Shear Force in a Beam

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Shear Force in a Beam

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2) To examine how shear force varies at the cut position of the beam for various loading

conditions.

LEARNING OUTCOME

1) The application of engineering knowledge in practical application.

2) To enhance technical competency in structural engineering through laboratory

application.

3) To communicate effectively in group.

4) To identify problem, solving and finding out appropriate solution through

laboratory application.

Beams are one of the most common elements founds in structures. When a

horizontal member of a structure (beam) is loaded with loads in the vertical direction, it

will bend due to the induced reactions of such loads. The amount of bending of the beam

will depend on the amount and type of loads, length of the beam, elasticity and type of

the beam. If the ends of a beam are restrained longitudinally by its support or if a beam is

a component of a continuous frame, axial force may also develop. If the axial force is

small, the typical situation for most beams can be neglected when the member is

designed. In the case, of reinforced concrete beams, small values of axial compression

actually produce a modest increase (on the order of 5 to 10 percent) in the flexural

strength of the member.

To design a beam, the engineer must construct the shear and moment curves to

determine the location and magnitude of the maximum values of these forces. Except for

short, heavily loaded beams whose dimensions are controlled by shear requirements, the

proportion of the cross section are determined by the magnitude of the maximum moment

in the span. After a section is sized at the point of maximum moment, the design is

completed by verifying that the shear stresses at the point of maximum shear usually

adjacent to a support are equal to or less than the allowable shear strength of the material.

Finally, the deflection produced by service loads must be checked to ensure that the

member has adequate stiffness. Limits on deflection are set by structural codes.

These curves, which preferably should be drawn to scale, consist of values of shear and

moment plotted as ordinates against distance along the axis of the beam. Although we can

construct shear and moment curves by cutting free bodies at intervals along the axis of a

beam and writing equation of equilibrium to establish the values of shear and moment at

particular section, it is much simpler to construct these curves from the basic

relationships that exist between load, shear and moment.

the moment at the sectioning developed by vertical components of external forces applied

on the beam by considering the left or the right of assumed section, or unbalanced

moment at the sectioning, to the left or the right of the assumed section. Variation of

bending moment along beam can be visualized by Bending Moment Diagram (BMD),

which is defined as a diagram that shows variations of bending moment along the beam

considered. The final step in the design of a beam is to verify that it does not deflect

excessively. Beams that are excessively flexible undergo large deflections that can

damage attached nonstructural construction: plaster, ceiling, masonry walls, and rigid

piping for example may crack.

Since most beams are span short distances, say up to 30 or 40 ft, are manufactured

with a constant cross sections, to minimize cost, they have excess flexural capacity at all

sections except the one at which maximum moment occurs. Beams are typically

classified by the manner in which they are supported. A beam supported by a pin at the

one end and a roller at the other end is called a simply supported beam. If the end of the

simply supported beam extends over a support, it is referred to as a beam with an

overhang.

A cantilever beam is fixed at the one end against translation and rotation. Beams

are supported by several intermediate support are called continuous beam. If both ends of

a beam are fixed by the support, the beam is termed fixed ended. Fixed ended beams are

not commonly constructed in practice, but the values of end moments in them produced

by various types of load are used extensively as the starting point in several methods of

analysis for indeterminate structures.

Fig. 2 : Change of Shape due to Shear Force

There are a number of assumptions that were made in order to develop the Elastic Theory

of Bending. These are:

1) The beam has a constant, prismatic cross-section and is constructed of a flexible,

homogenous material that has the same Modulus of Elasticity in both tension and

compression (shortens or elongates equally for same stress).

2) The material is linearly elastic; the relationship between the stress and strain are

directly proportional.

3) The beam material is not stressed past its proportional limit.

4) A plane section within the beam before bending remains a plane after bending (see

AB & CD in the image below).

5) The neutral plane of a beam is a plane whose length is unchanged by the beam's

deformation. This plane passes through the centroid of the cross-section.

Part 1

a cut

RA RB

L

Figure 1

L

L

Part 2

The shear force at the cut is equal to the algebraic sum of the force

acting to the left or right of the cut

APPARATUS

1) Measuring Force Machine

2) Load

PROCEDURE

Part 1

1) Check the Digital Force Display meter reads zero with no load.

2) Place a hanger with a 100g mass to the left of the cut.

3) Record the Digital Force Display reading in Table 1. Repeat using any masses

between 200g and 500g. Convert the mass into a load in Newton (multiply by

9.81).

Shear Force at the cut (N) = Displayed Force.

4) Calculate the theoretical Shear Force at the cut and complete the Table 1.

Part 2

1) Check the Digital Force Display meter zero with no load.

2) Carefully load the beam with the hangers in any positions and loads as example in

Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4 and complete Table 2.

3) Record the Digital Force Display reading where :

Shear Force at the cut (N) = Displayed Force.

4) Calculate the support reaction (RA and RB) and calculated the theoretical Shear

Force at the cut.

140mm RA cut RB

W1 = 200g (1.96N)

Figure 2

RA 220mm W1 W2 cut RB

260mm

Where ;

Figure 3

RA 220mm W1 cut RB

W2

400mm

Where ;

W1 & W2 any load between 100g to 500g

Figure 4

RESULT

Load (N)

*(g) (N) (N) (N)

0 0 0 0 0

200 1.962 1.00 1.00 0.803

250 2.453 1.40 1.40 1.004

300 2.943 1.60 1.60 1.204

350 3.434 1.80 1.80 1.405

400 3.924 2.10 2.10 1.605

Table 1

Experimental Theoretical

Mass1 Mass2 W1 W2 Force

No Shear Force RA (N) RB (N) Shear Force

(g) (g) (N) (N) (N)

(N) (Nm)

2 200 0 1.962 0 - 0.50 - 0.50 2.586 - 0.624 - 0.624

3 200 300 1.962 2.943 2.60 2.60 2.185 2.720 2.720

4 200 300 1.962 2.943 0.70 0.70 1.248 3.657 0.713

Table 2

DATA ANALYSIS

For Table 1 (Part 1)

From Figure 1;

W

a cut

RA L RB

Load, N = 200 x 9.81 / 1000 = 1.962 N

Force, N = 1.00 N

Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force

(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 1.00 N

= 1.962 x (0.44 0.26) / 0.44

= 0.803 N

Load, N = 250 x 9.81 / 1000 = 2.453 N

Force, N = 1.40 N

Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force

(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 1.40 N

Theoretical Shear Force, N, Sc = W (L a) / L

= 2.453 x (0.44 0.26) / 0.44

= 1.004 N

Load, N = 300 x 9.81 / 1000 = 2.943 N

Force, N = 1.60 N

Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force

(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 1.60 N

= 2.943 x (0.44 0.26) / 0.44

= 1.204 N

Load, N = 350 x 9.81 / 1000 = 3.434 N

Force, N = 1.80 N

Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force

(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 1.80 N

= 3.434 x (0.44 0.26) / 0.44

= 1.405 N

Load, N = 400 x 9.81 / 1000 = 3.924 N

Force, N = 2.10 N

Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force

(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 2.10 N

Theoretical Shear Force, N, Sc = W (L a) / L

= 3.924 x (0.44 0.26) / 0.44

= 1.605 N

From Figure 2;

140mm RA cut RB

W1 = 200g (1.962N)

Force, N = - 0.50 N

Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force

(Shear Force at a cut, N) = - 0.50 N

M = 0, Fx = 0, Fy = 0

MB = 0 ; -1.962 (0.58) + RA (0.44) = 0

RA = 1.138 / 0.44

RA = 2.586 N

Fx = 0, Fy = 0 ; RB + 2.586 1.962 = 0

RB = 1.962 2.586

RB = -0.624 N

= - (1.962) x (0.14)

= - 0.624 N

From Figure 3 ;

RA 220mm W1 W2 cut RB

260mm

Force, N = 2.60 N

Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force

(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 2.60 N

M = 0, Fx = 0, Fy = 0

MA = 0 ; RB (0.44) 2.943(0.26) 1.962(0.22) = 0

RB = 1.197 / 0.44

RB = 2.720 N

RA = 1.962 2.943 2.720

RA = 2.185 N

W1 a W a

Theoretical Shear Force, N ( ) ( 2 )

L L

( ) ( )

0.44 0.44

= 0.981 + 1.739

= 2.720 N

From Figure 4 ;

RA 240mm W1 cut W2 RB

400mm

Force, N = 0.70 N

Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force

(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 0.70 N

M = 0, Fx = 0, Fy = 0

MB = 0 ; -1.962 (0.22) 2.943(0.04) + RA (0.44) = 0

RA = 0.549 / 0.44

RA = 1.248 N

RB = 1.962 + 2.943 1.248

RB = 3.657 N

W2 L a Wa

Theoretical Shear Force, N ( ) ( 1 )

L L

2.943 0.44 0.4 1.962 x 0.22

( ) ( )

0.44 0.44

= - 0.268 (-0.981)

= 0.713 N

DISCUSSION

Part 1

1) Derive equation 1

From Figure 1;

W

a cut

RA L RB

Let ; MB = 0

( RA x L ) W ( L a ) = 0

RA = W ( L a )

L

Since the force at the cut is equal to the algebraic sum of the force acting to the left or

right of the cut;

Therefore,

S C = RA

Sc = W ( L a )

L

Let ; MA = 0

( -RB x L ) ( W x a ) = 0

RB = ( - W x a )

L

Therefore ; SC = ( - W x a )

L

Where, W = Load

a = Cut section from RA

L = Length from RA to RB

This equation is used to determine the value of Shear Force by theory. W is a load place

upon the cut section with the length of a. L is total length from RA to RB.

2) Plot a graph, which compare your experimental result to those you calculated

using theory.

Please see graph 1, as attached.

3) Comment on the shape of the graph. What does it tell you about how Shear

Force varies due to an increased load?

From the Shear Force versus Load graph we plotted in this experiment, a linear

graph was obtained for both Experimental Shear Force and Theoretical Shear

Force values. Both graphs are linear and go through the origin (0,0) which tell us

that, Shear Force does not exist when no load was applied on the beam. From the

graph, we can notice that, when the load applied on the beam was increase, the

Shear Force will also increase. This indicate that, Shear Force is linearly

proportional (positive) to the load apply on the beam :

4) Does the equation you used accurately predict the behavior of the beam?

Yes, the equation, Sc = W(L a) / L that we used in this experiment for

Theoretical Shear Force calculation accurately predict the behavior of the beam. This

is because, from the Graph 1 plotted, we can notice that, when the load we placed at

the beam was increased, the value of Shear Force also increased. This indicate that,

Shear Force is linearly proportional (positive) to the load apply on the beam.

Example ;

From the experiment, when a 2.453 N load was applied on the beam at the cut, the

Experimental Shear Force obtained was 1.40 N. From the calculation done for

Theoretical Shear Force by using the Sc = W(L a)/L equation, the Shear Force we

obtain was 1.45 N. This indicates that, this equation can accurately predict the behaviors

of the beam.

Part 2

1) Comment on how the results of the experiments compare with those calculated

using the theory?

From the experiments done by our group, we found that, there is only a small

difference between the values of Experimental Shear Force and the Theoretical

Shear Force. For figure 2 and figure 3, the value of the Experimental Shear Force

is almost the same compare to the Theoretical Shear Force. While for the figure 4,

the value of the Theoretical Shear Force is higher than the value of the

Experimental Bending Moment. Referring to this results, we conclude that the

differences between the value of the experiment and theory was probably cause

by the mistake done by our group member when taking the value for the force

when it was hang on the beam.

2) Does the experiment proof that the shear force at the cut is equal to the

algebraic sum of the forces acting to the left or right of the cut. If not, why?

Yes, the experiment proof that the shear force at the cut is equal to the algebraic

sum of the forces acting to the left or right of the cut. This is because, from the

value of W1, W2, RA and RB , we can conclude that,

W1 + W2 = RA + RB

Figure 2

W1 + W2 = RA + RB

1.962 N + 0 = 2.586 N + (-0.624 N)

= 1.962 N

Figure 3

W1 + W2 = RA + RB

1.962 N + 2.943 = 2.185 N + 2.720 N

= 4.905 N

Figure 4

W1 + W2 = RA + RB

1.962 N + 2.943 = 1.248 N + 3.657 N

= 4.905 N

3) Plot the shear force diagram for load cases in Figure 2,3 and 4.

Please see graph 2 and 3 as attached.

4) Comment on the shape of the graph. What does it tell you about how Shear

Force varies due to various loading condition?

From SFD Graph for Figure 2 we obtained in Graph 2, we can noticed that when

a loading, -1.962 N is put at the end of the beam (left side of R A), the value of the

shear force cause by this load is negative. Reaction Force at A is equal to 2.586 N

and therefore the total Shear Force at this point is + 0.624 N. Negative force of

-0.624 N at B balances the Shear Force at A and thus, total Shear Force at B is

zero.

From SFD Graph for Figure 3 we obtained in Graph 2, when a loading, -1.962 N

and -2.943 N are both place at the length of 220 mm and 260 mm from the right

side of RA, calculation reveal that reaction force at A is + 2.185 N and reaction

force at B is + 2.720 N. The graph also indicates that Shear Force on the negative

part is equivalent to the positive part, that is equal to zero.

From SFD Graph for Figure 4 we obtained in Graph 3, we can conclude that,

when a loading of 1.962 N and 2.943 N are both place 240 mm and 400 mm from

the right side of RA, calculation reveal that reaction force at A is + 1.248 N and

reaction force at B is + 3.657 N. The graph also tells us that Shear Force on the

negative part is equilibrium to the positive part, that is zero.

From both SFD Graph obtained from the Graph 2 and Graph 3, the shape of the

graph is close at the both end of the origin. This indicate that Shear Force will

change according to the load apply to the beam. This happens to ensure that Shear

Force at left side is equal to the Shear Force at the right side to create equilibrium.

CONCLUSION

From this experiment, our group managed to examine how shear force varies with

an increasing point load. Our group also managed to examine how shear force varies at

the cut position of the beam for various loading conditions.

For part one experiment, we conclude that, when the load we place at beam is

increase, the Shear Force will also increase. Thus, we conclude that, Shear Force is

linearly proportional (positive) to the load apply on the beam.

While for the part two experiment, we conclude that, from the SFD graph draw by

our group in this experiment, we noticed that, Shear Force normally will happen at any

point on the beam when a load is apply at the cut. The result from the experiment also

indicate that Shear Force at the cut section is equal to the forces acting at both right and

left side of the cut section on the beam.

REFERENCES

Yusof Ahamad (2001). Mekanik Bahan Dan Struktur. Malaysia: Universiti

Teknologi Malaysia Skudai Johor Darul Tazim.

R. C. Hibbeler (2000). Mechanic Of Materials. 4th. ed. England: Prentice Hall

International, Inc.

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