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OBJECTIVE

1) To examine how shear force varies with an increasing point load.


2) To examine how shear force varies at the cut position of the beam for various loading
conditions.

LEARNING OUTCOME
1) The application of engineering knowledge in practical application.
2) To enhance technical competency in structural engineering through laboratory
application.
3) To communicate effectively in group.
4) To identify problem, solving and finding out appropriate solution through
laboratory application.

INTRODUCTION AND THEORY


Beams are one of the most common elements founds in structures. When a
horizontal member of a structure (beam) is loaded with loads in the vertical direction, it
will bend due to the induced reactions of such loads. The amount of bending of the beam
will depend on the amount and type of loads, length of the beam, elasticity and type of
the beam. If the ends of a beam are restrained longitudinally by its support or if a beam is
a component of a continuous frame, axial force may also develop. If the axial force is
small, the typical situation for most beams can be neglected when the member is
designed. In the case, of reinforced concrete beams, small values of axial compression
actually produce a modest increase (on the order of 5 to 10 percent) in the flexural
strength of the member.

To design a beam, the engineer must construct the shear and moment curves to
determine the location and magnitude of the maximum values of these forces. Except for
short, heavily loaded beams whose dimensions are controlled by shear requirements, the
proportion of the cross section are determined by the magnitude of the maximum moment
in the span. After a section is sized at the point of maximum moment, the design is
completed by verifying that the shear stresses at the point of maximum shear usually
adjacent to a support are equal to or less than the allowable shear strength of the material.
Finally, the deflection produced by service loads must be checked to ensure that the
member has adequate stiffness. Limits on deflection are set by structural codes.

To provide this information graphically, we construct shear and moment curves.


These curves, which preferably should be drawn to scale, consist of values of shear and
moment plotted as ordinates against distance along the axis of the beam. Although we can
construct shear and moment curves by cutting free bodies at intervals along the axis of a
beam and writing equation of equilibrium to establish the values of shear and moment at
particular section, it is much simpler to construct these curves from the basic
relationships that exist between load, shear and moment.

Bending moment at any section of a beam is defined to be the algebraic sum of


the moment at the sectioning developed by vertical components of external forces applied
on the beam by considering the left or the right of assumed section, or unbalanced
moment at the sectioning, to the left or the right of the assumed section. Variation of
bending moment along beam can be visualized by Bending Moment Diagram (BMD),
which is defined as a diagram that shows variations of bending moment along the beam
considered. The final step in the design of a beam is to verify that it does not deflect
excessively. Beams that are excessively flexible undergo large deflections that can
damage attached nonstructural construction: plaster, ceiling, masonry walls, and rigid
piping for example may crack.

Since most beams are span short distances, say up to 30 or 40 ft, are manufactured
with a constant cross sections, to minimize cost, they have excess flexural capacity at all
sections except the one at which maximum moment occurs. Beams are typically
classified by the manner in which they are supported. A beam supported by a pin at the
one end and a roller at the other end is called a simply supported beam. If the end of the
simply supported beam extends over a support, it is referred to as a beam with an
overhang.

A cantilever beam is fixed at the one end against translation and rotation. Beams
are supported by several intermediate support are called continuous beam. If both ends of
a beam are fixed by the support, the beam is termed fixed ended. Fixed ended beams are
not commonly constructed in practice, but the values of end moments in them produced
by various types of load are used extensively as the starting point in several methods of
analysis for indeterminate structures.

Fig. 1 : Shear Force and Bending Moment


Fig. 2 : Change of Shape due to Shear Force

There are a number of assumptions that were made in order to develop the Elastic Theory
of Bending. These are:
1) The beam has a constant, prismatic cross-section and is constructed of a flexible,
homogenous material that has the same Modulus of Elasticity in both tension and
compression (shortens or elongates equally for same stress).
2) The material is linearly elastic; the relationship between the stress and strain are
directly proportional.
3) The beam material is not stressed past its proportional limit.
4) A plane section within the beam before bending remains a plane after bending (see
AB & CD in the image below).
5) The neutral plane of a beam is a plane whose length is unchanged by the beam's
deformation. This plane passes through the centroid of the cross-section.
Part 1

a cut

RA RB
L

Figure 1

Shear force at left of the section, Sc = W ( L-a ) ..equation 1


L

Shear force at the right of the cut section, Sc = -Wa equation 2


L

Part 2

Use this statement :

The shear force at the cut is equal to the algebraic sum of the force
acting to the left or right of the cut

APPARATUS
1) Measuring Force Machine
2) Load
PROCEDURE
Part 1
1) Check the Digital Force Display meter reads zero with no load.
2) Place a hanger with a 100g mass to the left of the cut.
3) Record the Digital Force Display reading in Table 1. Repeat using any masses
between 200g and 500g. Convert the mass into a load in Newton (multiply by
9.81).
Shear Force at the cut (N) = Displayed Force.
4) Calculate the theoretical Shear Force at the cut and complete the Table 1.

Part 2
1) Check the Digital Force Display meter zero with no load.
2) Carefully load the beam with the hangers in any positions and loads as example in
Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4 and complete Table 2.
3) Record the Digital Force Display reading where :
Shear Force at the cut (N) = Displayed Force.
4) Calculate the support reaction (RA and RB) and calculated the theoretical Shear
Force at the cut.

140mm RA cut RB

W1 = 200g (1.96N)

Figure 2

RA 220mm W1 W2 cut RB

260mm

Where ;

W1 & W2 any load between 100g to 500g

Figure 3
RA 220mm W1 cut RB

W2
400mm

Where ;
W1 & W2 any load between 100g to 500g

Figure 4

RESULT

Mass Force Experimental Shear Force Theoretical Shear Force


Load (N)
*(g) (N) (N) (N)

0 0 0 0 0
200 1.962 1.00 1.00 0.803
250 2.453 1.40 1.40 1.004
300 2.943 1.60 1.60 1.204
350 3.434 1.80 1.80 1.405
400 3.924 2.10 2.10 1.605

* Use any mass between 200g to 500g

Table 1

Experimental Theoretical
Mass1 Mass2 W1 W2 Force
No Shear Force RA (N) RB (N) Shear Force
(g) (g) (N) (N) (N)
(N) (Nm)
2 200 0 1.962 0 - 0.50 - 0.50 2.586 - 0.624 - 0.624
3 200 300 1.962 2.943 2.60 2.60 2.185 2.720 2.720
4 200 300 1.962 2.943 0.70 0.70 1.248 3.657 0.713

Table 2

DATA ANALYSIS
For Table 1 (Part 1)
From Figure 1;
W

a cut

RA L RB

For ; Mass, g = 200


Load, N = 200 x 9.81 / 1000 = 1.962 N
Force, N = 1.00 N
Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force
(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 1.00 N

Theoretical Shear Force, N, Sc = W (L a) / L


= 1.962 x (0.44 0.26) / 0.44
= 0.803 N

For ; Mass, g = 250


Load, N = 250 x 9.81 / 1000 = 2.453 N
Force, N = 1.40 N
Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force
(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 1.40 N
Theoretical Shear Force, N, Sc = W (L a) / L
= 2.453 x (0.44 0.26) / 0.44
= 1.004 N

For ; Mass, g = 300


Load, N = 300 x 9.81 / 1000 = 2.943 N
Force, N = 1.60 N
Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force
(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 1.60 N

Theoretical Shear Force, N, Sc = W (L a) / L


= 2.943 x (0.44 0.26) / 0.44
= 1.204 N

For ; Mass, g = 350


Load, N = 350 x 9.81 / 1000 = 3.434 N
Force, N = 1.80 N
Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force
(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 1.80 N

Theoretical Shear Force, N, Sc = W (L a) / L


= 3.434 x (0.44 0.26) / 0.44
= 1.405 N

For ; Mass, g = 400


Load, N = 400 x 9.81 / 1000 = 3.924 N
Force, N = 2.10 N
Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force
(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 2.10 N
Theoretical Shear Force, N, Sc = W (L a) / L
= 3.924 x (0.44 0.26) / 0.44
= 1.605 N

For Table 2 (Part 2)


From Figure 2;

140mm RA cut RB

W1 = 200g (1.962N)

Force, N = - 0.50 N
Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force
(Shear Force at a cut, N) = - 0.50 N
M = 0, Fx = 0, Fy = 0
MB = 0 ; -1.962 (0.58) + RA (0.44) = 0
RA = 1.138 / 0.44
RA = 2.586 N

Fx = 0, Fy = 0 ; RB + 2.586 1.962 = 0
RB = 1.962 2.586
RB = -0.624 N

Theoretical Shear Force, N = - Wa / L


= - (1.962) x (0.14)
= - 0.624 N

From Figure 3 ;

RA 220mm W1 W2 cut RB

260mm
Force, N = 2.60 N
Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force
(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 2.60 N
M = 0, Fx = 0, Fy = 0
MA = 0 ; RB (0.44) 2.943(0.26) 1.962(0.22) = 0
RB = 1.197 / 0.44
RB = 2.720 N

Fx = 0, Fy = 0 ; RA 1.962 2.943 + 2.720 = 0


RA = 1.962 2.943 2.720
RA = 2.185 N

W1 a W a
Theoretical Shear Force, N ( ) ( 2 )
L L

1.962 x0.22 2.943 x 0.26


( ) ( )
0.44 0.44
= 0.981 + 1.739
= 2.720 N

From Figure 4 ;

RA 240mm W1 cut W2 RB

400mm
Force, N = 0.70 N
Experimental Shear Force, N = Displayed Force
(Shear Force at a cut, N) = 0.70 N
M = 0, Fx = 0, Fy = 0
MB = 0 ; -1.962 (0.22) 2.943(0.04) + RA (0.44) = 0
RA = 0.549 / 0.44
RA = 1.248 N

Fx = 0, Fy = 0 ; RB + 1.248 1.962 2.943 = 0


RB = 1.962 + 2.943 1.248
RB = 3.657 N

W2 L a Wa
Theoretical Shear Force, N ( ) ( 1 )
L L
2.943 0.44 0.4 1.962 x 0.22
( ) ( )
0.44 0.44
= - 0.268 (-0.981)
= 0.713 N

DISCUSSION
Part 1
1) Derive equation 1
From Figure 1;
W

a cut
RA L RB

Let ; MB = 0
( RA x L ) W ( L a ) = 0
RA = W ( L a )
L
Since the force at the cut is equal to the algebraic sum of the force acting to the left or
right of the cut;
Therefore,
S C = RA

Sc = W ( L a )
L

Let ; MA = 0
( -RB x L ) ( W x a ) = 0
RB = ( - W x a )
L

Therefore ; SC = ( - W x a )
L

Where, W = Load
a = Cut section from RA
L = Length from RA to RB

This equation is used to determine the value of Shear Force by theory. W is a load place
upon the cut section with the length of a. L is total length from RA to RB.
2) Plot a graph, which compare your experimental result to those you calculated
using theory.
Please see graph 1, as attached.

3) Comment on the shape of the graph. What does it tell you about how Shear
Force varies due to an increased load?
From the Shear Force versus Load graph we plotted in this experiment, a linear
graph was obtained for both Experimental Shear Force and Theoretical Shear
Force values. Both graphs are linear and go through the origin (0,0) which tell us
that, Shear Force does not exist when no load was applied on the beam. From the
graph, we can notice that, when the load applied on the beam was increase, the
Shear Force will also increase. This indicate that, Shear Force is linearly
proportional (positive) to the load apply on the beam :

Shear Force Load

4) Does the equation you used accurately predict the behavior of the beam?
Yes, the equation, Sc = W(L a) / L that we used in this experiment for
Theoretical Shear Force calculation accurately predict the behavior of the beam. This
is because, from the Graph 1 plotted, we can notice that, when the load we placed at
the beam was increased, the value of Shear Force also increased. This indicate that,
Shear Force is linearly proportional (positive) to the load apply on the beam.
Example ;
From the experiment, when a 2.453 N load was applied on the beam at the cut, the
Experimental Shear Force obtained was 1.40 N. From the calculation done for
Theoretical Shear Force by using the Sc = W(L a)/L equation, the Shear Force we
obtain was 1.45 N. This indicates that, this equation can accurately predict the behaviors
of the beam.

Part 2
1) Comment on how the results of the experiments compare with those calculated
using the theory?
From the experiments done by our group, we found that, there is only a small
difference between the values of Experimental Shear Force and the Theoretical
Shear Force. For figure 2 and figure 3, the value of the Experimental Shear Force
is almost the same compare to the Theoretical Shear Force. While for the figure 4,
the value of the Theoretical Shear Force is higher than the value of the
Experimental Bending Moment. Referring to this results, we conclude that the
differences between the value of the experiment and theory was probably cause
by the mistake done by our group member when taking the value for the force
when it was hang on the beam.

2) Does the experiment proof that the shear force at the cut is equal to the
algebraic sum of the forces acting to the left or right of the cut. If not, why?
Yes, the experiment proof that the shear force at the cut is equal to the algebraic
sum of the forces acting to the left or right of the cut. This is because, from the
value of W1, W2, RA and RB , we can conclude that,
W1 + W2 = RA + RB
Figure 2
W1 + W2 = RA + RB
1.962 N + 0 = 2.586 N + (-0.624 N)
= 1.962 N
Figure 3
W1 + W2 = RA + RB
1.962 N + 2.943 = 2.185 N + 2.720 N
= 4.905 N
Figure 4
W1 + W2 = RA + RB
1.962 N + 2.943 = 1.248 N + 3.657 N
= 4.905 N
3) Plot the shear force diagram for load cases in Figure 2,3 and 4.
Please see graph 2 and 3 as attached.

4) Comment on the shape of the graph. What does it tell you about how Shear
Force varies due to various loading condition?
From SFD Graph for Figure 2 we obtained in Graph 2, we can noticed that when
a loading, -1.962 N is put at the end of the beam (left side of R A), the value of the
shear force cause by this load is negative. Reaction Force at A is equal to 2.586 N
and therefore the total Shear Force at this point is + 0.624 N. Negative force of
-0.624 N at B balances the Shear Force at A and thus, total Shear Force at B is
zero.

From SFD Graph for Figure 3 we obtained in Graph 2, when a loading, -1.962 N
and -2.943 N are both place at the length of 220 mm and 260 mm from the right
side of RA, calculation reveal that reaction force at A is + 2.185 N and reaction
force at B is + 2.720 N. The graph also indicates that Shear Force on the negative
part is equivalent to the positive part, that is equal to zero.

From SFD Graph for Figure 4 we obtained in Graph 3, we can conclude that,
when a loading of 1.962 N and 2.943 N are both place 240 mm and 400 mm from
the right side of RA, calculation reveal that reaction force at A is + 1.248 N and
reaction force at B is + 3.657 N. The graph also tells us that Shear Force on the
negative part is equilibrium to the positive part, that is zero.

From both SFD Graph obtained from the Graph 2 and Graph 3, the shape of the
graph is close at the both end of the origin. This indicate that Shear Force will
change according to the load apply to the beam. This happens to ensure that Shear
Force at left side is equal to the Shear Force at the right side to create equilibrium.

CONCLUSION
From this experiment, our group managed to examine how shear force varies with
an increasing point load. Our group also managed to examine how shear force varies at
the cut position of the beam for various loading conditions.

For part one experiment, we conclude that, when the load we place at beam is
increase, the Shear Force will also increase. Thus, we conclude that, Shear Force is
linearly proportional (positive) to the load apply on the beam.
While for the part two experiment, we conclude that, from the SFD graph draw by
our group in this experiment, we noticed that, Shear Force normally will happen at any
point on the beam when a load is apply at the cut. The result from the experiment also
indicate that Shear Force at the cut section is equal to the forces acting at both right and
left side of the cut section on the beam.

REFERENCES
Yusof Ahamad (2001). Mekanik Bahan Dan Struktur. Malaysia: Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia Skudai Johor Darul Tazim.
R. C. Hibbeler (2000). Mechanic Of Materials. 4th. ed. England: Prentice Hall
International, Inc.