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Non Destructive Test in Shipbuilding short review

The non destructive tests are normally performed by the Shipbuilder

or its subcontractors, in accordance with IACS rules. The Classification Societys

surveyor may require to witness some testing .

The personal involved in this activity with a grade equivalent level II calcification.
Operators level I may be engaged in this activity under the supervision of personal
level II or III.

Personal responsible for preparation and approval of NDT should be qualified grade

For each construction the Shipbuilder should l submit a plan for approval by
Classification Society with aria , procedure NDT to be used.

All welds will be subject to visual testing by personal designated by the Shipyard

Weld connection of cast (stern frame, rudder parts, shaft brackets) should be tested
over their full length.

All start/ stops points, in weld made automatic process should be exanimate RT or

The minimum RT test length should be 300 mm , and minimum UT test length
should be 500 mm.

Visual testing

The weld examined should be clean and free of paint .

Liquid penetration test /Dye penetrant testing- PT

This simple method needs minimum calibration equipment, surface preparation,

cleaning and drying prior to testing.

The surface will be clean, free from scales, oil, paint, and will include 10 mm sides of
weld .

Temperature has to be between 5 C deg and 50 C deg. The application consists in

two steps:

Penetrate spray (red) time will be less than 10 min , removed extra spray

Developer spray (white), develop time 10-30 min .

Advantage method:
Simplicity operation
Best method for cracks in non ferrous materials
Suitable for automatic testing


Restricted to breaking surface only

Use a big amount of materials

Magnetic particle testing -MT

Method is used for detection of surface or near surface discontinuities in magnetic

material , mainly ferrite steel and iron
The principle is to generate a magnetic flux in the article to be examinated . The flux
lines running along the surface, where the crack is present orientation is different.
Particles are oxide iron, 20-30 microns. The color could be red, black or
flouroscenses brilliance
The powder particle can be applied wet or dry.

There are many methods to generate magnetic flux in the piece. The most simple is
to apply a permanent magnet on the surface but is not accurate due to the contact
or magnet strength.

The other method is to generate magnetic field electric directly or indirectly.

-Passing a high current through a coil which encircles the subject .

-Making the test piece part of a yoke, this is wound with a current caring coil.

The used current is AC and DC, depends of the deep defect.

Normally to ensure the piece has no cracks the magnetization has to make in two
directions, perpendicular to each other, with a maximum deviation of 30 deg. The
last methods use swinging field with multi orientation direction.

The amperage could be generated by portable or power pack units from 2000 amps
to 10000 ams .

Advantage method:


Can be automated apart of viewing.


Restricted only to ferromagnetic materials

Restricted to surface or near surface flaws.

Not fail safe in that lack of indication could mean no defect or process not carried
out properly.

Radiography - X and Gamma

The method is suitable for detection of the internal defects in ferrous, nonferrous
and other materials.

There is a wide range of radiations: alpha, beta, gamma, X, neutrons , electrons ,

protons , (not included radio waves, visible radiations, infrared , UV , laser ).

The most used radiations are:

Rontgen radiations (X)

Gamma radiations ()

The source of radiation represents any source or radioactive material and any
radiation generator.

The source could be closed or open source.

The closed source is an enclosed source which in normal conditions does not
communicate radiate outside.

The propriety of the radiations is to act as light against the silver halide crystals,
function of the intensity , creating a photo image.

Material tested is places between the source and film. Material is different
penetrated, means darkened area represent a cavities, density of material
determine the amount of absorbed radiations.

Exposure time is measured in milliamps minutes. The intensity is measured in

Becquerels and reduced after a period of time. The half life of isotopes is:

Ir 192 72 days used in shipyard

Co 57 -272 days

Se 75 120 days

The exposure factor is curie hours, as the source decay exposure time should be

The source Ir 192 can penetrate plate between 7mm-45mm, with restrictions at 25
The radiographic test is carried out for for but seam, distance source film about
300 mm. The dark aria represent defects, the light one represent no defect aria.

The image quality should be verified using a / Q/ image indicator, wire type. The wire
is placed on the source side. The image of a wire is considered visible on the film if a
continuous length of at list 10 mm is clearly visible in a section of uniform optical


5mm<t < 7mm wire range W14 (0.16 mm)

Advantage of RT:

Information is pictorial

Info is used any time and place of source.

Useful for thin sections

Sensitivity declared on each film.

Suitable for any material

Disadvantages :

Not for thick sections

Possible health hazard

Film process needs special facilities

Not suitable for automation

Not suitable for surface defects

No indication of a depth defect below the surface

Ultrasonic testing

This method is used for detection of surface and internal defects of material .
Principle is the same as echosounder . A short pulse of ultrasound is generated by a
piezo elechtric crystal under a frequency related to the thickness of the crystal.
Vibration or sounds have the propriety to penetrate homogenous elastic materials as
metal. Velocity in steel is 5900 m/sec and in water is 1400 m/sec.

Ultrasonic energy is reflected under a incident angle by reaching a interface (air,

defect, back wall ,intendent hole).
The test is using waves with frequency 16 KHz 10 Mhz. The most used range is
0.5-5 MHz.

The type of waves are : transversal, longitudinal (most used), part longitudinal,
bending, torsion .

Examination technique includes:

-contact - hand held probe and measuring device with screen

- Immerse controlled piece and probe is in liquid

- inclined incidence the beam is send under an angle with perpendicular surface

- surface beams US beams are propagated along the surface

The used instrument is Krautmeter USM 25, USM 35 .

The thickness plate could be tested is 8mm- 100mm.

-The signal depends of the surface shape means big roughness small signal , small
roughness big signal . Grinding is not recommended .

-Structure of the material is also important , means fine structure good result , and
rough structure poor result .

-Discontinuity material orientation is a factor of signal quality.

Method of testing is related to the:

-material thickness ,

-beveled aria in this case result is not sure 100%, test id done only one side,

-material type is very important , calibration of gauge unit has to be made with the
some material , means speed of beam .

-welding type, but seam, full penetration, deep penetration, fillet weld cannot be

The emitter generate signals at equal time intervals which are reflected back . In
case of defect the signal will be reflected quicker than the back wall.

On the screen is marked the defect existence and also the deep in material. The
result is connected to the operator experience, discontinuity evaluation. The defect
on the screen is visualized as a pick in the

Advantage method:
-Thickness and length 30 ft could be checked

-position, type , and size defect can be detected

-instant test result


-extremely sensitive

-capable to be full automated

-access to only one side necessary

-no consumable


-Record made with sophisticated instruments

-operator can decide where he defect is based on his experience

-indications require interpretation

-considerable level of skill for record interpretation

UT Other applications

Plate thickness

The measurement is carried out with a specific instrument which also need
calibration . Method is as for defect sensor on surface (contact method ) , using
special liquid between surface and sensor. Application measurements for plate
thickness in case of :

Thickness test delivery

Score marks , after surface grinding .

Pitting, after surface grinding.

Watertight compartments:

Method use specific gauge with a sound source inside closed space and outside
measure device (receiver). It use for cargo hatches, hatches, metallic doors.

NDT Technology Overview

Product Life Cycle is dependent upon the quality of the product for which it has been designed. To validate
the product quality one requires carrying out destructive or non destructive testing. While destructive
testing is expensive, Non Destructive Testing (NDT) is economical as compared with its counterpart.
Traditional methods based upon Film Radiography, Ultrasonic, Eddy Currents, and Dye Penetrant Testing
have been used in the industry since four decades. With the evolving technology the above methods have
become refined leading to a further reduction in NDT costs.

CIT's Digital Radiography technology is one of the methods that has had an impact on the product
inspection process as, it is economical, reduces project time scales and is eco friendly. This is attributed to
the facts that it reduces radiation energy by 50% and exposure time by 60 to 70%. The Digital
Radiography provides a new innovative method that replaces X-ray films, darkroom processing and
conventional archives with computer systems, electronic archiving and x-ray capture using direct or
reusable digital imaging plates.

The flexible imaging plates can be used just like ordinary films in jackets and can be placed inside and
outside of the product under inspection. These plates are exposed in a similar manner to standard
radiographic setup but with reduced radiation energy and exposure time. Further, the technology has been
proven to work with Ir192, Se75, x-rays, Yb169, and Co60. Also, the images generated by Digital
Radiography meet with the overall radiography inspection standards of pipelines, pressures vessels
etc. CIT's Digital Radiography technology is field portable for site radiography and can have a payback
period of 6-9 months against specific

Corrosion and Condition Monitoring

Corrosion and erosion are major concern for any plant owner, as they result in huge ecomonic and
environmental losses, when they go undetected. Insulated pipes cause even a greater threat, as the
damage due to corrosion gets masked by the insulation cover.

Profile/Tangential Radiography is one of the proven methods for inspecting Corrosion Under Insulation
(CUI). This method makes use of high-energy radiation source, generally Ir192 or Co60, as the geometric
setup accounts for greater thicknesses to be penetrated.
The inspection simulation tool relies on ray tracing mathematical algorithms for radiation scattering, which
defines the following:
> Radiographic source, position. The geometry of the object to be inspected can be defined by standard
CAD packages or by parametric geometry models.
> Display of viewable variations on exposure times, light box, energy dynamic change