Anda di halaman 1dari 84

CONTRACT REPORT N-70-1

A NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT CODE FOR


ANALYZING THE BLAST RESPONSE OF
UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
by

I. Farhoomand, E. Wilson

January 1970

Sponsored by Defense Atomic Support Agency


NWER Subtask SC2 I0

Conducted for U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi

Under Contract No. DACA 39-6 7-0020

By Structural Engineering Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California

ARMYMRC VICKSBURG, MISS.

This document has been approved for public release and sale; its distribution is unlimited
I If I
W31--e-
,-Vo, II- 7()-/
FOREWORD

The investigation described herein was performed under Contract No.


DACA 39670020 for the Nuclear Weapons Effects Division (NWED), U.S. Army
Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), under the sponsorship of the
Defense Atomic Support Agency as part of Nuclear Weapons Effects Research
(NWER) Subtask SC 210.
This contract was technically monitored by Mr. P. J. Rieck under the
direct supervision of Mr. W. J. Flathau, Chief, Protective Structures Branch, and

under the general supervision of Mr. G. L. Arbuthnot, Jr., Chief, Nuclear Weapons
Effects Division, WES.
This study was conducted by Dr. Edward L. Wilson and Mr. lraj
Farhoomand of the University of California, Berkeley, California. Close tech
nical cooperation was provided by Messrs. J. L. Kirkland and R. E. Walker and
.
Dr. R. Froelich of NWED.
COL Levi A. Brown, CE, was Director of WES during the preparation
of this report. Mr. F. R. Brown was Technical Director.

62135
ABSTRACT

A nonlinear, axisymmetric, dynamic finite-element method of analysis


computer program is developed. Elastic, two-dimensional problems can also be
analyzed without loss of efficiency. An extensive description of the analytical
procedures used in the code is given. A FRTRAN IV listing of the com-
puter code is presented along with information on utilizing the code to run
problems.
Analytical results are compared with experimental data obtained from
testing a modeled buried structure subjected to a blast loading.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . .
DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS 2
STEP-BY-STEP INTEGRATION OF EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS 4
NONLINEAR MATERIAL BEHAVIOR . . . . . . . . . 10

CONSISTENT FORMULATION OF NONLINEAR PROPERTIES . 14


APPLICATION .. 18
COMPUTER PROGRAM 26
REFERENCES 28

APPENDIX A Internal Force Vector for A Quadrilateral


Element

APPENDIX B Description Of Input Data For ComRuter


Program

APPENDIX C Fortran IV Listing of Computer Program

APPENDIX D Listing Of Input Data For Sample Problem


INTRODUCTION

Several attempts have been made to use the finite element


method for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of granular materials 1 ' 2 ' 3.
These previous coded programs are not readily used by engineers for
the dynamic analysis of complex structures. One of the objectives of
this study is to develop a nonlinear computer program which is
efficient and easy to use.
In Reference 4 the finite element method coupled with a
stable step-by-step method of integration was used for the elastic
dynamic analysis of two-dimensional plane strain solids. Reference 5
is a generalization of the material in Reference 4. It also contains
a new coding technique which increases the capacity of the program.
The purpose of this investigation is to extend the step-by-step
dynamic analysis of axisymmetric structures- to- i-nclude non1inea~ity of
granular materials. It is worthy to note that elastic materials can
also be treated by the nonlinear program without a loss of efficiency.
In addition, the step-by-step integration method has been revised to
provide better accuracy when nonlinear equations are involved.

- l -
DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS

The force equilibrium of a system of structural elements is


expressed by the following matrix equation:

( 1)

where ~' Q, and u are vectors of nodal point displacements, velocities


and accelerations at time 11 t 11 M is the mass matrix assumed to be
constant (independent of time). K is the instantaneous stiffness
matrix, i.e., it varies as a function of displacements. C is the
instantaneous damping matrix, and finally~ is the generalized
external load vector applied at the nodal points of the system.
A formal mathematical development of the mass matrix ~ is
possible. Such an approach would result in a mass matrix with the
same coupling properties as the stiffness matr1x. However, if the
physical lumped mass approximation is made, the mass matrix will be
diagonal. The lumped mass approximation results in a small reduction
in accuracy and considerable saving in computer storage and time. In
this investigation one-fourth of the mass of each quadrilateral
element is assumed to be concentrated at each of the four nodal points.
For most structures the exact form of the damping matrix ~ is
unknown. In the solution procedure the damping matrix may be
completely arbitrary; however, there is little experimental
justification for selecting specific damping coefficients. In the
following analysis the damping matrix is ignored. This fact is

- 2 -
specially justified for analysis of earth structures subjected to
blast loading. Neglecting the damping matrix results in considerable
simplification and saving in the computer time.
At any stage of the analysis, knowing the elastic constants
of each element, the instantaneous stiffness matrix may be generated
using the same procedure as used in the linear elastic analysis
(reference 5). The assemblage of the stiffness matrix of the system
is also the same.

- 3 -
STEP-BY-STEP INTEGRATION OF EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS

The dynamic equilibrium of the finite element system is given


by equation (1). The basic concept of the solution of this set of
second order differential equations is explained in references 4 and 5.
However, in nonlinear analysis the overshooting problem (figure l)
makes the direct procedure inaccurate. To improve the accuracy of the
method, neglecting the damping matrix~' equation (1) is written as
fol lows:
(2)

where
tiu
---r = """"[
u - u
--r-tit'
tiu
--0
= --0
u

K is the instantaneous stiffness matrix for the displacement


and -t
interval ~ The assumption is that ~t is constant for the displace-
ment interval ---r
tiu The second term of the left hand side of equation
(2) may be written as:
t=t
E (3)
t=o
where
E
-t = (4)

The force vector E represents the forces carried by the elements of the
system at the beginning of the time increment. The formation of

- 4 -
PATH CREATED BY AN INACCURATE PROCEDURE

p __ _,
ACTUAL PATH
--- II
I

Py - 1
-----A-
ERROR IN II
--- I
I
I

I
Py -,----1
YIELD STRESS/ I

I I
I
I
I

I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I e
en en+I

FIG. I OVERSHOOTING PROBLEM IN A


STEP - BY - STEP PROCEDURE

- 5 -
force vector E for an axisynmetric finite element system is discussed
in Appendix A. Using equation (3) the force equilibrium equation of
a finite element system is expressed by:

(5)

This is the basic forces equilibrium equation which is used throughout


this investigation.
The time discretization of equation (5) is approximated in
the following manner: The acceleration of each point in the system
is a?sumed to vary linearly within a small time interval, 2b.t. This
assumption leads to a parabolic variation of velocity and a cubic
variation of displacement within the time interval t-b.t and t+b.t.
A direct inteyration over the interval gives the following
equations for acceleration and velocity at the end of the time interval:

: l _?., AU 3 ''u_,_ A_+ - 2 U+



b.t'- u-~+--LA-,_
~u1..
- _A_,_
ui. --i.-ui. --u At

(6)

The substitution of equation (6) into equation (5), results in a set


of linear equations in terms of unknown vector ~+b.t' The solution
of this set of eq~ations yields the increment of displacements of the
system at time t+b.t. The acceleration and velocities at time t may
then be found from the following series of equations:

., 1,5 A 3 ,, 2 " ( 7)
~t+b.t = -2 ~t+b.t - b.t ~t-b.t - ~t-b.t
b.t

- 6 -
=
1 (8)
gt 2 gt+L\t + gt-L\t )

+ ~t ( gt + u ( 9)
-t = ll-t-L\t
Cr
-t-L\t

= u
L\t (J
+ 2 +
2
L\t .. + 6t 2
(J
-t -t-L\t -t-L\t 3 ~t-L\t 6 gt (10)

Equation (8) is the essential factor in making the step-by-step method


stable. In fact, it can be shown that all roots of the characteristics
equation of the difference equation of the method lie between -1 and 1
for all sizes of time interval L\t. This means that regardless of the
size of the time step the procedure is stable and the high frequency
components do not cause the solution to blow up. However, the new
procedure tends to introduce damping in the higher frequencies of the
system. Fortunately this partial truncation of the higher modes is
justified in many dynamic analyses. The selection of the time step
and the finite element idealization for a particular Rroblem will
depend on the experience of the user with similar problems.
The step-by-step procedure, which is presented in a form which
minimizes computer storage and execution time, is summarized in Table l.
The 11 effective 11 stiffness matrix is normally banded and its
triangularized form is also banded. Therefore, a large amount of
computer storage is not required. Since the stiffness matrix is
different for each time step, it should be triangularized at every step.
However, for weakly nonlinear problems, where the stiffness matrix
might vary slightly, it may not be necessary to triangularize the
matrix at each time step.

- 7-
TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF STEP-BY-STEP PROCEDURE

I. Initial Calculation

A. Calculate the following constants:


T = t.t a4 = a0/a3
aO = 3/T a5 = 2/a3
al = .75// a6 = T/2
a2 = a0/2 a7 = i;6
a3 = 2al aB = 2a7

B. Form the stiffness matrix ~' diagonal mass matrix ~' and
the internal force v~ctor ~

C. As a starting point, form and triangularize the effective


stiffness matrix K=~+a3* !1
D. Form the -revis-ed ma-s-s matrix M=a3* M~

II. For Each Time Increment

A. Form the effective load vector


. ..
Rt+t.t = Rt+t.t - .t-t.t + ff (a 4 ~-t.t + as !Lt-t.t)

B. Back substitute to solve for the displacement vector ~+t.t

C. Calculate acceleration, velocity, and displacement vectors


at time 11 t 11 :

- 8 -
!!.t = al !!.t+tit - a2 !!.t-tit 5 !!.t-tit
. . .. ..
!!.t =
!!.t-tit + a6 (!!.t + !!.t-tit)
. .. ..
u
!!.t + -t-6t + 'L !!.t-tit + a7 (!!.t + 2 !!.t-6t)

D. Calculate strains, stresses, and the internal force


vector ~ at time "t".

E. For each desired interval:

Calculate and triangularize the new effective stiffness


matrix K.

F. Repeat for the next time step.

- 9 -
NONLINEAR MATERIAL BEHAVIOR

Many investigators have worked on nonlinear dynamic analysis


of earth structures. Penzien 1 developed a lumped mass, one-dimensional
model to study the response of semi-infinite soil layers in which
the material had a hysteretic, bilinear stress-strain behavior. Ang 2
investigated a technique to solve nonlinear two and three dimensional
dynamic analysis of soil media; however, his technique is cumbersome
and impractical. Recently, Dibaj 3 developed a consistant formulation
for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of earth structures based on
plasticity rules and the finite element method. Dibaj's technique is
also inefficient for practical purposes in the sense that to solve a
practical problem the computer time and storage are large.
Most computer codes that attempt to account for nonlinear
beh-avior-a~e ba-sed on the thr-ee _dimensional Prager-Drucker yield
condition. The behavior of the system is then assumed to be piecewise
linear, and the incremental elastic constants are evaluated for each
time interval. Based on these constants the tangent stiffness is
computed and the response of the system at the end of that interval
is obtained. Although the procedure is straight forward, it requires
a large amount of computer time. Furthermore, the incremental stress-
strain relationship for practical soil materials cannot be accurately
obtained from the Prager-Drucker yield condition
In reference 6, the stress-strain behavior of soils subjected
to dynamic load is discussed. Among the prime factors which are
important in the nonlinearity of the soil are volumetric change,

- 10 -
hydrostatic pressure, second strain invariant, and shear stress. It is
extremely difficult to use this experimental data directly in the
computer program. Since, the nonlinear-hysteretic behavior of the
bulk modulus appeared to be of major importance, a model was selected
to accurately represents this property. Figure 2, shows a pressure
volume strain relationship for a typical soil material. The bulk
modulus is defined as the ratio of the incremental hydrostatic pressure
to the incremental volumetric strain, or

K = ~
/J.e

Note that the bulk modulus is significantly different for loading and
unloading. The strain ef for a given maximum pressure is the
volumetric strain which will cause the soil material to lose its
incremental tensile stiffness. Therefore, if the strain, e, is less
than ef the average volume stress must vanish although the
individual stresses may not be zero. In order to use the bulk modulus
experimental data it was necessary to assume that the material is
incremental isotropic. Or

/J.cr = C/J.e:

where

K+iG 2 2
3 K- 3 G K- 3 G 0

2 K+iG 2
c= K- 3 G 3 K-3G 0
(11)

2 2 4 G
K+ 3
K- 3 G K- 3 G 0

0 0 0 2G

- 11 -
UNLOADING BRANCH

LOADING BRANCH K=L ~


Ae

K= AP*
u Ae*

AP

Ae

FIG. 2 STRESS - STRAIN DIAGRAM FOR A


GRANULAR SOIL SAMPLE

- 12 -
In this formulation the shear modulus may be a function of pressure
and may be found experimentally. In the next section of the report
an alternate procedure will be given for the determination of the
incremental shear modulus.
It is not necessary to express the material properties in
mathematical form for the purpose of a numerical analysis. The
following sequence of points which describe the stress-strain behavior
may be used to define the input to the computer program

1. Volumetric change
2. Hydrostatic pressure.
3. Unloading bulk modulus.
4. Shear Modulus.
5. Strain at which tensile hydrostatic pressure is
initiated in soil.

- 13 -
CONSISTENT FORMULATION OF NONLINEAR PROPERTIES

It is apparent that the nonlinear model discussed in the


previous section has many limitations. However, it can be improved
by considering in more detail a consistent mathematical formulation
of the constitutive equations as suggested by Brown and Froelich ( 8 )
Following reference ( 8 ), the internal energy may be
written as:

where
( 12)

( 13)

e1 and e2 are the first and second strain tensor invarients. S is


entropy density. TP is the maximum shear stress soil can resist, and
G0 is the initial shear modulus. The stress tensor might be expressed
by (reference 7):

C of (~)

- 14 -
where 13 is a 3x3 unit matrix, and

aw aw aw
A = ae = ae 1 ' B
aw
= ae = ae 2 ( 15)
1 1 2 2

in this case

c = aw constant
ae 3

It is simple to see that equation 14 may also be written in the form


of:

a = (16)

comparing equations (11) and (16), one can conclude that it is


possible to define incremental linear elastic constants in such a way
that they satisfy nonlinearity, i.e.,

awl( e ,s)
K
e
=
e,1 ae1 , , ~= (17)

To define the tangent moduli for nonlinear analysis,


variation of stress tensor should be expressed in terms of variation
of strain tensor. Applying o operator to equation (16) and neglecting
second order terms, equation (16) will change to:

o a = ( a2wl + .?.. :we2 ) o e, I3 - aw2 o (~ - _31 e, 13) (18)


ae 2 3 o
2 ae 2
1

Comparing equation (18) with the incremental strain stress relation,


equation (11).

- 15 -
the tangent moduli are defined as follows:
I

aw 1
6
a2w1 _ ae 1
K = ;-z -~
(19)
1

(20)

Using equation (13), shear modulus G may be expressed by:

(21)

Therefore the incremental shear modulus is not independent, but may


be calculated directly; since the experimental determination of the
shear limit, -rp' is possible.
Equation (17) indicates that the bulk modulus is dependent
on entropy; therefore S must be controlled during experiments in
order to obtain the true behavior of K. Presently experimental tests
do not give this information. Therefore, one must introduce
simplication in order to use the current test results. Referring to
Jackson's tests (reference 6), it appears that the maximum value of
the first invarient of strain tensor may be considered as a measure
of S. From experimental results one may plot hydrostatic pressure
vs. volumetric change (figure 2), and express a bulk modulus by:
aw
K = K (p, emax' e, e) ::: 6 ( ae1 )/Ml (22)
1

- 16 -
Where e is the rate of change of e with respect to p, and

1 (23)
P = 3 ( 0 11 + 0 22 + 0 33 )

(24)

in which 0
11 0
22 and 0
33 are principle stresses, and e11 e22

and e33 are principle strains.

Equation (22) implies that the loading and unloading bulk


moduli are different (figure 2). This is an indication of the
hysteretic behavior of the material and is accurately represented
in the model.

- 17 -
APPLICATION

The validity of the finite element method as applied to the


nonlinear dynamic analysis of axisymmetric systems is demonstrated by
two examples.
The method of analysis is compared with an experimental study
conducted by Jackson (reference 6). The model was a confined soil
cylinder subjected to a blast load uniformly distributed on the model.
Figure 3 shows the model, the finite element idealization, and the time
variation of the blast load. The pressure-volume change of material
of this same reference is constructed using a constant Poisson's ratio
and is shown in figure 4. Vertical strain of the model was measured
and plotted vs. time. A good agreement between the experimental and
the finite element results is observed (figure 5). Specially, the
permanent set, which linear analysis does not exhibit, is pronounced
by the nonlinear analysis. The slight discrepancy is due to inexactness
of the information adopted from reference 6.
In another analysis, the results of an elastic and a non-
linear finite element analysis were compared with an experimental study
of a structure buried in a soil material. This experimental study was
conducted in the blast load simulator at Vicksburg, Mississippi. The
stress-strain diagram used in the nonlinear analysis is shown in
figure 6. Figure 7 shows the finite element idealization of the model
and the time variation of the blast pressure which is applied on the
model. A listing of the input data for this structure is given in
Appendix D. In figure 8 the displacements at a point in the soil are

- 18 -
plotted. The experimental results indicate a permanent set in the
material, wheareas, the displacements from the elastic analysis return
to zero. The results of the nonlinear analysis are also plotted on the
same diagram, and are in good agreement with the experiment.

- 19 -
~
1.5"
-
! l
10-~~-+-~~--a~
I
I t
6"

FIG. 3a SOIL SAMPLE FIG. 3b FINITE ELEMENT IDEAL

90

-
CJ)
a..
IJ.l 600
~
CJ)
IJ.l
a:
300

.I .2 .3 TIME( SEC.)

FIG. 3c TIME VARIATION OF BLAST PRESSURE

- 20 -
(/) 500

-~
a.

:::>
m
W400
a::
a.
Q
I-
~
~ 300
15>- ACTUAL CURVE
:r:
IDEALIZED~1/
200
/j l...- UNLOADING BRANCH

I
100

0 2 4 6 8
VOLUMETRIC STRAIN (%}

FIG. 4 STRESS- STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF A SOIL MATERIAL

- 21 -
8

--
~
-- ----- - NONLINEAR ANALYSES ( 6 t =.005)
,-.-, ------ ---
-- ._....--
- - ( b . t =.0025)
z6 nt:trtt----......,.-------- EXPERIMENT
<l
a::
N
tn
N
Q
fE 4
~
:::>
..J
~
2

.I .2 .3
TIME (SEC.)

FIG. 5 TIME VARIATION OF VOLUMETRIC STRAIN


~ 60
~w
ff
2 50
tel

~
:c 40

30

20

10

.02 .04 .05 .08 .10


VOLUMETRIC STRAIN {%)

FIG.6 STRESS STRAIN CURVE (VICKSBURG'S TEST)

- 23 -
-

10 20 30 TIME ( MSEC)

FIG. 7a TIME VARIATION OF PRESSURE

11
132
K

~-+-~~+-~--i~~--t-~~~~~~l
w.~

I
12Ii----~~--~----~-..~~--~~~,

~l 120
11

i----~~--~----~-..~~--~~-a~ ,,
:~~'

;~,,

?
FIG. 7b FINITE ELEMENT IDEALIZATION

- 24 -
~
N
'Q 16

1-
2
w
:E
w /-
(.) /
<t
~ 12
I
I
I
I NONLINEAR
ANALYSIS
I
8

10 15

FIG. 8 DISPLACEMENT VS. TIME IN SOIL MATERIAL

- 25 -

62135
COMPUTER PROGRAM

A Fortran IV listing of the computer program for the nonlinear


dynamic analysis of axisymmetric structures is given in Appendix C.
The program utilizes axisymmetric elements with quarilateral cross-
sections. The capacity of the program will depend on the storage of the
computer used.
Within the program a method of dynamic storage allocation is
used, therefore, for a given problem all required data is compressed
into the smallest possible storage area. This also allows the
capacity of the program to be increased or decreased by only changing
one number within the program.
The operation of the program may be summarized by the
following steps:

-rir5t.
Control information, material properties nodal point
geometry and element data are read (or generated) by the
computer.

Second.
For each element, an 8x8 incremental stiffness matrix and
element mass matrix are formed. These are then added to
the total stifness and mass matrices of the system.

Third.
The step-by-step solution, as summarized in Table 1, is used
to evaluate the displacements as a function of time. At

- 26 -
At specified time points displacement and stresses are
printed. Also, at a different time interval new incremental
element stiffnesses may be calculated.

- 27 -
REFERENCES

l. Penzien, J., Scheffey, C.F., and Parmelee, R.A., "Seismic Analysis


of Bridges on Long Piles", Journal of Engineering, Mechanics
Division, ASCE, Vol. 90, No. EM3, June 1964.

2. Ang, A.H.S., "Numerical Approach for Wave Motions in Nonlinear


Solid Media", Proc. of the Conf. on "Matrix Methods in Structural
Mechanics", Dayton, Ohio, 26-28 Oct. 1965, AFFDL-TR-66-80, Nov.
1966.

3. Dibaj, M., "Nonlinear Seismic Response of Earth Structures 11 , Ph.D.


Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, California, 1969.

4. Wilson, E.L., 11 A Computer Program for the Dynamic Stress Analysis


of Underground Structures", Report to Waterways Experiment Station,
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Report. No. 68-1, Structural
Engineering Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley,
California, January 1968.

5. Wilson, E.L., "Elastic Dynamic Response of Axisymmetric Structures",


Report to Waterways Experiment Station, U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, Report No. 69-2, Structural Engineering Laboratory,
University of California, Berkeley, California, January 1969.

6. Jackson, J.G., "Factors that Influence the Development of Soil


Constitutive Relations", U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways
Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Paper No. 4-980, JulJ 1968.

7. Green, A.E., and Zerna, W., "Theoretical Elasticity", Oxford Press,


1954.

8. Brown, D., and Froelich, R., "Ideas from Continuum Mechanics


Pertinent to the Development of Computer Codes", Unpublished
Report,

- 28 -
APPENDIX A

INTERNAL FORCE VECTOR FOR A QUADRILATERAL ELEMENT


APPENDIX A.
INTERNAL FORCE VECTOR FOR A QUADRILATERAL ELEMENT

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this section is to present the development of


the internal force vector for a quadrilateral element. Expression of
virtual work is.

W= J [E]T [o] dV (A-1)


vol

the same expression in terms of the displacements of descrete nodal


points is.
W= [d]T [E] (A-2)

where

rErrl r au
ar r l 0
rr

Ezz 0
av zz
E
az ,~ =
Eee u/r 0
ee
au + av
Yrz az- ar 1" rz

[d]T = [ul vl u2 v2 U3 V3 U4 V4]

The strain vector can be related to the displacements at the nodal


points by the operator [B]

[E] = [BJ [d] (A-3)

- A1 -
Substituting equation (A-3) into equation (A-1) and comparing the
result with equation (A-2) we can write,

[E] = f [B]T [cr] dV


vol

Or for constant thickness t,

[E] = t f [B]T [cr] dA (A-4)


a

COORDINATE SYSTEMS
The coordinates {R,Z) are cartesian while the natural
coordinates (S,T) may be skewed and are defined such that S and T
vary from - l to 1, as shown in figure A-1. The {R,Z) coordinates
are given in --rerms -of (-5,T) natural coor-dinates by the following
interpolating functions:
4 4
r (s,t) = E hi ri z (s,t) = E h.l z.l
i=l i =1

h.l = (1-s){l-t)/4 h3 = {l+s) (l+t)/4


{A-5)
h2 = {l+s )(l-t)/4 h4 = (1-s) {1+t)I4

Since strains are defined by derivatives with respect to {R,Z) and the
displacement expantions are given in the (S,T) system, the chain rule
for differentiation must be used to calculate
as as at at
ar- ' az ' ar ' and az

- A 2 -
Inverting the chain rule,
a ar az
as as as
=
a ar az
at at at
Gives
a az -az
ar at as
= lJ
a -ar ar
al" at as
Where

J =J (s t) = 2.!:. ~ - 2.!:. ~
' as at at as

Since dA = J ds dt Equation (A-4) may be rewritten as.

[E] = t f [B]T [a] J ds dt (A-6)


A

STRAIN DISPLACEMENT TRANSFORMATION [BJ

Let nodal point values of the displacement u and v be given


by
[u] T = [u 1 , u2 , u3 , u4J

[v] T = [v 1 , v2 , v3 , v4J

The assumed displacement expansion uses the same interpolation


functions as appeared in Eqs. A-5, i.e.
4 4
U (s,t) = L h. u. v (s,t) = L hi v.
i =1 l l i =l l

The
88
strain is given by
4 4
= L L G. u.
l l
ee i=l i=l

- A 3 -
Err may be obtained by differentiation

E au
= ar = ~ .1. + ..!!. il
rr as ar at ar
4 4 ah. ah. ah. ah.
= 1 E E {-,
U; as at-1. - _, -1.)
at as z.J
J i =1 j=l

= [u]T [p] [z]/J.

Where
0 1-t -s+t -l+s
4 4 ah.1 ah . ah.1 ah . 1
[P] = ,=El E (as
j=l
af - at af) =8 0 l+s -S-t
0 l+t
skew-symmetric O

Similarly
E
ZZ = 2.Y.
az = - [VJ T [p] (r]/J

= ~ + E.Y. = -[u]T [p] [r] + [v]T [p] [z]


\~z -ttz ar J

Let

Y1 z24 - Z34 s - z23 t

Y2 -z13 + Z34 s + z14 t


[PJ}zJ = [y] = 1
Y3 =BJ -z24 + z12 s - zl4 t

Y4 zl3 - zl2 s + z23 t

And

x2 and so on
-[P] [r] = [x] = _1
J X3 - SJ

- A4 -
Then u,
v,
e:rr Y1 0 Y2 0 Y3 0 Y4 0
u2
e:zz 0 x, 0 x2 0 X3 0 X4 V2
= U3
e:ee gl 0 g2 0 g3 0 g4 0 V3
x, x2 Y2 X3 Y3 X4 Y4 U4
Yrz Y1
V4

or
[e:J = [BJ [dJ

[BJ is the strain displacement relationship required in Eq. A-6 to


evaluate the internal force vector of the element.

COMPUTATION OF [EJ
One point integration is used to evaluate the integral of Eq.
A-6. Therefore Eq. A-6 is reduced to

[E] = [BJT lt=o *[a]* volume


s=o

Where

[BJT lt=o is the value of [BJT at point t=o, s=o , [aJ is the stress
s=o
vector at point t=o, s=o , an.d the volume is the total volume of the
element.

- A 5 -
APPENDIX B

DESCRIPTION OF INPUT DATA FOR COMPUTER PROGRAM


APPENDIX B

DESCRIPTION OF INPUT DATA FOR COMPUTER PROGRAM

The purpose of this computer program is to determine time-


dependent displacements and stresses within elastic axisymmetric
structures of arbitrary shape and materials. In order to define the
computer input a two-dimensional cross-section of the axisymmetric
structure must be idealized by a system of finite elements.
Quadrilateral, triangular and one-dimensional membrane elements can
be used. Elements in the system are identified by a sequence of
numbers starting with one. Also, all nodal points are identified
by a separate numbering sequence. The reference coordinate system
to be used and a simple finite element representation of a structure is
shown in Figure B-1.
The fol lowing sequence of punched cards_ numericaJly define_
the axisymmetric structure to be analyzed.

A. IDENTI Fl CATION CARD. ( 72 H)


Columns l to 72 contain information to be printed with results.

B. CONTROL CARD. (715, 4Fl0.0)

Columns l - 5 Number of nodal points (n)


6 - 10 Number of elements (k)
11 - 15 Number of different materials (m)
16 - 20 Number of time steps
21 - 25 Number of time increments between the print
displacements and stresses

- Bl -
z

FIG. B-1 REFERENCE COORDINATE SYSTEM

Pi p(t)

FIG. B-2 PRESSURE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

B - 2
26 - 30 Number of load cards (t)
31 - 35 Number of boundary pressure cards (p)
36 - 40 Number of increments between the change of
stiffness
41 - 50 Damping coefficient a
51 - 60 Damping coefficient S
61 - 70 Time increment Lit
71 - 80 Reference number to be added to all R ordinates

C. MATERIAL PROPERTY INFORMATION.


The following card must be supplied for each different
material (15,2Fl5.0)

Columns 1 - 5 Material identification number


5 - 20 Mass density of material
21 - 35 Thickness (for membrane_ shell elements_)

D. STRESS-STRAIN INFORMATION.
To describe the stress-strain behavior of each material a
sequence of six points are used. Therefore, Six cards with the following
informations must be supplied for each different material. 6(5FlO.O)

Columns - 10 Volumetric change (Er + Ez + E8)

11 - 20 Average Stress [(arr+ azz + a88 )/3.]

21 - 30 Unloading bulk modulus


31 - 40 Shear modulus
41 - 50 Ratio of permanent strain and the maximum strain
(Ef/Emax)
- B3 -
The one-dimensional shell elements are restricted to linear materials.
The material properties of the shell elements are also specified by
the same input format - the unloading bulk modulus is defined as the
modulus of elasticity and the shear modulus is defined as Poisson's
ratio. The other information is not required.

D. NODAL POINT CARDS, (IS, FS.O, 2F.10.0)


One card is required for each nodal point with the following
information:

Columns l - 5 Nodal point number


6 - 10 Boundary condition code 11 k11
11 - 20 R-ordinate
21 - 30 Z-ordinate

Specifications for code k 11 11


If

k = 0 load in the ~-ai rection


load in the Z-direction
k =l zero displacement in the R-direction
load in the Z-direction
k =2 load in the R-direction
zero displacement in the Z-direction
k =3 zero displacement in the R-direction
zero displacement in the Z-direction
Nodal point cards must be in numerical sequence. If cards are omitted,
the omitted nodal points are generated in equal intervals along a
straight line between the defined nodal points. The boundary condition
code is set equal to zero.

- B4 -
E. ELEMENT CARDS. (6I5}

Columns l - 5 Element number


The maximum difference
6 - l 0 Nodal point I "b" between these numbers
is an indication of the
11 - 15 Nodal point J band width. The execution
time for the program will
16 - 20 Nodal point K be proportional to this
number squared.
21 - 25 Nodal point L
26 - 30 Material Identification

For a right hand coordinate system the nodal point numbers I, J, Kand
L must be in sequence in a counter-clockwise direction around the
element. Element cards must be in element number sequence. If
element cards are omitted the program automatically generates the
omitted information by incrementing by one the preceeding I, J, Kand
L. The material identification for the generated cards is set equal
to the corresponding value on the last card. The last element card
must always be suppTfed. TrianguTar eTements are arso permfssilffe;
they are identified by repeating the last nodal point number
(i.e. I, J, K, K}. One dimensional membrane elements are identified
by a nodal point numbering sequence of the form I, J, J, I.

F. PRESSURE CARDS (2I5, 3Fl0.0}

One card for each boundary element which is subjected to a


normal pressure.

Columns l - 5 Nodal point I


6 - 10 Nodal point J
11 - 20 Pressure multiplier Pi

- B 5 -
21 - 30 Pressure multiplier Pj
31 - 40 Arrival time of pressure at the center of the
surface element

As shown in Figure B-2 the boundary element must be on the left as one
progresses from I to J. Surface tensile force is input as a negative
pressure.

G. LOAD CARDS (2Fl0.0)

These cards specify the normal pressure as a function of time


in the form of straight line segments. One card is required for each
point with the following information:

Columns l - 10 Time t
11 - 20 Normal pressure p (t)

OUTPUT INFORMATION
The following information is developed and printed by the
program:
1. Reprint of input data
2. Pressure boundary conditions
3. Nodal point displacements, velocities and accelerations
as a function of time
4. Stresses at the center of each element as a function of
time

- B 6 -
PROGRAM LIMITATIONS

The capacity of the program is limited by the dimension "d"


of the "A" array in program DYNS.

[4n (b + 1) + 18n + 2i + 7p + 14k + 32m] must not be greater


than d. The symbols n, i, p and b have been defined previously and
their values will depend on the particular structure to be analyzed.
The maximum size which d can have will depend on the particular
computer being utilized. For a computer with 32K storage the maximum
value for d will be approximately 20000.

- B7 -
APPENDIX C

FORTRAN IV LISTING OF THE COMPUTER PROGRAM


PRUGRAM DYN5(IN~ur,uurPuf,fAPE5=INPUT,fAPE6=UUTPUT)
cOMMON NUMNP,MsAND,NT,NPRINT,NP,NUMPc,NUMEL,NUMMAT,RA,TTtDELT,
1 NST tALFAtBEIA,HED(12ltA(33200l
c--------
c READ AND PRINT OF CONTROL INFORMATION
c--------
50 READ ( !:>' lUOU l HEO tNUMNP '1'lUVIEI. 'NU1"11lA T''ll, NPK I NT, 1-.P, NUMPc, 'lS T, ALFA,
lBEfA,DELl,RA I
WRITE (6,200Ul HED'NUMNP,NUMELt~UMMAl'~f ,NPKJNT,NP,NUMP(,ALFA'
1 BETA,DELfNSI
c-------
c READ AND PRINI OF DATA
c-------
NEQ=2*NUMNP
N2=1+ NUMNP
N3=N2+NUMNP
N4=N3+NLiMNP
N5=N4+5*NUMEL
N6=N5+NUMMAT
N7=N6+30*NUMMAf
N8=N7+NUMPC
N9=N8+NUMPC
N10=N9+NUMPC
Nll=NlO+NUMPC
Nl2=Nll+NUMPC
N13=Nl2+NUMPC
N14=Nl3+NUMPC
N15=Nl4+NUMMAf
luO CALL DAfAIN<AillA<N2lA<N3lA<N4)tACN5)tAIN6>A(N7lA<N8ltA(N9l
1 ,AINlul AINlll tAIN12l oAIN13l A<Nl4l AiN15l l
c--------
c FORM fUIAL STIFFNESS ANO ~ASS MATRICES AND S0LVE STEP-BY-STEP
c--------
Nl6=tH5+2*~P
Nl7=Nl6+NUMNP
Nl8=Nl7+NEQ
Nl9=Nl8+NEQ
N2V=Nl9+NEQ
N2l=N2u+NEQ
N22=N2l+NEQ
N23=N22+5*NUMEL
N24=N23+4*NUMEL
N25=N24+NEQ*MBAND
IF <N25eLE. 332U01 GO TO 200
WRITE <6llUOl
STOP
2UU DO 30u t=Nl6N25
300 A<I )"'U
CALL SULVE(Ail)'A<N2)A<N3JtAIN4)A<N5)A(N6)oAIN71,ACNB10A(N9),
1 A( N1v l 'A ( Nll l 'A ( N12 l 'A ( Nl 3 l 'A< N141 A ( N151 'A< Nl 6 l 'A< N1 7) 'A ( N18 l
2 tACN19l,A<N20l,A<N21l,A<N22)tA<N231tAIN24lNEQ)
GO TO Su
c-------
1 uuu FORMAT<12A6/ijI5t4FlU.Ol
llUO FORMAT (25rlv ulMENSlON OF A tXlEEDED)
2vvu FORMAf <lHl 12A6/
1 30HO NUMBER OF NODAL POINTS------ I4 I

- cl -
2 30HO NUMBER OF ELEMENTS---------- 14 I
3 30HO NUMBER OF DIFF. MATERIALS--- 14 I
4 30HO NUMBER OF TIME INCREMENTS--- 14 I
5 30H0 PMJNT JNTEMVAL-------------- 14 I
6 30HO NUMBEk UF LUAD PUJNTS------- 14 I
7 30HU NUMBER OF PRE~SURE CARD~---- 14 I
8 30HU DAMPING COEFFICIENT ALFA---- Fl0e5 I
9 30HO DAMPING COEFFICIENT BETA---- Fl0e5 I
0 30HO TIME INCREMENT-------------- Fl0.5/
1 30HO STIFFNE~S CHANGE INTERVAL--- I4 l
END

- c2 -
SUBHOUlINE ~fRE~~ l~IG,PNES,E,VQL,EE,MfYPEJ
COMMON I LS4AHG/ LMl8),SS(4,8)'Xc,vc,slb,8J,C(4,4J
DIMENSION SIG14l 'Elll,EEl5,6,ll
c-------
c VOLUME * ~TkES~ TO GET STRESSES UNE SH0ULD DEVIDE RY THE VUL.
C THIS IS UONE AT THE END OF THE SUBROUTINE
c--------
c---- --
c SHELL ELEMENT
c-------
D~=S ( l, l l +SI 2, l l +S ( 3, 11
IF ILM14l.NEeLMl6Jl GO TO 300
ENU=EE<4,l,MTYPEI
El =EEl3'l'MTl'PEl' ll.-CNU**2l
Cll,ll=El .
Cl2,2l=El
Cll,2l=El*ENU
Cl2,ll=Cll,2l
SJG(ll=l5JGlll+Cll,ll*Sll,l>+Sl2,l>*Cll,2l J*VOL
5IGl2l=l5IGl2l+Cl2,ll*Sll,1J+Cl2,2J*S(2,ll)*VOL
GO TO l.Jv
300 IF (C(l,11.NE.O.l GU TU 600
DO 55U I=lt4
550 SIGIIJ=O.
RETURN
6UO SJGP=ISIGlll+~IGl2>+5IGl3l )/3.
B=C(l,2J+.666o6666666666*Cl4,4)
PR =-PRES-SIGP
ST=ABSIPR/IB*DSll
DO 40v I=l3
SI I '1 l =S < I t 11 *5 T
DO 40U J=l,3
4UO S(J,J+ll=CII,Jl-B
DO SOU l=lt3
500 SyGlt1=ISrGIIl+fJ1< +51It2J*Sll,1J+Sly'3)*Sl2tl)+SII,4>*Sl3,l)l*VUL
5IG14J=l~IG14l+cl4,4)*Sl4tl)*STJ*VOL .
C-----INTERNAL FORCE
lUU DO 2uu I=lt4
DO 18v J=lt8
JJ=LMIJ)
180 EIJJl=EIJJl+SSII,~l*SIGlll
7UU SIGIIl=SIGIIllVOL
2uv CONTINUE
32U RETURN
END

- c3 -
SU9KOult'IE ~IGEl"S l~TkAINtEEtMlYPEC i-lKEStEPSP)
DIMEN~ION EEl~t61lEl4ltSTRAINl5lCl44l
c--------
c------EPSM ( l) IS THE LAST MAX. STRAIN OF THE UNLOADING BRANCH
c------- EPSP=~ TRAIN
l l) +!:>TRAIN ( 2) +STRAIN ( 3)
IF<EP~P.LE.u.l GO TO 90
C-----COMPLET CRACK
PRES=v.
DO 8U I=l4
DO 80 J=lt4
au c< ItJ>=O.
RETURN
90 EPSM=5TRAIN<5l
EPSP=-EP~P
IF<EPSP.Gf .EP!:>Ml EP5M=EP5P
EPSA=EPSM
c
DO 100 J=2t6
JFlEPSA.LT.EElltltMTYPEll GO TO 200
lUU CONTINUE
C------FIND THE LOADING BULK OF THE CORNER POINT.
c
200 DE=EEllIMfiPEl-EE<lI-ltMTYPEl
ti= <EE<2ltMTYPEl-EE<21-ltMTtP~ll/DE
c------FIND INFUkMATIUN OF THE CORNER POINT.
c
R=<EP5A-EE<lI-ltMTYPElllDE
DO 30U J=l4
300 E<J1=EElJ+lI-ltMTYPE>+k*lEE<J+lIMTY~E>-EE(J lJ-ltMTYPE))
G=E<3l
PRE!:>=Elll
R=B
c------CHECK FOR THE vNLOADING BRANCH.
c
IF <EPSP.GE.EPSMl GO TO 400
c~----ASSUME A BILINEAR BEHAVIOR FOR THE UNLOADING BRANCH
EF=E<4l*EPSM
EB=Elll/lEl2l+El2>l
IFlEF.GT.EP~Pl GO TO 6
ECON=EP5M-EB
IFlEP~P.LT.ECUN) GO TO 5
B=El2l
PRES=E<ll-E12l*lEPSM-EPSPl
GO TO 7
5 B=Elll/l2e*<EPSM-EF-EBll
PRES=B*lEPSP-EFl
GO TO 7
6 B=EPSP/EF*E<ll/l2.*IEPSM-EF-EBll
PRES=v.
7 G=B*El3>/R
4;.iu CONTJNvE
STRAJN15l=EPSM
C------ MATERIAL MATRIX.
c
Cl4t41=G
G=lG+Gl/3.

- c4 -
Cllll=B+G+G
Cl lt2l=B-G
c 1 i '3 1=c1 i '2 >
Cl2tll=C<lt21
C<2t21=C<ltll
Cl2t31=Cllt21
Cl3tll=Cllt3l
Cl3t2l=Cl2t31
Cl3t3l=C<ltll
c
RETURN
END

- c5 -
susMOUTI~E 5ULVEl~tltcOOEtIXtkUtEEHtHJ,VItVJtTtINI,JNJ,H,Pt
l MA5~tXOtXltXitBtEtEPSt5IGtAtNEQ)
CUMMON NUMNPtMBANOtNTtNPK1NTt~PtNUMPC'~UMELtNUMMATtRAtTTtDELTt
l NST ALFAtBEfA
DI MEN~ I or~ K( ll 'L ( l) 'CUDE ( l ) ' Ix ( 5 'l ) 'kU ( l) 'EE ( 5' 6 '1 ) 'HI ( l) '
l HJ< l l t VI <l l 'VJ< l l t T <l l t IN I < l l 'JNJ <l > t P <2 'l l 'MASS <l l t XO< l) ,
2 Xl ( l l t X2 ( ll t B( l l t A( NEQ t 1 l 'EP S <5'1 l t E ( 1 l 'SIG< 4 1 l HI 1 l 'ELMA SS< 4 l
COMMON I LS4AKG I LM(8)tS5!4t8)tX(tY(tSl8tij)t(l4t4)
REAL MASS
c-------
c INITIALILATION
c----
DO 40 I=lt4
DO 50 J=lt8
5U SS(ltJ)=v.
DO 40 J=lt4
4U C(ItJl=U
VOL=O.
c
c CON~TANf~ FOk fHE ~TEP-sY-SrEP SOLUTION
c
Al=3.IDELT
A2=.75/DELT**2
A3=All2.
Av = A2+ A2
A4=Al/A0
A5 = 2e/Au
A6=DELTl2.
A7=DELT**216.
A8=A7+A7
c-----FORM STIFFNESS ANO MASS MATRIX OF THE SYSTFM
DO 375 N=ltNUMEL
- DO 1-99 I =-l-t4
J=I+I
II=IX<ItNl+IXlitNl
LM(Jl=ll
199 LM<J-l>=II-1
c-------
c FINE THE ELA~TIC CONSTANTS.
c--------
I =IX I l Nl t
J=IX!2tNl
K=IXl3tNl
L=IXl4tNl
MTYPE=IXl5tNl
IFIJ.NE.Kl CALL ~IGEPS IEPSlltN)tEEtMTYPEtCt PREStEPSP)
c----
c FORM ELEMENT STIFFNESS MATRICES
c--------
CALL STIFF (KtLtC0DEtIXlltN)tEEtAtNEQ,KU,MTYPEtVOL Hl
IF lJ.NEeKl GO To 444
RRR=VUL*KU(MTYPE>'4
ELMA.:>Jlll=RRR
ELMAS~(2l=RRR
ELMAS~!3l=RRR
ELMASSl4l=RRR
GO TO 454

- c6 -
444 RM=8.*XC
Rl2=R<Il-R!J)
Rl3= R! I l-R!Kl
Rl4=R<I>-RIL)
R23=RIJJ-RIK)
R24=R!J)-RIL)
R34=RIKJ-R(L)
Zl2=Z<Il-LIJ)
Z l 3=Z I I l -L ( KJ
Ll4=LIIl-LILJ
l23=LIJl-LIKl
l 2 4 =L I J I-LI Ll
Z34=Z!K)-LIL)
ROM=ROIMTYPE)/72.
BR=IR34*Zl2-Z34*RB2J*ROM
AR=<VOL+VOL)/AC *ROM
CR=IR23*Ll4-L23*Rl41*ROM
ELMAS51lJ=AK*IHM+Rl3+HIIJ1-BK*lklI>+kl IJ+KIL)) cH*IRIIJ+RII)+KIJ))
ELMAS5<21=Ak*IKM+k24+RIJ))+BK*IRIJ1+RIJ1+R!K11 cH*<Rr11+R!J)+k(J))
ELMAS513l=Ak*!kM+RIK1-Rl3l+Bk*!RIJ)+kl~J+klK)) cR*CRIK)+RIK)+RI~))
ELMAS514l=Ak*IRM+RIL>-R24>-BR*IKII)+RILJ+RIL)J cR*IRIK)+RILJ+Rl~)I
454 CONTINUE
DO 35U I=lt4
II=IXIJtNl
35U MASSIIIl=MASSIIIl+ELMASSIIJ
375 CONTINUE
c--------
c INITIAL ACCELERATION
c--------
TT=P 11 '1 l
IK=l
CALL LOAD ITtPtBtJNltJNJtHitHJtVJtVJ,IK)
c-----FURM THE EFEcr1VE STIFFNESS OF THE SYSTEM
IJ=U
DO 40U I=ltNEQ
II= I-II
I F ( A I I tl l EO. 0 l GO TO 4 00
X2< I l=BI I l/MASSI I I l
AI I' 1 l =A I I '1 I +AU*MASS I I I l
400 CONTINUE
c-----REVISE THE MA~S METRJX FOR SlJBCJOUENT USE
DO 4vl ll=ltNVMNP
401 1vJASSI 11 l =1IASS I I I l*AU
C-----INJTIAL TRIANGULARIZATION
CALL TRIA INEQ,MBANDtAl
c-------
c STEP-OY-STEP ~OLUTJON
c--------
MM= I NS T-l J NUMEL
KK=l.J
LL=U
DO 5uu NNN=ltNT
TT=TT +DELT
CALL LOAD 1r,,9,INitJNJtHIHJtVItVJtIKJ
11 =l.J
C-----EFECTIVE LOAD VECTOR
DO 46U I=ltNEQ

- c7 -
I I=I-II
Bl I l=BI I l-EI I l+MASSI I I l*IA4*Xll I l+A5*X21 Ill
IFIAIItll.EY.O.vl B<Ii=o.o
460 CONTINUE
c
c SOLUTION AT END OF TIME STEP
c
CALL BACKS <NEQtMBANDAtBI
DO 481.1 I=ltNEQ
El I )=U
ACC=A2*AII1-Aj*Xl<11-.5*X21Il
BI I I =DEL T*Xll l l +A 7* <ACC+X2 <I l +X2 I I l l
XO I 11 =XU< I l +B (I l
Xl( l l =Xl I I l+A6*lX21 I l+ACC l
480 X21Il=ACC
c PRINT DI~PLACEMENT AND PREPARATION OF A NEW STIFFNESS METRIX
c---- --+
LL=LL+l
IF (LL.NE.NPRINT l GO TO 499
LL=O
421 WRITE 16t2006l TT
DO 482 N=ltNUMNP
M=N+N
K=M-1
482 WRITE l6t2008) NtXOIK) tXOIM1 tXl<K1 .x11111 tX2<K1 tX2lM) ,N
499 CONTINUE
MPRINT =0
DO 498 N=ltNUMEL
KK=KK+l
c----
c COMPUTE ~TKAIN ELA~TIC CUNTANTtSTRESSESt INTERNAL FORCE AND
c ::>TI FFNE::>-'
c---- CALL ~TRAIN ( Btt< tl t IX< l tN) ,tP~( l ti'i) t-MT-Pf,VVL~t11
IF lJX(2tNl.NE.IXl3Nl I
lCALL SIGEPS(EPSlltNlEEtMTYPEC PREStEPSP)
CALL STRE~S <SIGlltN)tPKEStEtVOL,F.EtMTY~F.l
c
IFI KK.LE.MMl GO TO 170
IF IKK.GT.MM+ll GO TO 424
II=O
DO 425 I=lNEQ
II=I-II
IF IA(Itll.NE.v.l AIIll=MASSIIIl
DO 425 J=2MBAND
425 AIIJ)=O.
424 CALL ~TIFF l~tLtC0DEtXlltNlF.EANEUt~v,MTYPEtV0L HI
IF IN.NE.NUMELl GO TO 170
KK=O
CALL TRIA INEQMBANDAl
170 IF <LL.NE.Ol GU TO 498
c-------
c------cALCULA TE THE PRINCIPLE STRESSF.S.
c--------
CC: IS I Gl l t Nl +~I Gl 2tNll12.
BB=CC-.SIGl2tNl
CR=~QRT<BB**2+~IG<4Nl**2l

- c8 -
SIGMAX=cc+cR
SIGMIN=CC-CR
IFICRl 2UUt25~t200
200 ANGLE=28648*ATAN215IG14tNltBBl
255 IFI MPRINT! llUlU5,110
1U5 WRITE (6,2000)
MPRINT =5U
110 MPRINT =MPRINf-1
3U5 WRITE 16t200ll NtXCY(tlSIGIJtN)tI=lt4lSIGMAXtSIGMINtANG~E
1 tPREStEPSP
c
498 CONTINUE
500 CONTINUE
RETURN
c---- -+
2000 FORMAT 16HlEL.Nu 7X lH~ 7X lHZ 7X 'HSIG-R 7X 5HSIG-Z IX
1 5H5IG-T 6X bHTAU-Rl 5X 7H5IG-MAX 'X 7HSIG-MIN 7H ANGLE
22X llHAVE. PRE~5. 2X llHVOLe CHANGE. l
2uu1 FORMAT I I5tlXt2F8.2t6El24tF6e2t2El34l
2006 FOR~AT lbHlTI~E T=Fl0.6/118 HONUDAL PUINT X-DISPLACEMENT Y-DI5~LA
lCEMENT X-VEL0CITY Y-VELOCITY X-ACCELERATION Y-ACCELEKATI
20N NODAL POINT l
2uu7 FORMAf (flU.0)
2uv8 FORMAf ll9t6El6e4tI91
END

- c9 -
SUBK00TINE DATAIN(R,l,CUDE,IX,RU,EE,Hl,HJ,VI,VJ,T,INJ,JNJ,H,Pl
cuM.ION NU11Nf' 'MBA'"D 'NT' Nt'K I ,...T 'l'lP 'i'lU1'\Pc 'l'Ul"IEL 'NUMMA T 'RA' TT
DI 1v\ EN;:, I Ul'l 1< <l I ' L. <l l ' Cu DE ( 1 l ' I X( 5 '1 l ' t< U<l l ' EE <5 ' 6 '1 l ' HI ( 1 l '
l HJ I l l 'VI ( l l 'VJ ( 1 l 'T ( 1 l ' IN I ( l l 'JNJ ( l l 'P <2 'l l ' IE< 5 l 'H ( 1 l
c--------
c READ AND PRINT OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES
c-------
DO 59 M=lNUMMAT
KEAD <51U011 MTYPE,RO<MTYPEl,H<MTYPEl'
l llEEII,J,MTYPEl,J=l,5l,J=l,6l
WRITE (6,20001 MTYPE,~U(MTYPEJ,H<MTYPEJ
59 wRITE (6,20121 l(EE(ItJ,MTYPEl,I=l,5JJ=l,6J
c--------
c READ AND PRJNf OF NODAL POINT DATA
c--------
WR ITE (6,2vU4l
L=U
60 READ 15,lu02) N'CODE(N),RIN)l<N)
R<Nl=R<Nl+RA '
IF <L.EQ.u) GO TO 85
ZX=N-L ,
DR=<R<N1-R<Ll l/lX
Dl=<Z<Nl-L(L)l/LX
85 NL=L+l
7U L=L+l
IF<N-Ll lvv,90,uu
80 CODEIL)=v.o
R<LJ=R<L-ll+DR
L<L)=Z<L-ll+DL.
GO TO 7U
90 WRITE (6,2Uu21 (K,cODE(K),R<K1,z<K),K=NL,N)
IF(NUMNP-Nl luu,110,60
lUU WRITE (6,20U9l N
;:,TOP
110 CONTINUE
c--------
c READ AND PRINT OF ELEMENT NODES
c--------
WR ITE (6,2Vlill
N=U
MBAND=v
130 READ <5,1vu3) M<IE<Il,I=l5l
14v N=N+l
MB=U
DO 16U I=lt4
c----
c DETERMINATION OFBAND WITH
c----
DO 16V J=J,4
MM=IAB;:,<IE<Il-IE<Jll
IF<MM.GT.MBl MB=MM
l6V CONTINUE
MB=2*MB+2
IF<MB.GT.MBANDl MBAND=MB
IF<M.EQ.Nl GO TO 145
DO 142 I=lt4
142 IX<ItNl=IX<IN-ll+l

- c 10 -
IXl5tNl=IXl5tN-ll
GO TO 15U
145 DO 148 I=lt5
148 IX I I 'N l =IE< I I
15U wRITE 16t20.J31 Ntl IX< JtNJtJ=lt5l tMB
c----
IFIN.EQ.NUMELI GO TO 700
IFIN.EQ.Ml GO TO 13U
GO TO 14'-'
c----
c PRESSURE BU0NDAkY CONDITIONS
c----
70U WRITE 16t2Ul01
DO 33v K=ltNUMPC
READ l5tlvu7) INIIKltJNJ<KltAtBtTIKJ
I=INIIKl
J=JNJIK)
DL=ll< I l-L(J) 1112.u
DR=< RI J l -!-{I I l l / 12 u
RX=A*l3.u*RIIl+RIJJl+B*IRI Il+RIJ))
lX=A* IR I I I +KI J l I +B* IR I I l +3 O*R I JI l
HIIKJ=RX*DZ
HJIKJ=lX*DL
VI<Kl=RX*DR
VJ(KJ=LX*DR
330 fiRJTE 16t2ul31 IJtABtHIIKJtVylK!HJ<"-JVJIK)tTIK!
c----
c READ AND PRINT OF LOAD DATA
c----
WRITE 16t2007l
DO 38U M=ltNP
38U READl51VV4l IPIKtMltK=1'2l
WRITE l62U05l ((P(f..tM)tK=l2!M=lNP)
c----
RETURN
luUl FORMAT II52Fl5.U/15Fl0.Ul l
1002 FORMAT II5FS.u.2Flv.61
1Vv3 FORMAT 16151
1Vv4 FORMAT 12Flu.OI
1UU7 FORMAT 12I53FlUeU)
iUUO FORMAi ll~H MAfE~IAL NU~BER = I5 tlOH DENSITY = El~.6 ,
1 13H IHICKNE~S = El5.6 I 4Xt
29UH ~TRAIN PRESSURE UNLOADI~G BULK SHEAk M
30DULU~ ~TRAIN SET RATIO I )
2uu1 FORMAT (49HlELEMENT NO. J K L MATERIAL
2uu2 FORMAT II7 Fl0.2t2Fl0.31
2vu3 FORMAT llll34I62Il2)
2004 FORMAT 137HlNODAL PUJNT TYPE X-URD Y-ORD l
2uu5 FORMA I I 2Fl5. 11
2uu7 FORMAT 127Hl TIME PRESSURE Pl
2VU9 FORMAT 126HUNODAL POINT CARD ERROR N= 15)
2u1u FORMAT 129HlPRE~SURE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS/
l~XtlHJ5XlHJ7X4HPy/PtdXt4HPJ/P,8X,2HHIlOXt2HVIlOXt2HHJtlOXt
2 2HVJtllXlHTI
2ul2 FORMAT 15El8.6l
2Ul3 FORMAT 1216t7Fl2e3l
END

- c 11 -
SUBROUTINE STRAIN lXOtRtltIXtEPStMTYPEtVOLtH)
DIMENSION XOll)tK(l),ZllPIXl5) tEPSl5) tXl4)tYl4)tHlll
cuMMON I ~S4AKG I LM(8)tSS(4t8)tX(tY(tSl8t8)t((4t4)
DO 21.1-.1 I=lt4
DO 5l>U IK=1'8
51JU SS(ltIKl=u
J=I+I
I I=IXI I l+IXI I I
LMlJ)=II
200 LMlJ-ll=II-1
l=IXlll
J=IXl21
K=tXl3l
L=JX(4)
MTYPE=IXl 51
c----
c DISPLACEMENT STKAIN TRANSFORMATION MATKIX.
c--------
R13=R l I >-RIK>
R24=RlJ>-RlL)
Ll3=Ll I 1-LIK)
L24=LlJ)-LlL)
RM=l.llKlll+KlJ>+Rl~l+RlL))
Yc=lZII1+L<J1+Ll~1+LlL))/4
IFlJ.NE.Kl GO TO 30U
c-----SHELL ELEMENT
XL=R24**2+Z24**2
SS( ltl l=Rl3/XL
SSl lt2)=L13/XL
~5 l 1t 3 I=-~.:> l1' l l
SSllt41=-~Sllt2)
-5-S l-2- l }=RM+RM
SSl2t3l=~Sl2tll
VOL=S~RTIXLJ*lHIMTYP[)+HIMTYPEll
GO TO 4UU
3UU VOL=Rl3*~24-Ll3*R24
Yl ll =L24/VOL
Yl2J=-Ll3/VOL
Yl3)=-Ylll
Yl4>=-Yl2l
Xll>=-R24/VOL
X<2l=Rl3/VOL
Xl3l=-Xlll
Xl4)=-Xl2l
DO 100 I=lt4
II=I+l
JJ= I I-1
S~( ltJJ)=Yl I l
SS l 2' I I l =X l I l
SS(3,JJJ=RM
S514tlll=YIII
luU 5~14tJJl=XlII
4Uu XC=.2~/RM
VOL.=VOL/ 2. *XC
c-------
c EVALUATION OF 5lR01N.
c-------- - c 12 -
DO 18U I=l,4
SII,l>=u.
DO l8v J=l,8
JJ=LMIJ)
180 S(J,ll=~II,ll+~~(J,JJ*XOIJJ>
DO l9iJ J=l4
190 EPS< I >=El-':)(J )+5'1'11
32iJ RETURN
END

- c 13 -
SUBROUTINE ONED lR,L,H,IX,VOL,MTYPE,EEl
COMMON I LS4AKG I LMl8),SS!4,8),XC,YC,St8,8)t((4,4)
DIMENSION R(lltLllltHll)tJXl5),STl4t8) tEEl5t6tll
DO 41U I=l,8
DO 405 J=l,4
4U5 .STIJtl)=v
DO 4lli J=l,8
4lu S(l,J)=u.
I=IXlll
J=IXl2l
XC= l RI I l +IH J l I 12
YC=IZII)+LlJ)l/2.
DX=RIJl-Rlll
DY=LlJ)-LlII
XL=~QRrlDX**2+DY**2l
VOL=HIMTYPE>*AL*XC
ENU=EE(4,1,MrrPEl
El=EEl3tl,MTYPEl/11.-ENU**2l
Cll,ll=El
Cl2,2l=El
C(l,2l=ENU*El
Cl2,ll=Cll,2l
c-----STRAIN DISPLACEMENT RELATION
::>Tl1,11=-DX/XL**2
STllt2)=-DY/XL**2
.STll,3)=-::>Tlltll
ST I lt 4 l =-.ST l 1'2 l
::>Tl2,l)=.5/X(
STl2,3l=~Tl2'1l
DO 411 1=1,4
DO 411 J=l ,8
411 .S;)(I,Jl=v
DO 412 I=lt2
DO i+r2 J=l '4
DO 412 K=l,2
412 SSI I ,J)=.SSl I Jl+Cl I tKJ*ST l KtJ)
DO 414 J=lt4
DO 414 1=14
DO 414 K=l,2
414 ~litJ)=~lltJ)+~TIKtl)*SSIKtJJ*VOL
RETURN
END

- c 14 -
~UBROUTINE LUAD ITtPtBtINitJNJtHitHJtVltVJtIKl
cOfv1MON NU1'INP' MBAND 'NT' NPK I NT' NP' NUMPc 'i'lU11EL 'NUMMA T 'RA' TT' DEL T
DI MEN~ I U1~ TI l l 'PI 2 tl l 'BI 1 l ' IN I I 1 l 'JNJ <1 l 'HI I 1 l 'HJ I 1 l 'VI I 1 l 'VJ< 1 l
c
NEQ=NvMNP+NUMNP
DO 60U I=lNEQ
600 BII)=u.
N= 1
1uu TAU=TT-T<N>
IF(TAU) 50Ut20Ut20U
200 IFITAU.GE.P<lI~l.AND.TAU.LE.PlltIK+l)l GU TU 300
IF tTAU.GT.PlltIK+ll) IK=IK+l
IF <TAU.LT.PlltIKll IK=IK-1
GO TO 2Uv
3UO D=P<lIK+ll-PlltlKI
DH=Pl21K+ll-Pl2t1Kl
IF ITT.E~.P(ltlll TAU=-DELT
DT=TAU-PlltlKI +DELT
F=P(2tIKl+DT*DH/D
400 I=INI<Nl+INIINI
II=I-1
J=JNJINl+JNJINl
JJ=J-1
Bllll=Bllll+F*HllNl
BIJJJ=BIJJl+F*HJINI
Bl I >=Bl I l+F*Vl INl
BIJl=BIJl+F*VJINl
5uU N=N+l
IF IN.GT.NUMPCl RETURN
IFITINl.EQ.TIN-ll) GO TO 400
GO TO lUU
END

- c 15 -
SUBKOUTI~E STIFF !RtZtCUDEtIXtEEtAtNE~,Ku,MTYPE1VUL,H)
cUMMON I ~S4AKG I LMl8)tSS14t8)tXCtY(1Sl818)tC14t4)
DIMENSION Kll>1LllltC0DEll)tlXl5)tEEl5t6tllA<NEU,l)tROlllH<ll
I=IX<l>
J=IX<2>
K=IX(3)
L=JX(4)
IF IJ.NE.Kl GO TO 420
CALL ONED lRtLtHIXVOLtMfYPEEEl
GO TO 43U
42U CONTINUE
c
CALL ~U AD (KI I ) 'Kl J) 'Kl K) 'KIL) , l I I ) , Z ( J) 'l I I<.) t l I L) 'Xp YC, VUL, C'
1 St~S)
43v CONTINUE
c
C MODIFY FOR ZERO DISPLACEMENTS
c
DO 6Uv 1=14
lJ=I+l
II=IX(Jl
IF (CODEIIIl.EQ.u.Ol GO TO 600
IF <CODEIIll.EQ.l.Ol GO TO 580
DO 57v J=lS
St IJtJ)="'
57v StJ1lJ>=O
580 IF <CODEIIIl.EQ.2.0l GO TO 600
DO 591.i J=lt8
SllJ-ltJl=U.
590 SIJtIJ-ll=U
~-LU -CON T_J NU
c
DO 30\J 1=1'8
I I =LM I I l
DO 30v J=lt8
JJ=LMlJl-II+l
IF IJJ.Lf .ll GO TO 300
AlilJJl=AllIJJl+SIItJl
3uu CONTINUE
RETURN
END

- c 16 -
SUBROUTINE BACK~INNMMtAtB)
c
DIMEN~ION AllltBlll
c
MMM=MM-1
N=U
270 N=N+l
C=BINl
IFIAINleNt.u.u> BINl=B<NJ/AINl
IF<N.EQ.NNI GO To 3uo
ILN+l
IH=MINUINNtN+MMMl
M=N
DO 285 I=ILtlH
M=M+NN
285 BIIl=BIIl-AIMl*C
GO TO 27U
c
3UU IL=N
N=N-1
IF<N.EQ.~l REIURN
IH=MINOINNtN+MMMI
M=N
DO 40U I=ILtlH
M=M+NN
4vU BINl=B<Nl-AIMl*BIIl
GO TO 3uu
c
END

- c 17 -
SUBROUTINE TRIAlNEQtMtAl
DIMEN.':>ION A<ll
NE=NEQ-1
MN=M-1
MM=MN*NEQ
MK=NEQ-MN
DO 300 N=ltNE
NT=N-MK
IF<NT.GT.Ol MM=MM-NEQ
IFlAlNl.EQ.U.vl GO TO 300
L=N
IL=N+NEQ
IH=N+MM
DO 2ou I=ILtlHtNEQ
L=L+l
J=L
9., C=A< I l/A(Nl
DO lOU K=ltlHtNEQ
AlJl=A(Jl-C*A(K)
lUO J=J+NEQ
Alll=C
2uu CONTINUE
3u\J CONTINIJE
RETURN
END

- c 18 -
SUBrWUTI~E "'UAD (t<ltr<2tK3tK4tZltZ2.Z3tl4,K1'1,ZJV1,vuL,DtWi<.,usi
c
C FUKMS STIFFNESS MATt<IX l..IKt CENTKUIDAL STr<ESS MATKIX WS
C FOR A FIVE POINT AXISYMMETRIC IKUNS QUADRILATERAL USING
C A FOUR POINT INTEGRATION FORMULA.
C CONSTANT ~HEAR STRAIN INTKODUCES INCOM~ATIBILITY
DI'vlEN;;,ICJh 1..1K< o,d 1,use4,a 1,o<44> .Tr <4 >I.JC c4, lo 1 .ss<41 ,aac lo, lo>
DATA ~S/ -l.l.l.,-1. I ' TT 1-1.,-l.l 1. I
c
DO 6 I=ltli.i
DO 6 J=llU
6 QQ CI 'J I = u
Rl2=Rl-R2
Rl3=Rl-R3
Rl4=Rl-R4
R23=R2-R3
R<:!4=R2-R4'
R34=R3-R4
Zl2=Zl-Z2
Zl3=li'-Z3
Zl4=Zl-Z4
Z23=Z2-Z3
Z24=Z2-Z4
L34=Z3-Z4
VOL=Rl3*L24-R24*LB3
RM=IRl+R2+R3+R4l/4.u
LM=IZl+Z2+L3+~4ll4.u
IF IDlltll.EU.u.) GO TO 888
Y5=L24/VOL
X6=Rl3/VOL
X7=R24/VOL
Y8=Zl3/VOL
X5=-X7
Y6=-Y8
Y7=-Y5
X8=-X6
DO 3u II=lt4
S=SSIIIl*u577350269189626
T=TTCIIl*U.57/350269189626
XJ =VUL+;;,*(K34*Ll2-Rl2*Z34)+T*<R23*Zl4-Kl4*Z23)
XJAC=XJ/8.0
SM=l.u-~
SP=l.u+S
TM=l.u-T
TP=l.u+T
Hl=L..25*5M*TM
H2=u.25*SP*TM
H3=0.25*.::>P*TP
H4=o.J.25*.JM*TP
R=Hl*Rl+H2*R2+H3*R3+H4*R4
Gl=Hl/R
G2=H2/R
G3=H3/R
G4=H4/R
GC=SM*SP*TM*TP/R
Xl=<-R24+R34*~+R23*l)/XJ
X2=1 Rl3-R34*~-Rl4*T)/XJ

- c 19 -
X3=1 R24-Rl2*~+Rl4*T)/XJ
X4=1-Rl3+Rl2*5-R23*T)/XJ
Yl=I l24-L34*~-L23*T)/XJ
Y2=1-ll3+L34*~+Ll4*T)/XJ
Y3=l-l24+ll2*J-ll4*Tl/XJ
Y4=1 ll3-Ll2*~+L23*T)/XJ
RS=0.25*1-TM*~l+TM*R2+TP*R3-TP*R4)
L~=U.25*1-TM*Ll+TM*L2+TP*L3-TP*l4)
RT=0.25*l-SM*Rl-SP*R2+SP*K3+SM*R4)
lT=0.25*1-SM*Ll-SP*L2+SP*l3+SM*l4)
Xc=-2.u*<T*SM*SP*RS-S*TM*TP*RT)/XJAC
Ye= 2.u*IT*SMSP*ZS-S*TM*TP*ZT)/XJAC
FAC=XJAC*R
c
C FORM ~TIFFNES~ QK
c
DO 10 I=lt4
Ol=Dlltll*FAC
D2=Dllt2l*FAC
03=Dllt3l*FAC
04=Dllt4l*FAC
QClltll= o:*Yl+D4*X5+D3*Gl
QCllt3l= Dl*Y2+D4*X6+D3*G2
QC I I' 5 l = Dl*Y3+D4*X7+D3*G3
ac1It7)= Dl*Y4+D4*X8+D3*G4
QCIIt9l= Dl*YC +D3*GC
QC I I' 2 l = D2*Xl+D4*Y5
QC I I, 4 l = D2*X2+04*Y6
QC I It 6 l = D2*X3+04*Y7
ac 11,s1 = D2*X4+D4*Y8
QClltlUl= D2*XC
hl CONlfNLTE
00 20 I=lt.LO
Dl=QC I lt I l
02=QCI 2 I l
03=Q(l3tll
04=QC14tll
QQlltll=QQlltll+Dl*Yl+D4*X5+D3*Gl
QQl3tll=~~l3ll+Dl*Y2+D4*X6+D3*G2
QQl5tll=QQl5tll+Dl*Y3+D4*X7+D3*G3
QQ(7,t)=~Ul7tll+Dl*Y4+D4*X8+D3*G4
QQl9tll=QQ(9,l)+D1*YC +D3*GC
QQl2tll=QWl2tll+D2*Xl+D4*Y5
QQ14tll=QQ(4,Il+D2*X2+D4*Y6
QQl6tll=QQl6tll+D2*X3+D4*Y7
QQl8tll=QQl8tll+D2*X4+D4*Y8
QQll0tll=QQ(lUtll+D2*XC
2u CONTIN..JE
3iJ CONTtN..JE
c
C FORM STRESS MATKIX QS AT CENTROID <RMtZM) OF ELEMENT
c
DO 40 t=lt4
Dl=Dlltll
D2=DI I 2 l
D3=Dllt3l/14.u*RM)
D4=Dllt4l
- c 20 -
Tl=I Dl*L24-D4*R24J/VOL
T2=<-Dl*Ll:;+D4*Rl3J/VOL
T3=1-D2*R24+D4*L24J/VOL
T4=< D2*Rl3-D4*Ll3J/VOL
QC< I' 11 =D3+ Tl
ac<I,3>=D3+T2
QC<It!:>J=D3-Tl
QCI 1'7J=D3-T2
QCIIt9)=4.0*D3
ac<I,21= T3
QCIIt4l= T4
QCIIt6J=-T3
QC<It81=-T4
QCIItlUl=v.u
4U CONTJNuE
c
C ELIMINATE CENIRE NODE
c
DO 50 N=lt2
L=lu-N
M=L+l
DO 50 I=ltL
C=QQIItMl/QQIMtMl
DO 50 J=ltL
50 QQIItJ)=QQ(JtJJ-C*QQ(MtJ)
c
C RELOCATE ~TRE~~' STIFFNE~S AND LOAD MATRICES
c
888 CONTINUE
DO 70 J=lt8
DO 7U I=lt4
QK < I' J l =QQ I I 'J l
70 QK.I I+4tJl=QQ! I+4tJ)
VOL=VOL*RM/2.
RETvRN
END

- c 21 -
APPENDIX D

LISTING OF INPUT DATA FOR SAMPLE PROBLEM


TEST FOR THE NONLINEAR AXISYMMETRIC ANALYSIS. VICKSBURG'S EXAMPLE.
63 50 2 20 1 11 6 1 .0015
1 eUUU164
20Juuoo. 17500. .874
.vUOl!:J5 ~ouuooo. 13500. .874
uoo29 200ouoo 10500. .874-
.uo16 2uuuuuo. 12000. .874
.001855 2ooouoo. 21000. .874
.uo2 6u. 20<Juvuo. 21000. .874
2. .0001 .5
3uuuuvoo. .3
3uooouoo. .3
3uuoouoo. .3
3uuvouoo. .3
3uououoo. .3
3uoouvoo. .3
1 3. o. o.
2 3. 12. o.
3 3. 36. o.
4 3. 60. o.
5 3. 84. o.
6 3. 11.18. o.
7 3. 132. o.
8 1. o. 24.
9 o. 12. 24.
14 1. 132. 24.
15 1. u. 48.
16 o. 12. 48.
21 1. 132. 48.
22 1. o. 60.
23 o. 12. 60.
28 1. 132. 60.
29 1. (). 12.
30 o .. 12 .. 7-2 .-
35 1. 132. 12.
36 1. o. 84.
37 o. 12. 84.
42 1. 132. 84.
43 1. o. 96.
44 o. 12. 96.
49 1. 132. 96.
5U 1. o. 108.
51 o. 12. 108.
56 1. 132. 108.
57 1. \J. 120.
58 o. 12. 120.
63 1. 132. 120.
1 1 2 9 8 1
6 6 7 14 !3 1
7 8 9 16 15 1
12 13 14 21 20 1
13 15 16 23 22 1
18 2U 21 2 ti 27 1
19 22 23 30 29 1
24 27 28 3 :> 34 1
25 3U 31 38 37 1
29 34 35 42 41 1

- D1 -
30 36 37 44 4f3 1
35 41 42 49 48 1
36 43 44 51 50 1
41 48 49 56 55 1
42 50 51 58 57 1
47 55 56 63 62 1
48 36 37 37 36 2
49 37 31,1 30 37 2
50 29 30 30 29 2 '
l

63 62 1. 1. 'i
62 61 1. 1.
61 60 1. 1.
60 59 1. 1.
59 58 l. 1.
58 57 l. l
001 14
002 54.
.JU3 54.
.uu4 39.
uu5 38
011 36
v19 35
u3v 34
v4l.I 32
oso 31

- D2 -
DISTRIBUTION LIST

No. of
Address Co pi~

Chief of Engineers, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C. 20314


ATTN: ENGME-S
ENGME l
ENGCW-E l
ENGCW-Z l
ENGMC-E l
ENGMC-EM l
ENGMC-DE l
EN GAS-I l
ENGAS-I, Library 1
ENGNA l

Chief of Research and Development, Headquarters, Department of the Army, Washington, 3 copies
D. C. 20310 of Form
ATTN: Director of Army Technical Information 1473

Chief of Research and Development, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C. 20310


/
ATTN: Atomic Office
CR DES

Division Engineers, U. S. Army Engineer Divisions, Continental United States Cy to ea

Commandant, U. S. Army Air Defense School, Fort Bliss, Tex. 79906

Commandant, U. S. Army Command & General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kans. 66027
ATTN: Archives

Commandant, Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, Pa. 17013


ATTN: Library

Commanding General, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Md. 21005 4


ATTN: Director, Ballistic Research Laboratories

Commanding General, The Engineer Center, Fort Belvoir, Va. 22060


ATTN: Assistant Commandant, Engineer School

Commanding General, U. S. A. Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, N. J. 07703


ATTN: AMSEL-GGDD

Commanding General, USA Missile Command, Huntsville, Ala. 35809

Commanding General, USA Munition Command, Dover, N. J. 07801

Commanding General, U. S. Continental Army Command, Fort Monroe, Va. 23351


No. of
Address Copies

Army (Continued)

Commanding General, U.S. Army Materiel Command, Washington, D. C. 20310 2


ATTN: AMCRD-DE-N

Commanding Officer, Picatinny Arsenal, Dover, N. J. 07801


ATTN: ORDBB-TK

Commanding Officer, U. S. Army Aviation Materiel Laboratories, Fort Eustis, Va. 23604

Commanding Officer, U. S. Army Combat Developments Command, Institute of Nuclear 2


Studies, Fort Bliss, Tex. 79916

Commanding Officer, U. S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center


Fort Belvoir, Va. 22060
ATTN: Technical Documents Center, Building 315

Commanding Officer, U. S. Army Nuclear Defense Laboratory, Edgewood Arsenal


Edgewood, Md. 21040
ATTN: Technical Library

Department of the Army, CE Ballistic Missile Construction Office, P. O. Box 4187


Norton AFB, Calif. 92409

Director of Civil Defense, Office of the Secretary of the Army, Washington, D. C. 20310 2
ATTN: Mr. George Sisson (RE-ED)

Director, Nuclear Cratering Group, u. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lawrence Radiation


Laboratory, P. 0. Box 808, Livermore, Calif. 94550

Director, U.S. Army Corps of~ngineers,-coastal-Engineering-Resea~ch~t_er


Washington, D. C. 20016
ATTN: Mr. T. Saville, Jr.

Director, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Ohio River Division Laboratories, 5851 Mariemont
Avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio 45227

Technical Library
USAMERDC, Bldg 314
Fort Belvoir, Va. 22060

Director, U. S. Army CRREL, P. 0. Box 282, Hanover, N. H. 03755


ATTN: Mr. K. Boyd

Director, U. S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 4005,


Champaign, Ill. 61820
ATTN: Library

2
No. of
Address Copies_

Army (Continued)

District Engineer, U. S. Army Engineer District, Omaha, 6012 U. S. Post Office and Court House
215 N. 17th Street, Omaha, Nebr. 68101
ATTN: MROGS-B

President, U. S. Army Air Defense Board, Fort Bliss, Tex. 79906

Superintendent, U. S. Military Academy, West Point, N. Y. 10996 2


ATTN: Library

U. S. fumy Engineer Division, Missouri River, P. O. Box 103, Downtown Station


Omaha, Nebr. 68101
ATTN: Mr. Ken Lane

Navy

Commander-in-Chief, Pacific, FPO, San Francisco 94129

Commander-in-Chief, U. S. Atlantic Fleet, U. S. Naval Base, Norfolk, Va. 23511

Chief of Naval Operations, Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 20350


ATTN: OP-75 2
OP-03EG l

Chief of Naval Research, Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 20390


ATTN: Code 811

Commandant of the Marine Corps, Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 20380 2


ATTN: Code A04E

Commander, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 20370


ATTN: Code 04
Code 03

Commander, Naval Ordnance Systems Command, Washington, D. C. 20360

Commander, Naval Ship Engineering Center, Washington, D. C. 20360


ATTN: Code 6115

Commanding Officer, Nuclear Weapons Training Center, Atlantic Naval Base, Norfolk, Va. 23511
ATTN: Nuclear Warfare Department

Commanding Officer, Nuclear Weapons Training Center, Pacific, Naval Station, North Island 2
San Diego, Calif. 92136

Commanding Officer & Director, Naval Electronics Laboratory, San Diego, Calif. 92152

Commanding Officer & Director, Naval Ship Research and Development Center
Carderock, Md. 20007

Commanding General, Marine Corps Development and Education Command, Quantico, Va. 22134 2
ATTN: Director, Development Center

3
No. of
Address ~op~

Navy (Continued)

Commanding Officer & Director, U. S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory 2


Port Hueneme, Calif. 93041
ATTN: Code L31

Commanding Officer, U. S. Naval Civil Engineer Corps Officer School, U. S. Naval Construction
Battalion Center, Port Hueneme, Calif. 93041

Commanding Officer, U. S. Naval Damage Control Training Center, Naval Base


Philadelphia, Pa. 19112
ATTN: ABC Defense Course

Commanding Officer, U. S. Naval Weapons Evaluation Facility, Kirtland Air Force Base
Albuquerque, N. Mex. 87117
ATTN: Code WEVS

Commanding Officer, U. S. Naval Weapons Laboratory, Dahlgren, Va. 22448


ATTN: TE

Commander, U. S. Naval Oceanographic Office, Suitland, Md. 20023

Commander, U. S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory, Silver Spring, Md. 20910


ATTN: EA
EU
E

Commander, U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, Calif. 93555

Director, U. S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C. 20390

President, U. S. Naval War College, Newport, R. I. 02840

Special Projects, Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 20360


ATTN: SP-272

Superintendent, U. S. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif. 93940

Underwater Explosions Research Division, Naval Ship Research and Development Center
Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, Va. 23511

Air Force

Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio 45433
ATTN: Mr. Frank Janik, Jr.

Air Force Institute of Technology, AFITL, Building 640, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433

Commander, Air Force Logistics Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 2

Air Force Systems Command, Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, D. C. 20331
ATTN: SCTSW

4
No. of
Address Copies

Air Force (Continued)

Air Forcl! Technical Applications Center, Department of the Air Force, Washington, D. C. 20333

Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, N. Mex. 87117


ATTN: Library 2
WLDC l
WLDC/R. W. Henny 1

Director, Air University Library, Maxwell AFB, Ala. 36112 2

Commander, Strategic Air Command, Offutt AFB, Nebr. 68113


ATTN: OAWS

Commander, Tactical Air Command, Langley AFB, Va. 23365


ATTN: Document Security Branch

Space and Missile Systems Organization, Norton AFB, Calif. 92409


ATTN: SAMSO (SMQNM)

Headquarters, USAF, Washington, D. C. 20330


ATTN: AFRSTG

Director, Air Research and Development Command Headquarters, USAF


Washington, D. C. 20330
ATTN: Combat Components Division

Director of Civil Engineering, Headquarters, USAF, Washington, D. C. 20330


ATTN: AFOCE

Director, U.S. Air Force Project RAND, Via: U. S. Air Force Liaison Office, The RAND
Corporation, 1roa Main Street, i>anta ~onfoa, Calif. 90406
ATTN: Library
Dr. Harold L. Brode
Dr. Olen A. Nance

Other DOD Agencies

Administrator, National Aeronautics & Space Administration, 400 Maryland Avenue, S. W.


Washington, D. C. 20546

Assistant to the Secretary of Defense (Atomic Energy), Washington, D. C. 20301

Commandant, Armed Forces Staff College, Norfolk, Va. 23511


ATTN: Library

Commandant, National War College, Washington, D. C. 20310


ATTN: Class Rec. Library

Commandant, The Industrial College of the Armed Forces, Fort McNair


Washington, D. C. 20310

5
No. of
Address Copies

Other DOD Agencies (Continued)

Commander, Test Command, DASA, Sandia Base, Albuquerque, N. Mex. 87115 2


ATTN: TCCOM,TCDT

Commander, Field Command, DASA, Sandia Base, Albuquerque, N. Mex. 87115 2

Defense Documentation Center (DDC), Cameron Station, Alexandria, Va. 22314 (NO TOP 20
SECRET TO THIS ADDRESS)
ATTN: Mr. Myer Kahn

Director, Defense Atomic Support Agency, Washington, D. C. 20301 5


ATTN: SPSS

Director of Defense Research and Engineering, Washington, D. C. 20301


ATTN: Technical Library 1
Mr. Frank J. Thomas 1

Director, Advanced Research Projects Agency, Washington, D. C. 20301


AITN: NTDO

Director, Defense Intelligence Agency, Washington, D. C. 20301


ATTN: DIAAP-IK2
DIA-AP8B-l

Director, Weapons Systems Evaluation Group, Washington, D. C. 20305

Langley Research Center, NASA, Langley Field, Hampton, Va. 23365


AITN: Mr. Philip Donely

-Manager, -Albuquerque Operations Office,-USAEC,J'. 0. Box 5400, Albuquerque, N. Mex. 87115

Manager, Nevada Operations Office, USAEC, P. 0. Box 1676, Las Vegas, Nev. 89101 1

National Aeronautics & Space Administration, Man-Spacecraft Center, Space Technology


Division, Box 1537, Houston, Tex. 77001

National Military Command System Support Center, Pentagon BE 685, Washington, D. C. 20301
ATTN: Technical Library

U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D. C. 20545


ATTN: Chief, Classified Tech Lib, Tech Information Service

U. S. Documents Officer, Office of the United States National Military Representative-SHAPE


APO New York 09055

Other Agencies

Aerospace Corporation, 1111 E. Mill Street, San Bernardino, Calif. 92408


ATTN: Dr. M. B. Watson

Agbabian-Jacobsen Associates, Engineering Consultants, 8939 South Sepulveda Boulevard


Los Angeles, Calif. 90045

6
No. of
Address Copies

Applied Theory, Inc., 1728 Olympic Blvd, Santa Monica, Calif. 90404
ATTN: Dr. John G. Trulio

AVCO Corporation, Research and Advanced Development Division, 201 Lowell Street
Wilmington, Mass. 01887
ATTN: Mr. R. E. Cooper

Battelle Memorial Institute, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43201


ATTN: Dr. P. N. Lamori

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., Whippany Road, Whippany, N. J. 07981


ATTN: Mr. R. W. Mayo

The Boeing Company, P. 0. Box 3707, Seattle, Wash. 98124


ATTN: Technical Library

Corrugated Metal Pipe Institute, Crestview Plaza, Port Credit, Ontario, Canada
ATTN: Mr. W. A. Porter

Defence Research Establishment, Suffield, Ralston, Alberta, Canada

General Research Corporation, P. 0. Box 3587, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93105


ATTN: Mr. Benjamin Alexander

Denver Mining Research Center, Building 20, Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colo. 80225
ATTN: Dr. Leonard A. Obert

Dynamic Science Corporation, 1900 Walker Avenue, Monrovia, Calif. 91016


ATTN: Dr. J. C. Peck

Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier, Inc.,-95 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Mass. 02129
ATTN: D. F. Hansen

Engineering Physics Company, 12721 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, Md. 20852


ATTN: Dr. Vincent J. Cushing
Mr. W. Danek

General American Transportation Corporation, General American Research Division


7449 North Natchez Avenue, Niles, IIJ. 60648
ATTN: Dr. G. L. Neidhardt

General Electric Company, Missile and Space Vehicle Department, Valley Forge Space
Technology Center, Goddard Boulevard, King of Prussia, Pa. 19406

General Electric Company, TEMPO, 816 State Street, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93101
ATTN: Mr. Warren Chan (DASIAC) .

7
No. of
Address Copies

Other Agencies (Continued)

UT Research Institute, 10 West 35th Street, Chicago, Ill. 60616 1


ATTN: Dr. T. Schiffman

Kondner Research, Downes Road, Parkton, Md. 21120 1


ATTN: Dr. R. L. Kondner

Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, 111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, Calif. 94086
ATTN: Dr. R. E. Meyerott

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, P. 0. Box 1663, Los Alamos, N. Mex. 87544 1
ATTN: Report Librarian

Ministry of Defense, MEXE, Christchurch, Hampshire, England


ATTN: Dr. Philip S. Bulson
Mr. Bruce T. Boswell

The Mitre Corporation, Route 62 and Middlesex Turnpike, Bedford, Mass. 01730

Physics International Company, 2700 Merced Street, San Leandro, Calif. 94577
ATTN: Dr. Charles Godfrey
Mr. Fred M. Sauer

Research Analysis Corporation, Document Control Supervisor, McLean, Va. 22101

Dr. John S. Rinehart, Senior Research Fellow (R.2), !ER/ESSA, Boulder, Colo. 80302

Sandia Laboratories, P. 0. Box 5800, Albuquerque, N. Mex. 87115


-ATTN: -Ciassified-Document-Divisfon-for-Dr.-M._L,_Merritt

Southwest Research Institute, 8500 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Tex. 78228
ATTN: Dr. Robert C. DeHart

Systems, Science and Software, P. 0. Box 1620, La Jolla, Calif. 92037


ATTN: Dr. K. D. Pyatt, Jr.

TRW Space Technology Laboratories, One Sp<:ce Park, Redondo Beach, Calif. 90278
ATTN: Dr. Millard Barton
Mr. M. V. Anthony
Mr. J. L. Merritt

URS Corporation, 1811 Trousdale Drive, Burlingame, Calif. 94010 2


ATTN: Mr. 'Harold Mason

U. S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, Geologic Division, Branch of


Engineering Geology, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, Calif. 94025
ATTN: Harold W. Olsen

Paul Weidlinger, Consulting Engineer, 110 East 59th Street, New York, N. Y. 10022
ATTN: Dr. M. L. Baron

8
No. of
Address Copies

College and Universities

University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 85721


ATTN: Dr. Donald A. DaDeppo, Department of Civil Engineering 1
Professor Bruce G. Johnston, Dept of Civil Engineering l
Dr. George Howard, College of Engineering l

University of California, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, P. O. Box 808 2


Livermore, Calif. 94550
ATTN: Technical Information Division

University of Colorado, School of Architecture, Boulder, Colo. 80304


ATTN: Professor G. K. Vetter

University of Detroit, Department of Civil Engineering, 4001 West McNichols Road


Detroit, Mich. 48221
ATTN: Professor W. J. Baker

University of Florida, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gainesville, Fla. 32603


ATTN: Professor John A. Samuel

Florida State University, Department of Engineering Science, Tallahassee, Fla. 32302


ATTN: Dr. G. L. Rogers

University of Illinois, Urbana Campus, Department of Civil Engineering, Urbana, Ill. 61801
ATTN: Professor N. M. Newmark
Professor S. L. Paul
Professor M. T. Davisson
Professor G. K. Sinnamon
Professor W. J. Hall
Professor A. J. Hendron, Jr.
Professor M. A. Sozen

Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa 50010 2


ATTN: Professor Glen Murphy

Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. 18015


ATTN: Dr. J. F. Libsch, Materials Research Center
Dr. D. A. Van Horn, Department of Civil Engineering

University of Massachusetts, Department of Civil Engineering, Amherst, Mass. 01002


ATTN: Dr. M. P. White

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Division of Sponsored Research, 77 Massachusetts


Avenue, Cambridge, Mass. 02139
ATTN: Dr. Robert J. Hansen
Dr. Robert V. Whitman

University of Michigan, Civil Engineering Department, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48104


ATTN: Professor Frank E. Richart, Jr., Consultant

9
No. of
Address Copies

Colleqe and Universities (Continued)

Dr. George B. Clark, Director, Rock Mechanics Research Group, University of Missouri at Rolla,
Rolla, Mo. 65401

University of New Mexico, Eric H. Wang Civil Engineer Research Facility, Albuquerque,
N. Mex. 87106 '
ATTN: Dr. Eugene Zwoyer

University of New Mexico, Eric H. Wang Civil Engineering Research Facility, P. 0. Box 188 2
University Station, Albuquerque, N. Mex. 87106

Nova Scotia Technical College, School of Graduate Studies, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
ATTN: Dr. G. G. Meyerhof

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa. 16802


ATTN: Professor G. Albright, Dept of Architectural Engineering 1
Professor Richard Kummer, 101 Eng. A 1

Purdue University, School of Civil Engineering, Civil Engineering Building, 1


Lafayette, Ind. 47907
ATTN: Professor M. B. Scott

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y. 12180


ATTN: Dr. Clayton Oliver Dohrenwend, Security Officer, Mason House

Rice University, Department of Civil Engineering, Houston, Tex. 77001


ATTN: Professor A. S. Veletsos

San Jose State College, Department of Civil Engineering, San Jose, Calif. 95114
ATTN: Dr. Franklin J. Agaidy

University of Texas, Balcones Research Center, Austin, Tex. 78712 1


ATTN: Dr. J. Neils Thompson

Utah State University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Logan, Utah 84321 1


ATTN: Professor R. K. Watkins

University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 98105


ATTN: C. H. Norris, Department of Civil Engineering
Dr. A. B. Arons, Department of Physics
Professor William Miller, Department of Civil Engineering, 307 More Hall

The George Washington University, Nuclear Defense Design Center, School of Engineering 1
and Applied Science, Washington, D. C. 20006

Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Department of Civil Engineering, Worcester, Mass. 01609


ATTN: Dr. Carl Koontz

Northem Arizona University, Box 5753, Flagstaff, Arizona 86001 1


ATTN: Professor Sandor Popovics

University of California, Berkeley, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Berkeley, Calif. 94720 25


ATTN: Dr. E. L. Wilson

10
Unclassified
Security Claulficatlon
DOCUMENT CONTROL DAT A R & D
(Security clJllctlon ol title, body ol abetrect end lndlnl ennolatlon mut b ntred when lh ovetll re..n.t 11 cla11flld'i
'ORIGINATING ACTIVITY (Corporal author) a.. ,.EPORT SECURITY CLAISlpl'ICATION

Structural Engineering Laboratory Unclassified


University of California .Zb. GROUP

Berkeley, California
3. REPORT TITLE

A NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT CODE FOR ANALYZING THE BLAST RESPONSE OF UNDERGROUND
STRUCWRES
DIESClltlPTIVI: NOTIEI (T'yp ol tport and lncluIY At)
Final report
I AU THOPUI) (FIHI rwm., tnlddle Initial, laat name)

Iraj Farhoomand
Edward Wilson
I RIEPOlllT DATE 71. TOTAL NO. Qpl' PAGEi

70
rb NO. OP' 8EP'S
Januar:v 1970
... CONTRACT OR GRANT NO. O..ORIGINATOR'I REPORT NUM"BIEPUlt
DACA 39-67-0020
b. PNC)jlECT NO.

" lb. OTHER REPORT NOCIJ (A"1' other numben lltt ...,. ,.. ' - "
"''",.port) U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Ex-
d. periment Station Contract Report N-70-1
10. DllTfU8UTION ITATKMIENT

This document has been approved for public release and sale; its distribution is
unlimited.
I I IUP ... LEMIENTARY NOTES 12. SPONSORING MILITARY ACTIVITY

Prepared under contract for U. s. Army Defense Atomic Support Agency


Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Washington,- D.- C.-
Vicksburg, Mississippi
I. AITftACT
A nonlinear, axisynnnetric, dynamic finite-element method of analysis
computer program is developed. Elastic, two-dimensional problems can also be
analyzed without loss of efficiency. An extensive description of the analytical
procedures used in the code is given. A F~RTRAN IV listing of the computer code
is presented along with information on utilizing the code to run problems.
Analytical results are compared with experimental data obtained from testing a
modeled buried structure subjected to a blast loading.

R~L.ACa .IAN WHICH 18


DD.':-:.. 1473 DD "ORM 171. I
oa.01.T ll'o ARMY u
Unclassified
Becurtty ClaulhcaUon
Unclassified
Security Classification
14. LINK A LINK 19 LINK C
KEY WORDS
ROLE WT ROLE WT ROLIE WT

Blast effects
Computer programs
Finite element method
Subsurface structures

Unclassified
Security ClaHlficatlon