reward for these is ?sr?f, and after the heavenly happiness is


enjoyed for the prescribed term, there is again re-birth, again
the acquisition of ^ by religious merit, again re~birth, and
so no t i l l the end of the creation. see com. The student
can easily see the difference between $flrcfar^F% &**d ^ f i f t n r .
I n the eyes of a philosopher, the latter is nothing ( ) as
compared to the former. 5CPTrThia refers to the third
object of human pursuit, vk. zp\v[ or the enjoyment of worldly
pleasures. spRR^Not a happy metaphor, as ?m expresses a
plurality of ideas. I t is probably used for alliteration One
the poet may seem to refer by Vana to an avenue of trees which
gradually disappears as treo after tree is cut down and so to-
refer to the gradual disappearance of youth, The plnra^
is used to indicate self-disparagement.
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 65

SI. 47. ?nff &c. - M r . Telang proposes that this adj. and
ff^ffitfiftn should denote two kinds oi learning and quotes the-
Subhoshita %rr fffr^FT q$ *T^Tr &c. to support his position.
There, however, two kinds of persons are specially mentioned
as possessing two kinds of learning* Here we have no mention
made of two persons of different temperaments as i n the
Subhashita-, but the adj.fa^rcfrT%crrseems to have been purposely-
added to signify that the kind of learning meant here ia not
that which falls under the category ( ^T^?r ) ft fff j^rir.
High learning * capable of putting down an antagonist, but i t
need not at the same time be prone to controversy when it ia-
possessed by good men. efffcjijpH". *. the elephants of the-
0

enemy. cfTSTwhich is the fittest period of life for achiev-


ing the three things mentioned in the foregone lines.
SI. 48. u^qTp*oply desire to hear hence service,
;

attendance/ senTTff ^^Fr^3Trf|w firmly placed, concentrated,


devoted, fcr^pWTC??; TTfTT ^ Nffr ^ facrfn by 'frcTT Wmf f
Pan. I . 2. 70; also ( srmiftaft ) I 7* &ccoveting a
morsel of food from others, e f f r ^ n s r - - s u p r a , si. 46 and
*HfrlT%ff TOl^l^T I Si. 4.
SI 49. cffijrtn':died, cf. qfaRP - - Veni. I I I . zpmm-
v l

is simpler. To explain Trfacrr. Ramarshi adds ^r^ffcT :.


This will do very well. But Mr. Telang- thinks ititft to be an
instance of ^r*f for^aud refers for a parallel instance to Rag,
I I . 50. In the passage referred to, however, the causal sense is*
not at all justifiable, which is not the case in the present
passage, renfifcn* see Pan. V . 2. 105. quoted i n the
com.; Jfjgi =sr l f%*m: ^WRfT^T flct f%^I%ar:, %ipfr.'t

SI. 50. w^^rr^r <res*r ^r#i--Expiain imvfc qsrww-

^r^xTmf^^'- * Human life extends over 100 years. Half


of this is passed in the night, one fourth of the latter ia.
V . N. 5
NOTES ON

12 jr years is passed in childhood and old age each. ( I n com-


puting this the night-time is not taken into consideration, and
the day is supposed to be of 24 hours as usual; this makes the
12 years equivalent to 25 years for boyhood and for old age.)
Mr. Telang suggests that VWfTkwV^ should be taken to
mean ni%#3TT# (*. f^Wcttt ) FTT^[ *. e* half of the 50
years passes by day time. This gives 25 years for youth and
old age together, arqpcmay be taken as in the com. or as an
advr, besides, another thing is that &e.
SL 51. The comparison of man with an actor pervades the
whole verse. gRT^:%^:delighting in enjoyments,. ^ E I T C F % - ~
at the close of his wordly existence. zpTOFfto*I*R*T W(^t
%af sreFRFT & curtain; as an actor having acted his part i n
several ways, retires behind the curtain on the stage, so man
retires to the seat of death from the platform of the world.
;
51. 52. qsgr refined or acute intellect. BTf*PTFTjust pride,
sjp^may mean (1) frpT g^iffr ( #-*T: ) ffcr; one who confers
honour ( on his dependants )* and ( 2 ) *rpT sn% ?ffT from
^ T F T + C T ( 3 T f ^ ^ ) one who Bubdues the pride ( of the enemy
or insults others); the second sense, however, seems to be
intended here. iftRrercn*totally, utterly,
SL 53. The same idea is rendered clearer i n this- q ^ r
'The use of the pi. shows that the speaker wishes to assert his
own greatness, arref^rq;sTTCTRsh cfpfcC t w e a r e
the sole masters
of the wealth of words i , e, we rule supreme over the domain of
letters, frptfThe Gen. by the rule 3r#r$T?^?Tt *F*for ( rBT ) I
Pan. I I . 3. 52. Words meaning to remember or remembrance
And the roots g^and 5^ govern the Gen. of their object.
!3t. 54. g f r s h i s a better reading than % 3 ^ c r r M gives a
.good contrast with q?$r:. f^ftsNT PrStVBamarshi explains
as follows:3TW fifr*: 3T*EK f ? W I ftff$ta* 3 R l f W : I 3*9f
7?&% *PiTt ^TFRftwfc i The philosopher says to the kingwhat
yon regard as greater satisfaction is not so in my estimation,
3$r, Telang does not think R&marshi's explanation to be satis-
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 67

factory, and proposes that Should be taken to mean 'great-


ness/ ) This is eertainly no improvement on Rtmarshi's
interpretation which is quite unobjectionable and gives good
sense. The fig. is Arthantarany&sa*
SL 55. q&tf^$* v. L is not appropriate. a bed or
couch; fr. if\ + 3T=T ) added ^fw^olr. Cf froff ^ ^* sL 16
supra.] also 27, 95. ^spT &c.upstart wealth often produces
intoxication. 3Tgi{?^-to consent to, to tolerate. Cf for
the idea, infra, si. 27.
SL 56. This si, gives expression to the thoughts of some
one disgusted with royal service. aT^flff-for 3T^fr^ff.
3TRTT (the quarters ) qrq qroi ef ff I F ^ .
1

SI. 57* f%2T-flatterers, panderers. I n dramas this word


'has a technical meaning. I t means the companion of the hero
or a king who is skilled i n one art only. See com. i f W r :
555, ( ) added q?^. f TO*A king's palace is frequented
*hy buffoons, flatteres, and licentious and malicious people. The
ipoet says, as he is none of these, a royal court is not the place
for him. Mr. Telang here quotes from Juvenal the following
^parallel lines:
u
What's Borne to me, what business have I there ?
I who can neither lie, nor falsely swear,
Nor praise my patron's under serving rhymes."
1. 58. f%2^f^f-large-hearted, generous-minded-refers to
BrahmiH and other Praj&patis, or to Brahm& alone, the pL being
used STT^. f^fr^Cupheld, preserved-refera to Vishnu and
others or to Vishnu alone. ^ &c.probably a reference to
3?ara$ur&ma, who conquered the world, and presented i t t o the
Brahmaiias. ffrfiftqgf &c.when supremacy has been acquired
over a few towns. McjVHCf w?? *fft *T Nit. Sat. sh 8.
SI 59. ^=rRT3Tf &c.The sovereign is considered as the
husband of the earth by Sanskrt poets. Cf sf^(PTT%
where the king is spoken of as the husband of the earth, f3T
WgqFT*what honour is i t , indeed? f^r being used for emphas i *
#8 NOTES ON

like qnr i 3gtf: Nit. Sat. 82. Cf ft&X^fr q> ffPTfTT^cf &e
K i r , I 31. or
# $qwhat sort o i (what reason have they for)
%&^qRRr:tbe Loc. is noteworthy; see Pan, I I . 3. 30 fifti^r 9

gfP^-Mr, Telang here remarks-<for having so litte' they


should have grieved; but i t would be better to suppose that
they should have chiefly grieved lor being the lords of 3j#rp5t?ST

SL 60, %f?qff: &c.~The whole earth is a ball of clay enci-


rcled by the line of water ( sea ) i t is indeed, very small, and
;

is parcelled out among themselves by a number of kings after


hundreds of fights. These petty chiefs are poor and mean-
minded. The poet, therefore, despises those that wish to get
something out of them. ^qf # f r r i * preferable to srpft^ro&T
which limply means 'having divided/
1. 61. cKr^indescribable, unnamable. ^ sra: iTntfhfc
he alone was born; he alone deserves to be counted as having
been born, the birth of others is as good as nothing, ;j4hon
high; or so as to give i t high honour, arw^rcfq^for the
purpose of decoration, as a decoration, or ornament. I t is well
known that Siva decorates himself with a string of the skulls-
of those who fall on the battle-field & c ; comp. qrofgr qr frrq;*^
* Kum. V . That deity does not, however, give
preference to one skull i n particular, nor does he wear i t on his
head, as thepeet seems to imply, spj-or derived from j ^ l . A to #

g o + r g ^ ( 3 R ) S P T ^ I 3T?R mm sloping <xnmr:^f^Ftfr #


5|T S I Amara;' inclined, disposed; ;jpf: qTTPSC:Instr,
Absolute, same as theLoc. Absolute, ^V(?Q ^ g - or the Intsr.
may be p t (the whole being equivalent to *prf as Mr,
Telang has it.).f#^c*TC-excess of feverish or morbid pride.
t o
SI. 62, sr^rt propitiate. i ^ F r r & t ^ ~ T h e confused
mass of misery. Cf $\%$>Tm*i Bg. X I . 52, q^f* F3*fa *m
(=*); Un, 1. 54. *vi%^rpf I Amara/ Mr. Telang
reads sFfgjft% He says <qsr%c? might mean but this re-
Quires a straining'. *f?Tfi%w &cf%nTrTror is a jewel the
yosa&ftsion.of which is believed to give any desired object..
VAIKA'GYAS'ATAKA. $9

When the mind is content i t has acquired the power of the


T^rriTFti for having nothing to wish for i t can be said that i t
has given itself all that i t longs for. ffgtj?: tff <r: fee- When
all desires have been foregone, every desire has i n fact been
8
.gratified. Cf. Gita I I . 70, 79. *f?r i r s * ^ WOT 3fc*T
TfT?rr: i a w ^ r s f e f r *re pre wm **r$r Kathop. 2. 3,14.
'I'

SI. 63. ^ r w &c.-The line gives expression to fatalism. Cf.

II Hit. I . The line may also be interpreted as-things hap-


pen i n the best way when they are allowed their natural way.

They are not brought about so well by exertions. ar^r^Fqr^


r
not forming anticipations or expectations. ,3Tg*r^3*^ 'to be
with 3?3 is Pars.; so this must be taken as a form of ^ to get
or obtain which is P. A . ; or separate 3Tg*PT *?*TT*TR>
;
SI. 64. arr 5rRr^--troublesome: goes with ^Tf^TIc^ f t c ^ governs
the A b l . of the object from which cessation is meant. i h f i w r ^
(the obj. of in 1-1.)the path of final beatitude, arfroftsr
ifflW what is most to be praised-hence sought, t. *. iftqr;
^ g f ^ l ^ ^ r ^ K ^ f t : * r e r f e K C I *fts?t*^-Amara. gurra; goes
with SPRR. ^T[?a vrr4> which is necessary for entering on theSpqt-
*rrir.*rffr course, movements. Cf ref^Ttfp si. 87 Infra.
$gain, with persistence.
SI. 65. Addressed to the mind, qph? Imper. 2nd sing.
Some read iffjf ^rt^Tcrnsc* those who have swept away infatu-
ation/ cTT^in our reading means irftRP5> cR^f of the grounds
on the bank. STr^r^^T^-resort to the vicinity of, qff qT
7
what faith can be placed ? The answer being 'none , ^gftgr ^jtg v. I.
.may equally do. Cf arpiPwen# SOT TfiT % % iftg ^

SI. 66. a^irearnestness. Tg^r??roFortune very often


depends upon the royal favour a man enjoys and its stability or
otherwise is to be determined from a look of pleasure or a
frown that the king's face wears. Lakshmi is, therefore, com-
pared to a dancing girl dancing in imitation of the movements
70 NOTES ON

of a prince's eye-brows. ^Tr5R^fluJr*9=3fsf: ^ t ^ w * ^ -


fqPcfT: > 3^3? is a word of tbe cTR^lf^ g P and therefore
r o u

takes the possessive af. jer. Cf *5gjr^rT^T- si. 96. Jn/fos.


{1. 67. f r f ^ r ^ n - F r . ^T%or+?^^ meaning 'of that place';
!
ports of the Beccan who were masters of the Vaid cwb7ti style
of composition which is regarded as the best. The Vaid. style-
has ten qualities; see Kvy&, I . Sah. Dar. describes- i t as *n$~
aW^fSf ^f%cTT cTf^crTfOTT I a T f f ^ R ^ M r ( having no or very
few compounds) t?^fr?TmiT^^B" II *PtPE*3fa5(but this is not-
possible except in very few instances, and so,the didactic chara-
cter of the verse cannot be marred by its apparent acquiescence^
i n the enjoyment of pleasures.
SI. 68. gFr^f^T^rNouns showing duration of time are-
put i n the Acc. P&n. I I . 3, 5. Eor spFq see notes, Nit. Sat. 16..
SI. 69. ^ T s r ^ ^ ^ f ^ ^ I f this fear is present in the*
1

mind of man, he w i l l try to obtain final beatitude; but i f he is*


not aware of i t , he will not work out his salvation, f f^f^
an AluJk Compound. Cf this with the preceding 1.
SL 70. apFFCnot subject to old age as i t is fqTcRSTT: comp.
?
^TRJFRr 5ffT Tait. Up.; gtftrresrt I Rag- X . 19. rf^ngr
i

The highest, KRJ ^?sr *rr -WSF I P T H P T T fff%"far I 3T*raF


<TCT 3 c $ T * T C T ^ TCITRJT \ Ramarshi. f%%nwiCf. The
girutis mm sii%refw ^ m u W r srFWcjftwT ^ ana

Bamarshi; or rather fancies, dreams, as Mr. Telang takes i t .


ST-j^Mpthose that, follow, depend npon. SR-qorohighly
valued by mean people. ^qor may also mean poor, to be pitied
(for losing sight of the real); see com.; s u p r a - p
Mis. sL 2.
SL 71. irnWT Voo. sing.; some take OT^rT3ft aa a Oomp..
meaning 'with the swiftness of thought ( l i t . mind), and 7

suppose the verse to be addressed to man i n general. B&marshi


iavours the former view, sjrgwith the negative means-
'Never.' S?rwffa^3ri?*T% f|cT^ tending to one's benefit. sTTffr-
ftsf3Rt^^^ W I PSa. V . 1. 9. np^ fiwspr, an*
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 71

compounds having for their latter member take ^ ( $?r )


i n the sense of < ^ ftcT^' as r ^ f t i f r r &c.
SL 72. ^Ntsnrfrfr^rThe comparison of heaven to a village
hut shows the contempt with which a Ved&ntin, longing for
Mohsha, treats the pleasures of heaven. f%w*TSport, ^sp*^~
g:*g^^-R&marshl explains ^?rr by snfSr* Mr. Telang takes i t
to mean 'expanse', 'large extent/ but without any apparent
authority. The meaning which naturally suggests itself from
the primary meaning 'arrangement* of the word, is ' predesti-
?
nation, pre-arranging for future births. ^ r ^ F F S f &*sPSS'sf
c

the compassing or effecting of &c. R&marshi explains^fTc^r-

mercenary doings.
SL 73. since, when, Hrcf^tTCTrf:by the feet ( the
hills of the foot) of mountains; the mountains are said to
uphold the earth and have a number of synonymous words to
denote them from this circumstance, such as nftf$, 33Jc3> &c-
Ramarshi gives as optional meaning ' The word trf^
presents some difficulty in the way of accepting either sense,as
the serpent Sesha has no feet, as also mountains. The adjacent
hills or mountains are, however, regarded as their feet and the
mountains are described as supporting the earth with their feet-
? ?
So we may accept the meaning ' mountains and reject *Sesha .
The fig. is Kwy&rthapattihu
SL 74. ^gC^TShrunken, shrivalled. anf[^<i~fr. s A .
6 cl; ST gsrq% does not serve, or attend to. ar?W9Rl
f f m i a ; denom. verb. Cf Pt. I V . 74.
1. 75. srcrrf^T?the injury or ravages done by old age.
Cf s*TTSffa wjpra sL 39. The reading cT^r g?rfe^ is easier.
We need not in this case supply fr. gfjf as object to qf?^r*
a^Xff^TMr. Telang says that this refers to the bit of bone
suspended over, a Oh&ndalakupa ( to distinguish i t from wells
used by the higher classes ) .
{31. 76. ^SRSTat ease, l i t . i n its natural condition L e* not
enfeebled by diseases &e. anjsfrfree from disease; as this
NOTES ON

idea, however, is included in the reading ^gr^ft^nf may be


preferred. The human body is frequently referred to as a
*house'; for therein dwells the soul. sn*9*T and as long as
the senses retain their faculties unimpaired. The last line very
pithily expresses an idea which brings home to the most care-
less reader the necessity for striving to save his soul.
SI. 77. "Human life being only as long as a few twinklings
of the eye, how are we, the poet asks, to secure the four
a i l
'5$qT*N SR* sfFF d *fj$r ? " This seems to be what
Bimarshi thinks of the verse. The reference to 3Tf in the
text is of the faintest character. ^r^P*W*T with an^T
governs the Acc,; j % however, is not mentioned among the pre-
positions given in the Stra. Mark the alliteration i n this si.
SI. 78. arfr*so well known. H^^gf^frr:-neither very
-common nor a good simile; a horse is known for fleetness and
not for fickleness. I t simply means here'restless like a spirited
horse'. Cf Sana's description of L a k s h m i i f . . ^ f ^ p r c n ^ *
^cr^^r^W^^f.....-^fr??r *qpprar:longing for
( eminence ). I n line 4 the word 3p*ra seems to be redundant,
?
as we have already 3T*Tc[-
SI. 79. srgfqr ^fa^lfRfimarshi explains this as < wealth
being partitioned out'; in connection with the last two lines,
however, this primary meaning will not suit; and we must have
the secondary sense 'wealth being destroyed' here, ^qtfc;-
( fi + S T ^ ) without getting any money ( in charity, foe which
he comes ). srusR^rThe Ganges is so called from the K i n g
Jahnu. "The river Ganges, when brought down from heaven
by the austerities of Bhagiratha ( See N'it. Sat. si. 10. ) was
forced to flow over earth to follow him to the lower regions.
I n its course i t inundated the sacrificial ground of King Jahnu
who being angry drank up its waters. But the gods and sages,
and particularly Bhagiratha, appeased his anger, and he con-
sented to discharge those waters from his ears. The river is
i

therefore regarded as his daughter.'' Apte's Sk. Dictionary.


VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 73

Another account of the descent of the Ganges, however, states


that Jahnu was a Rshi performing penance and that the Gan-
ges i n its course having disturbed the sage i n his concentration
by flooding the country where he was, the sage i n anger stop-
ped the course of the river by pressing i t under his thigh. A t
Bhagiratha's earnest entreaties, however, he let the stream
.flow again. and ^ are usually given as synonymous
tf 5
terms; ?f^ g q F ^ t ^fr Amara; while $37 has a different
shade of meaning, 'fafgsf^ gr 55Wrf^fTft^t^>' Amara. A
*3ar is a hollow i n a mountain covered over with creepers and
other plants, ffi is a cave, a hollow dug out or opened up in the
side of a hill; and though synonymous with ^ft should
rather be taken here to mean the gorge or defile between two
hills, in which sense i t is used i n si. 26. fsf^somewhere.
For read i n the text.
SI. 80 t**T WT% &c.company of religious people cannot
but be pleasing. glistening, beaming; cf srsnrnTW
^ftfiTftfii TOTTTOT^ S&k. R&marsbi gives *w*s\ as its explana-
& c
tion. s^?rplaced (there, by anger ). Sifiwijjtrorft -
When the mind has become unsteady . e. is not its usual
mood, nothing pleases i t . Or when thoughts of the mutability
of this existence cross the mind, i t becomes distracted and then
i t cannot relish anything earthly, except the joy of Brahman.
SL 81. jfrsrer-tbe Dat. case as indicating the result ^fanpc~
the tapering flame, grrarshadow. B&marshi explains i t by
auBMSKq'ffiCT(tbe country of l i g h t ) which M r . Telang does
7
not accept. He gives i t the meaning of 'flame ; but as the
word ^htfjpr already occurs the word WWJ would be redundant
i f i t were taken to signify 'flame/ The shadow thrown by the
.flickering flame of a lamp is even more unsteady than the flame
on account of its magnitude. sj|<h<ft*mhaving fully compre-
hended or known.
SL 82. arr^tfrcft5**r^ & c . ~ ( Searching through ) the
three worlds where the course of worldly life prevails :~Telang.
The mind is deeply attached to sensual objects as the elephant
74 NOTES ON

is to Ms mate. I n order to secure the elephant, there must be-


a strong post (srr&FO; and to curb a sensual mind a strong ^
control or restraint. The post and the restraint^ the elephant
and the mind and the sensual objects and the female elephant,
are the pairs compared here* <rr^~-a worldly man who is
strong-minded enough to resist the temptation of sensual ob-
jects, ^ff^-intoxicated. snSTFT a post for fastening elephants.
SL 83. ^ ^ c / ^ q r o i f f l W N i t . Sat. si. 49. stpm-tran-
quillity, or peace of mind, subduing the passions entirely.
^ f ^ f ^ (the mind too), moving ( b u t ) slowly to wards-
external objects. The mind is solely engaged i n contemplation*
and hardly bestows any thought on external objects. The i n -
ternal objects for a contemplative mind are itself and the Su-
preme Soul; while the entire creation constitutes outer things*
These latter are referred to by the word ^ffSL-
SL 84. ifrrf-have died out. Cf srhfafp gWFPTcI^ si. 2.
*TW3TffBWT srrar:have become sterile, have bore no fruit.
I^TPcpsee com.; or ^ srenKftffr. BT^T'fl'unforgiving, un-
relenting; ^nfr * w arsnfr s n w e r a ^ = f | +
STT+fFRFsfc 3?[ being taken ^FROJ as Mr. Telang suggests. But
1

here i f has no propriety.


&L 85. % ^Tfir^rTf^Rff^Sf-I see no difference; I have no
idea of difference between &c. Sffaqf^knowledge, idea,
gpj^f^the plural is used because according to the Hindu?
notion there are 14 worlds.
Si 86. 5 f ^ % - ^ ^ r a " 3c$f&;f Amara; a sandy bank left by
receding water; goes with s^Rff:. ^arfta;the heavnenly river,
the Ganges. HFCT*TNrfiL*l f.'-^ff*W^ ^^^T^ftcrr Ramarshi; cf,
?

Wtgmtiw si. 96 infra. arr5TTW: *> ^3TFfF ^fTff %:


who have taken to (*. e. are repeating) the words. STfrFffsffi
&c,Bah. The joy referred to is, of course, resulting
from the manifestation of the Supreme Deity i n contempla-
tion, y p f o r w t>. I* is meaningless unless we take i t to mean
'earnest cries, fervent prayers/ ( s r r l p l I f W Sfat).
VAIR A'GYAS' AT AK A. 75

SI. 87. f^cfr^T-given away; p. p. of g, with ff. tT^r-young


tender, jqguj &c.haying an unfortunate result. f%f^T#"
the motions i e. the working of fate. fq^r*TH>he night. <fiwHI
4

STO?r Amara. *rnr is prahara or 8 hours % *T*Wffr Wit*


Amara; and the night is considered to have only three pra
haras, the first half watch and the last half watch being ex-
cluded. ^TT !a protector, saviour.
0

SL 88. ^ixPT^fr-Benares. ftgqptthis alludes to the siory


of the three Puras or towns of the demons, of gold, silver, and
iron, situated i n the sky, air and on earth, and built for them
by Maya, which were burnt down by Siva *r!ong with the de-
mons, inhabiting them. See Kum. V I I . 48 a r r ^ f ^
# *y m e r e

means hereloudly uttering.


SL 89. wfar(* Tou) who deserve to be contemplated.
f^ra^IT&o.There does not seem to be any propriety of \
sjTWITPT:finding delight i n self ( i . <?. in the contemplation of
the self or Brahma). ^ ^ ^ o f - O u this R&marshi observes ^*f~
(vwtm *rft#r mwft ^ o f r ^ ) f | TOF^rf?r

his only inquiry being that touching the method of contempla-


tion. This reading, however, violates the metre*
SL 90. ijeCTSfft tP: xgs 3T2joT% 1ffffH% going alone i n the
world. qifSnrnPto whom his hand is serviceable like a pot.
^{^jj^r-destroying entirely the roots. This is essential to
cut ofE the repetition of births and deaths. This is done by
being 3fftf9 as indicated in the first half. Sams&ra is here
compared to a tree of which actions are the roots. Of 3T*^?*i~
* R s f ^ ^ W ? O T 63* T%?3TI Bg. X V . 3; also S&riraka
Bhaahya onBrah. Su. I V . I . 14. 19.
SL 91. trrsPTr'a denom. %^n^"-f*F^r^ |T% what is obtained
by alms; fr. fStar+ar. q g a ^ a little short of, almost equal to,
7
grass; see com. ^ t r i ^ q f a c W I 'fa*TWT 5<TT aff^SltfTrg Pan.
V . 3. 63. ftafpnftftRrfe^ 9 ^ 3 ; UPL ( t t
P *e
) IT
r e f i

* STPN" (prefix) ?r g q^r: | f ^ : qg: ztgx^: &c. Sid. K a u .


NOTES ON
c
3Te3Tr*frfT & *Even though the body is not cast off L e. he
w i l l not have to wait for a second birth. ^r*7c^|%see Earn.
I I . 54 &c. ?r*f c?sr*r t>. /.In this case ^iqg; must be under-
stood as used transitively.
SL 92. affpfpTa small piece of cloth used to cover the
privities. ^r^c?f^-extremely ragged. r%*Wr-act f contempla- 0

tion. Also a thought about (i. e. a wish for) a secluded place.


^r^Rr^r&c.delighted at the total destruction of egotism and
errors; or rf^TWTI^r* errors arising from egotism or pride.
SL 93. s^rp^i" H 3cyrer3rv. I. a mere circular body i. e.
o:

which is limited in space and not 3?TKT%l5vr like Brahman.


This is perhaps a better reading, ^rqr^ra small fish. ^s^tfT
*'*rnj *TPT%a question implying the negative answer in itself
7
Is ever agitation produced &c.V'Never. oTTg ever, at
any time.
8. 94. m ?*r ^:-irr sometimes followed by ^q, is used with
a form of the Imperf. or Aorist with the aug. 3T dropped, Cf
.fcwf HTW *r*r: m$ &c. Bg. I I . 3. jfftxir-:'the Dat. by
fStfT^cTi P^u- I - 4. 36. I n the case of the root the object
desired is put in the Dative case. *f2n<from fj[[+3UI5
7
by '*srit#& * r ^ ? r % % m ^ ^ ^ r s r r ^ Pta. i n . 2.
c
358; so ^fsngj, qcnttgj* & - *3tTstitched; p. p. p. of T%[ 4 oL
f^f^rRT^barley-flour (obtained by) begging. Cf infra. Mis.
hi 3 7 ^
SL 95. ^ r ^ R ^ r - p i l l o w j f r . + s r r + 5 ^ ( 3T?T). Rrcrr^r-
m. n. a canopy, ffcr^er fffT fr* cT^ with R + ^ ( 3 T ) - f^ffT^TfTr
-Cf infra. Mis. 39, ^ f T ^ ^ W ^ q T R ^ T ^ f w h e r e
^[f and rf^ff are likewise called wives. an adv. here.
STcTJ &o.from the adf erg the fern, forms or ffg or
7
has two meanings yi%. (1) prosperity as applicable to the king
and (2) 'ashes as applicable to the Muni. Cf Mis. sL 34. infra.
7

SL 9 6 . ^ T R T T & C . f ^ ^ r % ? * whose movements are under


v i t r e i ; who practises self-restraint, sn^?T &o,an qqr^fr
t$tn v. h sewn together, patched with. ^ r H ^ ^ f ^ T & c .
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 77

an^fFT enjoyment i n full ( arr )i or with R&marshi, qftgtjfor. Cf.


i r i W n f S S f N i t . Sat. 29.
SI. 97. tfPT &cwhose intellect is keen i n discerning
( thinking out ) the truth, discrimination of the real from the
unreal. &c.wise men do not care what others speak
about them, but silently go their own way. ^fssf^pri
atfq^^if: I ' by themselves * R&marshi; or * without meddling
9
with others w i l l also do.
Si. 98. i*$g* sptR ^ f ^ T t l l u such constructions the noun
used to complete the sense of verbs of incomplete predication
is put in the Nom. case; See Apte's Gr. 12. ( a ) . ff^r^3P^
free from the sin of causing the destruction of animal life Cf
Goldsmith
lt
And from the mountain's grassy side
A guiltless feast I bring. "
cngppbeasts are created so as to live on grass. ^n^^lrf^R*
lying on the lawn; ?n?3T means a natural plot of land. ^STTC
&c.To those that do not possess the faculty of reason, God-
has assigned a cheap, easy livelihood; but to those who can
think out the means of their salvation ( i . e . men). He has
assigned a mode of life in pursuit of which all their good
qualities are exhausted. The struggle for existence, i n the
case of man, engrosses all his energies, and leaves him neither
time, nor energy to seek eternal bliss. I t is difficult to see the
bearing of this si. here. Probably the poet meansMen should,
therefore, feel disgust for worldly life and direct their efforts
to the acquisition of MoJcsha.
SL 99. qw*T?f ^ a particular posture i n religious medita-
tion, thus described:srfrRfr ^VWS ^ 1 3>S*faft 5Wc*RP 8
CTppft erafcl^t W^X W W f f?%?^ II Ox 37$q^ &c. see com.;
^WSfRT& l P fl ee
meditation or contemplation, ^ i f f mm
o f

TSfatfFcR^fffP cTgrtn T%S^ I contemplation of the mind on


Brahma is here likened to sleep because the Yogi is dead to
the external world during the time of meditation-his mind takes
cognisance of no external objects like that of a man fast asleep*
f% %*rfWtwUl they ever be ? gpr^ip%A denom. from
'78 NOTES ON

( 3affjg5 3TffMr^ ) The reading *r*q?*q% &c. adopted by


Mr. Telang ( see foot-note ) is more poetical but requires soma
such expression as trom me to be supplied.
c ?

1
1. 100. ^q;food collected together by begging.
3
T ^ T ^ ? * ^ ' ^ ' Amara. ft:3^9r &c-see com;; the develop-
ment of the mind consisting in renouncing &\l worldly attach-
ments; or R : ^ C T T STfffarOiT^ trfton%:; here trf^crrf% meansthe
end, close, or termination; hence the closing act of life, Whea
a man has accepted asceticism ( i % : ^ F f i ) be has no worldly
r

actions to perform. His accepting asceticism is therefore the


last act of his life.nFcTi^^arqf^arfa': v. h is to be similarly ex-
plained;qRnTcf^fpcf is another reading which meanssp^sr
*TfT<*I<T ^TcHFfT ^ f ^ ^ f &c>Those who have abandoned
(i. is. got rid of) the multitudes of contacts (t. e. opportunities)
of self-humiliation ( i n supplicating others.). Telang. ^frRFfi:-
contact, connection; or misfortunes, calamities.
SL 101. *freT'> 3TtI &cThe Vocatives, are significant.
See com. Tbe five elements perform the same functions as the
various relatives mentioned and serve to nourish the body &e*
srwar:last, as I have to take no further birth, ( for he says
1
further on q\ STfrfSr c3T%') this salutation must be the last
from me. ^^s^Tf^for, without the body, formed of the
elements, he could not have attained the knowledge of JSrahma.
*&BRoverflow, abundance. ?fi%merge, be absorbed i n .
/

This sl forms the fitting conclusion of the Sataka.


#

MISCELLANEOUS.
SL 1. ST^'C^FV(1) a part of the sky; and ( 2 ) a strip of
cloth, ^ff^cf:covered, clothed, or surrounded; p. p. of s^r with
*PJ> $ n f ^ ~ C l C T i f a : TcT ?rr TO fT^r *rif:) wretchedness. The
ipo'et bewails the wretchedness of the sun and the moon who" are
here described as having but one strip of cloth i n common to
*#over themselves with. The fig. here is SJlesha. I t is thus
defined:-^: SJT^T ^f^RF^srr^FT^rrT * f ^ I K . P. X . When i n
the same sentence more than one meaning is possible i t is
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 79

SL 2. r % ^ ^ r ^ ^ ~ f ^ f i is the same as f^TIHcq-^gf^?


discrimination of the real from the unreal. When one knows
wherein lies permanent happiness, which alone can be called
true happiness, he tries to acquire i t . For this purpose ^pTand
others (vq^qfrtf^fiOT Ved. 84.) are neces-
sary. szrr^RTO means 'unfolding, budding;' hence development.
When one has discrimination^ one should try to acquire S'ama
and others. ^ is defined as ^W^cTRti ^ f ? ^ ^ ^ |
*R#T * *. restraining the mind from all other objects
and devoting i t to the hearing of the recital of holy texts &c.
(i. e spre, Frf^vsTRR
m ) ^ I ^ t ^ I may also betaken as an
<qdj. 5 see com. f^R^rfor when i t blooms and so produces the
wished for result, viz. the annihilation of all desirestpf
t D
lofty; hence strong attachment, set Tfc rfst:that well known
perfection ( o f contemplation) viz. what is called rfa?gf% i n
which one enjoys the joy of Brahma.
SL 3. lpj?tf^~for the removal of miseries, (which consoled
them in their afflictions). Or f^rlT may mean q^r^qtR aud "|^r
the trouble of birth and re-birth. f%q^lpsrf%lS^if ^ r ~ ( i n course
-of time) i t came to be the means of attaining sensual pleasures;
i t became subservient to sensualism. WWf%?P3Taverse or
indifferent to the study of S'&8tra$ or not disposed to encourage
learning. The same cause of the decline of learning has been,
given already i n si. 2 supra.
SL 4. ?$z*rlovely, attractive, when a w. (8T2*srr) i t means
a beautiful woman. $>r*r-Properly 'fortunate', hence pleasant,
-charming. rcf&r-zs derived from ^ to m o v e b y XJn I I .

?
^rqfrr% ^ H Amara. ^:f^gtsee sL 86 and note on fapt supra,
.hi 19. * fin:: $ra*|*r:We raise (lit, stretch forth) our cries of
invocation, g^rc:ctffl?S%: Amara. -with
sighs. ^spre is an onomatopoeic word.
SL 5. sm^^rl^-The Ganges, fftw:the quarters #

a ^ ^ r N o t showing one's poverty; or (2) freedom from mean*


mesa, g c f f i s used here either i n the sense of ^ or ^gw*r
80 NOTES ON

<as also), flfraryr &cTo be brief, i n abort. itis^


f u
iifficult to see tbe propriety of calling the Fata tree a dayita r

probably the poet refers by dayita to ^Jf^rSRT ia which the*


wife plays a conspicuous part. Let the Fata tree be my home
i . <?. let me renounce the pleasures of the world and take to a
devotee's life worshpping S'iva sitting under a Fata tree &c.
1. 6. &e.the wordly ties which proved an obstruc-
tion to them having been snapped, srralf^a serpent; fr.
a
3TRTT ( serpent's fang) + j%r. The derivation more usually
given is fr. 3*T#I+ the Oomp. being classed under the ^aftTIT
class. The 2nd 1. means (those blessed persons) that do not
seek the crooked course of serpentine sensualism. Mr. Telang
takes fh*m with 3Tr$rfff r and says 'the course of wordly objects'
which are like dangerous snakes.' ^K'tW the night
which is delightful on acoount of the sky being l i t up with the^
winter moonshine. 3TRt*T expanse. ( s^aTC^sjT; wjtfSIT )*-
*spr storing up. ^rfrom ^ 9 con. to tear.
Si 7. A question to an estranged friend. Once our in-
terests were identical; now you and we have no connection.
What has happened in the meanwhile to estrange us ?
Si 8. S T S R S ^ O * clean texture. silken cloth.
< i ^ H < ~ b y P&n. V I . 3. 101. (see com.) cfsq;is substituted f o r
ggr in a Tat. when the latter member begins with a vowel; coarse
food. o3T?fr &c.The idea isA man who has renounced the
world and devoted himself to the service of God entirely is
indifferent to all such things as are mentioned i n the sloka.
SI. 9. **pr &o.love is often described as blinding men's-
eyes. q^rH: &c.f^q is here called eollyrittm becanse i t
sharpens, restores, or preserves tbe sight of the mind. ^*nr,.
;j?frMade even, rectified, corrected. Eamarshi explains i t by
ffrffsp^qT. Mr. Telang takes i t to mean 'looking on all things
alike.'
&1 10 *[R haughtiness. f%f%^--lonely, solitary, p. p.
1 ^ with ft. itPr^Rtof those who restrain their minds.
i

VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 81

11. ^ ~ f t ^ * r * ^ ? of a spring. ^f%pr proper. ftarRF^T

beautiful woman. for deriving pleasure which is usually


had from woman's society. The Dat. is A T ? * ^ T e l a n g
Who reads supposes that ^ might be a misselection for ^
( %lf fNfor r?T Sfitm ) % f r ^ r : ~ t h e bow of obeisance.
SI. 12. f^rfr^r^f<^The Ganges, so called because i t
flows through the three worlds, ^pfr, ^g, and qrcTTc?* sftf^-the
tie-knot of a woman's under-garment and sometimes the
garment itself. ^ q r ^ j ^ o - p r o v i d i n g , supplying; for ff% comp.
the preceding sloka. f : w r R f ^ r ^ ^ ~ t r y i n g or painful circu*
mstances; or g:^f*Tf%*CT poignant pain (lit. misery cutting
like a poniard). For a similar idea cf ^far ^FTg%: &e.
si. 22. sujpra*
SI. 13. ^pnf^Rfr^" c m i s the same to an ascetic as ^ F f j g ;
*f^fvr to ordinary mortals. The two expressions are here
identified and meanto the ascetic penance is like a garden-
party. Some take the two expressions separately, but then there
is hardly any propriety of garden parties in the case of a saint*
B?fw PT^rra^T T^^nst(where) a roaming for alms, not measur-
ed, i . e. at one's w i l l , as a glory, jpcT is here used to show the
poet's regret at wise men staying elsewhere, and not i n Benares,
SI. 14. The first line and half of the second contain the
replies of gate-keepers or guards to supposed questions.
the proper time. He ( the master ) is now engaged i n
confidential matters; or us Mr. Telang takes it-now he is int
private. g^sqrr^T-^^fff *> does not make good sense. ^ r f N r
( fr. grc + 39fr) a door-keeper. rq$<$may be taken as a
separate word or as part of the preceding compound word,
f%:^V?T & e . $ f * f sr^rcflffF I conferring unbounded
happiness.
1. 15. qH^fcT-breaks tbe symmetry as this is the only noun
having an adj. to qualify i t . ^ S f ^ - % O T is used here more
for the sake of alliteration tban as being the recognised opposite
82 NOTES ON

of (joy as the other parts above are. ifroTf ^Pgjf: ihmg from
^f+^T^C^r) a collection of women, ^prg'Qvof one that lookft
upon all things as equal, having an equal regard for all things.
1. 16. BTriff^Pone having nothing, hence extremely
poor, ^ c f i - w i t h desires restrained, self-controlled ( Cf ffiirfiT
Wt^Hf ?^fw*Tfr I ) STFcpwhose mind is always at
peace. The Vedantic meaning of ^PT has been already explained;
( i t is not however intended here ). ^PT%?TEr:* * equally
regardless of happiness or misery, &c. gWflWiA poetical
license; in^ST: is the correct form.
-

SI. 17. spTnr?ff-which never returns. cTftciP various. f|ig*;


see si. 22. supra] distressing, causing affliction* ST^RT
Ur. Telang's rendering will also do-'alas! what self-injury ip
there, having done which to yourself, you have not immediately
worked at the same again. (^ppET^qgFa crnRT^T SpKfa sWtfcT^
SL 18. jrr$heavy, unbearable. tjiffpbra poor man.
SL 19. This stanza occurs i n the Mrchehhakatika with
variants. gftW^frw &c.-i. e by people who possess noble birth and
m

character. These are the people who are fit for, and must care
5
to profit by, such counsel. Cf E p ^ s r xr^rw ^ *
^^FfSTf^r*Pots used at funeral ceremonies or in cemeteries.
The fig. is Katyalinga.
1. 20. gfrr%?pr^""This and the other corresponding wordi
have here a double significance, which can be easily made out*
^ a ^ q - - ( l ) cruelty; (2) hardness. BTwNf-(l) falsehood; (2) fore-
I V
head; fr. 3T*y+f?F ^9- - 25. ^ f ^ r - ( l ) crookedness,
dishonesty. (2) curliness. *rF5T~(l) stupidity; (2) gentleness*
^l^gy^jf-(l) sluggishness, unwieldiness; (2) plumpness. ^ W ^ n r
(1) practising deceit or fraud; employment of tricks; (2)
spreading a charm upon. *ri|g*!J^-the eyes of women are often
-compared to those of the deer. Cf *r*nfr> f^^PTIV
1. 21. The idea-The word presents puzzling scenes to the
mind of a thinker. ^fapfTf:is preferable to fWFTCf as opposed.
VAIRA'GYAS'ATAKA. 83

(3T)-means an assembly conversing on different topics as


well as a conversation (containing pros and cons). * ifr^V ?r*fT-
#c3T<T*fp ?fff ^ R ^ f r 1 the latter meaning is preferable as
?

directly opposed to .
SI. 22.This si, occurs in the Anar. R. facffttdeformed.
-*G(the same as =arrg coaxing speech, flattering expressions
sf?5ER~one of the ten kinds of Rupakas thus defined ?r<3[ (*TT~

D. R. qf&Kf* grey-haired. q z p r ^ r % ^ forms its cans, as



^RTlT ia the sense of to cause to dance/ qicfij means sn^P*
.*p5f^: pantomimic representation of situations*
23. ^ r f ^ ^ f a ^ T h e prime of life, youth. ^ W T ^
transitory, unsteady; cf Nai. I , 6 , K i r . X I . 30. <5ftc3r
?
^cJT^ST^ | Amara.-^rsr is reduplicated by the Vartika ^fHffer-
i r t ^ f f a f f r r % f W ^ P W ? t R f ^ s ^ ' i a n d the final ay of the
'reduplicative syllable lengthened.
SI. 24. aRTJf:refers to the second incarnation of Vishnus
see note on eptreqjcf N i t . Sat. si. 35. gr^fthe son of T7tt&na~
>p8,da, a king of the solar race. His devotion to Vishnu was so
great that he was elevated to the rank of a heavenly body and
now remains suspended i n the sky as the polar star, Hi&
'history is too well known to the Indian student to need any
rmention here. For his account see Apte's Sans. Dictionary.
1
^ r s ^ l w p WTcTT: sfsfo* <WT ^ f ? ( ) who form fac-
tions (join one side or the other) to no purpose; some under-
stand i t in the sense given i n the t r a n s l a t i o n C T ^ f t t f ^ f f ^ -
^^C^T^Sr^oT^' q$tfo *r ^T%c$~- quoted by Mr. Telang (2)
who possess wings to no purpose. ^qfCETat &e,an idiomatic

expression for i n no way.' There is also an indirect reference
here to the position of Dhrma and Karma who by their situa-
tion support the universe. g W H ^ g * ? T f ^ ^ p r e % % * ^
^the fruit of the tree) tWTFV* Every one has seen the*
84 NOTES ON

little-winged insects in an udumbara fruit; 3 ^ " ^ T % 3Hg**!T~-


a r e
^fir proverbial expressions like irq^!*}? meaning 'any
useless person/ f

here 'delight, pleasure.' his path is full of delight because he is


free from all desire, *gpf^(1) bark; (2) skin. H*|r: &c.
Mr. Telang says'The result is the same with what are called,
pleasures or with sorrows;*, e. whether I am in worldly affluence
or otherwise, I get food and clothing in one case as in the
other/ But ^ and g : ^ here seem to refer to the two courses
of life marked out, viz. that of happily living on alms and
worshipping Siva or that of living a miserable life of sycophany
and humouring rich men. n&$r~-~should better be rendered by
7
'similar than by 'the 3ame.' The result, viz. obtaining food
and clothing is similar in both cases but not the same as t h ^
one is full of happiness, the other attended by misery. f^r^sf,
o*T3[prmark the contrast suggested by these words.
Sl 27. ^ f s r : ~ * . elephants belonging to the enemy;
#

The meaning of the first line isWe did not distinguish oar-
selves as successful warriors. Cf I. 2. si. 47. j ^ ^ T ^ o j ^ ^ q ^ y a p
tJ. I. the board-like % e. expansive and fleshy or well rounded
(f^3R*) hips. ^ T ^ T ^ K a tautological expression; ^qg^and
meaning the same thing. For the idea comp. ' w f r t ?TFT
g S J W f r ^ f e e f f ^ t n ^ r ^ Uttar. I I . 14. tfgpfche reading
makes no sense. The fourth line is the same as that of sL 48.
Additional sL %[f$>~A demon; his story is too well known to
the Hindu students to require any notice here, see Apte's Die
tionary. sanW* the diseases in the world. We did not
iree the people from the diseases humanity is heir to. Mr. Telang
Who reads the last line as ojTFIWtf remarks-
*The stanza occurs i n the Mahanafeaka.Thelastlineisnofcmetri-
jBsl'an i t stands. I n the Mahanataka i t runs thus-%rr: m trmtr^
VAIRA'G-YAS'ATAEA.. 85

jarr^Cr FT^'lf TW3% I There are also other differences.' M r .


"Telang.
SI, 28. ^rTW^ rashness, over-haste or the folly of &c.
^fj-^r^rthe various sentiments which are the very essence of
.poetry. ff^f?=<Tdoubts, conflicting ideas; see also si. 70.
Si. 29. Cf. with this supra Mis. si. 8. ?rsqrwflFrj Tdn.
I I I . 4. 68. That which becomes or exists prominently; hence
excellent, rich. qR-q^ff^R*m*RTrre( I ^3fT%r would better keep
symmetry with vpsp. TTtf'TcT'rTfir f - ^ Cau.-fST*" by Un
r

I I I . 132. j%frn*f<j;white and costly (being silken), tjgar


*rrzfrwhat i f your possessions are restricted to one wife (and
nothing else i. e. i f you are absolutely poor ). sffSFTT
3jfqcf multiplied; the whole means 'what i f you have an immense
fortune/ The translation follows Ramarshi here. "On the
first line Ramarshi adds 'arrfrcTO * f^fwcr?%^qc^ri^^r^-; simi-
larly on the second r=^r^^q^qc?Tf=i; > on the third ^fprfsr-
^ q ^ T ^ ^ R ^ T O ? one the last qsRfr^F?srw*f5t
mm: i <T?WF j
c*n%*rr srar *rr? i Telang.
77

SL 30. SFTHf^T'5?: P ^ r ^ PAn. I I I . 2 . 70. f f a ^ ( s r )


mqq: %T?5f^T I fulfilling all desires. The thought has been
.expressed more than once i n this Sataka,
'SL 81. Of with this si. 95. cjv?f SR-a pillow; i t properly
-means a small round pillow for the cheek. ff^F<TrPT"
highly poetical line. f5f^an ascetic, a devotee; and not
.necessarily a Budhistic mendicant.
; 866
SL 32. ^ 5Tffr^r# si. 2 6 ; Mis. 12 ST?^TT?IT hopes, expe-
ctations. Here the poet envies the happy lot of the deer. Cf m
,
Abe idea i n Yai. Sat. Si. 98.fig,Aprastutapra$ aihs&.
33. i^pp^rattempts well-made, undertakings proper-
l y commenced. Of Bg. 1 7 . 19. q^jas one not becoming
wiser by experience. TOOT T ^ r ^ T h e many calamities witfe
which wordly life is fraught ought to rend the heart.
86 NOTES ON

34. This si. occurs in the Mrch. ^ ^ f ^ - . * , e. by their


blandishments and sportive gestures, such a man falls-
a ready victim to their charms. ?R^RTinark the pun on*/
fpT which means (1) beautiful; (2) crooked, destructive.
SI. 35. ^ r o u g h . The moral is-Magnanimous persons-
never become slaves of passions.
SL 36. a particle expressive of joy. f ftr: qft'STSP
a favourite idea with the poet and referred to in many places.
ff%Of supra si. 27. S|frr%cr: P&n. fr%crmt m
$m i i r ^ f t f srnrt g ^sfranrtsrr' OTf&r ? ^ n t i id. Kau.
gtr^T^^F whose minds are set on tranquillity alone (i. e. who
are self-restrained).
SL 37. Sfrff5"~~is superlative. Its use with the Ablative
is unusual. C o n s t r u e f jqj T$3CT: 3T^fTT?^?r: sFc[ Kg^: f cTTW
?frf?^ T^c3[ 3T3Tf sreRIff ?R &O. %ft *rnThe Veda, especially
the Upanishads which are chiefly concerned with Brahma. No-
earthly enjoyments give that pleasure to a Yogin which the*
a s o
teaching of the Upanishads does. ar*plT l be taken
separately. The Vedas are eternal. *|f%support, sustenance*
There may also be here a reference to the divine speech of the*
poet whose substratum is Rasa sending forth an immortal crea-
tion sweeter than honey &e.
SL 39. ff$rr,W}' ad q-frr (power of discernment ) aret. 9

here called, qpinTladies who are desirable companions^


a
$PCp31protector, saviour. trf^*3t5T waist-band set with
jewels.
1. 40 The si. describes the state of feelings of one in.
whom Vairagya is produced. ^JTP(1) slow; (2) crookedU
aTFBff earnest desire, ^fa:wasted, has ceased. S^SST!"**
this net-work of the world i. e. all its intricate and confound-
ing incidents.
, Si. 41. ipM^K'-~one that robs another of its brilliancy i. s-.
is as brilliant as that, possesses its brilliancy. Cf
Bat. I . arqpan f ^ f ^ : $ ^ ~ W h a t can she have intended ? what
VAIBA'GYAS'ATAKA, 8?

is her object ? grfqfrmiserable, wretched; expresses pity.


Also sometimes used as a word of contempt.
SL 42. gppfKama, the god of love; cf ^ t ^ p f t f B i

ssrf^Twhy do you trouble

therefore been preferred. For the third line cf supra, m& gftcST-
S^%rT*rr Mis. si. 40. i%*sr affectionate; fearer cleverly
cast, artful.
SL 43. 3?ffn$< &c.fsftcfr tbe folds of skin above the
navel of a woman regarded as a mark of beauty {Cf Kum. I .
39 ). &c.-pairs of Ohakrav&ka birds are usually described
as haunting river-banks, fi^rerar-has two meanings (1) IJS^T:
in which there are dangerous aquatic animals;
(2) STPfTsm thoughts ( or 3TRPT ***ind ) | ^ftrf?
Sammra is the sea to which the river, in the form of a woman,
leads a man.
SL 44. fcjqr?T*Tr*T-The Indriyas which are often compared
to horses, tempt a man further and further away from real
bliss ( ff$f ).

APPENDIX.
4

1. THE MBTBES USED IN THE T"WO S'ATAKAS.


1 The vowels 3*> ?> 3 and 55 are short and the rest long*
The quantity of a syllable is determined by the vowel i t ends
in. A syllable with a short vowel is called $yisr or light, and one
with a long vowel is called or heavy*
2 But i f a light syllable be followed by Anusw&ra or Visarga
or by a conjunct consonant, i t is made heavy. A syllable at the
end of a quarter of a si. may be short or long as the exigency
of a metre requires i t . *rrg*?IW"^fcfs* fopff ^ S ^ ^ l W

3 A short syll. is marked as % and a long one asThe


following letters are symbols representing different triads
(jpis ) of light and heavy syllables:
j ff 5 f 7 " j IT
aj represents a heavy syll. and $r a light one.
The following couplet will help the student in remembering
the long and short syllables forming each ana3nf^T^HffT%!J

4 The following are the definitions and schemes of the


metres occurring in the two Satakas :~The metre in each case is
named in the com.
or S l o k a i 8
3T5^^c~3T3Sl defined asq*** S5f *TCT*f
f l ^ s h f t : I g$ *T ^ # R j f r *Tcr: it I& an Anushtup
the fiffch syll. ought to be short and the sixth long i n all
-quarters. The seventh should be short in the second and
fourth quarters only. Other syllables are governed by no rule.
STP^r^T^It is a mixture of Indravajri and TJpendravajri
see below. I . 7,

swmftfIffaWOTlsft <T$r ^^iTOl?PRfn: A mixture of


and g?*pg[ forms gqsrTfcF. Sch. of fTff^rrn!Wrr^rTTI
(89)

wfrtfrnr$t*h %^srri%?fr ?sr^r%: i Sch. of G. *r, ?r, v, *r-

*F8T tcrrcfr^f^ S^: U The first and third quarters contain


six matras ( Syllabic instants ) and the second and fourth eight:
each, followed by a and a short and a long syllable. See
also Apte's Dictionary.

^ m % ^ r t i r o * r *r: i Soh. of G. <r, * ,

mf^r^m^E^ **rf%;?r tfrRcfrV: Seh. of G. sr, qr, *r,


fMfrSIW s^RTST ^srf^%T f'fr 5^5 l Sch. of G. sr, g> jy
?T; ^ *T-
o G
n^^pm ? V ^ t ^tr c r n ^ Seh. *
-A

sr> *r T, er er> T, T.
terfrfr# # ! ^ s r r 3*w*Wc3T *n f w R t f r i Soh. of Q. -q f

"T; *T> cJ>'T*


0
^ f r ?r *r *R^C3T r: ^ s t l ^ l f V ^ ^crr i Sch. of G. *?,
^> T> T

of G. IT, r, fr, r, fr, v.


^ F W s r W r n t sr*m fegffprftrgm OTU ^rm^" i Seh. of G.
Tj *r, *r, *r.
3^X3$This belongs to the class of metres regulated by th&
number of m&tras or syllabic instants.

3TCT?T f|efr% qs^T wr*frn

^fH%srratwmf^t ^ii^T#4rfTtrr *rnch i That is Giti


whose third and fourth quarters are like first and second
.quarters of an arya* L e. whose first and third quarters contain
22 matrm and second and fourth 18 m&tr&s*
% BOMBAY UNIVERSITY.

E X A M I N A T I O N PAPERS.
1868.

I . Translate into English-< Nit. Sat, 15. (b) Nit. Sat. 99v
I I . (a) Give the names of the metres of the above verses.
Divide one line of eaoh verse into feet according to the Hindu-
and European systems of prosody. Where are the caesuras i n
both verses ? (b) Explain all compounds in the above verses..
(c) What religious idea is contained in the second verse ?
Illustrate i t by another verse from the Nifcishatak.
III. (a) Explain the construction of qftq" and that of
^TSsf- &c. with the Instrumental case. Quote instances
from the Nitishataka for these constructions. (5) Explain the
force of the particle f r in such a question as JgcT; 3T *T ^T^Bv
(c) What force has the particle 3TPT i ^ such expressions as-

I V . Quote two verses from the Nitishataka" on one of the


following subjects, (a) The difficulty of befriending fools.
(b) The necessity of acquiring wisdom, (c) The power of riches..
1869.
I . (a) What are the subdivisions of Vairagyashataka ?
(b) What are the effects of time as given by Bhartrhari ?
Quote one or two of his verses on this subject or give an outline
of his description of time in prose i n Sanskrit.
^ I I . Translate into English:( a ) Vai. Sat. 63. ( b ) VaL
Sat. 44. (5) Explain and analyse the following compounds, re-
ferring them to their several classes. a T c T r ^ c f W T ^ F ^ , ^ q ? r ^ -
^ O T ^ ? ^ T O l f ^ f % ^ ^ a n d i r w m % I % (p) Give as many
synonyms of a r r f ^ f ^ > s p s r ^ and s r t f as you may have met with
in your reading, (d) Is there any difference in meaning between
W and gr^BR ? I f so illustrate i t by two or three examples, (e)
What is the meaning of 3Tfa^ ? Give its equivalent i n Sanskrit.
(91)

I I I , To what does Bhartrhari compare life to illustrate its


short duration ? Give the simile he has often used.
1873.
Translate Nit. Sat. 34, 64, 75 and write notes on T^T*

Quote two verses to illustrate and give an outline of the


o r
general teaching of (a) the q^FTRWf (P) ^^iWh
1875.
1 Translate the following closely:() V a i . Sat, 13; (b) 62j
(e) 64; (d) Mis. si. 38.
2 (a) Give the metres and Ganas of b & c of 1. (5) I n stanza
(c) one copy reads 3TTqT^r^l^^ ^n*tt*T &c. which reading do
you prefer, and why ? (d) Explain the word i n stanza 2.
3 Explain (a) ^ R i f ^ ^ r : (b) srrfSTOTfTP W T : ( 0 fSrff-
( d ) ^ s r 3 T 0 0 1 ^%..*re?rot ^ ^ " . ^ r s # t
f^rqcrtTir: Vai. Sat. 29, Explain grammatically the words errcPTTOf
OTl*f* cTISTFRfr and srTf^Fltqr. Quote and explain the Stanza i n
the Vahragyashataka in which 3TRTT is likened to river.
4 Quote verses from the Vairagyashataka of purport simi-
lar to the following, (a) Poor and content is rich and rich
#nough, (b) Learned men are not inferior to kings.
1878.
;:
I Translate into English,
# (a) V a i . Sat. 86- (b) f cJ^Ffr-

I I , Name and dissolve the compounds above. Translate and


explain (a) f t ^ r i r ^^F*nn% ?r sr^T ^ r ^ f q ^ ^ ! (J) f f g ^ :

f % i : i (c) W * $ $ f * r r a r e r a t : ^T%*ITTIW$: i ( / ) s^w^r-


(92)

1885.
1. Translate into English adding notes where necessary.
Vai. Sat. (a) 10; (b) Mis. 2; (c) Vai. Sat. 18.
2 (a) Dissolve the compounds (5) T R J O ( ) f^T c 0

rrfl; snrpfigf, If5 fft E*W> * a n < n a c Q e


them. Give and
name the metrical schemes of the last two verses.
(b) Write a short note on tr^cfTfTTSforffp.
(3) Explain clearly the following. () 3 fSff 5^: trf^sfjarepvrr-
r^t ^ R ^ R ?ffff%^m (5) ^ f f ^ r a f w r #rf<r ^ ^TRT (<>)
n^mml^mn it ^ d
r =nwr wet ( ) s^rss^rawifTT W
ffRPT tNfr (e) ?r W I T : fa*npr*r*r: T% f ^ n r : ( / ) QJRT W

4 (a) Give eight instances of ungrammatical or irregular


constructions used by Bhartrhari. (J) Quote the verses in which
the wisdom of great men is declared to be unlimited and para-
phrase i t in Sanskrit in your own words.
1890.
Translate into English:Nit. Sat. (a) 69. (J) Mis. 10. Nam
and dissolve the compounds in the above.
Explain giving the context, (a) ^jm^ W*Wpl*f$tU *TS#

iro^rpfisr^PRc f^n^: s^r^rf s ^ f a *r3r % fifem'- ()


5nTT: g ^ V ^ T H JTOI^r t w ; TrffTcH: ( / ) srf|r T0Tjfa g^r
spf; tfref T r ^ n * . (9) mm f sjpr xrnrfw ^ w?r (A)

3. Discuss the question whether Bhartrhari is the author or


mere compiler of the Shatakas. Do you find any evidence in,
-the Shatakas to show that he worshipped a particular god ?
What was his favourite place of reBort as a devotee ?
4. Give a synopsis of the views embodied in the Shatakas
*eg&*dbtg (a) The predominance of "Karman." (b) The use
(93)

and greatness of knowledge, (c) The evanescent nature of*


human life and pleasures.
5. Derive and explain the meaning of the following words;-
fizpq, iffrtHflH-, 3TTfcr 3rf*r*fR, f l % and rjK%tV(.
?

1893-1894.

1 Translate the following:


Nit. Sat. (a) 69. (5) V a i . Sat. 62. (c) N i t . Sat. 64.
2 Explain the following giving i n each case the substance
ol the whole stanza:

^^^^^

^fW ^TrPj ^^^RTfcrJTerffTTT?qfr ! I ( d ) cfc^f =TT*T S<tfF

3 (a) Solve the following compounds qsf^r:; irf^ircJWi^T-


so

t i i f ^sTsrrsrasrac and 3rf%^rru^^.


(I) Make grammatical notes upon % ^ % r : , ^TTOTv 3TR?r~
TW> f l o r a e * a w t f f c i and J P T W ^ T : .
Quote verses giving Bharfcrharps views on any two of the
following
(a) Extreme difficulty of the duty of servants.
(5) Comparison of the king with the poet.
(c) Comparison of the king with the ascetic.
1898.
I What have you to say with reference to the following
points pnt forward by some scholars to prove that the age of the
(94)

author of the Shatakas should be brought down to about the


8th or 9th century A . D. (1) Kesemblance in ideas and phraseo-
logy between Shatakas and Shankaracharya's work. (2) Men-
tion of the Puratis i n one of the Stanzas of the Vairagyashataka
^3) Mention of Buddha as a tenth incarnation of Vishnu i n
one of the passages.
I I . What part of India did Bhartrhari look upon as pro-
ducing the best of poets. Quote in support of your answer.
III. Explain the following forms and give their meanings

I V . Translate, (a) Nit. at. 103. N. B. Mention and dia-


cuss the different variants for ^fT?^rf.
(5) Vai. Sat. 96. Dissolve the compounds ^T*TfF%g:, *isriW-

1900.
1. Translate into English:(a) Nit. Sat. Mis. 16. (b) VaL
; Sat. 62.
2 Explain with reference to the context:( e ) 3TcT3grr%*T~

3 Quote stanzas from the S'atakas which contain


(a) Ideas similar to the following: ( i ) $vtft tTFTf^TCrffc

(J) A description of S'iva as a lamp of knowledge ( ^pPTfTT )-


1902.
I Translate(a) Nit. 86; (b) 80$ Vair.j (<?) 27; (<2) 6 1 .
Explain, the allusions i n a, b, c and d.
were the religions and moral views of Bhartrihari f
-Quote ft few lines to illustrate your answer*
(95)

I I I Explain the following similes(<?) sJWf W f WeTTOTCT-

I V ftive the meaning ottffffifaff, f ^ F f T , ^I^ffT? 3fW*V

Y. D e r i v e - * ^ , t ^ o r , ^ P ^ T , s r s r S T R T , 3fR, f f ^ ffarft*F-
1904.
I Translate:() Nit. 74; (b) Mia. 10; (c) Vair. Mis. 12.
I I Dissolve and name the compounds;?^fff%g^;r5^Ma*ri;

I I I . (1) Name the metres in the following lines:


(a) vt^j *rtfr g ^ f r snr 3fr *rr i (ft) *R m ^%^mm^ i (c) *r#ef

(2) Write grammatical notes on:tp^fr:, ffTTFrT, 3rf^rmrt>

(3) Give meanings o f ^ p r ^ , 3 # ; STf^, ^ p r .


I V . What is Bhartrihari's attitude i n regard to-(#) Karman;
<(b) Daiva; (c) self-seeking servility; and (d) religious bigotry
4)i the Saivas and the Vaishriavas.
V . Gi-ive the context of:

(b) ff^T% *P$3t ST?3cT I

1906.

I Translate into English


<i) Nfti. (a) 29; (b) 106; Vair. (c) 53; (d) 82; () 1.
^ii) Explain the metaphor i n (e) fully solving the compounds.
t
(96)

I I . (a) Give the meanings ofliej^r^, &WVf 1755, RT%5<x


t r

*W> 3Tcfr^ arcRTg-, and a r ^ .


(5) Write grammatical notes onRsSrg j , wie3T*T?T, cTPTr^ f

W*:, s i f f%, ipfif:, ggrsr, <fTl%aTT? and .


(<?) *< F u l l may a flower is born to blush unseen.
And waste its sweetness on the desert air."
Quote lines from Bhar. containing a similar idea.
I I I . Support or refute the popular idea that Bhar. was a king.
Was he really the author of the Satakas or did he merely-
collect the stanzas from various sources ?
1909.
1 Translate into Eng.:(a) rrefng^FcWSft &e. (5) Tr?n%
ftppft &c. () fjTR$ le^rfer *n & c (d) ftfawrppftr^nn^
2 Name and define the metres of (a) and (5) i n quesion l j .
and name and solve the comps. underlined i n the following:
<a) m wm fti^al (&) Tr^rr TO*r<OTr%?r3^fr-

3. What has Bhar. to say about Daiva and Paurusha ? Does


he identify Karman with Daiva ?
-SB*-
J
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1

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V.T'
W- r

1 it

, * 1 _ *
1
f
' I. 1

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t

i r

9,
1

- '

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i

Ji 3

*0
"A book that is shut is but a block"

Y GOVT. O F INDIA
Department of Archaeology
NEW DELHI,

Please help m to keep the book


clean and moving.