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Basic Concepts in the Design of Electric Fig. 3.

If no decrement had been as-


sumed, the peaks would have been higher
and recurrent as shown dotted in Fig. 3.
Bus ror Short-Circuit Conditions The wave would have been wholly on one
side of the axis and tangent to it.
A Reference Solution
A. C. BATES
MEMBER AIEE In order to have a familiar and widely
used treatment of the problem as a
comparison reference, a digression will be
THE ADEQUACY of the mechanical ysis, and hence must be deferred until at made here to describe that treatment
structure of an electric bus to with- least some acceptably approximate anal- which, as a matter of convenience in the
stand short-circuit forces has been an ysis has been made. remainder of the paper, will be referred
engineerng consideration for many years. It is necessary drastically to limit the to as the conventional method.
The basic problem is dynamic in character subject matter in order to permit a grasp In the conventional method the con-
but, in general, has not been analyzed as of the elementary aspects of the problem. sideration of electrical decrement is
such. The usual solution has been based For this purpose, a single-phase circuit dispensed with by taking it as zero.
on a simplified method which, in most employing parallel conductors on rigid The current and force oscillograms are of
cases, has yielded a structure which was supports has been chosen. the recurrent high peak type as pointed
over strong. However, in recent years, out in the discussion of Figs. 2 and 3.
the rising load and short-circuit currents The Circuit, Current, and Force This high peak value of instantaneous
imposed on electric power systems have force is selected, and its effect on the struc-
created an interest in finding a method An ideal single-phase circuit is shown ture is evaluated by means of the ordinary
which will be in closer agreement with in Fig. 1. The R and X are the total formulas of strength of materials. The
physical fact and will thereby permit resistance and reactance involved in the significance of this statement is that the
economies by using a lighter structure, or current flow, and E is an ideal voltage load is considered as statically applied,
by imposing greater load on an existing source having no impedance. It is or that the structure possesses elasticity
structure. assumed that the switch is closed at the but no mass.
Recent field tests conducted by elec- time necessary to produce the greatest
trical utility companies have confirmed initial offset of the current wave. With i Simplification of Mechanical System
the conservative nature of the simplified representing the instantaneous value of
method of calculation for the usual current, and I,,, the peak value of sym- Returning to the previous discussion,
arrangements found in practice. The metrical or steady-state current, the off- Fig. 3 represents a force of appreciable
data obtained from these tests have been set wave may be expressed as complexity which is to be applied to a
useful in the empirical design of generally uniform conductor possessing distributed
i mass and distributed elasticity. Even
similar structures. This paper provides -=c -0wt X -coswt (1)
a rational analysis of the basic problem of I,p though rigid supports are assumed, a
the mechanical behavior of bus conduc- An oscillogram of the current wave would precise solution istoo involved for an'initial
tors subjected to short-circuit currents. appear as shown by the full line in Fig. 2. attempt to grasp the elementary aspects
This analysis shows that under certain If a limiting case of no decrement (R/X= of the problem. Therefore, an approxi-
conditions of electrical damping and 0) had been considered, the current wave mation is needed which will reduce the
mechanical natural frequency, the duty instead of being as shown by the full line complexity to something easily handled,
imposed upon bus conductors resulting in Fig. 2 would have been wholly on one even though reality is knowingly sacri-
from short-circuit currents may be as side of the zero line and tangent to it. fied in some measure. The electrical
little as 25% of the values calculated by The peaks of this wave, which have bee engineer "lumps" his circuit constants to
the conventional method. shown dotted in Fig. 2, would have been gain simplicity, and the mechanical en-
of the same magnitude and would have gineer "concentrates" masses and elastic-
Limitation of Treatment continued indefinitely. This case of ities. The same will be done here.
course is academic, since it is a limit which The conductor of Fig. 4(A) is intended
There are many questions which might never exists. to have distributed mass and elasticity.
be asked about the design of a new bus Since force per unit length of conductor Fig. 4(B) the conductor is considered
structure for an intended service, or the is proportional to current squared, the elastic but massless, and a selected por-
analysis of the adequacy of an old one for following expression is obtained from tion of the actual mass of the conductor
a new service condition. The answers to equation 1: has been concentrated in the middle of the
such questions must result from an anal- span. The amount of the concentrated
R
I.
p=P(e-I -cos Wa mass is that which will make the natural
t _

Paper 57-717, recommended by the AIRE Sub-


frequency of the structure shown in
stations Committee and approved by the AIEE =P1/2+c e -2e X X Fig. 4(B) the same as that of the original
Technical Operations Department for presentation conductor shown in Fig. 4(A) when the
at the AIEE Summer General Meeting, Montreal,
Que., Canada, Jnne 24-28, 1957. Manuscript
submitted October 25, 1956; made available for
coscu,t+1/2cos2Wd (2) conductor vibrates in the simple form of a
printing July 9, 1957. where single loop. There is no need to know
A. C. BATBS 1i with the R & IE Equipment Divi- cosP a 1/2+1/2 cos 24t
-
just how much mass to concentrate. All
sion, I-T-E Circuit Breaker Company, Greensburg,
Pa.
that is necessary is to believe that there is
The author acknowledges the interest and help of
If one could contrive to make an oscillo- an amount of mass which will make the
William Deans In the preparation of this paper. gram of the force, it would appear as in frequencies the same.

APRIL 195A Bates-Design of Electric Bus for Short-Circuit Conditions 2s


R X rate as the d-c component of the current starting from zero displacement with zero
wave of Fig. 2. If zero electrical decre- velocity.
ment had been assumed, this force wave Now returning to the earlier discussion,
would have been ever present at the full the system of Fig. 5 is to be subjected to
initial amplitude as indicated by the the component forces which appear in
dotted peaks of Fig. 6. Curve 3 repre- equation 2 and which have been discussed.
sents a double-frequency force term of The solution may be expected to contain
Fig. 1. Th. basic circuit constant amplitude. Note that, after terms which are quite similar to the force
the damped terms have diminished to un- terms, and a free vibration term which
importance, the continuously present re- will permit the proper starting conditions
Without any additional error or ap- mainder is 1/2+1/2 cos 2wt, which has a of zero displacement and velocity. For
proximation, the conductor of Fig. 4(B) peak value of 1 but an average or static
can be schematically represented as convenience, the solution will be said to
value of only 1/2. The electrical damp- consist of forced vibration terms and a free
shown in Fig. 5. The dynamic response ing is responsible for the transition in vibration term. It may be expected that
of the system of Fig. 5 to forces which character of the force wave of Fig. 3.
are simple functions of time is treated in all magnitudes will be functions of the
The approach to reduced steady-state relation of the constants of the system
many undergraduate engineerimg text- conditions should be evident.
books. These books are good educational and the driving forces, with an important
preparation but do not supply the solu- One further mental preparation may be item being the ratio of the frequency of
tion here desired. In general, in the case necessary before presenting the solution the driving force to the mhanical natural
under consideration, the driving force is for the case at hand. Consider the bus frequency of the system. Furthermore,
different and the transient nature of the to be part of a resistive d-c circuit. The because of the alterating character of
problem is emphasized, because only the current would rise from an assumed two of the driving force terms, phase
maximum stress, deflection, or support negligible load value to short-circuit angles may be expected to enter the
loading is of major interest. value in zero time and then remain con- solution.
stant. The force would do likewise. The solution will be quite similar to
The response of the bus bars would be an common cases treated in mechanical
Solution Preliminaries outward movement and an oscillation vibration, but different because of the
about a new position. The system of electrical decrement assumed to be
Although it is conceivable that a direct Fig. 5 would show the same type of re- present in the electrical circuit. Because
step-by-step process might be used to ob- sponse. The application of a stepped of the similarity and because of certain
tain a defection solution corresponding to force to a spring without mass would pro- benefits, the solution will be presented in
the force curve of Fig. 3, it is certainly duce a stepped graph of displacement and similar form.
easier and more clearly understandable to without oscillation. But the presence of
resolve the curve of Fig. 3 into the com- the mass makes the system capable of The Solution
ponent parts shown in equation 2. These oscillation, and an oscilatory system can-
components are shown graphically in Fig. not be disturbed without producing os- Using the system of Fig. 5 to repre-
6. The constant is curve 0. The ex- cillation in some degree. If instead of sent the single-phase bus on rigid supports,
ponential is curve 1. Particularly note applying the force suddenly, it had been the solution for the deflection is
that due to the operation of squaring the applied as a force which increases to a
44Y ~1/+ 2!,ws
X~~ 2
current to obtain force, the exponential in
Xizi
Bird
final value and then remaims constant, 1/2 -X
the force expression decays twice as the amount of oscillation would become
yst c-

rapidly as in the expression for current. less for lower rates of build-up of force. cos (tXS)+Cs2Z (2 -h)-
To emphasize further, note that in the Time must be considered relative to the
conventional method, the assumption of natural period of free vibration of the
zero electrical decrement leads to zero system. The oscillation serves the pur-
Cc P cos (3-wt-.) (3)
decrement in the exponential force term, pose of combining with the response asso- =constant+exponential term-power-
and hence this term reduces to an addi- ciated with the force so as to permit the frequency term +double-frequency
tional constant having a value of unity. system to have the desired conditions of term -free vibration term
Curve 2 shows the power-frequency force
term, and note that it decays at the same

_Ll i I IA:l{ 0tm I I ~~~~~~~~~~~~


Fig. 2. Curent oscillogram, d-c component shown as a dashed line. Fig. 3. Force oscillogram for R/X 0.1. Trends of mjor and minor
Shown for R/X-0.1, or power factor approximately 10%. Peaks paks toward a sady-state condition are shown by dashed lines.
For R/X -0 are shown dotted Peks for R/X=0 are shown dotted

30 Bates-Design of Electric Bus for Short-Circuit Conditions APR 1958


v paper considers only detailed numerical
(Ci W values for p >2.0, but the curves areshown
fm (A) in Fig. 7 from p = 0. The curves in this
lower range are necessary to full under-
standing and would be required if a more
precise analysis were made.) The power-
(B) frequency coefficient increases in magni-
Fig. 4. The conductor and its elementary tude as the structure goes from an
equivalent infinitely stiff structure to one that would
A-Conductor possessing distributed mass be in resonance at the power frequency,
and elasticity and then drops as the structure is made
Fig. 5. Schematic representation of Fig. 4(B) still more flexible; see curve 2/Z2 of Fig.
B-Elementary equivalent
Conductor considered elastic but massless F= force 7 for magnitude and X2 of Fig. 8 for the
and a fraction of the mass placed at mid-span y=deflection phase of the term relative to the force.
M= mass This phase curve does not follow the usual
K=spring constant curve of elementary mechanical vibration
In order to gain an appreciation of R'=damping coefficient. Used to simulate theory because of the inclusion of resist-
the characteristics of the various terms in the energy loss which always occurs in a ance in the electric circuit. The double-
this equation, it is necessary to make some vibrational structure frequency coefficient is smaller than the
numerical calculations and plot some power-frequency coefficient, and it comes
curves. As a particular example, the into resonance when the structure is re-
electric circuit R/X was chosen as 0.1, directed to structures of different fre- duced in flexibility only enough to cause
which corresponds to a circuit power fac- quencies. However, if one will think in its natural frequency to be the same as
tor of approximately 10%, and an terms of period instead of frequency, then double the power frequency. The curve
amount of mechanical damping, repre- the structure natural period increases shape is very nearly the same as the
sented by r, was taken as 0.05 times the toward the right. Irrespective of the previous curve, as shown by curve 1/(2Z3)
value of critical damping (critical damping mental viewpoint, an infinitely stiff struc- of Fig. 7. The phase corresponds to the
is explained in the appendix). The values ture is at the left of the plots and move- usual mechanical vibration phase curve
are thought to be in the range of the .ment to the right corresponds to more and is shown as X3 in Fig. 8. The magni-
more usual applications. For these flexible structures. tude of the necessary free vibration co-
chosen values, curves are presented, in The various coefficients of the solu- efficient is shown by curve C, Fig. 7.
Figs. 7 and 8, for the various coefficients tion as functions of the frequency ratio, p, The phase of this term is shown as o in
and phase angles as functions of the ratio will now be discussed. The forced vibra- Fig. 8.
of the frequency of the principal driving tion coefficient due to the constant force
force, here the electric power frequency, to is a constant having a value of 1/2, and Investigation in an Application Range
the natural frequency of the mechanical is not shown in Fig. 7. The exponential
structure. It might have been preferable coefficient starts at 1.0, and after an These curves provide the raw material
to use the reciprocal of this frequency almost imperceptible rise it drops to for proceeding with the study of a struc-
ratio as abscissa since the driving force lower values for more flexible structures, ture of any frequency one may wish to
has a fixed frequency, and attention is as shown by curve l/Z1, Fig. 7. (This consider, but because of the many cases

II7. I
Curve 0-Constant term

_.
Curve 2-Power-frequency term

Curve 1-Exponential term

Fig. 6. Component parts of the force shown in Fig. 3. These are the
terms of equation 2 with P omitted. All full lines correspond to R/X
=0.1. Dotted peaks associated with curve 3 are for R/X=0 Curve 3-Double-frequency term

APRIL 1958 Bates-Design of Electric Bus for Short-Circuit Conditions 31


about the same percentage because it
always makes about a half turn in order
to create the first and largest maximum.
F:L0 Increase or decrease in mechanical damp-
-J
LLK
U
I - ing increases or decreases the shrinkage of
Z. 1.0 Ix2.0 GON this vector. For a given structure, the
ratio of the maximum here obtained to
0
the maximum that would have been ob-
tained from the conventional method is a POWER
0.5 LO0 .5 2.0 2.5
convenient way to express the result. FREQUENCY-@
This form of expression permits compari-
Fig. 7. Coefficients of equation 3, calculated sion to a method that is familiar and FREE
VIBRATION
fow R/X=0.1, r=0.05. The constant 1/2 is simple.
not shown
p-ratio of power frequency to mechanical Results EXPONENTIAL-.
natural frequency=ratio of natural period to
power period The particular choice of R/X=O.l and
Curves for other low values of R/X and r are r=0.05 has been sufficient to permit a
similar in character general discussion of the characteristics
of the terms given in equation 3, and the
manner in which a vector diagram yields CON STANT --a
where the bus structure has a low natural a maximum value. However, when
frequency or a high period, further nu- comparing the results of the analysis
merical consideration here has been on the given in this paper with the results ob- _ _ _ 5

right-hand portion of Figs. 7 and 8, be- tained by the conventional method, it is


yond the frequency ratio of 2. For 60- desirable to include results for additional Fig. 9. Vector diagram of the terms of
cycle electric systems, busses have been equation 3, For wt=O
choices of RIX and r. Having the max-
considered which have natural frequencies ima for a few combinations of system Drawn to scale for
from a high of 30 cycles down to a low of constants and a few frequencies will per- p=3
2 cycles per second. mit curves to be drawn which show the R/X = 0.1
For a specific case, the terms of the effect of the various constants on the r = 0.05
solution may be picked from curves and a response of the simplified system used Double-frequency vector occurring between
vector diagram drawn, with the under- here as a beginning approximation of the the power-frequency and free vibration
bus. Such curves are shown in Fig. 11. vectors is too small to show noticeably
standing that the result shall be obtained
by projection of the vector sum on the Note the use of a logarithmic abscissa
vertical axis. A constant is a fixed scale for this figure.
vertical vector. The exponential is a With reference to Fig. 11, the conven- obtained. The result is a little higher
vector which shrinks in magnitude but tional method corresponds to a straight than conventional on the left for the
remains vertical. The power-frequency horizontal line because the result is stiffest structure considered, and flattens
vector rotates at power frequency and also independent of the natural frequency of out to a limit toward the right. The limit
shrinks. The double-frequency vector the structure. No forces due to mass exists because certain terms neither decay
rotates at double frequency but does not were considered and the solution may be nor change with the natural frequency of
shrink. The free vibration vector shrinks designated as static with R/X=0. In- the structure.
and rotates corresponding to the constants troduce consideration of mass but retain For the next curve, zero electrical decre-
of the mechanical system. For the cases zero electrical decrement and zero me- ment is retained but considerable mechan-
here considered, the rotation of the free chanical damping, and the upper curve is ical damping is introduced. The main
vibration vector is relatively slow com- effect is to permit the free vibration term
pared to the power-frequency vector. to decrease with time, and the curve is
Fig. 9 shows a vector diagram at the lower and sweeps downward toward a
time, t= 0. If by command the vectors limit. Since neither the introduction of
could start rotating and shrinking, all one the consideration of the dynamic forces
would have to do would be to sit by and nor the introduction of mechanical damp-
observe the maximum. Because of the ing has indicated reduction in duty to the
relative size and phase of the free vibra- extent that some persons hope or believe
tion term, the maximum will occur when possible, another combination of constants
that vector makes about a half turn. is used for the next curve. A reversion is
This is important because the more time made to zero mechanical damping and a
it takes for the free vibration vector to Fig. 8. Phase angles of the periodic terms reasonable electrical decrement is intro-
approach the vertical position, the greater of equation 3 duced. Now the exponential and power-
has been the shrinkage that has taken frequency vectors are permitted to shrink
place in the exponential and power- X2-=phase angle of the power-frequency term while the free vibration vector is rotating
X3=phase angle of the double-frequency term
frequency terms. Fig. 10 corresponds to a=phase angle of the free vibration term into position for the maximum. Also,
Fig. 9 when time has progressed so that Curves correspond to R/X=0.1, r=0.05. the exponential term is responsive to
maximum conditions are obtained. The Curves for other low values of R/X and r are frequency and the curve sweeps low
free vibration vector always shrinks by similar in character toward the right. Finally, with the

32 Bates-Design of Electric Bus for Short-Circuit Conditions APRIL 1958


TION
frequency and causes the decay of both the
exponential term and the power frequency
term.
3. The combination of item I with item 2
so that enough time is available to allow
the decaying terms to be reduced markedly.
The two principal factors which deter-
mine the ratio of the conductor deflection
to the deflection calculated by the con-
ventional method are the mechanical
natural frequency and the R/X of the
electric circuit. Since the mechanical
natural frequency, in effect, determines
how many electrical cycles of current have
I
z
0
o
-J
LLI

tL

:D

-J
wLI
10.
0.8

0o4 S~
2 3
NATURAL FREQ IN CPS
FOR ELECTRICAL FREQ OF GO CPS

~~~~~TTI.R/X0,= 0
0.8304 <\20)c0*
0\ 1
-s

'1

4
o 6x/=o, r 0

6
=

R/=-_r=.

10
p
20
=

30 40 50

passed before a maximum defection is Fig. 11. Comparison of results in the range
reached, it is indeed unclear how any corresponding to high-voltage bus conductors,
POWER
method of averaging of peaks on a current with the conventional method used as
FREQUENCY oscillogram can be successful if it ignores reference. The pronounced effects of me-
EXPONEN1TIAL chanical natural frequency and electrical
EP N

consideration of the natural frequency of


the structure, and if the resultant cal- decrement, R/X, are evident. The eNect of
culated force is used as a statically applied mechanical damping is secondary.
CONST 'ANT load.

Limitations of the remaining questions. Further


development of the subject would start
Fig. 10. The vectors of Fig. 9 at a later time Why is the analysis given here not suit- with one of the three following items and
when the first and major maximu m occurs. able for direct, unmodified application to certainly would eventually include all of
Power-frequency vector has ma4
ionavect
11/4 revolutions while the free vibrat vector bus design and analysis? The answer is them:
has made about 0.4 revoluti.ion that the distributed mass and elasticity 1. Consideration of a conductor with
of the conductor make the problem more distributed mass alnd elasticity.
Numerical data are the same as given for Fig. 9 complicated. Several modes of vibra- 2. Consideration of a conductor on re-
tion are possible. The conductor can silient supports which also possess mass.
vibrate in a simple shape with one loop. 3. Consideration of 3-phase conditions.
addition of considerable mechanic This is called the first mode and has the
Although further work should be done,
ing a moderately lower curve is (obainedaP lowest natural frequency. It was for this
it is possible now to choose a "factor of
Because of the results obtaine( herifnr mode of motion that Fig. 5 was drawn.
remaining ignorance" and proceed to
structures having a ratio, p, ec4ual to 2 However, there are higher modes possible
"package" the results in a form that re-
or larger, one might conclude that the with a number of loops coresponding to
quires only little knowledge to use. A
conventional method always g thatshfe the number of the mode. For a bar with
set of curves for amperes, conductor
results. This is distinctly not so As the symmetrical conditions about its mid-
spans, and conductor sizes would seem
structure is made stiffer, causing Ato fall point, only the odd modes 1, 3, 5, etc.,
appropriate.
pto falof
below 2, a region of unsafe appli cation are admissible. Modes are not har-
the conventional method is enter( d, and it monics. The frequencies are not in the
is not until a very low value of P is ratio 1, 3, 5, etc. When the first mode Conclusions
reached (see Fig. 7) that the con' has a low natural frequency relative to the
method would again give accep tablerei power frequency, one of the higher modes This paper has been a sincere effort to
sults. Fortunately this unsaf might be in resonance with either the promote the basic understanding of the
does not seem to correspond to s tructures power-frequency force component or the problem by many of those persons who
as usually built. double-frequency force component. For- are concerned with the design or perform-
tunately, there are many factors which aid ance of electric bus under short-circuit
in holding down the influence of these conditions.
Discussion of Results resonant conditions on the maxima with The mathematical analysis of the
which bus design is concerned. It is mechanical behavior of bus conductors
This analysis is elementary aind some- anticipated that an analysis which in- subjected to short-circuit currents shows
what oversimplified, but it does indicate cludes consideration of the higher modes that under certain conditions of electrical
that on new designs, savings may be might moderately raise the curves given damping and mechanical natural fre-
made on conductor material, and on here and give them a somewhat scalloped quency the duty imposed on the conduc-
existing designs, the short-circu .it capac- appearance due to the effects of resonance tors may be as little as 25% of that cal-
ity may be markedly raised, if atad only if in the higher modes. culated by conventional methods. It is
the natural frequency is suita bly low. hoped that the possibilities of economy,
The savings are permitted by: Further Work in which many people believe and which
1. Low natural frequency whic:h causes have been substantiated here, will lead to
the vibrational terms to be low. Once the basic elements of the sub- the development of a more rational basis
2. Electrical damping which ceauses the ject as set forth here have been assim- for this important consideration in en-
exponential to be affected by natural ilated, consideration can be given to some gineering.
APRIL l1958 Bates-Design of Electric Bus for Short-Circuit Conditions 33
Appendix Fig. 12. Vector
diagram permitting
Fig. 12 may aid in obtaining equations 6
and 7.
the simplification of Suppose that for a given circuit (R and
Nomenclature wt# /X X fixed) several values of V/ were chosen
equation 8 and enough values of i were calculated to
A = a constant, real or complex, to be determine the current at the major peak
evaluated R
for each choice of V,. Then by plotting
a= magnitude of the real part of m these peak values versus V,, the value of
B = a constant, real or complex, to be
evaluated. Subscripts show associa- p =f/fo or rolr, relative frequency or period
VI for the highest obtainable peak could be
tion with m values fouild. For the value of V, desired, the
a=phase angle of free vibration plot would have a horizontal tangent, or
b=magnitude of the imaginary part of m r = 1/f=period of electric power
C=a positive magnitude of the free vibra- ro = 1/fo = period of undamped free vibration
di/dV,=O. The same result may be ob-
tion of the mechanical system tained mathematically. The current will
of system of Fig. 5 have a peak value at some time t1 when the
E=peak value of the sinusoidal voltage (=phase angle, the angle of lag of current brace in equation 6 is a maximum and
F=the electromagnetically developed force behind voltage
to be applied to the system of Fig. 5 therefore has a zero derivative with respect
f =the electric power frequency
V=a phase angle introduced in the voltage to cot. Likewise the peak current will
expression to facilitate investigation have its maximum value for some value of
fo = frequency of free vibration of the system of the current resulting from differ- ,6 such that the derivative with respect to
of Fig. 5, without damping ent times of switch closure
Isp =the magnitude of the symmetrical X = 2wrf =angular velocity of electric power, Vb is zero. Evaluating these two derivatives
peak, or peak steady-state short- and equating each to zero gives two equa-
current, or voltage tions which permit the evaluation of VI
circuit current wo = 27rfo = angular velocity of undamped
i = instantaneous value of short-circuit for the highest obtainable peak current.
free vibration of the mechanical The result is
current system
j= V-1 or a 90-degree operator d=0
K = spring constant, or force unit deflection UNITS
L = inductance and
M=equivalent mass of the bus conductor, In general it is not necessary to specify
or the mass shown in Fig. 5 a system of units since answers are given
m =a complex number. Subscripts denote in relative form. However practical volts, i=Ispisin(wt-p)+e X sin so (8)
particular m's amperes, and ohms are intended for elec- Hence for the highest obtainable peak, the
mn=conjugate of m. Subscripts as in m trical quantities and pounds force, inches, switch should be closed at a voltage zero.
n=a constant to be evaluated and seconds are intended for the other An alternative form of equation 8 may
P =proportionality constant for force. For quantities. be obtained by considering that for the
parallel bus bars at spacings great in case of most frequent interest vp will be
comparison with the major cross- Electrical near 90 degrees or ir/2, hence in equation 8
sectional dimension of E bar, P may substituting
be given a value of 5.4 X 10-7/s for In order to permit the closing of the
a single-phase or a d-c circuit. switch in Fig. 1 at any point in the voltage w = 2r/2 -8 (9)
This value of P used as a multiplier wave a phase angle, V,6 is incorporated in
of the instantaneous current squared the expression for the voltage. ,6 is to be gives the alternative form:
will give pounds of force per foot assigned any desired value, or is to be
of conductor determined for a desired condition. The i=Isp e x cos a-cos (ct+)4 (10)
R =electrical resistance differential equation for the circuit of Fig. 1
R'=mechanical damping. Force per unit may then be written in the form: Equation 10 is for , t = 0. However a
velocity slightly simpler expression will result if
r=ratio of mechanical damping considered L di +Ri = E sin (cot+ V) (4) V/ is taken as -a instead of zero. This
to critical damping for the system dt value of V and the value of (p from equation
of Fig. 5 9 may be substituted in equation 6 to
s=bus-bar spacing in inches From either the physical knowledge of obtain:
t =time the problem including the fact that there
-R
th =time associated with maximum instan- usually is a d-c transient, or a knowledge -=e X -coscot (1)
taneous current of the mathematics of the equation, it is Isp
X =L=inductive reactance reasonable to assume a trial solution in the
y =deflection of spring or mass in system of form: This simpler expression has the highest
Fig. 5 value of d-c component, so may be said
Yst=the maximum deflection of the system i=Ae-nwZ1+B sin (cot++- p) (5) to have the maximum initial offset. For
of Fig. 5 obtained by the static This Iwill be the correct solution if values circuits of 10% power factor and less the
application of the maximum force of A, B, and n may be determined such major peak will be within less thanl 0.25%
considering no electrical decrement. that the left member of equation 4 reduces of the greatest obtainable major peak.
This is the deflection value obtained to the right member and the desired condi-
For these reasons equation 1 was chosen
by the conventional method as the basis of the initial work given in
tion of zero current at zero time exists. this paper.
Z =impedance in an electrical equation By substitution of equation 5 into
= magnitude of a complex number Z/X
equation 4 and by requiring the current \With the complete analysis given in this
when appearing in a mechanical to be zero at zero time, values of A, B, paper, it would be just a matter of labor to
system equation. Subscripts asso- convert to equation 10 as a base. However,
and n may be obtained. The substitution there is no a priori proof that equation 10
ciate Z's and m's of these values in equation 5 gives the would yield worst conditions. The peak
= real component of the m associated solution. With the notation Isp for the
with free vibration of the mechanical peak symmetrical or steady-state current, bus deflection is not simultaneous with the
system the solution may be written in the following peak force.
= imaginary component of the m associated form:
with free vibration of the mechanical Mechanical
system sin The force arising from the electric current
a = r/2-so = deviation from a 90-degree i =Is j si(wt+f
is given in the body of the paper as:
relationship between steady-state (6)
current and voltage where
X =the angle of the complex number Z/X F=P 1/2+e x _2e X cos wt+
or Zeid. Subscripts to associate A,
x
tan -o=- (7) (2)
Z, and m R 1/2 cos 2wt

34 Bates-Design of Electric Bus for Short-Circuit Conditions APRIL 1958


From a free body diagram, drawn for In order to have a complete solution both Table 1. Values of m, Z, and B
the convention adopted for positive dis- these equations must be satisfied. An-
placement and positive force as shown in other way of saying the same thiiig is that
Fig. 5, the following differential equation functions must be found such that when Term Designation
No. m of Z/? B
is easily obtained: substituted in the left member of equation
16 terms will be obtained corresponding to
M-2Y+R'dY
dt' di +Ky = (11) the terms of the right member, and that
zero is a term of the right member even
O. ..O+jO

R
zo/Xo=
........

-
1.0.
~K 2
XI
Suppose momentarily that F is taken as though it is not explicitly written. 1.-2 +jO ...... Z./x1=Zi/0.. - xK
The conventional approach to the solu- X- K Zi
zero instead of being given by equation 2.
Then equation 11 is changed to: tion of these differential equations involves
considerable algebra and the attendant
2..... -'
x . P-2]
KZ
possibilities of error. An easier method is 3. O+j2.0 .
....... . .K I

MdY+R
dt2 dy+Ky_o
dt
(12) to assume a relatively general trial solution, 2Zj
and assign particular values to the constants 4 ~~~~Z4/X4=0.[... -C]
This is the equation of the mechanical involved so that particular terms of the - ~K

system free of any driving force, and is solution may be obtained. If it is re-
one of the equations examined in ele- membered that a cosine function is expres-
mentary vibration theory. Usually the sible in terms of exponentials with imaginary By appropriate choice of a and b, this
mass is considered displaced from its exponents, then the right members of expression can be reduced to the form of
position of rest and released at time, equations 16 and 17 suggest a trial solution any of the terms of the right member of
1-0. The return to zero displacement for of an exponential function with a complex equation 16. By requiring Z to be zero
different amounts of damping is investi- exponent and possibly a complex coefficient. equation 17 is satisfied. This requirement
gated. When R'=O the system is oscilla- However, the appearance of the cosine gives
tory and the following relation exists: suggests that the conjugate of such a trial
solution would also be necessary. There- p'm'+2rpm+1 =0 (24)
K fore assume a trial solution which is the or
_
M (2irfo)"
( 13) sum of two terms involving conjugate
complex coefficients and conjugate complex m=- j-V/1-r'=-xa
p
jo (25)
When R'00 the return of the mass from a exponents. With m =-a+jb and m = p
displaced position will be oscillatory if -a -jb, such a trial solution may be By referring to Table I for the appro-
R'/2M<wo, and aperiodic if R'/2M>wo. written in the following forms: priate values of m and information on Z
If R' increases from a small value to a and A, the form of the complete solution
value where R'/2M=-o. the oscillatory y= 1/2[BI-Xemwt + B/ +Xeic ,] may be written as follows by referring to
character becomes more damped and the equation 18:
frequency becomes lower until it reaches = Be -a t cos (bwt X) (18)
zero and the oscillations vanish. This
amount of damping which corresponds to where B is a real constant and X is to be y=Bo+BIe X +B2e' cos (wt-X2)+
the boundary between oscillatory and determined later. B3 cos (2wt- X)+Bcje X
aperiodic behavior is called critical damp- Momentarily investigate the term
ing. When damping is expressed as a B/-Nemwt. Substitution in the left mem- cos (,wt-X4) (26)
fraction of critical damping the inference ber of equations 16 or 17 reduces that Since each of these terms is a special case
to the system behavior is immediate. member to of the trial solution, equation 18, each term
Damping may be expressed in this way by when substituted in the left member of
r, where B/-XernwL(pnm2+2rpm+1) (19) equation 16 or 17 will result in a special
form of expression 23 with the exponential
/R'
\w (14) With m a complex number the paren-
thesis in expression 19 will be complex and and cosine in agreement with a correspond-
will be designated: ing term of the right member of equation
When r = 1.0 critical damping exists and the 16, it follows that all that remains is to
system is in the condition where a slight p2m2+2rpm+1 Z/X (20) require the BZ coefficients of the reduced
change in damping causes the behavior left member to be equal to the coefficients
to become either oscillatory or aperiodic. It is intended that the value of X obtained of the corresponding right member. These
Relations 13 and 14 will be useful in from expression 20 be the value of X to equalities are
rewriting equation 11 for the purpose of use with B thus making X determinate in
simplifying and clarifying the ensuing equation 18. The merit of this will appear BoZo =Bo =P/K+1/2
solution. It will be convenient to use later. Using the notation of expression 20 BIZ1 =P/K
wt instead of I as the independent variable, to rewrite expression 19, gives the following B2,2 = P/K( -2)
therefore observe that forms: BsZ,= P/K(1/2)
d d B4Z4=0 (27)
BZemw =BZe-awtXe+Ii't
dt d(wt) (15) From these equations the B's have the
=BZe-at[cos bw+j sin bwt] (21) values shown in Table I except for B4
The introduction of pEEw/c,,o and the use which has yet to be determined since Z4
of relations 13, 14, 15, and equation 2 Now look at the second term of equation is zero. A change in notation has been
permit equation 11 to be rewritten in the 18. The use of the conjugate of m in the made for B4 and X4 in Table I.
fonn: expression 20 will give Z/-X. Therefore The general solution of equation 16 is
the result for the second term of equation obtained by using the B values of Table I
18 which corresponds equation 21 for the to rewrite equation 26. The result is the
d(cot)2 d( wt) first term is following
me
1/2+e2 xw BZemw I -BZe Xe i@t
= BZe 't[cos bot-j sin boit]
Y= {1/2 1 e t-z e X
(22)
2eX " cos WI+1/2 cos 2wtj (16) Hence by taking one half the sum of cos (cat- X) +2 cos (2Ot -X3)-
expressions 21 and 22 the reduced form 2Z3
For zero driving force, equation 16 reduces of the left members of equations 16 or 17 Ce t cos (,Owt-a) (28)
to corresponding to the trial solution, equation
18, is obtained, and it is In order to satisfy the condition that the
mass be initially at rest, it is necessary that
Pd(S) p d(-t) +Y=O (17) BZe ca cos but (23) the following obtain:

APREL 1958 Bates-Design of Electric Bus for Short-Circuit Conditions 35


used to compute C and o in any given the conventional method, K/PX Yt, 4.
numerical case. Any requirement of a knowledge of the
dy fwhen wt=0 (29) value of K/P can be dispensed with by
d(-0) J C Cos( -) =1+- 2
2 Z1 Z2
( -X2)+ taking the ratio of the y of equation 28
to Yst of the conventional method. A
This requires that the first derivative of convenient expression of this ratio is
equation 28 be obtained. The result is 1 cos(-Xs) (31A)
/+1 eX --te
y- Y /2+ 2 -21wt _JI X
K dy R 1 -s C{acos(-r)+,Bsin(-a)) =+
-X
P d(wt)
=-2-X-x Zee2X'w - R 1 2(1? (Wct-2s)+ (s -s)-
2 -X- -1 -cos (-X2)+ cos cos
2 -'J?AI R
2-eXc -_ cos(cs - )2
x Z1 Z2 X
Cec-at
COw S wt - ) (3)
cos
sin ( -X2)}+ sin (-X3) (32A) The familiar routine of the conventional
sin (cot-X2)}-1>- sin (24-X3)- method may be used for calculation, and
Now a method of calculating results will if the ratio of (y.,)/VY,t is used as an
CC -a@gF-a COS (wc- a)- be indicated. Start by selecting the value additional factor, the result wil be that
of RIX for the electnrc circuit of interest, indicated by the approximate theory
PsinG(#,t-oa)} (30) and also choose an appropriate fraction of given in this paper.
critical damping of the mechanical struc- For some choices of constants and values
For wt - 0, equations 28 and 30 reduce to ture. Except for m4, the m values all be- of p, some of the terms involved in equation
come definite numerical values, and all 3 may be dropped and others approximated
items of interest become functions of p and still the result may be of sufficient
p
y -0=1/2+ ZI --Z2 cos (-X2)+ and wt. Successive choices of p will permit accuracy.
curves to be drawn for the coefficients and
phase angles. Start by evaluating Z/X
2Zsj cos(-X,)-Ccos(-au) (31)
- from expression 20. Refer to equation 28
to see how to employ these values for
ReFerences
K dy R 1 2 coefficients and phase angles. Use these 1. POWER SWITCmNo EQUIPMENT. National
values to calculate C and r from equations
P d(S)) Zx z
X 2 31(A) and 32(A). Equation 20 may now
Electrical Manufacturers Association, New York,
N. Y., Oct. 1954, pt. 2, p. 3, SG6-2.04.
be written with numerical values except 2. BtEHAVIOR OF HIGH-VOLTAGE BUsEs AND
{X COS ( -X2) +Sin (-2) > for y, P/K, and cot. A few trial values of INSULATORs DuINxG SHORT CRCUITS, R. M.
ci will permit a maximum value for K/P Xy Milton, Fred Chambers. AIEE Transactions,
vol. 74, pt. III, Aug. 1955, pp. 742-49.
to be obtained. Inspection of the whole
-sin (-Xa)+C{a Cos ( Cr)+ calculations process shows that for the 3. SHORT-CIRCUIT TESTS ON 138-KV BussaCs,
Zs D. W. Taylor, C. M. Stuehler. Ibid., vol. 75, pt.
conventional method, where RIX and p II, Aug. 1956, pp. 739-47.
1 sin(r-a,)i (32) are both taken as zero, the maximum value 4. M1ECHANICAL STRESSES IN BUS3AR SUPPORTS
of K/PXy becomes 4. Hence using the DURING SHMORT CIRCUITS, 0. R. Schurig, M. F.
Equations 31 and 32 may be rewritten and notation of Y,g for the y corresponding to Sayre. Ibid., vol. 44, 1925, pp. 217-37.

Discussion both d-c and a-c short circuits including


curves for the full range of natural fre-
are particularly important is that in which
flat bars are mounted edge-to-edge. In
quencies occurring in bus structures. this case, the support natural frequency
0. R. Schurig (Union College, Schenectady, 3. By establishing a procedure for the is likely to be lower than that of the bars.
N. Y.): Mr. Bates has made an able calculation of the longitudinal stresses A calculation based on rigid supports would
analysis of the deflection of long, straight which are not considered in his paper, al- give erroneous results. The importance
bus bars on rigid supports under the action though they often are comparable in of considering two basic natural frequencies
of the electromagnetic force due to an a-c magnitude to the lateral stresses, and may is further indicated in Fig. 13 (Fig. 1 of
short-circuit current. His results are in even exceed them. reference 3) which was prepared in the
good agreement with those of earlier re- course of the earlier researches, where a
4. By conducting tests and presenting stress factor p 2.67 corresponds to the
searches in this field. As an introduction the test results which substantiated the force exerted by the maximum asym-
to the paper, and as a justification of the calculated results for various types of metrical peak current. Representative
need for his analysis, he calls attention to structures. values of current decrement factors and
a simplified calculating procedure' by which
the maximum load or stress at a bus 5. By analyzing the forces on conductors motional resistance (mechanical damping)
support is assumed to be equal to the force with bends, short lengths, tap connections, quoted in reference 3 were chosen for the
and crossovers.4 curves of Fig. 13. In this figure, the lower
produced by the maximum peak current, natural frequency fi is shown along the
neglecting the current decrement rate. Although all of these five items are basic horizontal axis. Separate curves are shown
However, he does not mention the findings in the analysis of the behavior of bus for various values of the higher natural
of earlier researches2'' on the subject structures during short circuits, Mr. Bates frequency ranging from 12-240 cps (cycles
except that one of the references's is listed has not dealt with one of them or even called per second). Obviously, it would be far
in his bibliography. The earlier researches attention to the results of the earlier studies from correct to select one of the curves to
not only covered the subject of the present dealing with these items. be used for all values of the higher natural
paper, but even dealt with the problem It is proposed to discuss these five points frequency. (Note that the curve for rigid
far more broadly in five important respects briefly in relation to Mr. Bates' paper. supports would lie slightly below the
as follow: lowest curve shown in Fig. 13.) Conse-
1. The analysis in his paper assumes
1. By taking into account the two basic rigid supports, although the earlier re- quently, a practical procedure for stress
natural frequencies of bus structures, searches,258 as well as more recent tests,5" calculations needs to take into account
showed substantial support deflections for the two basic natural frequencies, and not
instead of only one. various kinds of bus supports. One type only the one frequency considered in the
2. By giving practical procedures for of construction for which the support de- Bates paper. To illustrate this point,
calculating maximum support stresses for flection and the support natural frequency values of the two natural frequencies for

36 Bates-Design of Electric Bus for Short-Circuit Conditions APRIL 1958