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A2 milk

A2 milk on sale in Australia

A2 milk is cow's milk that contains only the A2 type of beta-


casein protein rather than the more common A1 protein commonly
found in regular milk. A2 milk is licensed and marketed by the a2 Milk
Company and sold mostly in Australia, New Zealand, China, United
States and the United Kingdom.
The company marketing A2 milk claims that milk containing A1
proteins are harmful, but a 2009 European Food Safety
Authority (EFSA) review of scientific literature found there was
insufficient evidence to prove that bioactive peptides in A1 milk have
a negative effect on health.[1]
A1 and A2 beta-casein are genetic variants of the beta-casein milk
protein that differ by one amino acid. The A1 beta-casein type is the
most common type found in cow's milk in Europe (excluding France),
the USA, Australia and New Zealand. A genetic test, developed by the
A2 Milk Company, determines whether a cow produces the A2 or A1
type protein in its milk. The test allows the a2 Milk Company to
license milk producers once proven their cows produce only A2 beta-
casein protein in their milk, to the exclusion of the A1 beta-casein
protein type.
Contents

Health effectsEdit
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reviewed the scientific
literature and published a review in 2009. As part of their evaluation,
the EFSA looked at the laboratory studies that have been done
on BCM-7. They found that experiments in cells and animals have
shown that BCM-7 can act as a weak opioid receptor agonist, but that
in most of the animal studies, BCM-7 was not administered orally, as
humans would be exposed to it, but rather was given to animals by
injection into the peritoneal cavity or even directly into the spinal cord
or brain, which makes these studies not useful for understanding how
BCM-7 might affect humans.[1] The EFSA found no relationship
between chronic diseases and drinking milk with the A1 protein.[1] The
EFSA study emphasized the dangers of drawing conclusions from
correlations identified in epidemiological studies and the dangers of
not reviewing all the evidence at hand.[1] Another 2009 review found
no demonstration that consuming milk with A1 casein causes
diabetes.[2] A 2014 review of research into the relationship between
consumption of dairy products (including A1 and A2 proteins) and the
incidence of diabetes found that while there appears to be a positive
correlation between consumption of dairy products by babies and the
incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in some people, and an inverse
relationship between the consumption of dairy products and the
development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in some people, these
correlations are tentative, it is impossible to determine what
component or components of milk might be responsible for these
effects, and it is unlikely that the expensive and complex research to
determine the answers to these questions will ever be conducted.[3]
A2 milk is not a milk substitute for infants with cow milk protein
allergies.[4]
The a2 Milk Company claims that people who experience discomfort
drinking ordinary cows' milk, may experience relief when they switch
to a2 Milk.[5][6][7]
HistoryEdit
In the 1980s, some medical researchers began to explore whether
some peptides (including peptides from casein) that are created
during digestion might have negative[8] or positive health effects.[1]
Interest in the distinction between A1 and A2 beta-casein proteins
began in the early 1990s via epidemiological research and animal
studies initially conducted by scientists in New Zealand, which found
correlations between the prevalence of milk with A1 beta-casein
proteins in some countries and the prevalence of various chronic
diseases in those countries.[9] The research generated interest in the
media, among some in the scientific community, and entrepreneurs.
[9] If it is indeed true that BCM-7 is harming humans, this would be an
important public health issue, as well as a commercial opportunity.[9]
Cows' milk is about 87 percent water and 13 percent solidsthe
solids being a combination of fat, carbohydrates in the form of
lactose, minerals and protein. The major component of the milk
proteins is casein; in turn about 30-35 percent of the casein
(equivalent to two teaspoons in a litre of milk) is beta-casein, of which
there are several varieties, determined by the genes of the cow. The
most common of these variants are A1 and A2 (named for the order in
which they were identified by scientists), with the sole difference
between the two being one of the 209 amino acids that make up the
beta-casein proteins: a proline occurs at position 67 in the chain of
amino acids that make up the A2 beta-casein, while in A1 beta-casein
a histidine occurs at that position. Studies in cells found that digestive
enzymes that cut up proteins interact with beta-casein precisely at
that location, so that A1 and A2 beta-casein proteins are processed
differently. A seven-amino peptide, beta-casomorphin-7, (BCM-7) can
be cut away from the A1-beta-casein protein by those enzymes, but
the enzymes cannot cut the A2 protein at that location, so BCM-7 is
not formed from A2 proteins.[9] Studies in humans have not
consistently found that BCM-7 is formed in the human digestive
system.[2] BCM-7 can also be created during the fermentation of milk
or through the process by which cheese is made; those same
processes can also destroy BCM-7.[1]
Scientists believe the difference originated as a mutation that
occurred between 5000 and 10,000 years agoas cattle were being
taken north into Europewhen the proline at position 67 was replaced
by histidine, with the mutation subsequently spreading widely
throughout herds in the western world through breeding.[9][10]
The percentage of the A1 and A2 beta-casein protein varies between
herds of cattle, and also between countries and provinces. While
African and Asian cattle continue to produce only A2 beta-casein, the
A1 version of the protein is common among cattle in the western
world.[9] The A1 beta-casein type is the most common type found in
cow's milk in Europe (excluding France), the USA, Australia and New
Zealand.[1]:20 On average, more than 70 percent of Guernsey cows
produce A2 milk, while among Holsteins and Ayrshires between 46
and 70 percent produce A1 milk.[11]
A2 CorporationEdit
Main article: the a2 Milk Company
A company, A2 Corporation, was founded in New Zealand in 2000 to
commercialise a genetic test to determine whether a cow will produce
milk without the A1 protein, and to market "A2 Milk".[9][12][13] In 2003,
A2's website said: "Beta casein A1 may be a primary risk factor for
heart disease in adult men, and also be involved in the progression of
insulin-dependent diabetes in children" and the CEO had linked A1 to
schizophrenia and autism.[14] A2 Corporation also petitioned the Food
Standards Australia New Zealand regulatory authority to require a
health warning on ordinary milk.[9]
A2 Corporation was succeeded by The a2 Milk Company.

Commercial production and saleEdit


A2 Corporation licensed patents filed in the 1990s by the New
Zealand Dairy Board, and filed its own patents on genetic tests to
determine what form of beta-casein cows produce in milk, and
concerning potential adverse health consequences of A1 milk.[9][12][15]
[16]
The a2 Milk Company holds a worldwide suite of intellectual property
to protect its business products, trademarks, trade secrets, and
patents covering the genetic test and methods to develop A2
producing herds, as well as methods to check the protein content and
fatty acid content of milk, infant formula, dietary supplements with A2
beta-casein, and even therapeutic uses of A2.[17]
Australia and New ZealandEdit
A2 Corporation focused its initial efforts on urging farmers to
undertake breeding programs to develop herds that would produce
only A2 milk.[18] However the launch of A2 milk was delayed by
opposition from Fonterra, which had contracts with about 98% of New
Zealand dairy farms. These contracts were protected under New
Zealand law by the Dairy Industry Restructuring Act of 2001.[14]
[19] Seeking leverage in the battle with Fonterra over access to
farmers, and over patent rights,[12]Howard Paterson, the CEO of A2
Corporation, led the company into litigation against Fonterra, asking
the New Zealand High Court to order Fonterra to put health warnings
on its conventional milk concerning risks of type 1 diabetes, heart
disease, autism and schizophrenia due to the presence of A1 beta-
casein, and to force Fonterra to publicly disclose all the information it
had about the links between A1 beta-casein and health risks.[20] The
litigation threatened New Zealand's economy and international
reputation as at the time Fonterra was responsible for 20% of New
Zealand's exports.[20] The press over the litigation and public concern
over the claims of A2 Corporation led the New Zealand Food Safety
Authority and the Ministry of Health and the Food Standards Australia
and New Zealand to issue reports and statements confirming the
safety of conventional milk.[12][21][22]
A2 Corporation was able to obtain agreements with enough dairy
farmers to launch A2 milk in New Zealand at the end of April 2003.[14]
[23] In the middle of 2003, both founders of the company died. In July,
Paterson was found dead in his hotel room during a business trip at
the age of 50,[24] and a month later Dr Corran McLachlan died of
cancer at the age of 59.[25] In New Zealand it is illegal to make health
claims about a food product without providing scientific evidence and
registering the food as a medicine, and in November 2003 the New
Zealand Commerce Commission advised that A2 Corporation Ltd and
its licensed A2 producers had agreed to amend the health claims in
their promotional material following a warning from the commission.
[26][27] By end of 2003 the weakened A2 Corporation[28] had
withdrawn the litigation against Fonterra and negotiations had
resumed.[25]
Meanwhile, A2 milk was first marketed anywhere in the world in
March 2003 in Australia by a dairy farm unaffiliated with A2
Corporation run by the Denniston family.[18] Shortly thereafter, an
Australian company called A2 Dairy Marketers licensed patent rights
and the A2 trademark from A2 Corporation and started offering
Australian dairy farmers a premium price for their milk, if it was
shown to be pure A2.[18] The Dennistons and A2 Dairy Marketers
marketed A2 milk boldly, touting its safety and the dangers of A1
milk. However, Australian laws forbid companies from making
misleading health claims about food, and in September 2004, A2
Dairy Marketers in Australia was fined $15,000 after it pleaded guilty
to six breaches of those laws.[14][26][29][30] The company, which had
been in a tenuous financial situation since beginning trading in May,
went into administration in October[30] and was liquidated in
November, owing farmers and processors tens of thousands of
dollars.[18][30] A$1.27 million federal government grant awarded to the
company in August as part of the Regional Partnerships Program was
also cancelled.[31] A2 Corporation set up a new subsidiary and
licensee, A2 Australia, to market and produce its product. A2 Australia
established new contracts with the dairy farmers who had A2 herds,
promising better payment termsa week in advance instead of once
per month, after shipment.[18]
In December, A2 Corporation sold its interests in A2 Australia
to Fraser & Neave, a food marketing giant in Asian markets, for about
$1.1 million. A2 Corporation had lost about $1.3 million for 2004, the
same as it has lost the year before; the sale allowed A2 Corporation to
rely on Fraser & Neave to build the Australian and Asian businesses.
[32] A2 focused on recovering from the deaths of its founders
organizationally and financially, relied on its New Zealand licensees to
develop the New Zealand market, and turned its focus to developing
overseas markets.[28][32]
As A2 grew its business, opposition to A2 Corporation's claims played
out in the media. Dairy Australia, the national association of the
Australian dairy industry, and market competitors like Parmalat have
consistently said that there is no evidence to suggest A1 proteins are
dangerous and have warned that criticism of normal milk is damaging
the entire dairy industry.[18][33][34][35][36]
In 2006, A2 Corporation was on sound enough footing to buy back A2
Australia from Fraser & Neave.[28] In 2006, it lost about $1 million,
after having lost $9 million the year before, but revenues had
approximately doubled.[28] In that year it warned shareholders not to
expect profit for another three years.[18]
Publication of a book, Devil in the Milk by Keith Woodford, about A1
beta-casein and its perceived dangers to health, boosted sales of A2
milk in Australia and New Zealand[37] and prompted the New Zealand
Food Safety Authority to propose again reviewing the science to
address consumer concerns that A1 milk might be harmful.[22] It
asked the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to undertake such a
review.[38][39] The EFSA report, released in 2009, found that "a cause
and effect relationship is not established between the dietary intake
of BCM7 (beta-casomorphin-7), related peptides or their possible
protein precursors and non-communicable diseases". [1][39]
Commercial development proceeded, and by 2010 some 40 million
litres of A2 milk were being produced by 12,000 A2-certified cows
across Australia, with milk processed at four plants in Victoria, New
South Wales and Queensland,[40] and yoghurt made with A2 milk went
on the market in Australia in April 2010.[41]
In February 2011 A2 Corporation announced it had a made a profit
over a half-year for the first time; in the six months ending 31
December 2010, it made a net $894,000, or 17 cents/share.[42] In
December 2012 A2 Corporation announced it would attempt to raise
$20 million and list on the New Zealand Stock Exchange main board,
[43] and that it would use the funds to grow its Chinese infant formula
and UK milk businesses. It listed in March 2013.[44]
A2 Corporation changed its name to The a2 Milk Company Limited in
April 2014, and at that time had about 8% market share of the milk
products market in Australia.[45][46]
Other products produced using A2 milk now exist, including thickened
cream, infant formula, ice cream, yogurts and other dairy products.[41]
[47]
In 2014 Lion, a beverage and food company that operates in Australia
and New Zealand and is owned by Kirin, relaunched their "Pura" milk
product with a new label stating: "Naturally contains A2 protein."[35]
[46][48][49]
The a2 Milk Company announced in November 2014 that it had begun
the application process for a dual listing on the Australian Securities
Exchange in a bid to open its register to Australian investors and
boost the liquidity of its shares. The company said it expected a
listing to be completed by March 2015.[50]
United StatesEdit
In August 2003, as part of a new focus on overseas markets following
the death of its founders, A2 Corporation exclusively licensed patent
and trademark rights to US-based Ideasphere Incorporated (ISI) to
market A2 milk products in North America. ISI had paid A2 $500,000
in license fees by the end of 2004.[51] ISI acquired Twinlab in
September 2003, followed by another string of acquisitions in
the dietary supplement market.[52] In June 2005, ISI and A2 agreed to
form a joint venture, A2 Milk Company LLC; A2 invested $400,000 and
ISI assigned the license agreement to the new company.[53]
In April 2007 A2 Corporation announced a deal in which the joint
venture would license rights to the Original Foods Company, whose
branding the A2 milk product would carry, and in which the product
would be sold in several midwestern states through the Hy-
Vee supermarket chain.[54]
In A2 Corporation's 2009 Annual Report, the company announced that
the joint venture had regained all rights to the US market through a
settlement with the Original Foods Company, and that "The US dairy
milk market remains intensely competitive and continues to be a
major challenge."[55] In 2010 A2 Corporation bought out all but less
than 1% of ISI's share in the joint venture.[56]
United KingdomEdit
A2 Corporation formed a joint venture with a major British milk
supplier, Mller Wiseman Dairies, in November 2011 to process,
market and sell its A2 milk products in Britain and Ireland.[57] In June
2014 a2 Milk Company reported it had 20 dedicated farms supplying
milk for processing in the UK.[58] In its first year the milk recorded 1
million in sales through 1000 stores.[59] On 1 January 2014, The a2
Milk company exited its joint venture with Mller Wiseman Dairies by
acquiring MWD's stake for a "nominal" amount.[60]
ChinaEdit
The first consignments of A2's infant formulas were sent to China in
2013.[61][62] Shipments were interrupted for two months starting in
April 2014 when the Chinese government introduced strict new import
regulations for infant formula in response to the 2008 Chinese milk
scandal in which more than 300,000 infants were poisoned by
contaminated milk formula.[63][64]
ReferencesEdit
1. ^ a b c d e f g h European Food Safety Authority (3
February 2009). "Review of the potential health impact of -
casomorphins and related peptides". EFSA Journal. 7 (2):
231r. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.231r.
2. ^ a b Clemens RA. Milk A1 and A2 peptides and diabetes.
Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2011;67:187-95. doi:
10.1159/000325584. Epub 2011 Feb 16. PMID 21335999
3. ^ Lacroix IM, Li-Chan EC. Investigation of the putative
associations between dairy consumption and incidence of type 1 and
type 2 diabetes. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54(4):411-32. doi:
10.1080/10408398.2011.587039. PMID 24236995
4. ^ Kemp AS, Hill DJ, Allen KJ, Anderson K, Davidson GP,
Day AS, et al. (2008). "Guidelines for the use of infant formulas to
treat cows milk protein allergy: an Australian consensus panel
opinion.". Med J Aust. 188 (2): 10912. PMID 18205586.
5. ^ "About our milk". The a2 Milk Company. The a2 Milk
Company. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
6. ^ Pal,S.; Woodford, K.; Kukuljan, S.; Ho, S. (31 August
2015). "Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose". Nutrients. 7 (9):
72857297. doi:10.3390/nu7095339. PMC 4586534 . PMID 26404362.
Retrieved 27 December 2015.
7. ^ Locke, Sarina (11 August 2014). "Curtin University
research conducts first human study on A2 milk with subjects
reporting less bloat and pain than digesting A1 milk". ABC Rural.
Retrieved 27 December 2015.
8. ^ Millward, C; Ferriter, M; Calver, S; Connell-Jones, G
(2008). Ferriter, Michael, ed. "Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic
spectrum disorder". Cochrane database of systematic reviews
(Online) (2):
CD003498. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003498.pub3. PMC 4164915 . P
MID 18425890.
9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Truswell, A.S. (2005), "The A2 milk case:
a critical review", European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59 (5): 623
631, doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602104, PMID 15867940, retrieved 29
June 2014
10. ^ Swinburn, Boyd (13 July 2004). "Beta casein A1 and A2
in milk and human health" (PDF). Report to New Zealand Food Safety
Authority.
11. ^ "The A-B-C of milk" (Press release). Dairy Australia. 21
April 2011. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 3
July 2014.
12. ^ a b c d Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 31 March
2003 Transcript of "White Mischief", an episode of Four Corners, an
investigative journalism series.
13. ^ Staff, New Zealand Herald. 14 May 2001 A2 protein milk
supply on horizon
14. ^ a b c d Staff, New Zealand Herald. 28 April 2003 A2 milk
launched in NZ, outside Fonterra's structure
15. ^ EP0789842A1 Google patents
16. ^ Philippa Stevenson for the New Zealand Herald. 21
December 2000 A2 Corp pays $8m for milk patent rights
17. ^ Geoffrey Babidge, Managing Director & CEO of A2 Corp.
April 2012 A2 Corporation Presentation
18. ^ a b c d e f g Courtney, Pip (6 August 2006). "The A2 milk
story". Landline. ABC Television. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
19. ^ Penny Smith for Just-food. 2 July 2003 A2 milk launched
as controversy churns on
20. ^ a b Deborah Hill Cone for Share Chat 1 November
2002 A2 accuses dairy giant of suppressing milk defects Quote: "The
lawsuit risks inflicting catastrophic damage to New Zealand's
international reputation and foreign earnings as Fonterra turns over
$14 billion and makes 20% of the country's total offshore receipts. As
if that would not be enough of a PR disaster as the country tries to
maintain its position as a clean, green food producer...."
21. ^ Supporting documents for "White Mischief" story
22. ^ a b Office of the Minister of Food Safety, New Zealand
Food Safety Authority. 27 November 2007 A1-A2 Milk: Arrangements
for Upcoming Reviews Archived 21 August 2014 at the Wayback
Machine.
23. ^ New Zealand Stock Exchange. a2 Milk Company
Overview
24. ^ Staff, New Zealand Herald. 5 July 2003 Obituary:
Howard Paterson
25. ^ a b A2 Corporation A2 Annual Report for Year Ending
March 2003. Note: Report was apparently published at the end of
2003
26. ^ a b "A2 milk licensee fined in Australia over therapeutic
claim". The New Zealand Herald. Auckland. 4 October 2004.
Retrieved 7 July 2014.
27. ^ Stuart A. Slorach, "Food safety risk management in New
Zealand", page 14.
28. ^ a b c d Louise Thomas for Unlimited. 26 November
2006. The A2 difference Archived 21 August 2014 at the Wayback
Machine.
29. ^ "Milk marketer fined for A2 health claims". The Courier-
Mail. Brisbane. 30 September 2004. p. 8.
30. ^ a b c Shelley Lloyd for the Australian Broadcasting
Corporation. 17 November 2004 A2 milk liquidates
31. ^ Australian Senate finance and public administration
references committee report on Regional Partnerships and
Sustainable Regions programs, October 2005, pages xiv, 97-100
32. ^ a b Ellen Read for the New Zealand Herald. 30
December 2004 Quick sale likely for A2 Corp
33. ^ Hunt, Peter (24 March 2010), "A2 attacks milk", The
Weekly Times, Melbourne, p. 3
34. ^ Smith, Simone (21 April 2010), "It's a matter of
genetics", The Weekly Times, Melbourne, p. 107
35. ^ a b Hawthorne, Mark (24 May 2014). "Rival watering
down A2 Milk claims". The Age. Melbourne. pp. 8, 2829. Retrieved 21
June 2014.
36. ^ Binsted, Tim (18 March 2014), "Parmalat boss hits out
at A2", Australian Financial Review, p. 8
37. ^ A2 Corporation Press Release, November 2007. A2
Milk Sales In NZ / Australia Increase Substantially
38. ^ Stuart A. Slorach, "Food safety risk management in New
Zealand", page 6.
39. ^ a b Sarah Hills for Food Navigator. 9 February 2009 EFSA
reveals milk protein safety conclusions
40. ^ Smith, Simone (21 April 2010), "It's a matter of
genetics", Weekly Times, Melbourne, p. 107
41. ^ a b Adams, Christopher (10 September 2013). "A2 gets
ready to launch baby formula". The New Zealand Herald. Auckland.
Retrieved 8 July 2014.
42. ^ A2 Corporation Press Release 18 February 2011 A2 Corp
Declares a Maiden Profit
43. ^ Georgina Bond for the National Business Review. 5
December 2012 A2 Corp sets sights on NZX with $20 million equity
raising
44. ^ Staff, The Headliner. 7 March 2013. A2 Corporation to
Step Up
45. ^ Press Release, A2 Corporation. 31 March 2014 A2
changes name
46. ^ a b Adams, Christopher (7 June 2014). "Lion relaunch a
bid to slow A2 growth". The New Zealand Herald. Auckland.
Retrieved 20 June 2014.
47. ^ Langley, Sophie (17 March 2014). "A2 Corporation set
to expand into North America". Ausfoodnews.com.au. Retrieved 8
July 2014.
48. ^ "Protein punch in Pura form", The Advertiser, Adelaide,
p. 11, 26 May 2014
49. ^ Hawthone, Mark (6 June 2014), "This means war ... in a
milky way", The Age, Melbourne, p. 8, retrieved 27 June 2014
50. ^ Binsted, Tim (19 November 2014). "a2 milk to list in
Australia". The Age. Melbourne. p. 28. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
51. ^ A2 Corporation A2 Corporation 2004 Annual Report
52. ^ Staff, Engredea. 3 July 2005 Ideasphere Intends to
Acquire Non-Ephedra Metabolife Assets
53. ^ A2 Corporation A2 Corporation Half-Yearly Report for the
half-year ending September 2005[dead link]
54. ^ Malcolm Burgess for the New Zealand Herald. 25 April
2007 A2 to tap into US milk market
55. ^ A2 Corporation A2 Corporation Annual Report 2009
56. ^ Liam Baldwin for National Business Review. 5 October
2010 A2 Corporation takes full control of US marketing arm
57. ^ Ooi, Teresa (16 November 2011). "A2 deal has milk
pouring into UK". The Australian. p. 41.
58. ^ "Our farmers". a2 Milk Company. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
59. ^ White, Anna (29 October 2013). "'Allergy-free' milk firm
reaches 1m sales". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
60. ^ "Mller Exits a2 Venture".
61. ^ Adams, Christopher (22 April 2013). "New A2 infant
formula ready for China". The New Zealand Herald. Auckland.
Retrieved 8 July 2014.
62. ^ Heathcote, Andrew (13 August 2013). "How the rise of
A2 milk is adding millions to the fortune of Rich Lister Tony
Perich". BRW. Sydney. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
63. ^ Adams, Christopher (29 April 2014). "Pressure on
exporters of baby formula". The New Zealand Herald. Auckland.
Retrieved 9 July 2014.
64. ^ Metherell, Suze (22 July 2014). "A2 Milk gets Chinese
export clearance". Herald Sun. Melbourne. Retrieved 25 July 2014.

A2 milk
La leche A2 es leche de vaca que contiene slo el tipo A2 de protena beta-casena
en lugar de la protena A1 ms comnmente encontrada en la leche regular. La
leche A2 es licenciada y comercializada por la a2 Milk Company y vendida
principalmente en Australia, Nueva Zelanda, China, Estados Unidos y el Reino
Unido.

La comercializacin de la leche A2 afirma que la leche que contiene protenas A1 es


perjudicial, pero una revisin de la literatura cientfica de la Autoridad Europea de
Seguridad Alimentaria (EFSA) de 2009 no encontr pruebas suficientes para
demostrar que los pptidos bioactivos en la leche A1 tienen un efecto negativo
sobre la salud. ]

A1 y A2 beta-casena son variantes genticas de la protena de la leche de beta-


casena que difieren en un aminocido. El tipo de beta-casena A1 es el tipo ms
comn que se encuentra en la leche de vaca en Europa (excluyendo Francia),
Estados Unidos, Australia y Nueva Zelanda. Una prueba gentica, desarrollada por
la Compaa A2 de Leche, determina si una vaca produce la protena de tipo A2 o
A1 en su leche. La prueba permite a la Compaa de Leche a2 conceder licencias a
los productores de leche una vez demostrado que sus vacas producen slo protena
beta-casena A2 en su leche, con exclusin del tipo de protena beta-casena A1.

Efectos sobre la salud

La Autoridad Europea de Seguridad Alimentaria (EFSA) revis la literatura cientfica


y public una revisin en 2009. Como parte de su evaluacin, la EFSA examin los
estudios de laboratorio que se han realizado sobre la BCM-7. Ellos encontraron que
los experimentos en clulas y animales han demostrado que el BCM-7 puede actuar
como un agonista dbil de los receptores opioides, pero que en la mayora de los
estudios en animales, BCM-7 no fue administrado por va oral, ya que los humanos
estaran expuestos a ella, Se dio a los animales por inyeccin en la cavidad
peritoneal o incluso directamente en la mdula espinal o el cerebro, lo que hace que
estos estudios no son tiles para entender cmo BCM-7 podra afectar a los seres
humanos. La EFSA no encontr relacin entre las enfermedades crnicas y la leche
de consumo con la protena A1. [1] El estudio de la EFSA hizo hincapi en los
peligros de sacar conclusiones de las correlaciones identificadas en los estudios
epidemiolgicos y los peligros de no revisar todas las pruebas disponibles [1]. Otra
revisin de 2009 no encontr ninguna demostracin de que el consumo de leche
con casena A1 causa diabetes. [2] Una revisin de 2014 de la investigacin sobre la
relacin entre el consumo de productos lcteos (incluidas las protenas A1 y A2) y la
incidencia de diabetes encontr que aunque parece haber una correlacin positiva
entre el consumo de productos lcteos por bebs y la incidencia de diabetes tipo 1
T1D) en algunas personas, y una relacin inversa entre el consumo de productos
lcteos y el desarrollo de la diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) en algunas personas, estas
correlaciones son provisionales, es imposible determinar qu componente o
componentes de la leche podran ser responsables de Estos efectos, y es poco
probable que la costosa y compleja investigacin para determinar las respuestas a
estas preguntas nunca se llevar a cabo. [3]

La leche A2 no es un sustituto de la leche para los lactantes con alergia a la


protena de la leche de vaca. [4]

La Compaa de Leche a2 afirma que las personas que experimentan incomodidad


bebiendo leche de vaca ordinaria, pueden experimentar alivio cuando pasan a la
Leche 2. [5] [6] [7]

HistoriaEditar
En los aos ochenta, algunos investigadores mdicos comenzaron a explorar si
algunos pptidos (incluyendo pptidos de casena) que se crean durante la
digestin podran tener efectos negativos [8] o negativos para la salud.
El inters en la distincin entre las protenas A1 y A2 beta-casena se inici a
principios de los aos 90 a travs de la investigacin epidemiolgica y los estudios
en animales realizados inicialmente por cientficos en Nueva Zelanda, que encontr
correlaciones entre la prevalencia de la leche con A1 beta-casena protenas en
algunos pases y la Prevalencia de varias enfermedades crnicas en esos pases. [9]
La investigacin gener inters en los medios de comunicacin, entre algunos de la
comunidad cientfica, y los empresarios. [9] Si realmente es cierto que BCM-7 est
daando a los seres humanos, esto sera un importante problema de salud pblica,
as como una oportunidad comercial.
La leche de las vacas es de aproximadamente el 87 por ciento de agua y el 13 por
ciento de slidos. Los slidos son una combinacin de grasa, carbohidratos en
forma de lactosa, minerales y protenas. El componente principal de las protenas
de la leche es la casena; A su vez alrededor del 30-35 por ciento de la casena
(equivalente a dos cucharaditas en un litro de leche) es la beta-casena, de la cual
hay varias variedades, determinadas por los genes de la vaca. El ms comn de
estas variantes son A1 y A2 (nombrado para el orden en que fueron identificados
por los cientficos), con la nica diferencia entre los dos que es uno de los 209
aminocidos que componen las protenas de la beta-casena: una prolina ocurre En
la posicin 67 en la cadena de aminocidos que forman la beta-casena A2,
mientras que en la beta-casena A1 se produce una histidina en esa posicin. Los
estudios en clulas encontraron que las enzimas digestivas que cortan las protenas
interactan con la beta-casena precisamente en esa ubicacin, de modo que las
protenas A1 y A2 beta-casena se procesan de manera diferente. Un 7-amino
pptido, beta-casomorphin-7, (BCM-7) puede ser cortado de la protena A1-beta-
casena por esas enzimas, pero las enzimas no pueden cortar la protena A2 en ese
lugar, por lo que BCM-7 es No formado a partir de protenas A2. [9] Los estudios en
seres humanos no han encontrado consistentemente que BCM-7 se forma en el
sistema digestivo humano. [2] BCM-7 tambin se puede crear durante la
fermentacin de la leche o mediante el proceso por el cual se hace el queso; Esos
mismos procesos tambin pueden destruir BCM-7. [1]
Los cientficos creen que la diferencia se origin como una mutacin que ocurri
entre 5000 y 10.000 aos atrs -como el ganado se estaba llevando al norte a
Europa- cuando la prolina en la posicin 67 fue reemplazada por la
histidina, con la mutacin extendindose posteriormente a travs de los rebaos
en el mundo occidental a travs de Cra. [9] [10]

El porcentaje de la protena A1 y A2 beta-casena vara entre los rebaos de


ganado, y tambin entre los pases y las provincias. Mientras que el ganado africano
y asitico contina produciendo solamente beta-casena A2, la versin A1 de la
protena es comn entre el ganado vacuno en el mundo occidental. El tipo de beta-
casena A1 es el tipo ms comn que se encuentra en la leche de vaca en Europa
(excepto Francia), EE. UU., Australia y Nueva Zelanda. [20] En promedio, ms del 70
por ciento de las vacas Guernsey producen leche A2, Entre Holsteins y Ayrshires
entre 46 y 70 por ciento producen leche A1. [11]

A2
Corporacin Editar seccin
Artculo principal: la Compaa de Leche a2
Una empresa, A2 Corporation, fue fundada en Nueva Zelanda en 2000 para
comercializar una prueba gentica para determinar si una vaca producir leche sin
la protena A1, y comercializar "A2 Leche" [9] [12] [13] En 2003, la pgina web de
A2 dijo: "La beta casena A1 puede ser un factor de riesgo primario para la
enfermedad cardaca en hombres adultos, y tambin participar en la progresin de
la diabetes dependiente de la insulina en los nios" y el CEO haba vinculado A1 a
esquizofrenia y autismo. [14] A2 Corporation tambin solicit a la autoridad
reguladora de los Estndares Alimentarios Australia Nueva Zelandia que requiriera
una advertencia de salud en la leche normal. [9]

A2 Corporation fue sucedida por The a2 Milk Company.

Produccin y venta comercial Editar seccin A2 Corporation patentes registradas en


los aos 90 por el tablero de la lechera de Nueva Zelandia, y archiv sus propias
patentes en pruebas genticas para determinar qu forma de beta-casena las vacas
producen en leche, y referente a las consecuencias adversas potenciales de la salud
de la leche de A1. 12] [15] [16] La Compaa de Leche a2 tiene un conjunto mundial de
propiedad intelectual para proteger sus productos comerciales, marcas comerciales,
secretos comerciales y patentes que cubren la prueba gentica y los mtodos para
desarrollar los rebaos A2 productores, as como mtodos para verificar el contenido
de protenas y el contenido de cidos grasos de Leche, frmula para lactantes,
suplementos dietticos con beta-casena A2 e incluso usos teraputicos de A2 [17].

Australia y Nueva Zelanda Editar seccin


A2 Corporation enfoc sus esfuerzos iniciales en instar a los agricultores a
emprender programas de mejoramiento para desarrollar rebaos que produciran
slo leche A2. [18] Sin embargo, el lanzamiento de la leche A2 fue retrasado por la
oposicin de Fonterra, que tena contratos con cerca del 98% de las granjas
lecheras de Nueva Zelanda. Estos contratos fueron protegidos en virtud de la Ley de
Nueva Zelandia por la Ley de reestructuracin de la industria lctea de 2001. [14]
[19] Howard Paterson, CEO de A2 Corporation, lider a la compaa en litigio contra
Fonterra, pidiendo a la Corte Suprema de Nueva Zelanda que ordenara a Fonterra
que pusiera advertencias sobre la salud En su leche convencional sobre los riesgos
de diabetes tipo 1, enfermedades del corazn, autismo y esquizofrenia debido a la
presencia de la beta-casena A1, y obligar a Fonterra a revelar pblicamente toda la
informacin que tena sobre los vnculos entre la beta-casena A1 y los riesgos para
la salud . [20] El litigio amenaz la economa de Nueva Zelanda y la reputacin
internacional como en el momento Fonterra era responsable de 20% de las
exportaciones de Nueva Zelandia. [20] La prensa sobre el litigio y la preocupacin
pblica por las reclamaciones de A2 Corporation llev a la Autoridad de Seguridad
Alimentaria de Nueva Zelanda y el Ministerio de Salud y las Normas Alimentarias de
Australia y Nueva Zelanda a emitir informes y declaraciones que confirman la
seguridad de la leche convencional. [12] [21] [22]

A2 Corporation pudo obtener acuerdos con suficientes productores de leche para


lanzar la leche A2 en Nueva Zelanda a fines de abril de 2003. [14] [23] A mediados
de 2003, ambos fundadores de la compaa murieron. En julio, Paterson fue
encontrado muerto en su habitacin de hotel durante un viaje de negocios a la edad
de 50 aos, [24] y un mes ms tarde el Dr. Corran McLachlan muri de cncer a la
edad de 59 aos. [25] En Nueva Zelandia es ilegal hacer declaraciones de
propiedades saludables sobre un producto alimenticio sin aportar pruebas
cientficas y registrar el alimento como medicamento, y en noviembre de 2003 la
Comisin de Comercio de Nueva Zelandia inform que A2 Corporation Ltd y sus
productores A2 autorizados acordaron enmendar el Salud en su material
promocional tras una advertencia de la comisin. [26] [27] A finales de 2003, la
debilitada A2 Corporation [28] haba retirado el litigio contra Fonterra y las
negociaciones se haban reanudado. [25]
Mientras tanto, la leche A2 se comercializ por primera vez en todo el mundo en
marzo de 2003 en Australia por una granja lechera no afiliada a A2 Corporation
dirigida por la
Denniston. [18] Poco despus, una compaa australiana llamada A2 Dairy
Marketers licenci derechos de patente y la marca A2 de A2 Corporation y comenz
a ofrecer a los productores de leche australianos un precio premium por su leche, si
se demostr que era A2 puro. Los Dennistons y A2 Dairy Marketers comercializaron
la leche A2 con valenta, promocionando su seguridad y los peligros de la leche A1.
Sin embargo, las leyes australianas prohben que las compaas hagan afirmaciones
de salud engaosas sobre los alimentos, y en septiembre de 2004, A2 Dairy
Marketers en Australia fue multada con 15.000 dlares despus de que se declar
culpable de seis infracciones de esas leyes [14] [26] [29] [30] La empresa, que
haba estado en una situacin financiera tenue desde que empez a operar en
mayo, entr en administracin en octubre [30] y fue liquidada en noviembre, debido
a los agricultores y procesadores decenas de miles de dlares. [18] [30] Tambin se
cancel una subvencin del gobierno federal de 1,27 millones de dlares concedida
a la compaa en agosto como parte del Programa de Asociaciones Regionales. [31]
A2 Corporation cre una nueva subsidiaria y licenciataria, A2 Australia, para
comercializar y producir su producto. A2 Australia estableci nuevos contratos con
los productores de leche que tenan rebaos A2, prometiendo mejores condiciones
de pago -una semana antes, en lugar de una vez por mes, despus del envo. [18]
En diciembre, A2 Corporation vendi sus intereses en A2 Australia a Fraser & Neave,
un gigante de la comercializacin de alimentos en los mercados asiticos, por
alrededor de $ 1.1 millones. A2 Corporation haba perdido cerca de $ 1.3 millones
para 2004, igual que ha perdido el ao anterior; La venta permiti a A2 Corporation
confiar en Fraser & Neave para construir los negocios australianos y asiticos. [32]
A2 se centr en recuperarse de las muertes de sus fundadores de forma
organizativa y financiera, se bas en sus titulares de Nueva Zelanda para
desarrollar el mercado de Nueva Zelanda, y se centr en el desarrollo de mercados
de ultramar. [28] [32]

A medida que A2 creci su negocio, la oposicin a las demandas de A2 Corporation


se jug en los medios de comunicacin. Dairy Australia, la asociacin nacional de la
industria lctea australiana, y los competidores del mercado como Parmalat han
dicho constantemente que no hay evidencia que sugiera que las protenas A1 son
peligrosas y han advertido que la crtica de la leche normal est daando a toda la
industria lctea. 33] [34] [35] [36]

En 2006, A2 Corporation se encontraba en condiciones lo suficientemente slidas


para comprar A2 Australia de Fraser & Neave. [28] En 2006, perdi cerca de $ 1
milln, despus de haber perdido $ 9 millones el ao anterior, pero los ingresos se
haban doblado aproximadamente. [28] En ese ao advirti a los accionistas que no
esperaran ganancias por otros tres aos. [18]
En 2006, A2 Corporation se encontraba en condiciones lo suficientemente slidas
para comprar A2 Australia de Fraser & Neave. [28] En 2006, perdi cerca de $ 1
milln, despus de haber perdido $ 9 millones el ao anterior, pero los ingresos se
haban doblado aproximadamente. [28] En ese ao advirti a los accionistas que no
esperaran ganancias por otros tres aos. [18]

La publicacin de un libro, Devil in the Milk de Keith Woodford, sobre la beta-casena


A1 y sus peligros percibidos para la salud, impuls las ventas de leche A2 en
Australia y Nueva Zelanda [37] y llev a la Autoridad de Seguridad Alimentaria de
Nueva Zelanda a proponer nuevamente revisar La ciencia para abordar las
preocupaciones de los consumidores que la leche A1 podra ser perjudicial. [22]
Pidi a la Autoridad Europea de Seguridad Alimentaria (EFSA) que emprendiera tal
revisin [38] [39]. El informe de la EFSA, publicado en 2009, encontr que "no se
establece una relacin de causa y efecto entre la ingesta diettica de BCM7 (beta-
casomorfina-7), pptidos relacionados o sus posibles precursores de protenas y
enfermedades no transmisibles". [39]

La publicacin de un libro, Devil in the Milk de Keith Woodford, sobre la beta-casena


A1 y sus peligros percibidos para la salud, impuls las ventas de leche A2 en
Australia y Nueva Zelanda [37] y llev a la Autoridad de Seguridad Alimentaria de
Nueva Zelanda a proponer nuevamente revisar La ciencia para abordar las
preocupaciones de los consumidores que la leche A1 podra ser perjudicial. [22]
Pidi a la Autoridad Europea de Seguridad Alimentaria (EFSA) que emprendiera tal
revisin [38] [39]. El informe de la EFSA, publicado en 2009, encontr que "no se
establece una relacin de causa y efecto entre la ingesta diettica de BCM7 (beta-
casomorfina-7), pptidos relacionados o sus posibles precursores de protenas y
enfermedades no transmisibles". [39]

El desarrollo comercial continu, y en 2010 unos 12 millones de vacas A2 certificadas


en Australia producan unos 40 millones de litros de leche A2, con leche procesada en
cuatro plantas en Victoria, Nueva Gales del Sur y Queensland, [40] y yogur con leche
A2 Fue en el mercado en Australia en abril de 2010. [41] En febrero de 2011 A2
Corporation anunci que haba hecho una ganancia de ms de un semestre por
primera vez, En los seis meses que terminaron el 31 de diciembre de 2010, hizo un $
894.000 netos, o 17 centavos / accin. [42] En diciembre de 2012, la Corporacin A2
anunci que intentara recaudar 20 millones de dlares e incluirse en la junta principal
de la Bolsa de Valores de Nueva Zelanda [43], y que utilizara los fondos para hacer
crecer su frmula infantil china y las empresas lecheras del Reino Unido. Lista en
marzo de 2013. [44]

A2 Corporation cambi su nombre a The a2 Milk Company Limited en abril de 2014, y


en ese momento tena alrededor de 8% de cuota de mercado del mercado de
productos lcteos en Australia. [45] [46] Otros productos producidos con leche A2
ahora existen, incluyendo crema espesada, frmula infantil, helados, yogures y otros
productos lcteos. [41] [47] En 2014 Lion, una compaa de bebidas y alimentos que
opera en Australia y Nueva Zelanda y es propiedad de Kirin, relanz su producto
lcteo "Pura" con una nueva etiqueta que dice: "Naturalmente contiene protena A2".
[35] [46] [48 ] [49] A2 Milk Company anunci en noviembre de 2014 que haba iniciado
el proceso de solicitud de una doble cotizacin en la Bolsa de Valores de Australia en
un intento de abrir su registro a los inversores australianos y aumentar la liquidez de
sus acciones. La compaa dijo que esperaba que una lista se completara en marzo
de 2015. [50]
Estados Unidos Editar seccin
En agosto de 2003, como parte de un nuevo enfoque en los mercados extranjeros
despus de la muerte de sus fundadores, A2 Corporation otorg licencias y
derechos de marca a Idephere Incorporated (ISI) con sede en Estados Unidos para
comercializar productos lcteos A2 en Norteamrica. ISI haba pagado a A2 $
500.000 en derechos de licencia para fines de 2004. [51] ISI adquiri Twinlab en
septiembre de 2003, seguido por otra serie de adquisiciones en el mercado de
suplementos dietticos. [52] En junio de 2005, ISI y A2 acordaron formar una
empresa conjunta, A2 Milk Company LLC; A2 invirti $ 400,000 e ISI asign el
acuerdo de licencia a la nueva compaa. [53]

En abril de 2007, A2 Corporation anunci un acuerdo en el que la empresa conjunta


otorgara derechos a la Compaa Original Foods, cuya marca sera el producto de
leche A2 y en el cual el producto sera vendido en varios estados del medio oeste a
travs de la cadena de supermercados Hy-Vee . [54]

En el Informe Anual 2009 de la Corporacin A2, la compaa anunci que la


empresa conjunta haba recuperado todos sus derechos sobre el mercado
estadounidense a travs de un acuerdo con la Compaa Original Foods y que "el
mercado lechero de los Estados Unidos sigue siendo intensamente competitivo y
contina siendo un desafo importante. "[55] En el ao 2010, A2 Corporation
compr todo menos el 1% de la participacin de ISI en la empresa en participacin.
[56]

Reino Unido Editar


A2 Corporation form una empresa conjunta con un importante proveedor britnico
de leche, Mller Wiseman Dairies, en noviembre de 2011 para procesar,
comercializar y vender sus productos A2 de leche en Gran Bretaa e Irlanda. [57] En
junio de 2014, la Compaa de Leche a2 inform que tena 20 granjas dedicadas a
suministrar leche para procesamiento en el Reino Unido. [58] En su primer ao la
leche registr 1 milln en ventas a travs de 1000 tiendas. [59] El 1 de enero de
2014, la empresa a2 Milk abandon su empresa conjunta con Mller Wiseman
Dairies adquiriendo la participacin de MWD por un monto "nominal" [60].

China Editar seccin


Los primeros envos de las frmulas para lactantes de A2 se enviaron a China en
2013. [61] [62] Los envos se interrumpieron durante dos meses a partir de abril de
2014, cuando el gobierno chino introdujo regulaciones de importacin estrictas para
la frmula infantil en respuesta al escndalo de la leche china de 2008, en el cual
ms de 300.000 nios fueron envenenados por leche contaminada.