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IL L I N 0 I S
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN

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University of Illinois at
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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS BULLETIN
IBSUED WEEKLY

Vol. XXVII May 27, 1930 No. 39


(Entered as second-class matter December 11, 1912, at the post office at Urbana, Illinois, under
the Act of August 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at the special rate of postage provided
for in section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 31, 1918.]

THE FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR


ORIFICES WITH ROUNDED APPROACH
BY

JOSEPH A. POLSON
JOSEPH G. LOWTHER
AND

BENJAMIN J. WILSON

BULLETIN No. 207


ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION
PoUsLSHED sT TH UmvOasrITY 0F ILLINOIS, URaBAa

Pas: THIsTY CENTs

'7 '

-'.': }*
- p-', ' T , *';' ' . , - / ,' , \ ^^ * .'
SHE Engineering Experiment Station was established by act
of the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois on De-
cember 8, 1903. It is the purpose of the Station to conduct
investigations and make studies of importance to the engineering,
manufacturing, railway, mining, and other industrial interests of the
State.
The management of the Engineering Experiment Station is vested
in an Executive Staff composed of the Director and his Assistant, the
Heads of the several Departments in the College of Engineering, and
the Professor of Industrial Chemistry. This Staff is responsible for
the establishment of general policies governing the work of the Station,
including the approval of material for publication. All members of
the teaching staff of the College are encouraged to engage in scientific
research, either directly or in cooperation with the Research Corps
composed of full-time research assistants, research graduate assistants,
and special investigators.
To render the results of its scientific investigations available to
the public, the Engineering Experiment Station publishes and dis-
tributes a series of bulletins. Occasionally it publishes circulars of
timely interest, presenting information of importance, compiled from
various sources which may not readily be accessible to the clientele
of the Station.
The volume and number at the top of the front cover page are
merely arbitrary numbers and refer to the general publications of the
University. Either above the title or below the seal is given the num-
ber of the Engineering Experiment Station bulletin or circular which
should be used in referring to these publications.
For copies of bulletins or circulars or for other information address
THE ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION,
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS,

UB3ANA, ILLINOIS
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION
BULLETIN No. 207 MAY, 1930

THE FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR


ORIFICES WITH ROUNDED APPROACH

BY

JOSEPH A. POLSON
PROFESSOR OF STEAM ENGINEERING

JOSEPH G. LOWTHER
RESEARCH ASSISTANT IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

BENJAMIN J. WILSON
RESEARCH GRADUATE ASSISTANT IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION


PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA
UNIVE
RSIT

6000 2 $0 7764
: & 0ss
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
I. INTRODUCTION. . 5
1. Purpose . . . . . . 5
2. Scope . . . . . . . 5
3. Acknowledgments . 5

II. RELATIONS BETWEEN PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, AND


WEIGHT OF AIR DISCHARGED
4. Adiabatic Flow
5. Fliegner's Formula .

III. TEST APPARATUS . . . . . . . . . . .


6. General Description. . . . . . . . .
7. Air Weighing Tank and Scale . . . . . .
8. Orifice Tank, Manometer, and Thermometers .
9. Orifices

IV. METHOD OF CONDUCTING TESTS . . . . . . .


10. Leakage . . . . . . . . . . .
11. Method of Weighing; Use of Substitute Weights

V. CALCULATIONS.
12. Corrections . .
13. Standard Conditions
14. Coefficients . .
15. Sample Calculations

VI. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS .


16. Accuracy of Results.

VII. CONCLUSIONS . . . . .
17. Summary of Conclusions

APPENDIX . . . . . .
Bibliography .
LIST OF FIGURES
NO. PAGE
1. Weighing Tank and Compressor. . . . . .. . . . . . . 9
2. Copper Tubing Connectors ... . . . . . . . . . . 10
3. Diagram of Air Weighing Tank and Connections to Orifice Tank. . . 11
4. Orifice Tank, Control Valves, and Manometer . . . . . . . . 12
5. Dimensions of Orifices . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 14
6. Leakage Curves for Weighing Tank. . .. . . . . . . . . 15
7. Leakage Curves for Orifice Tank .... . . . . . . . 16
8. Correction Curve for Pressure Drop in Discharge Line . . . . . . 18
9. Air Discharge Curves for Various Orifices Using Water Manometer . . 20
10. Air Discharge Curves for Various Orifices Using Mercury Manometer. . 21
11. Coefficient Curves for Various Orifices Using Water Manometer . . . 22
12. Coefficient Curves for Various Orifices Using Mercury Manometer. . . 23

LIST OF TABLES

1. Test Results of a M-in. Orifice, Using Water Manometer . . . . . 27


2. Test Results of a Y%-in. Orifice, Using Water Manometer . . . . . 28
3. Test Results of a Y-in. Orifice, Using Water Manometer . . . . . 29
4. Test Results of a %-in. Orifice, Using Water Manometer . . . . . 30
5. Test Results of a Y4 -in. Orifice, Using Water Manometer . . . . . 31
6. Test Results of a 7Y -in. Orifice, Using Water Manometer . . . . . 32
7. Test Results of a 1-in. Orifice, Using Water Manometer. . . ... . 33
8. Test Results of a M-in. Orifice, Using Mercury Manometer . . .. . 34
9. Test Results of a %-in. Orifice, Using Mercury Manometer . . .. . 35
10. Test Results of a 1 -in. Orifice, Using Mercury Manometer . . .. 36
11. Test Results of a %s-in. Orifice, Using Mercury Manometer . . .. 37
12. Test Results of a 4-in. Orifice, Using Mercury Manometer. . . . . 38
13. Test Results of a i/-in. Orifice, Using Mercury Manometer. . . .. . 39
14. Test Results of a 1-in. Orifice, Using Mercury Manometer . . . . . 40
15. Mean Discharge of Air in Pounds per Minute per Square Inch of Orifice . 41
16. Mean Discharge of Air in Pounds per Minute per Square Inch of Orifice . 41
17. Coefficients of Discharge for Various Inlet Pressures and Diameters of
Orifices . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . 42
18. Coefficients of Discharge for Various Inlet Pressures and Diameters of
Orifices .......... . .. . . . . 42
THE FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES WITH
ROUNDED APPROACH DISCHARGING INTO
THE ATMOSPHERE

I. INTRODUCTION

1. Purpose.-The purpose of this investigation was to make a


study of the flow of air through orifices by a precision method, and to
determine coefficients to be applied to Fliegner's formula for the flow
of air. Briefly, the method consisted of weighing the air discharged
per unit of time while maintaining control of pressure on the inlet side
of the orifice. This method will be referred to as the "weighing tank
method," and has been previously described in Bulletin No. 120.*
2. Scope.-In this investigation
(1) Ordinary atmospheric air was compressed and stored in the
weighing tank with no particular attempt to remove the moisture or
control the humidity.
(2) The pressures on the inlet side of the orifices were varied from
1 in. of water to 35 in. of mercury.
(3) No attempt was made to hold the temperature constant; it
varied slightly from room temperature.
(4) Only one type of orifice was used, namely, a circular orifice
with rounded approach; the diameters of the smallest sections varied
from Y4 in. to 1 in.
(5) Duplicate orifices were tested to determine the accuracy of
duplication.

3. Acknowledgments.-This investigation was made under the aus-


pices of the Engineering Experiment Station of the University of Illi-
nois, of which DEAN M. S. KETCHUM is the Director. The work was
carried out as one of the investigations of the Department of Mechan-
ical Engineering, of which PROF. A. C. WILLARD is the head. G. A.
GOODENOUGH, Professor of Thermodynamics, and A. P. KRATZ, Re-
search Professor in Mechanical Engineering, gave valuable advice and
suggestions. Valuable assistance and helpful suggestions were also
given by C. G. BRADLEY, laboratory mechanician.

*"Investigation of Warm Air Furnaces and Heating Systems," Univ. of Ill. Eng. Exp. Sta. Bul.
120, 1921.
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

II. RELATIONS BETWEEN PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, AND WEIGHT


OF AIR DISCHARGED

4. Adiabatic Flow.-On the assumption that air is essentially a


perfect gas under the conditions of entrance to the orifice and that the
flow is adiabatic, the weight M, in lb. per min. discharged, is*
[ 2 k+1-I

M= 60a 2gk P[ P (P k(1)


k -_1 V, IP,] P,
in which

a = area of smallest section of throat of orifice, sq. in.


g = acceleration of gravity, 32.2 ft. per sec. per sec.
k = ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to specific heat at
constant volume, 1.4.
Pi = absolute pressure of air on entrance side of orifice, lb. per
sq. in.
Vi = specific volume of air on entrance side of orifice, cu. ft. per lb.
Ti = absolute temperature of air on entrance side of orifice,
deg. F.
P = absolute pressure of air in throat of orifice, lb. per sq. in.

This expression may be reduced to simpler terms by substituting


the constant values of g = 32.2; k = 1.4.

Pi _ P 12
V, BT,

where B has the value 53.34.

F 10 121
M = 123.36 (( n -T( j
1) (2)
Tl) t P \pj.
The weight of air flowing through an orifice depends on the pres-
sure P in the throat of the orifice; if the orifice ends at the throat sec-
tion, the pressure in the throat and the pressure on the exit side of the
orifice P2 are identical. For any given type of orifice the ratio of the
pressure P in the throat to the pressure on the inlet side Pi, remains
constant as long as the pressure on the exit side P 2 is equal to or less
*G. A. Goodenough, "Principles of Thermodynamics."
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES

P
than P, the pressure in the throat. The value of this ratio -Pis 0.53;
PI
that is, P = 0.53Pi as long as P 2 is equal to or less than 0.53P 1 .
For all cases where P 2 is greater than 0.53Pi, the pressure in the
throat P becomes equal to the pressure on the exit side P 2. The value
of P that is equal to 0.53P, is called the critical pressure.
Since all orifices discharged into the atmosphere where the pres-
sure remained practically constant at 14.5 to 14.7 lb. per sq. in. abs.,
it follows that for all pressures Pi less than 27 lb. per sq. in. abs., the
throat pressure P becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure P2 . By
P
substituting the value 0.53 for the ratio - , Equation (2) will be re-
duced to
Pia
M = 31.8 (Ti) (3)

which applies in all cases where P, is higher than 27 lb. abs. while dis-
charging into the atmosphere.

5. Fliegner's Formula.*--Equation (3) is the same as Fliegner's


formula for the weight of air in pounds per minute when P 2 is below
the critical pressure, or when P1 is more than 27 lb. per sq. in. abs.
while discharging into the atmosphere.
Fliegner's formula for conditions such that P2 is above the critical
pressure, or where P 1 is less than 27 lb. per sq. in. abs. when discharg-
ing into the atmosphere, is

M = 63.6 (T 1) P2 (P 1 - P 2)]' (4)

where the symbols have the same meaning as before.

Srd'
By substituting - for (a), where d is the throat diameter in
inches, Equation (3) becomes

24.98 d2 P1
M = (TI) (5)

where P1 is greater than 2P 2, and Equation (4) becomes


*See References 4 and 10 in Bibliography.
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

49.95d 2
M =
- (T1)t (P 1 - P 2) (6)
2

where P 1 is less than 2P 2 .


It is conceivable that the critical ratio may not be 0.53 for various
shapes of orifices, and the question may arise as to what discrepancy
will be introduced in such cases. As a basis for comparison* Equation
(2) may be made to equal (4) by replacing the constant 63.6 by b,
a coefficient, and determining its value for various pressure ratios.

S 10 12 ba
7
Pia p2\ P_ 2 - ba P 2(P1 P
123.36 TL P [P, (P - P)]
(TI)^[P
[(P,)
P2
P- = 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
P\

b = 63.66 64.38 64.86 65.28 65.58

This would indicate that Fliegner's formula (Equation 4) gives a


discharge of from 1 to 3 per cent less than Equation (2). As will be
seen by Tables 17 and 18, the results of the tests show that the co-
efficients are smallest for small inlet pressures and increase as the
pressure is increased. The coefficients also increase as the orifice di-
ameter is increased. This is contrary to the deduction given above.

III. TEST APPARATUS

6. General Description.-The method of weighing the air dis-


charged through orifices used in this series of tests was first developed
and used for calibrating the air measuring instruments employed in
the Investigation of Warm Air Furnaces and Heating Systems,t as
conducted by the Engineering Experiment Station of the University
of Illinois. The weighing tank is charged with air by means of a two-
stage compressor (Fig. 1). When the tank is charged to the required
pressure, the valve B (Fig. 3) is closed and the pipe union A is discon-
nected so that the tank is entirely free at this end. The air is dis-
charged from the opposite end through a number of copper tubes, 2
in. in diameter, as shown in Fig. 2. The tubes are approximately 16
feet in length and have four right-angle bends to insure flexibility.
*G. A. Goodenough, "Principles of Thermodynamics."
fSee Univ. of Ill. Eng. Exp. Sta. Bul. 120, Chap. VIII, p. 81.
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES

FIG. 1 WEIGHING TANK AND COMPRESSOR

7. Air Weighing Tank and Scale.-The weighing tank (Fig. 3) is


42 in. in diameter and 13 ft. long, and was designed for a working
pressure of 300 lb. per sq. in. At this pressure the tank will hold
about 200 lb. of air, by weight. The tank is supported on the scale
platform so that the scale beams are perfectly free and unrestrained.
It is slightly inclined toward one end so as to facilitate the removal of
moisture through a drain valve. The pressure in the tank is indicated
on a pressure gage.
The scale is a four-ton, heavy-duty, built-in suspended platform
type. The lever ratio is 500 to 1, and, since the weighing beam moves
less than 1 inch, the load platform moves less than 1/500 of an inch.
Therefore, the change in resistance of the tubing at the discharge end
of the tank is so small that it has no perceptible effect on the sensi-
tivity of the scale.
The movement of the weighing beam was multiplied 91 times by a
beam of light reflected by a mirror mounted on the weighing beam
and focused on a graduated scale directly in front of the operator
when standing at the controlling valves.
The sensitivity of the scale was determined by the vibration
method:* (a) with the tank fully charged at 300 lb. per sq. in., and
(b) with the tank empty. The procedure was as follows:
*"Method of Precision Test of Large Capacity Scales," Bureau of Standards Bulletin No. 199.
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

FIG. 2. COPPER TUBING CONNECTORS

An arbitrary reference line was placed on the blank scale near the
mid-point of the travel of the beam of light as the weighing beam
was moved from the bottom to the top of the trig loop or stop. The
scale with its load was then balanced so that the weighing beam would
vibrate without striking the top or the bottom of the trig loop. The
distance that the beam of light traveled from the arbitrary reference
line on two successive upward swings was measured and the two read-
ings were averaged. The distance traveled by the beam of light
below the arbitrary reference line on the downward swing, which oc-
curred between the two successive upward swings, was measured.
This distance, a negative quantity, was added to the average of the
two successive upward swings and the result divided by two. This
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES

Nk ~
.~ .~ ~

cz~
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

FIG. 4. ORIFICE TANK, CONTROL VALVES, AND MANOMETER

distance measured from the arbitrary reference line would be the


position of the beam of light when the weighing beam was at rest.
The point of rest was determined several times and the mean posi-
tion was used. Then, without in any way disturbing or changing
the counterpoises, a half-pound weight was placed on the scale
platform and a new point of rest determined.
By dividing the difference in weights on the scale (one-half pound)
by the distance between the first and second rest points, the "sensi-
tivity reciprocal," or the weight in pounds that will cause the rest
point to change one inch, was determined.
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES

It was thus found that 0.063 lb. added to the scale platform would
change the rest point one inch when the tank was empty, and 0.064
lb. when the tank was fully charged. As a further test of the sensi-
tivity, a weight of 0.2 lb. placed on the scale platform caused a de-
flection of the beam of light of 3.15 in. This method of checking was
used at intervals to determine if the sensitivity had changed.
8. Orifice Tank, Manometer, and Thermometers.-The orifice tank
(Fig. 4) is 6 ft. in length and 24 in. in diameter, and was designed for a
working pressure of 75 lb. per sq. in. It contains two baffles, one at
the entrance to break up the stream of the incoming air, and the
other, a screen baffle at mid-section, to quiet eddy movements. The
general arrangement of the orifice tank and controls is shown sche-
matically in Fig. 3. The air was throttled through the manifold and
into the orifice tank at the desired pressure. This pressure was indi-
cated on the manometer M and the temperature by the thermometer
T. The manometer is of the single leg reservoir type, and is connect-
ed at a point 7 inches from the end of the orifice tank in which the
orifices are placed. The area of the reservoir basin is 4.91 sq. in. and
the area of the glass manometer tube about 0.078 sq. in., so that when
the liquid in the manometer read one inch on the steel scale the actual
distance between liquid surfaces was 1.0159 in. This difference is ap-
preciable, and the correction was made. The liquid level in the man-
ometer was illumined by a small shaded electric light and the en-
tire manometer was adjustable so that the liquid level could always
be placed on a level with the eye of the operator.
All thermometers used were calibrated by comparison with a
standard thermometer. A bare thermometer was used in the orifice
tank so that the bare mercury bulb was in direct contact with the air.
It was placed 16 in. from the end of the tank. Leakage around the
stem was prevented by the use of a packing gland. The effect of the
pressure on the mercury bulb would tend to increase the temperature
reading. However, the effect is slight for low pressures. The cor-
rection usually applied is 0.01 deg. F. per lb. per sq. in. of pressure.*
Since the maximum pressure used was 35 in. of mercury, the correc-
tion may be omitted.

9. Orifices.-All orifices used were geometrically similar and all


dimensions are given in terms of the orifice diameter (see Fig. 5).
The orifices were carefully machined to templets, and the throat di-
ameter was measured to 0.0001 in. The insides of the orifices were
*"Mechanical Engineering," May, 1926, p. 520. 4
14 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

Approwlx/i',e Actual/ e,-/',1'/ ?/S of


D/'a/e7en-, , D/arete, 0, .4gOiraac,, 0,
/,,c/7es /7ches Alu/her /nIc/2es
O.Z498 .2498-A
z fO0d .2500-A
0.2504 .2504-A
0.3759 .3759-A
0.3764 .3764-4 j
03766 .3766-A
S05008 .5008-A 2

S e.6z34 .6384-A1 _
S0.7S07 .7507-A
S087763 .8763-A
/ /.023 /.023-A /

FIG. 5. DIMENSIONS OF ORIFICES

made smooth and even by filing, scraping, and the use of fine emery
cloth. Precautions were taken to make the curvature as nearly
correct as possible.

IV. METHOD OF CONDUCTING TESTS

10. Leakage.-It was necessary to know the rate of leakage


throughout the entire apparatus. This was determined in two steps:
first, the leakage of the weighing tank and piping up to the control
valves; and second, the leakage of the orifice tank and piping from
the control valves.
Since leakage is proportional to pressure, it was necessary to deter-
mine the leakage at a number of different pressures from 300 lb. to
40 or 50 lb. per sq. in. The amount of air lost was determined di-
rectly by weighing, as described later. Curves were plotted giving
loss by leakage in pounds per minute against weighing tank pressures
(see Fig. 6).
In a similar manner the leakage in the orifice tank was determined,
but at pressures from 35 in. of mercury to 1 in. of water. The loss in
weight on the scale was the loss from the high pressure part as well as
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES

PIres1AKreUR/V? O. s5E
7 /7? A e
FIG. 6. LEAKAGE CURVES FOR WEIGHING TANK

the low pressure part of the apparatus. By subtraction, the loss in


the orifice tank was determined separately. These results were
plotted as described for the high pressure leakage (see Fig. 7).

11. Method of Weighing;* Use of Substitute Weights.-The follow-


ing procedure was used in determining the weight of air discharged
through an orifice during a test.
The weighing tank (see Fig. 3) was charged to a pressure of about
300 lb. per sq. in. gage. Valve B was then closed and union A dis-
connected so that the tank was entirely free at that end. The weigh-
ing tank then rested freely on the scale except for the copper tubing at
the opposite end, which was connected to the orifice tank. A drain
valve at the bottom of the weighing tank was then opened for a short
time to remove any moisture that might have collected. The weigh-
ing beam on the scale was underbalanced so that it remained at the
top of the trig loop. The amount of underbalance (1 to 10 lb.) de-
pended on the rate of flow and, consequently, the time required for
securing the proper pressure in the orifice tank. As the scale beam
approached equilibrium the beam of light moved toward its mid-
position giving a warning to the observers, who started their stop
watches as the beam of light passed its mid-position. The operator at
the control valves continued to regulate the pressure in the orifice
*"Weighing by Substitution," Bureau of Standards, Bulletin 430, Univ. of Ill.
Bul. 120. Eng. Exp. Sta.
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

7.
L-e
e. oFRTANKec'
ORIFICE
/GE /eCURVES
FIG. 7. LEAKAGE CURVES FOR ORIFICE TANK

tank to keep the pressure at the required amount, thereby maintain-


ing a steady rate of flow. Another operator then placed standard
weights (2 to 100 lb.) on the scale platform without disturbing or in
any way changing the counterpoise weights on the scale beam. This
again made the scale beam underbalanced by the amount of the
weights put on the scale platform minus the weight of air discharged.
When finally a weight of air had been discharged equal to the sub-
stituted weights, the scale beam again approached equilibrium and
the beam of light started to move. As it crossed its mid-position the
observers stopped the stop watches and recorded the elapsed time.
By the use of this method errors or variations due to the "break"
of the scale beam were avoided, since the scale beam was floating
freely at its mid-position at the beginning and end of the observation
period.
The total weight on the scale was the same at the beginning and
the end when the scale beam was falling or approaching mid-position.
The beam of light had a full travel of more than 24 in. and hence
moved 12 in. before crossing its mid-position, thus giving ample
warning to the observers. The mid-position of the travel of the beam
of light corresponded closely to the position of equilibrium of the scale
beam as determined by the tests for sensitivity, hence the scale beam
was very close to equilibrium at the beginning and the end with the
same total load on the scale. Since the rate of discharge was kept
constant during the observation period, the rate of movement of the
beam of light was the same at the beginning and end of the period.
Before starting these tests it was decided that no readings would
be used that showed a variation of more than 0.5 per cent from the
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES

mean. All tests were duplicated and all elapsed time was checked
independently by two observers with stop watches. The standard
weights were checked and found to be correct within 50 grains in
50 lb. It was found that the scales were affected by vibration caused
by certain machines in the laboratory and by heavy trucks passing on
the street 75 feet away. It was necessary, therefore, to avoid testing
during the time these machines were running in the laboratory. If
the results were affected by a truck passing, it became necessary to
re-run that particular test. For tests made on the 4 -in. and 8-in.
orifices, at low pressures particularly, the discharge rate was so slow
that friction in the scales did not permit a clean "break" of the light
beam nor a continuous movement of the beam. To avoid this diffi-
culty, three orifices placed in parallel 8Y2 in. from center to center
were used. A considerable number of runs were made at night when
less disturbance was encountered. No difficulty was experienced in
maintaining the required pressure in the orifice tank.
The cross hair on the manometer slide was set at the required
point on the steel scale, and the adjustable light and the vertical height
of the manometer liquid were brought to the level of the eye of the
observer. For the higher pressures in the orifice tank mercury was
used as the manometer liquid. For lower pressures water was used,
and for pressures less than 3 in. an inclined Ellison draft gage was
employed. The total range of pressures was from 1 in. of water to
35 in. of mercury. A thermometer was fastened to the manometer
column to indicate the temperature of the manometer liquid. The
height of the manometer liquid was indicated on a steel scale grad-
uated to 0.01 in. The scale was adjustable, and could be set to zero at
the top of the liquid when the pressure tube was disconnected.
The manometer reading was not corrected to standard conditions.
Since the highest room temperature observed during the tests was
90 deg. F., the difference between this and standard conditions is only
30 deg. F. Using this difference with the highest manometer reading
and the smallest orifice, a maximum error of 0.15 per cent is obtained.
The error for smaller manometer readings or for larger orifices will be
correspondingly less. Since the average room temperature was be-
tween 80 and 85 deg. F., a still further reduction in the error occurred
for the majority of the tests. Loss due to leakage was corrected, so
that no error was introduced thereby. The accuracy of these results
may be affected by (1) variations in pressure of air in the orifice tank;
(2) variations in temperature of air in the orifice tank; (3) variations
in observation of the time of flow. Since these variations were kept
within one-half per cent it is considered that the results are correct to
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

0.70 - --- F ---


- - ---- ----

0.60 - - - - - - - - - - -

Iif I I t I I I t I [ I~I"i f I I
- - - - - - - - - - - -

I .: -_ _ / / _ _ _ _
'\ 7--------^--------------

0460---- -

0jo

0.0 ----
00-- -

20 40 60 g80 /00 /120 /40 /60


/Press&'reDror i/7 lb ,ver sq. /?.
FIG. 8. CORRECTION CURVE FOR PRESSURE DROP IN DISCHARGE LINE

that extent, because tests were duplicated purposely many times,


with the results agreeing within one-half per cent of the original re-
sults. Duplicate 14 -in., Ys-in., and Y4 -in. orifices were made, and
tests show that results from these duplicate orifices check closely.

V. CALCULATIONS

12. Corrections.-In calculating the weight of air discharged two


corrections were made, for the leakage of air from the apparatus, and
for the error introduced by the pressure drop in the pipe line from the
weighing tank to the control valves.
In all cases the loss by leakage was a small part of the air dis-
charged. However, the loss for the mean pressure existing in the
weighing tank and the orifice tank was subtracted from the total
weight discharged.
In correcting for the pressure drop a constant temperature of 75
deg. F. was assumed for the air in the pipe line between the weighing
tank and the control valves in the regulating manifold. The error in
this assumption is negligible, since the total pressure drop correction
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES

is comparatively small. This correction was calculated by the perfect


gas law and was added to the total weight discharged. Thus

V
M - BT(PI - P 2) (see curve, Fig. 8)

where M = correction, pounds.


V = volume of pipe line, 0.817 cu. ft.
Pi = initial pressure in weighing tank and pipe lines, lb. per
sq. in.
P 2 = final pressure in weighing tank and pipe lines, lb. per
sq. in.
T = temperature of air, assumed 535 deg. F. abs.
B = gas constant for air, 53.34.
The velocity of approach was assumed negligible, since the great-
est velocity through the orifice tank was 1.1 ft. per sec. This would
give no appreciable velocity head.

13. Standard Conditions.-The standard conditions adopted in


this work are: barometric pressure of 29.921 in. of mercury and tem-
perature of 60 deg. F. The results were reduced to standard con-
ditions as follows:
Writing Equation (4) for standard conditions

a
M'= 63.6 T) [P2 ' (PI'- P2-)

in which M' = weight of air discharged into atmosphere under stand-


ard conditions, lb. per min.
a = area of orifice, sq. in.
Ti' = standard temperature of air entering orifice, that is,
60 deg. F. = 520 deg. F. abs.
Pi' = pressure of air on inlet side of orifice, lb. per sq. in.
abs., referred to 29.921 in. of mercury.
P2' = pressure of air on exit side of orifice, that is, standard
barometric pressure, lb. per sq. in. abs. (29.921
in. of mercury).

For the actual test conditions, Equation (4) is

M= 63.6 T [P2 (PI - P 2 )]'


ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

I
(J-

Q1

P-ressuire /,'c/,es of 4/a/'er


Fio. 9. AIR DISCHARGE CURVES FOR VARIOUS ORIFICES USING WATER MANOMETER

where T 1 = observed temperature of air entering orifice, deg. F. abs.


P1 = pressure of air on inlet side of orifice, lb. per sq. in. abs.
referred to barometric reading.
P 2 = pressure of air on exit side of orifice, barometric reading
in lb. per sq. in.
The ratio of the weight M' discharged under standard conditions
to the weight M discharged under test conditions is

M' (T)4[P 2 ' (P' -P')

I.I 1 ')
(Tj Lr 2 r1 - t'2)j
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES

Pr-es-s Z-e //2 /r-c1?es of"/07'c'-/-u-


Fla. 10. AIR DISCHARGE CURVES FOR VARIOUS ORIFICES USING
MERCURY MANOMETER

The pressure difference Pi - P 2 = Pi' - P 2' is actually the same for


both conditions, since it is the manometer pressure, and Equation (9)
will reduce to

LM 2 jP
~ TP (10)

M =
TIPsI
M' = M T (11)

This correction applies to conditions where the pressure on the exit


side of the orifice is more than the critical, or where the inlet pressure
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

/09

mr=
X

ni Ogg
2 A

K
a96 +
4,
J q / Orif/ce * ~' ~6f~e
....
correcreqa ro
2 j j CYf if/C5 - 2 (Yf/f/6~
I"~h'A-~ A
- 29.9/ //7. Afe,'-uy-
1r7c2a 670 0,g./"q I I I
0 4 8 /
1i ?nhsa 4K s32 36
P/?e~ssire 1,-2 /157C167S o21 44/"er
FIG. 11. COEFFICIENT CURVES FOR VARIOUS ORIFICES USING WATER MANOMETER

Pi is below 27 lb. per sq. in. abs. when discharging into the atmos-
phere.
In a similar manner the correction may be made to apply to
Equation (3) and becomes
1P'T1
M' = M PLTJ
2 (12)
P, TI'
This correction applies to conditions where the pressure on the exit
side of the orifice is less than the critical, or where the inlet pressure Pi
is more than 27 lb. per sq. in. abs. while discharging into the atmos-
phere.
The weight of air discharged has been converted into cubic feet on
the assumption that the air was dry.
14. Coefficients.-In this work the results of the tests have been
compared with Fliegner's formula, and coefficients determined as
given in Tables 17 and 18 and curves in Figs. 11 and 12, for inlet
pressures from 1 in. of water to 35 in. of mercury. The relation is
M" = CM'

where M" = the weight of air in lb. per min. discharged through the
orifice from the weighing tank, under standard
conditions.
M' = the lb. of air per min. as computed by Fliegner's for-
mula, under standard conditions.
C = the coefficient as determined by these tests.
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES 23

L22z

/06' .0 0. _4
11,717 L []-

1K ^r
m~
-fi-
I

^
\ MQ96
+

^'- I
^
'

o / Or///ce. *w
I
CoX'r/ectea' to x 7 y
lflce A '/fO-//'e_
- eg.9gzl/ //?. /Ve-l-y I +di "^/9
r i
^ <PI
naa '7'd 60 /1,:.LI
S 4 8 /2 /6 20 24 28 32 36
Press1re /1
, /'-c2 es of l^er'IrV

FIG. 12. COEFFICIENT CURVES FOR VARIOUS ORIFICES USING MERCURY MANOMETER

For conditions where the pressure P 2 on the exit side of the orifice is
more than the critical (or the inlet pressure P 1 is less than 27 lb. per
sq. in. abs. when discharging into the atmosphere) the weight of air
discharged is (from Equation 4)

M" = CM' = C X 63.6 --- [P 2 ' (Pi' - P 2 ')]i (13)

For conditions where the pressure P 2 on the exit side of the orifice is
less than the critical (or where the inlet pressure P 1 is more than 27
lb. per sq. in. abs. when discharging into the atmosphere) the weight
of air discharged is (from Equation 3)
P1 'a
M" = CM' = C X 31.8 (T 1i') (14)

15. Sample Calculations.*-(a) Fliegner's formulas for standard


conditions are:
aPl'
M' = 31.8 (T)t (15)
and
M' = 63.6 - [[P 2' (Pi' - P 2 ')]i (16)

*All sample calculations are made for the M-in. orifice, area = 0.19697 sq. in.
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

where M' = weight of air discharged into atmosphere under standard


conditions, lb. per min.
a = area of orifice, sq. in.
Ti' = absolute temperature of air entering orifice under stand-
ard conditions, that is, 520 deg. F. abs.
Pi' = pressure of air on inlet side of orifice, lb. per sq. in. abs.
referred to standard barometric pressure of 29.921
in. mercury = 14.696 lb. per sq. in.
P2' = pressure of air on exit side of orifice, that is, standard
barometric pressure, lb. per sq. in. abs. (14.696 lb.
per sq. in.)
Constants used are:
0.489789 = constant transferring inches mercury at 60 deg. F. to lb.
per sq. in. (Smithsonian Tables)
0.0361934 = constant transferring inches water at 60 deg. F. to lb.
per sq. in. (Smithsonian Tables)

At 30 in. mercury, by Equation (15)


(29.921 + 30) X 0.489789
M' = 31.8 X 0.19697 X - /52o
= 8.0618 lb. per min.

At 15 in. mercury, by Equation (16)


63.6 X 0.19697
M' = .- 520 [14.696 (15) X 0.4897891]
= 5.7083 lb. per min.

At 15 in. water, by Equation (16)


63.6 X 0.19697
M' = [14.696 (15) X 0.0361934I1
[V520
= 1.5520 lb. per min.

(b) The experimental results are as follows:

m
M" - Xc (17)

where m = air discharged, lb. *


t = duration of test, minutes.
c = correction factor to standard conditions.
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES

When the pressure on the exit side of the orifice is less than the
critical
Pi' Ti
c = T 2 (1 8 )

and when the pressure on the exit side of the orifice is more than the
critical
Ti1 X P2' 2
c = - _ (19)

where Pi' = pressure on inlet side of orifice, referred to barometric


pressure of 29.921 in. mercury, lb. per sq. in. abs.
Pi = observed pressure on inlet side of orifice, lb. per sq. in.
abs.
P 2' = standard barometric pressure, 29.921 in. mercury.
P 2 = observed barometric pressure, in. mercury.
Ti' = standard temperature, 520 deg. F. abs.
Ti = observed temperature on inlet side of orifice, deg. F. abs.

For observation No. 15, Table 10 (inlet pressure more than two times
exit or atmospheric pressure)
m = 50 - leakage + pressure drop correction
Leakage = sum of orifice tank leakage at 30 in. mercury and weigh-
ing tank leakage at the average pressure for the test
multiplied by duration of test. (Leakage from
curves in Figs. 6 and 7 = 0.02865 lb.)
Pressure drop correction = 0.335 lb. (from Fig. 8).
m = 50 - 0.02865 + 0.335 = 50.30634 lb.
t = 6.4466 min.

From Equation (18)


(29.921 + 30) X 0.489789 .1546.81
c - ' - -- 1.03329
(29.47 + 30) X 0.489789 520
From Equation (17)
50.30634
M" - X 1.03329 = 8.0632 lb. per min.
6.4466

For observation No. 9, Table 10 (inlet pressure less than two times
exit or atmospheric pressure)
m = 29.995 - 0.020009 + 0.205 = 30.18999 lb.
t = 5.44166 min.
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

From Equation (19)


,1548.25 X 29.921
520 X 29.56 1.03306
c

30.18999
M" -= 3.1 X 1.03306 = 5.7313 lb. per min.
5.4416
(c) The coefficient for Fliegner's formula is
M" (Experimental Results)
M' (From Fliegner's Equation)

For observations Nos. 15 and 16, Table 10,


8.0539
C = 618 0.99902
8.0618

VI. DIscussION OF RESULTS


16. Accuracy of Results.-The results have been tabulated in
Tables 1 to 14, as well as plotted for comparison in Figs. 9 to 12, in-
clusive. Since in the tests on the Y4 -in. and Y8-in. orifices three ori-
fices were used in parallel, the total discharge was divided by three to
determine the discharge curves, Figs. 9 and 10, for those particular
orifices.
Referring to Tables 1 to 14, inclusive, it may be noted that in no
case does the deviation in "time in seconds" for duplicate tests vary
more than one-half of one per cent and that the average variation is
approximately two-tenths of one per cent. This average was slightly
lower for tests made with the mercury manometer than for those
made with the water manometer.
In Tables 1 to 7, inclusive, the pressures on the inlet side of the
orifice are given in inches of water, from 1 in. to 35 in. In Tables 8 to
14, inclusive, the pressures on the inlet side of the orifice are given in
inches of mercury, from 1 in. to 35 in.
Referring to the curves in Figs. 11 and 12, and to Tables 17 and 18
giving the coefficients as applied to Fliegner's formula, it is observed
that the coefficients are smaller for the lower inlet pressures than for
the higher inlet pressures. This indicates that Fliegner's formula
P2
gives values too high where the ratio P approaches unity. This may
be due to the fact that, with reduced velocity, friction is more effective
near the wall of the orifice.*
*Experiments by Bean, Buckingham, and Murphy, in Research Paper No. 49 of the Bureau of
Standards, show the same effect at low velocities. This is attributed by the authors to skin effect or
drag at the wall of the orifice.
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES

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30 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

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FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES 39

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Referring to Fig. 11, it is seen that the coefficient increases as the


diameter of the orifice increases. This is also true for the lower pres-
sures shown in Fig. 12. It may also be observed from Fig. 12 that,
for all orifices 12 in. and larger, the coefficients agree so closely that
one curve suffices for these orifices. It should be noted that, due to
the rather low range of pressures (35 in. of mercury) used in these
tests, Fliegner's formula

M' = C X 63.6 (T) [p 2' (Pl' - P')]

applies to all cases where the inlet pressure P 1 is less than 26 in. of
mercury in the manometer. Considering that this formula is em-
pirical it gives rather remarkable agreement. For the lowest coeffic-
ient determined by these tests, one inch of water for the 4 -in. orifice,
Fliegner's formula gives results 6.2 per cent high. For the largest
coefficient, at 5 and 10 inches of mercury, Fliegner's formula gives
results about 0.5 per cent low.
The apparent contradiction as to the change in the coefficient
determined by tests compared with the change discussed on page 9,
where Fliegner's formula is compared with the theoretical adiabatic
P
flow for various values of P 2 , has been observed by others, particularly
in the flow of steam through nozzles.* No explanation of this dis-
crepancy can be given at this time.
Tables 15 and 16 give the mean discharge in pounds per minute of
weighed air per sq. in. of orifice; inlet pressures are given in inches of
water and mercury, respectively.

VII. CONCLUSIONS

17. Summary of Conclusions.-The general conclusions that may


be drawn from this investigation are as follows:
(1) The weight of air discharged through orifices with
rounded approach agrees very closely with that calculated by the
use of Fliegner's formulas for the range of inlet pressures used in
this investigation, namely, 1 in. of water to 35 in. of mercury.
(2) The coefficients as applied to Fliegner's formulas show a
more rapid change for low pressures on the inlet side of the orifice
and for small orifices. As the inlet pressure is increased and as
the orifice diameter is increased, the value of the coefficients
*"Northeast Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders," February 18, 1921.
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

tends to become more uniform. Due to the rapid change in the


value of the coefficient at low heads, interpolation cannot be
made as definite as at the higher heads, where the value of the
coefficient is more constant. It is, therefore, not advisable to use
this type of orifice for pressures on the inlet side of the orifice less
than 10 in. of water, unless the orifice is carefully calibrated for
the required condition. The change in the value of the coeffi-
cients is slight for inlet pressures above 10 in. of water for pres-
sures up to 35 in. of mercury, the limit of this investigation.
(3) It is advisable to use water or oil as the manometer liquid
for all pressures within the limit of the manometer. For the
higher pressures mercury should be used. However, mercury
should not be used in glass tubes less than Y8-in. in inside di-
ameter. Capillary tubes of 2 to 3 millimeters inside diameter are
likely to introduce considerable lag in movement both up and
down.
(4) The use of Fliegner's formulas with a coefficient of unity
for inlet pressures between 1 in. of water and 35 in. of mercury
may introduce errors ranging from 6.2 per cent too high to 0.5
per cent too low.
(5) The type of orifice used is not difficult to produce, and the
results of tests on duplicate orifices agree closely.
It should be noted that the effect of humidity has not been taken
into consideration in this investigation.
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES

APPENDIX
BIBLIOGRAPHY

NO. YEAR I AUTHOR TITTE ANt iEtmrErNw


I -
I
W. Froude "On the Law which Governs the Discharge of
Elastic Fluids under Pressure through Short
Tube Orifices," Inst. of C.E., vol. 6, 1847.

1859 Weisbach "Der Civilingenieur," vol. 5, p. 546, 1859,


vol. 12, p. 177, 1866.

1871 G. Zeuner "Technical Thermodynamics," vol. 1, p. 225,


vol. 2, p. 153.

1874 A. Fliegner "On the Flow of Atmospheric Air," Inst. of


C.E., vol. 39, pt. 1, p. 370, 1874.

1874 G. Zeuner "Results of Experimental Researches on the


Discharge of Air under Great Pressures,"
Inst. of C.E., vol. 39, pt. 1, p. 375, 1874.

1874-7 A. Fliegner "Der Civilingenieur," vol. 20, p. 13, 1874,


vol. 23, p. 443, 1877, vol. 24, p. 39.
(Abstracts) "Experiments on the Flow of Air through
Orifices in a Thin Plate," Van Nostrand's
Mag., vol. 25, p. 217, 1881.

"Experiments on the Flow of Air through


Well-rounded Orifices," Inst. of C.E., vol. 53,
p. 295.

1886 0. Reynolds "On the Flow of Gases," pt. 1, Philosophical


Magazine, p. 185, 1886.
1889 I. P. Church "Flow of Fluids," Mechanics of Engineering,
J. Wiley & Sons, New York. Chap. VIII,
Dynamics of Gaseous Fluids, 1889.
1896 H. DeParenty "On the Discharge of Perfect Gases and of
Steam under Pressure through Orifices" (Sur
la debit des gaz parfaits et de la vapeur d'eau
sous pression a travers les orifices), Annales
de Chimie et de Physique, ser. 7, vol. 8, p. 5,
1896.
1898 A. Fliegner "Investigations in the Discharge of Air from
Conical Diverging Nozzles" (Versuche fiber
das Ausstr6men von Luft durch Divergente
Rohre) (3 articles), Schweizerische Bauzei-
tung, March 12, 19, 5, 1898.
1899 Weyrauch "The Efflux of Gases and Steam under Di-
minishing Pressure and Volume" (tUber den
Ausfluss von Gasen und Dimpfen bei Abneh-
menden Druck und bei Abnehmenden Vol-
umen), Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher
Ingenieur, September 23, 30.
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

No. YEAR AUTHOR TITLE AND REFERENCE

1901 M. A. Rateau "Experiments on the Escape of Steam


through Orifices," Inst. of M.E.

(Abstracted) "The Flow of Steam through Orifices," Eng.


Record, October 26, 1901.

1903' A. E. Zahn "Air Flow. Measurement of Air Velocity


and Pressure," Physical Review, Ithaca,
N. Y., vol. 17, p. 410.

1905 A. Borsody, "Pressures and Temperatures of Free Expan-


R. C. Cairncross sion," A.S.M.E. Tran., vol. 26, p. 114.

1905 S. A. Moss "An Experimental Determination of the Co-


efficient of Discharge of Air," Amer. Mach.,
vol. 28, p. 193.

1905 R. J. Durley "On the Measurement of Air Flowing into the


Atmosphere through Circular Orifices in a
Thin Plate and under Small Differences in
Pressure," A.S.M.E. Tran., vol. 27, p. 193.

1906 S. A. Moss "Flow of Air and Other Gases with Special


Reference to Small Differences in Pressure,"
Amer. Mach., vol. 29, p. 368, vol. 29, p. 407.

1906 F. Foster "Flow of Air in Nozzles," Mech. Eng., vol. 18,


p. 574.

1906 H. Judd, "Some Experiments on the Frictionless Ori-


R. S. King fice," Eng. News, vol. 56, p. 326.

1907 C. Monteil "Output of a Circular Orifice" (Debit d'un


orifice circulaire), 8th serie Annales des ponts
et Chaussees, pt. 3, p. 139, 1907.

1908 A. 0. Muller "Measurement of Gas Flow with Plate Ori-


fice." (Messung von Gasmengen mit der
Drosselscheibe) Mitteilung Forsarbeit Ingen-
ieurwerkes, Berlin. Zeitschrift des Vereines
deutscher Ingenieur, vol. 52, p. 285.

1909 J. Orr "The Measurement of Compressed Air,"


Mech. Eng., vol. 24, p. 70.

1911 J. Weisbach "Air Flow" (Versuche fiber den Ausfluss von


Luft), Zeitschrift fur die Sauerstoff-und
Stickstoff-Industrie, Leipzig, vol. 3, p. 7.

1912 W. Watson, "On the Measurement of the Air Supply to


H. Schofield Internal Combustion Engines by Means of a
Throttle Plate," Inst. of M.E., pt. 1, 2, p. 517.

1912 T. R. Weymouth "Measurement of Natural Gas," A.S.M.E.


Tran., vol. 34, p. 1091.

R. Bachmann "Air Measurement" (Messung von Luft-


mengen), C. Pfeffer, Darmstadt.
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES 47

ORIFICES 47
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR
No. YEAR AUTHOR TITLE AND REFERENCE

27 1010
1913 . s. TiuucKe
f~1 E ' .C
"Flow of Gases and Vapors in Pipes, Flues,
Ducts, and Chimneys," Engineering Thermo-
dynamics, McGraw-Hill Book Co., N. Y.
p. 1111.
1913 J. Brandis "Measurement of Air Flow by Plate Orifice"
(Genaue Messung der durch eine Leitung
Stromende Gas (Luft) Menge Mittels Dros-
selmes scheibe Staurand), M. Krayn, Berlin.
1913 W. Rosenbain "Experiments on a Steam Jet," Inst. of C.E.,
p. 199.
1913 J. B. Henderson "Theory and Experiment on the FlowTof
Steam through Nozzles," Inst. of M.E., vol.
193, p. 253.
1913 H. Gaskell "The Diaphragm Method of Measuring the
Velocity of Fluid Flow in Pipes," Inst. of
M.E., vol. 197, p. 243.
1914 H. E. A. Raabe "The Flow of Air through an Aperture," Int.
Marine Eng., September.
1914 J. G. Stewart "The Theory of the Flow of Gases through
Nozzles," Inst. of M.E., vol. 1914, p. 949.
1914 W. E. Fisher "The Discharge of Steam through Nozzles,"
Inst. of M.E., vol. 1914, pt. 3-4, p. 927.
1915 T. Trupel "Action of an Air Jet on the Surrounding
Air" (Uber die Einwirkung eines Luftstrahles
auf die Umgebende Luft), Zeitschrift fir des
gesamte Turbinenwesen, vol. 12, p. 53.
1915 A. L. Westcott "The Flow of Air and Steam through Ori-
fices," Power, vol. 42, p. 515.
1915 E. 0. Hickstein "The Flow of Air through Thin Plate Ori-
fices," A.S.M.E. Tran., vol. 37, p. 765.
1916 T. B. Morley "The Flow of Air through Nozzles," Eng.,
vol. 101, p. 91.
1916 H. Judd "Experiments on Water Flow through Pipe
Orifices," A.S.M.E. Tran., vol. 38, p. 331.
1916 E. G. Bailey "Steam Flow Measurement," A.S.M.E. Tran.,
vol. 38, p. 775.
1916 T. G. Estep "Measuring the Flow of Compressed Air,"
Jour. Iron Age, vol. 98, p. 1049.
1916 S. A. Moss "The Impact Tube," A.S.M.E. Tran., vol. 38,
p. 761.
1916 H. B. Reynolds 'The Flow of Air and Steam through Ori-
fices," A.S.M.E. Tran., vol. 38, p. 799.
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

No. YEAR AUTHOR TITLE AND REFERENCE

1917 B. S. Nelson "Flow of Air through Orifices against Back


Pressure," Eng. News, vol. 77, p. 19.

1917 J. L. Hodgson "The Commercial Metering of Air, Gas, and


Steam," Inst. of C.E., vol. 204, p. 108.

1917 L. Hartshorn "The Discharge of Gases under High Pres-


sure," Proc. of the Roy. Soc., London, vol. 94,
p. 155.

1917 U. R. Gage "A Study of the Thin Plate Orifice," Sibley


Jour., 1917, p. 144.

1917 0. K. Ohmes "Study of Air Measurement and Air Flow,"


A.S.H. & V.E. Jour., vol. 23, p. 577.

1919 A. B. Eason "Flow and Measurement of Air and Gases,"


C. Griffin & Co., London.

1919 A. H. Blaisdell "Gas Measurements with Plain Orifices,"


Power, p. 801.

1919 J. L. Hodgson "Differential Pressure Meters for Measuring


Air, Gas, and Steam Flow," Journal, Society
of Chemical Industry, vol. 38, p. 222t.

1920 E. N. Fales, "High Efficiency Air Flow," A.S.H. & V.E.


F. W. Caldwell Jour., vol. 26, p. 403.

1920 W. DeBaufre "Calibration of Nozzles for the Measurement


of Air Flowing into a Vacuum," A.S.H. &
V.E. Tran., vol. 42, p. 621.

1920 E. Buchington "Small Meters for Air, Especially Orifice


Meters," U. S. Dept. of Com. Tech. Papers,
Bur. of Stds., Dec. 20.

1920 T. S. Taylor "The Flow of Air through Small Brass


Tubes," A.S.M.E. Tran., vol. 42, p. 334.

1920 T. S. Taylor "The Flow of Air through Small Brass


Tubes," Power, p. 1022.

1920 J. M. Spitzglass "Measuring Flow of Fluids," Power, vol. 51,


p. 503.

1920 G. A. Goodenough "Principles of Thermodynamics," Chap. 9,


"The Flow of Fluids," p. 137, Henry Holt &
Co., New York, N. Y.

1921 J. L. Hodgson "The Metering of Compressed Air," Tran.


Inst. of Mining Engineers, vol. 60, p. 271.

1921 W. C. Brown, "The Orifice Meter and Gas Measurement,"


M. B. Hale Foxboro Co., Foxboro, Mass., Jan.

1921 W. N. Bond "Viscosity in Orifice Flow," Proc. Physical


Society, vol. 33, p. 225.
FLOW OF AIR THROUGH CIRCULAR ORIFICES

No. YEAR AUTHOR TITLE AND REFERENCE

J. L. Hodgson "Kent Hodgson Steam Meter," South African


Engineering, vol. 32, p. 243.
G. Stoney, "Notes on Flow of Air and Steam in Nozzles,"
E. Norman Engineering, vol. 112, p. 750.
M. Ware "Effect of Reversal of Air Flow upon the Dis-
charge Coefficient of Durley Orifice," Nation-
al Advisory Committee for Aeronautics,
Technical Note No. 40.
1922 H. W. Diebart "Discharge through Orifices in Series," Mech.
Eng., vol. 44, p. 764.
1922 Stratton "Stratton Air Flow Meter," Power, vol. 55,
p. 387.
1922 R. Glazebrook "Dictionary of Applied Physics," London,
Macmillan, vol. 3, 1922-23.
1922 J. L. Hodgson "The Metering of Steam," Tran. Inst. of
Naval Architects, vol. 64, p. 184.
1922 J. G. S. Thomas "Discharge of Air through Small Orifices and
the Entrainment of Air by the Issuing Jet,"
Phil. Mag., vol. 44, p. 919.
1923 J. M. Spitzglass "Orifice Coefficients-Data and Results of
Tests," A.S.M.E. Trans., vol. 44, p. 919.
1923 R. 0. King "The Measurement of Air Flow by means of
a Throttle Plate with Special Reference to the
Measurement of the Air Supply to Internal
Combustion Engines," Eng., vol. 115, p. 456.
1923 J. Taylor "Experiments Develop New Constants in Air
Flow," Auto. Ind., vol. 48, p. 1126.
1923 G. B. Shawn "Flow of Gases through Orifices," Amer. Gas
Journal, vol. 118, p. 23.
1923 H. P. Westcott "Measurements of Gas and Liquids by Ori-
fice Meters," Metric Metal Works, Erie,
Pennsylvania.
1924 "Fluid Meters," Pt. 1, Report of A.S.M.E.
Special Research Committee on Fluid Meters,
2nd Ed., New York, N. Y.
1924 R. 0. King "Measurement of Air Flow, Callendar Hot
Wire Anemometer," Eng., vol. 117, p. 136,
vol. 249, p. 51.
1925 J. L. Hodgson "The Orifice as a Basis of Flow Measure-
ment," Inst. of C.E. Selected paper No. 31,
1925.
A. B. Cox "New Theory of Fluid Flow," Jour. Franklin
Inst., vol. 198, p. 769.
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

No. YEAR AUTHOR TITLE AND REFERENCE

79 1925 E. Ower "The Practical Measurement of Air Flow,"


Domestic Eng. (London), vol. 45, p. 229,
vol. 46, p. 3, Jan.
80 1926 F. Kretzschmer "Die Ausflussformel von Saint-Venant und
Wantzel," Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher
Ingenieur, vol. 70, July 17.
81 1926 0. Mattner "Die Messungstr6mender Luft und Gase
unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung des
dynamischen Messprinzips," Chemiker-Zei-
tung, vol. 50, p. 533; vol. 50, p. 574, Aug. 4.
RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF
THE ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATIONt
Bulletin No. 163. A Study of Hard Finish Gypsum Plasters, by Thomas N.
McVay. 1927. Thirty cents.
CircularNo. 15. The Warm-Air Heating Research Residence in Zero Weather,
by Vincent S. Day. 1927. None Available.
Bulletin No. 164. Tests of the Fatigue Strength of Cast Iron, by H. F. Moore,
S. W. Lyon, and N. P. Inglis. 1927. Thirty cents.
Bulletin No. 165. A Study of Fatigue Cracks in Car Axles, by H. F. Moore.
1927. Fifteen cents.
Bulletin No. 166. Investigation of Web Stresses in Reinforced Concrete Beams,
by F. E. Richart. 1927. Sixty cents.
Bulletin No. 167. Freight Train Curve-Resistance on a One-Degree Curve and
a Three-Degree Curve, by Edward C. Schmidt. 1927. Twenty-five cents.
Bulletin No. 168. Heat Transmission Through Boiler Tubes, by Huber 0.
Croft. 1927. Thirty cents.
Bulletin No. 169. Effect of Enclosures on Direct Steam Radiator Performance,
by Maurice K. Fahnestock. 1927. Twenty cents.
Bulletin No. 170. The Measurement of Air Quantities and Energy Losses in
Mine Entries. Part II, by Alfred C. Callen and Cloyde M. Smith. 1927. Forty-
five cents.
Bulletin No. 171. Heat Transfer in Ammonia Condensers, by Alonzo P. Kratz,
Horace J. Macintire, and Richard E. Gould. 1927. Thirty-five cents.
Bulletin No. 172. The Absorption of Sound by Materials, by Floyd R. Watson.
1927. Twenty cents.
*Bulletin No. 173. The Surface Tension of Molten Metals, by Earl E. Libman.
1928. Thirty cents.
*CircularNo. 16. A Simple Metltod of Determining Stress in Curved Flexural
Members, by Benjamin J. Wilson and John F. Quereau. 1928. Fifteen cents.
Bulletin No. 174. The Effect of Climatic Changes upon a Multiple-Span Re-
inforced Concrete Arch Bridge, by Wilbur M. Wilson. 1928. Forty cents.
Bulletin No. 175. An Investigation of Web Stresses in Reinforced Concrete
Beams. Part II. Restrained Beams, by Frank E. Richart and Louis J. Larson.
1928. Forty-five cents.
Bulletin No. 176. A Metallographic Study of the Path of Fatigue Failure in
Copper, by Herbert F. Moore and Frank C. Howard. 1928. Twenty cents.
Bulletin No. 177. Embrittlement of Boiler Plate, by Samuel W. Parr and Fred-
erick G. Straub. 1928. None Available.
*Bulletin No. 178. Tests on the Hydraulics and Pneumatics of House Plumb-
ing. Part II, by Harold E. Babbitt. 1928. Thirty-five cents.
Bulletin No. 179. An Investigation of Checkerbrick for Carbureters of Water-
gas Machines, by C. W. Parmelee, A. E. R. Westman, and W. H. Pfeiffer. 1928.
Fifty cents.
Bulletin No. 180. The Classification of Coal, by Samuel W. Parr. 1928. Thirty-
five cents.
Bulletin No. 181. The Thermal Expansion of Fireclay Bricks, by Albert E. R.
Westman. 1928. Twenty cents.
*Bulletin No. 182. Flow of Brine in Pipes, by Richard E. Gould and Marion I.
Levy. 1928. Fifteen cents.
CircularNo. 17. A Laboratory Furnace for Testing Resistance of Firebrick to
Slag Erosion, by Ralph K. Hursh and Chester E. Grigsby. 1928. Fifteen cents.
*BulletinNo. 183. Tests of the Fatigue Strength of Steam Turbine Blade Shapes,
by Herbert F. Moore, Stuart W. Lyon, and Norville J. Alleman. 1928. Twenty-
five cents.
tCopies of the complete list of publications can be obtained without charge by addressing the
Engineering Experiment station, Urbana, Ill.
*A limited number of copies of the bulletins starred are available for free distribution.
ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION

*Bulletin No. 184. The Measurement of Air Quantities and Energy Losses in
Mine Entries. Part III, by Alfred C. Callen and Cloyde M. Smith. 1928. Thirty-
five cents.
*Bulletin No. 185. A Study of the Failure of Concrete Under Combined Com-
pressive Stresses, by Frank E. Richart, Anton Brandtzaeg, and Rex L. Brown. 1928.
Fifty-five cents.
*Bulletin No. 186. Heat Transfer in Ammonia Condensers. Part II, by Alonzo
P. Kratz, Horace J. Macintire, and Richard E. Gould. 1928. Twenty cents.
*Bulletin No. 187. The Surface Tension of Molten Metals. Part II, by Earl E.
Libman. 1928. Fifteen cents.
*Bulletin No. 188. Investigation of Warm-air Furnaces and Heating Systems.
Part III, by Arthur C. Willard, Alonzo P. Kratz, and Vincent S. Day. 1928. Forty-
five cents.
*Bulletin No. 189. Investigation of Warm-air Furnaces and Heating Systems.
Part IV, by Arthur C. Willard, Alonzo P. Kratz, and Vincent S. Day. 1929. Sixty
cents.
*Bulletin No. 190. The Failure of Plain and Spirally Reinforced Concrete in
Compression, by Frank E. Richart, Anton Brandtzaeg, and Rex L. Brown. 1929.
Forty cents.
Bulletin No. 191. Rolling Tests of Plates, by Wilbur M. Wilson. 1929. Thirty
cents.
Bulletin No. 192. Investigation of Heating Rooms with Direct Steam Radiators
Equipped with Enclosures and Shields, by Arthur C. Willard, Alonzo P. Kratz,
Maurice K. Fahnestock, and Seichi Konzo. 1929. Forty cents.
Bulletin No. 193. An X-Ray Study of Firebrick, by Albert E. R. Westman.
1929. Fifteen cents.
*Bulletin No. 194. Tuning of Oscillating Circuits by Plate Current Variations,
by J. Tykocinski-Tykociner and Ralph W. Armstrong. 1929. Twenty-five cents.
Bulletin No. 195. The Plaster-Model Method of Determining Stresses Applied
to Curved Beams, by Fred B. Seely and Richard V. James. 1929. Twenty cents.
*Bulletin No. 196. An Investigation of the Friability of Different Coals, by Cloyde
M. Smith. 1929. Thirty cents.
*CircularNo. 18. The Construction, Rehabilitation, and Maintenance of Gravel
Roads Suitable for Moderate Traffic, by Carroll C. Wiley. 1929. Thirty cents.
*Bulletin No. 197. A Study of Fatigue Cracks in Car Axles. Part II, by Herbert
F. Moore, Stuart W. Lyon, and Norville J. Alleman. 1929. Twenty cents.
*Bulletin No. 198. Results of Tests on Sewage Treatment, by Harold E. Babbitt
and Harry E. Schlenz. 1929. Fifty-five cents.
*Bulletin No. 199. The Measurement of Air Quantities and Energy Losses in
Mine Entries. Part IV, by Cloyde M. Smith. 1929. Thirty cents.
*Bulletin No. 200. Investigation of Endurance of Bond Strength of Various
Clays in Molding Sand, by Carl H. Casberg and William H. Spencer. 1929. Thirty
cents.
*Circular No. 19. Equipment for Gas-Liquid Reactions, by Donald B. Keyes.
1929. Ten cents.
*Bulletin No. 201. Acid Resisting Cover Enamels for Sheet Iron, by Andrew I.
Andrews. 1929. Twenty-five cents.
*Bulletin No. 202. Laboratory Tests of Reinforced Concrete Arch Ribs, by
Wilbur M. Wilson. 1929. Fifty-five cents.
*Bulletin No. 203. Dependability of the Theory of Concrete Arches, by Hardy
Cross. 1929.
*Bulletin No. 204. The Hydroxylation of Double Bonds, by Sherlock Swann, Jr.
1930. Ten cents.
*Bulletin No. 205. A Study of the Ikeda (Electrical Resistance) Short-Time Test
for Fatigue Strength of Metals, by Herbert F. Moore and Seichi Konzo. 1930.
Twenty cents.
*Bulletin No. 206. Studies in Electrodeposition of Metals, by Donald B. Keyes
and Sherlock Swann, Jr. 1930. Ten cents.
*Bulletin No. 207. The Flow of Air Through Circular Orifices with Rounded
Approach, by Joseph A. Polson, Joseph G. Lowther and Benjamin J. Wilson. 1930.
Thirty cents.
*A limited number of copies of the bulletins starred are available for free distribution.
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS
THE STATE UNIVERSITY-
URBANA
DAVID KIINLEY, Ph.D., LL.D., President

THE UNIVERSITY INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENTS:


The Graduate School
The College of Liberal Art; and Sciences (Curricula: General with majors, in
the Humanities and the Sciences; Chemistry and Chemical Engineering;
Pre-legal, Pre-medical, and Pre-dental; Pre-journalism, Home Economics,
Economic Entomology, and Applied Optics)- , -
The College of Commerce and Business Administration (Curricula: General
Business, Banking and Finance, Insurance, Accountancy, Railway Adminis-
tration, Railway Transportation, Industrial Administration, Foreign Com-
merce, Commercial Teachers, Trade and Civic Secretarial Service, Public
Utilities, Commerce and Law)
The College 6o Engineering (Curricula: Archttecture, Ceramics; Architectural,
Ceramic, Civil, Electrical, Gas, General, Mechanical, Mining, and Railway
Engineering; Engineering Physics)
The College of Agriculture (Curricula: General Agriculture; Floriculture-; Home
Economics; Landscape Architecture; Smith-Hughes-in conjunction with
the College of Education). ,
The College of Education (Curricula: Two year, prescribing junior ~tanding~ or
admission -General Education, Smith-Hughes Agriculture, Smith-Hughes
Home Economics, Public School Music; Four year, admitting from the high-
school-Industrial Education, Athletic Coaching, Physical Education. The
University High School is the practice school of the College of Education)
The School of Music (four-year curriculum)
The College of Law (three-year curriculum based on a college degree, or
three
years ,of college work at the University of Illinois)
The- Library School (two-year curriculum for college-graduates)
The School ofJournalism (two-year curriculum based on two- years of college
work)
The College of Medicine (in Chicago)
The College of Dentistry (in Chicago)
K The School of Pharmacy (in Chicago)
---
The Suntner Sessiotn (eight weeks)
Experiment Stations and Scientific Bureaus: U. S. Agricultural Experiment
Station; -Engineering Experiment Station; State Natural History Survey;
State Water Survey; State Geological Survey; Bureau of Educational
Research.
The Library Collections contain (June 1, 1929) 762,166 volumes and 73000 2

For catalogs and information address


THE REGISTRAR
Urbana, Illinois

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